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									                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010




                                   Center of Energy and Processes




            Van Holsteijn and Kemna




                                Service Contract to DG Enterprise


           Sustainable Industrial Policy – Building on the
            Ecodesign Directive – Energy-Using Product
                         Group Analysis/2

          Lot 6: Air-conditioning and ventilation systems


                       Contract No. ENTR/B1/35-2009/LOT6/ SI2.549494




                       Draft report of Task 1, June 2010

                                               CO-ORDINATOR: Philippe RIVIERE, ARMINES, France



                                                        Jérôme ADNOT, Philippe RIVIERE, Joe SPADARO
                                                                                    ARMINES, France

                                                                         Roger HITCHIN, Christine POUT
                                                                                               BRE, UK

                                                René KEMNA, Martijn VAN ELBURG, Rob Van HOLSTEIJN
                                                                                  VHK, Netherlands


Legal disclaimer

The sole responsibility for the content of this report lies with the authors. It does not represent the
opinion of the European Community. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that
may be made of the information contained therein.



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                                                CONTENTS
 

TASK 1 – Definitions of product, standards and legislation                                         4

    1.     Subtask 1.1 - Product classification and definition                                     4
         1.1.   Ventilation systems                                                                 4
         1.2.   Air conditioning systems                                                           20
    2.     Subtask 1.2 - Measurement and other standards                                           45
         2.1.   The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive                                      45
         2.2.   European standards for ventilation systems                                         47
         2.3.   European standards for air conditioning systems                                    80
         2.4.   Subtask 1.2.2 - Standards at Member State level                                   139
         2.5.   Subtask 1.2.3 - Third Country Standards                                           140
    3.     Subtask 1.3 - Existing legislation                                                     148
         3.1.   Subtask 1.3.1 - Legislation and Agreements at European Community level            148
         3.2.   Subtask 1.3.2 - Legislation at Member State level                                 166
         3.3.   Subtask 1.3.3 - Third Country Legislation                                         200
    4.     Scope and Saving potential (first estimate)                                            242
         4.1.   Scope and saving potential for collective & non-residential ventilation systems   242
         4.2.   Scope and saving potential of Air Conditioning                                    244

Task 1 References                                                                                 248

List of figures                                                                                   251

List of tables                                                                                    252

Acronyms                                                                                          256




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1.       SUBTASK 1.1 - PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION AND DEFINITION

1.1.      VENTILATION SYSTEMS


1.1.1.    Definition of Ventilation

The term “Ventilation” refers to the process of exchanging indoor air by fresh outdoor air in human
occupied space for the purpose of obtaining an acceptable Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).
Or - formulated in more ‘pollutant-related’ terms – ventilation is the process of exchanging air for the
following purposes:
     a. provision of air for occupants respiration
     b. control of internal humidity
     c. dilution and/or removal of background pollutants (metabolic CO2, vapours, odours, emission
        from building-, furnishing- and cleaning materials)
     d. dilution and/or removal of specific pollutants from identifiable local sources: toilet and cooking
        odours, water vapour from bathing / cooking / washers & driers, tobacco smoke, combustion
        products from fuel burning appliances
     e. provision of air for fuel burning appliances and dilution of related emissions


1.1.2.    Types of ventilation / air-exchange

There are three different mechanisms through which the indoor air is exchanged by outdoor air:

1. Infiltration : air exchange through leakages in building envelope (to be measured acc. EN 13829).
   The infiltration rate is determined by the air tightness of the building envelope and the pressure
   difference over the building. Infiltration is an uncontrollable air exchange process.

2. Ventilation : purpose provided air exchange between the inside and the outside of a building,
   through the (for this purpose specifically designed and installed) ventilation system by means of a
   range of natural and/or mechanical devices. Depending on type of ventilation system, the air-
   exchange rate is more or less controllable.

3. Airing : air exchange induced by opening windows (also referred to as Purge ventilation (UK),
   Stoß lüften (GE), Spuiventilatie (NL))


Note:
In the context if this study, when we talk about ventilation systems, we refer to systems according to the
2nd mechanism: “purpose provided air exchange through a - for this purpose specially designed and
installed -ventilation system”.

Looking at the history of ventilation systems, the IAQ in older buildings mainly depend on infiltration
and airing. The purpose provided air-exchange through ventilation systems became necessary, when
people could no longer rely on infiltration alone as the key parameter for achieving an acceptable IAQ.
Due to energy conservation and EPBD-legislation, new buildings have an increased air tightness.
Infiltration can no longer guarantee acceptable indoor air qualities. But also in refurbished buildings,
where additional insulation and increased air tightness are applied, indoor air quality levels can no



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longer be guaranteed. Additional ventilation systems are necessary to secure – on a long term basis -
the requested indoor air quality levels in all the occupied rooms of the building.


1.1.3.   Product scope for ventilation systems

The ventilation products that are the scope of this study, are defined here as the energy using
ventilation products that make - or are part off - a mechanical version of the above mentioned
Ventilation Systems, providing the necessary air exchange.
Contrary to natural ventilation systems, the mechanical ventilation systems use a mechanically
powered device (ventilation unit containing one or more fans) as core component to initiate the air
transport necessary for the requested air-exchange. These mechanical ventilation units are the key
subject of this study. Note that the definitions have been aligned with the ones used for DG ENER Lot
10 on Domestic Ventialtion


Energy Using Products included

Small extraction fan (local exhaust). Wall, window, ceiling fan for wet rooms (toilet, bathroom,
kitchen). Manually, humidity and/or timer-controlled. Equipped with housing to accommodate mounting
and possibly connection to simple ducting.

NOTE:
Typically equipped with AC-motors (on-off, 2 or 3 speed). Axial fan type. Capacities 30-150 m³/h@100Pa with
overall efficiency 10-15%. Typical used as auxiliary local ventilation to supplement mainly natural ventilation
(‘System A’). Almost completely in the scope of DG ENER Lot 10 on Domestic Ventilation for capacities up to 125
W nameplate (nominal) power.

Rooftop/boxed ventilation units (central exhaust or central supply). Extraction or supply fan unit
mounted on top of the roof (‘rooftop’) or indoors (‘boxed fan’, including duct fans), dimensioned for air
extraction/supply from/to a large zone (industry, warehouse, corridor of office) or a stack of dwellings
in multi-family buildings. Usually delivered as single package unit, equipped with

    -    housing to accommodate mounting and possibly connection to ductwork;
    -    provisions to avoid penetration from precipitation (rooftop unit only, IP rating >IP 4X);
    -    electronics: CPU, possibly sensors, connector block (wired) or receiver(s);
    -    drive (on-off, multispeed or continuously variable);
    -    motor (AC or DC);
    -    fan (centrifugal, axial or mixed flow).
In addition the following separate items may be part of the product put on the market:
    - wired or wireless, manual or automatic (timer, occupancy, gas and/or humidity sensor-driven)
         means of IAQ controls;
    -    VAV terminals in multi-duct systems (incl. transmitters/receivers to/from unit CPU), to realize
         local demand-side ventilation;
    -    Electrically operated, humidity operated or outside pressure operated inlet/outlet grids (incl.
         transmitters/receivers to/from unit CPU), to realize local (per room) ventilation;

NOTE:
Exhaust rooftop/boxed ventilation units are of the type mechanical exhaust and natural supply (through openings
or grids in windows). Supply rooftop/boxed ventilation units are rare in most parts of the EU (exception UK) in
comfort ventilation applications. They are used in positive pressure systems, i.e. mechanical supply and natural
supply. Supply units are similar in built and components to exhaust units, but typically are more indoors (‘boxed’)
and may be equipped with filters. Capacities range from 200 to 10.000m m³/h @ 150-200 Pa external pressure
and overall efficiencies 15-25%. Power ranges from 50W to 3 kW electric. The market below 125 W falls into the
scope of DG ENER Lot 10 (Domestic Ventilation). The fans>125W inside the rooftop/boxed units are in the scope
of DG ENER Lot 11 (Industrial fans). The motors >750W could at some stage of unit production have been in the
scope of Regulation on motors, but –as opposed to the planned fan measures— for integrated direct-drive fan-


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motors there is no obligation for rooftop/boxed fan manufacturers to prove compliance. For belt-driven motors,
which are rare, it is easy to disassemble the unit and here the Motor Regulation does apply.




        A                            B
                                                              D                Figure 1 - 1 . Exhaust
                                         C                                     ventilation units (exhaust)

                                                                               A/F. Boxed fans (exhaust)
                                                                               for central house ventilation
                                                                               (typical 250 m³/h @ 150 Pa).
                                                                               B/C/D. Rooftop fans
                                                                               (exhaust) for central house,
                                                                               small office, school
E                                                                              ventilation. B=centrifugal
                                                                               (radial outlet); C=
                                                                               centrifugal, diagonal outlet.
                                                                               D=mixed flow with vertical
                                                      G
                                                                               outlet.
                                                                               E. Duct fan.
                                                                               G. Small central HR
    F                                                                          ventilation unit (250-500
                                                                               m³/h).




Local heat recovery ventilation (LHRV) unit: Single package balanced room ventilation unit with
inlet and outlet through the façade of the building/dwelling. Ductless through-the-wall version or
version with small ducts, combined with heat/cooling emitter. The latter can be built against façade or
integrated in floor, ceiling or façade boarding. Nominal capacity typically 100 m³/h at 75-100 Pa.
Range between 50 and 150 m³/h.
The product contains components as the rooftop fan, but uses

•       2 fans instead of 1 (‘balanced’);
•       a heat exchanger (usually counter-flow, efficacy 80-90%);
•       filters on both exhaust side (coarse filter G4 to keep heat exchanger clean) and supply side (e.g.
        fine-filter F5-F7);
•       special valve solutions on outdoor inlet and outdoor side;
•       integrated local sensors;
•       soft- or hardware anti-condense and anti-frost solutions.
NOTE:
The product is optimized to be compact and silent. New product group aiming both at new built and –especially--
retrofit/renovation purposes. Requires additional local fans in wet rooms for incidental ventilation. As it is a new
product group, the quality varies greatly between models. Recirculation (inlet air taken from the air outlet) may be
problematic with ductless through-the-wall units. For high-rise buildings (>6 to 8 floors) less suitable without
special measures (double façade, collector pipes, etc.). resistance to extreme wind loads on the façade in some
through the wall versions. Even though it is a product both for residential and non-residential use, its nominal
ventilation power consumption is far below 125 W per unit and thus fully in the scope of DG ENER Lot 10
(Domest Ventilation), at least for measures dealing with the LHRV as a component.




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Figure 1 - 2 . Left: LHRV fancoil integrated in floor or ceiling: with central heating & cooling + local
ventilation (‘Fassaden-belüftung’, Schüco). Right: Larger CHRV unit, 1000-4000 m³/h. (StorkAir).

Central heat recovery ventilation (CHRV) unit: Dedicated ‘ventilation only’ single package unit,
usually located in utility or service area under or on top of roof and designed to operate with indoor
ductwork for supply (to living and sleeping area) and exhaust (from wet rooms). It contains the same
components as the LHRV unit, but because of its location it will usually be equipped with solutions for
condensate collection and abduction (instead of avoidance) as well active anti-frost protection and
possibly preheat of supply air. As with LHRV the dominant heat exchanger for heat recovery is a
counterflow heat exchanger with efficacies of 80-90%.
Additional options for local (per room/zone) ventilation with this central unit include VAV terminals and
means for local IAQ control.

NOTE:
CHRV units for individual dwellings are typically 250-300 m³/h at 200 Pa and will be in the scope of DG ENER Lot
10 on the grounds of their nominal electric power <125W per unit (at least for the energy efficient solutions). For
small and medium-sized non-residential applications capacity varies between 400 and 4000 m³/h@ 200-300 Pa
total pressure drop (internal and external) and nominal power will be in the range 125W-3,5 kW. The dominant
heat exchanger for heat recovery is a counterflow heat exchanger with efficacies of 80-90%. By definition not
equipped for combination with air cooling or heating, i.e. they do not contain, nor can they be extended to contain
heat exchangers for chillers and/or boilers. CHRV-units are typically associated with a balance mechanical
exhaust and supply system. Most unit sales (>80%) go into individual dwellings (out of scope of Lot 6), but
popularity of the larger units in small commercial and public (school) buildings is growing.


Air Handling Unit (AHU): Factory made encased assembly consisting of sections containing a fan or
fans and other necessary equipment to perform one or more of the following functions: air supply, air
exhaust, filtration, heat recovery. Additional functions may be integrated (heating, cooling, circulation,
(de)humidifying, mixing). The formal difference with CHRV is that an AHU can be –and in 95% of
cases is—combined with a heating and/or cooling function.
The ‘additional functions’ mentioned will not be assessed in the context of its ventilation function, but
will be assessed in the context of its air-conditioning function.
AHU’s are modular. Fans, Heat recovery unit, heat exchanger units, etc. are separate module and can
also be tested separately.
Heat recovery units are different from CHRV units in the sense that cross-flow (efficacy 50%) and
rotary wheels (60-70%) are the dominant types of heat exchangers.
AHU capacity ranges typically from 1.000 to 100.000 m³/hr. at external pressure 200-1000 Pa.
Average capacity is around 8-9.000 m³/hr with German manufacturers more specialized in larger units
(average 14.000 m³/hr) and other countries using relatively smaller AHU’s (average 5.000 m³/hr).




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Figure 1 - 3 . Upper left: Very large (100.000 m³/h) AHU with heat recovery (project Gemini/Kamen,
Howatherm). Upper right: Rooftop AHU with heat recovery (Hoval). Below: heat exchangers for waste heat
recovery. Below left: Cross-flow plate heat exchanger. Below right: Rotary wheel (Hoval).

Obviously, these energy using ventilation products are not the only products necessary to build a full
and proper functioning ventilation system. Additional components like ducts, orifices, air transfer
devices, ventilation grids etc. are generally used to build a complete mechanical ventilation system.


Not included
Not included in this Task 1 assessment on ventilation are the sections of air handling units that deal
with other (non-ventilation) functions, such as humidifiers, cooling and heating sections. They are
discussed in the air conditioning section.



Energy performance scope
The energy performance of these mechanical ventilation units will be assessed on the basis of their
ventilation function. This means that this study will not only look at the electrical performance of these
units, but also at the air exchange performance and the thermal energy content of the air exchange
(either heating or cooling) in relation to the requested IAQ. As far as the other (passive) components of
the ventilation system have an influence on the air exchange performance, default values will be
defined for these parameters to ensure a neutral and objective comparison.


Other Environmental Performance Scope
The study team assumes that the main environmental impact of ventilation systems is their energy
consumption, either direct electricity from fan motors or the energy required to balance for heat and
cool losses from the building shell. Following the requirements of the Ecodesign Directive, the study
will also quantify the other environmental impacts.



Note
The thermal energy content related to air exchanges caused by Infiltration and Airing are not in the
scope of this study. They are subject to EPBD-legislation.


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1.1.4.   Definitions

This paragraph gives an overview of ventilation definitions found in existing EN-product and building
standards. As such, it can serve as a summary of generally accepted terms, definitions and
classifications that are used in the EU standards that are further discussed in subtask 1.2.
These terms, definitions and classifications will be used throughout this study.


Definitions of ventilation systems

Ventilation system
Combination of appliances designed to supply interior spaces with outdoor air and to extract polluted
indoor air

Natural ventilation system
Ventilation system which relies on pressure differences without the aid of powered air movement
components. These pressure difference mechanism are:

         Stack effect
         Movement of air or gas in a vertical enclosure (e.g. duct, chimney, building) induced by density
         difference between the air or gas in the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere (due to
         temperature differences).

         Cross ventilation
         Natural ventilation in which air flow mainly results from wind pressure effects on the building
         facades and in which stack effect in the building is of less importance.

Fan assisted exhaust air ventilation
Ventilation which employs powered air movement components (fans) in the exhaust air side only

Fans assisted supply air ventilation
Ventilation which employs powered air movement components in the supply air side only

Fan assisted balanced ventilation
Ventilation which employs powered air movement components in both the supply and the exhaust air
sides in order to achieve a design flow rate/pressure ratio

Demand controlled ventilation
Ventilation systems where the ventilation rate is controlled by air quality, moisture, occupancy or some
other indicators for the need of ventilation

Ventilation flow rate
Volume flow rate at which ventilation air is supplied and removed

Air handling unit (AHU)
Factory made encased assembly consisting of sections containing a fan or fans and other necessary
equipment to perform one or more of the following functions: air supply, air exhaust, filtration, heat
recovery. Additional functions may be integrated (heating, cooling, circulation, (de)humidifying,
mixing), but these functions will not be assessed in the context of its ventilation function. (These
additional functions will be assessed in the context of its air-conditioning function).


Definitions of performance parameters

Ventilation effectiveness (source EN13779)
Ventilation effectiveness is the relation between the pollution concentrations in the supply air, the
extract air and the indoor air in the breathing zone (within the occupied zone). It is defined as


                          CETA - CSUP
              εv   =
                          CIDA - CSUP

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Where :     εv   is the ventilation effectiveness

            CETA is the pollution concentration in the extract air in mg/m3
            CIDA the pollution concentration in the indoor air (breathing zone) in mg/m3

            CSUP is the pollution concentration in the supply air in mg/m3



Maximum and minimum air volume flow (source EN 13142)
For central mechanical ventilation units with or without heat recovery (to be used with ducts), the
maximum are volume flow of the mechanical ventilation unit is the maximum flow at a reference
pressure difference (e.g. ∆P = 100 Pa for single dwellings), that can be achieved with integrated
and/or separately co-supplied controls (at standard air conditions: 20°C and 101325 Pa).

The minimum air volume flow is the minimum flow that can be achieved with integrated and/or
separately co-supplied controls (at standard air conditions : 20°C and 101325 Pa).

For room based mechanical ventilation units the maximum and minimum are the volume flows that
can be achieved with the unit when installed according manufacturer instructions (with wall- ducts and
grills) with the integrated and/or separately co-supplied controls (at standard air conditions: 20°C and
101325 Pa).


Reference air volume flow (source EN 13142)
Reference air volume flow is 70% of the maximum air volume flow (at standard air conditions: 20°C
and 101325 Pa).


Specific Power Input (SPI) (source EN 13142)
The Specific Power Input for mechanical ventilation units is the power input at reference air volume
flow and reference pressure difference and includes the electrical demand for fans, controls (including
remote controls) and (if integrated) any heat pump.

In formula          :       SPI = PE / qv;ref


Standby Power Consumption in Fan-off Mode
Standby power consumption in fan-off mode is the power consumption in the mode during which the
fans are not working, but the controls and any sensors are active in order to monitor the functional
parameters and determine a possible switch-on of the fans.


Standby Power Consumption in switched-off Mode
Standby power consumption in off mode is the power consumption in the mode during which the unit
is switched off manually or with any remote control system. Switching the unit on again is only possible
with the same remote or manual action.


Acoustics
Sound power levels of mechanical ventilation units shall be given at declared maximum air volume
flow and reference air volume flow. Depending on the type of product the following noise level data
may be requested:

        Casing radiated sound power level (source En 13142)
        Noise radiated through the casing at maximum and reference air volume flow must be
        measured according to EN 13141-6 (for exhaust only central mechanical ventilation units) or




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           EN 13141-7 (for central mechanical ventilation units with heat recovery) or EN 13141-8 (for
           room based mechanical ventilation unit with heat recovery)

           Duct radiated sound power level (source En 13142)
           The noise radiated from the duct connected to the central mechanical ventilation unit (exhaust
           only, or balanced with heat recovery / with default length) at maximum and reference air
           volume flow, shall be measured according to EN 13141-7

           Sound transmitting resistance (Dn,e,w) (source En 13142)
           The sound transmitting resistance Dn,e,w for room based mechanical ventilation units with
           heat recovery at reference air volume flow shall be measured according to EN 20140.


ADDITIONAL PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS FOR MECHANICAL VENTILATION UNITS WITH
HEAT RECOVERY

External leakage
Leakage to or from the air flowing inside the casing of the unit to or from the surrounding air, to be
tested according to EN13141-7 and -8


Internal leakage
Leakage inside the unit between the exhaust and the supply air flows, to be tested according to
EN13141-7 and -8.

Mixing or short circuiting
Mixing of the two air flows external to the unit under test, between discharge and intake ports at both
indoor and outdoor terminal ports, to be tested according to EN13141-8


Filter bypass leakage
Air flow around filter cells, to be tested according to EN13141-7 and -8

Humidity Ratio
Difference of water content between inlet and outlet of one of the air flows, divided by the difference of
water content between the inlets of both air flows, to be tested according to EN13141-7 and -8.


Temperature ratio
Temperature difference between inlet and outlet of one of the air flows, divided by the temperature
difference between the inlets of both airflows (to be tested according to EN13141-7 and -8)


Nominal Temperature Performance factor
The Nominal Temperature Performance Factor (NTPF) is defined as:

                   NTPF =            ( ηθ;su * ρ * cp * ∆t ) / SPI          [-]

Where:             ηθ;su     =      Temperature ratio (EN 13141-7 / -8) at reference air volume flow
                   ρ         =      Air density : 1,2 [kg/m3]
                   Cp        =      Heat capacity air : 1007 [J/kg.K]
                   ∆t        =      Nominal temperature difference at 13 [ K ] (EN 13141-7 mandatory point 1
table 6)
                   SPI       =      Specific Power Input [W/m3/s]


Definitions of room types

Activity room




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Room used for activities such as cooking, washing and bathing which is characterized by relatively
high pollutant emission (which may be intermittent), e.g. kitchen, bathroom, laundry/utility room, WC.

Low pollution room
Room used for dwelling purposes which is characterized by relatively low pollution emission, e.g. a
bedroom, living room, dining room, study, but not a space used only for storage

Common space
Corridor, stairway or atrium used for access to a dwelling or dwellings


1.1.5.    Classifications


Classification of types of air (according EN 13779:2007)

Table 1 - 1 . EN classification of type of air

 Type of air          Abbreviation          Colour                                  Definition

                                                           Air entering the system or opening from outdoors before
 Outdoor air              ODA               Green
                                                           any air treatment

                                                           Airflow entering the treated room, or air entering the
 Supply air               SUP                Blue
                                                           system after any treatment


 Indoor air                 IDA              Grey          Air in the treated room or zone


 Extract air               ETA              Yellow         The airflow leaving the treated room


 Exhaust air              EHA               Brown          Airflow discharges to the atmosphere


                                                           Indoor air which passes from the treated room to
 Transferred air           TRA               Grey
                                                           another treated room

                                                           Airflow taken from a room and returned to the same
 Secondary air            SEC               Orange
                                                           room after any treatment


 Leakage                   LEA               grey          Unintended airflow through leakage paths in the system




Classification of extract air (ETA) and exhaust air (EHA) (according EN 13779:2007)

Table 1 - 2 . EN classification of extract and exhaust air
                          Pollution
         Category                                                        Description
                            level
                                          Air from rooms where the main emission sources are the building materials and
                                          structures, and air from occupied rooms where the main emission sources are
   ETA1        EHA1          Low                     human metabolism and building materials and structures.
                                                         Rooms where smoking is allowed are excluded.

                                         Air from occupied rooms, which contain more impurities than category 1 from the
   ETA2        EHA2       Moderate                       same sources and/or also from human activities.
                                         Rooms which shall otherwise fall in category ETA1 but where smoking is allowed.




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                                          Air from rooms where emitted moisture, processes, chemicals etc. Substantially
   ETA3        EHA3          High                                 reduce the quality of the air.



                                         Air which contains odours and impurities in significantly higher concentrations than
   ETA4        EHA4        Very high                       those allowed for indoor air in occupied zones.




Classification of outdoor air (ODA) (according EN 13779:2007)

Table 1 - 3 . EN classification of outdoor air

    Category          Pollution level                                       Description

                                                  Pure air which may be only temporarily dusty (e.g. pollen).
      ODA1                 Low             ODA1 applies where the WHO (1999) guidelines and any National air quality
                                                      standards or regulations for outdoor air are fulfilled.

                                            Outdoor air with high concentrations of particulate matter and/or gaseous
                                                                             pollutants.
      ODA2                 High
                                         ODA2 applies where pollutant concentrations exceed the WHO guidelines or any
                                         national air quality standard or regulations for outdoor air by a factor of up to 1,5
                                             Outdoor air with very concentrations of particulate matter and/or gaseous
                                                                              pollutants.
      ODA3              Very high        ODA3applies where pollutant concentrations exceed the WHO guidelines or any
                                         national air quality standard or regulations for outdoor air by a factor greater than
                                                                                  1,5



Classification of indoor air quality (IDA) for residential buildings (according EN 13779 and
EN15215)

Table 1 - 4 . EN classification of indoor air quality
                                                                Related recommended default ventilation rates acc. EN15251
                                      Related default
                                                                           either per person or per m2 floor area
                                  CO2 value acc. EN15251
                                                                         Airflow pp                   Airflow per m2 floor area
  Category       IAQ level
                                    Corresponding CO2
                                    concentration above                     l/s/p                               [l/s/m2]
                                      outdoors [ppm]

     IDA1           High                   350                               10                                  1,4

     IDA2         Medium                   500                                7                                  1,0


     IDA3        Moderate                  800                                4                                  0,6


     IDA4           Low                   >800



Categories of heat exchangers

Category I heat exchangers
Recuperative heat exchangers (e.g. air-to-air plate or tube heat exchangers)

Recuperative heat exchangers are designed to transfer thermal energy (sensible or total) from one air
stream to another without moving parts. Heat transfer surfaces are in form of plates or tubes. This heat



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exchanger may have parallel flow, cross flow or counter flow construction or a combination of these.
Plate and tube heat exchangers with vapour diffusion (e.g. cellulose) are also in this category.

Category II heat exchangers
Regenerative heat exchangers (e.g. rotary or reciprocating heat exchangers).

A rotary heat exchanger is a device incorporating a rotating “thermal wheel” for the purpose of
transferring energy (sensible or total) from one air stream to the other. It incorporates material allowing
latent heat transfer, a drive mechanism, a casing or frame, and includes any seals which are provided
to retard bypassing and leakage or air from one stream to the other. Regenerative heat exchangers
have varying degrees of moisture recovery, depending on the material used (e.g. condensation non
hygroscopic rotor-, hygroscopic rotor-, and sorption rotor- heat exchangers)


Classification leakage rates

There are two test methods for rating leakages: pressure testing and tracer gas testing. The pressure
method applies to Category I type heat exchanger units and the tracer gas method applies to the
Category II type heat exchangers.

a. Leakage classification mechanical ventilation units with heat recovery for single dwellings

a.1) According to the pressurisation test method (EN 13141-7)

Table 1 - 5 . EN leakage classification according to the pressurisation test method
                                                              Pressurisation test
      Class*
                              Internal Leakage (at 100 Pa)                           External Leakage (at 250 Pa)
         A1                                 ≤ 2%                                                  ≤ 2%
         A2                                 ≤ 5%                                                  ≤ 5%
         A3                                ≤ 10%                                                  ≤ 10%
   Not classified                          > 10%                                                  > 10%
* Class is determined on the bases of the highest leakage value

a.2) According to the tracer gas method (EN 13141-7)

Table 1 - 6 . EN leakage classification according the tracer gas method
                              Chamber method                                                  In-duct method
                                                                                         Internal
                                                                                                           Pressurization
       Class               Total Recirculated fraction              Class*         Recirculated fraction
                                                                                                                test
                                  in supply air                                      from extract to
                                                                                                            (at 250 Pa)
                                                                                        supply air
         B1                            ≤ 1%                            C1                ≤ 0,5%                ≤ 2%
         B2                            ≤ 2%                            C2                 ≤ 2%                 ≤ 2%
         B3                            ≤ 6%                            C3                 ≤ 4%                 ≤ 2%
   Not classified                     > 6%                        Not classified          > 4%                 > 2%
* Class is determined on the bases of the highest leakage value

b. Leakage classification mechanical ventilation units with heat recovery for single rooms

Leakage rates to be tested according to En 13141-8

Table 1 - 7 . EN leakage classification EN 13141-8
                                     Internal Leakage                   External Leakage
           Class*                                                                                          Mixing
                                         (at 20 Pa)                         (at 50 Pa)


                                                                                                                        14
                                                                  DRAFT 11.6.2010


                        U1                                ≤ 2%                              ≤ 2%                              ≤ 2%
                        U2                                ≤ 5%                              ≤ 5%                              ≤ 5%
                        U3                               ≤ 10%                              ≤ 10%                            ≤ 10%
                        U4                               ≤ 15%                              ≤ 15%                            ≤ 15%
                        U5                               ≤ 20%                              ≤ 20%                            ≤ 20%
                        U6                               > 20%                             > 20%                             > 20%
* Class is determined on the bases of the highest leakage value



Classification of filter bypass leakage

Filter bypass leakage to be tested according EN 1886 (at 200 Pa). Due to the fact that filter bypass
leakage measurements can be a difficult tast to perform, it is also possible to give a classification on
the basis of a visual inspection of the design details.

Table 1 - 8 . EN filter bypass leakage classification EN 13141-8

               Class          Leakage rate                  Proof                                        Method


               FBL 1                 < 2%                 Measured          EN 1886 (at 200 Pa)

               FBL 2                 < 4%                 Measured          EN 1886 (at 200 Pa)

               FBL 3                 < 6%                 Measured          EN 1886 (at 200 Pa)

                                                                            1. Design & construction of air filter and frames allow easy
               FBL 4               Approved          Visual inspection      assembly and tight fit
                                                                            2. Tight fit shall not be affected under the impact of humidity.

                    -             Not classified         Not classified




Filter classification

a. Mechanical coarse filters shall be tested according to EN-779 and classified accordingly.


Table 1 - 9 . EN coarse filter classification
  Key
 particle               Classification acc. EN779                            Examples of matter retained per filter class
  size
                             G1                    EU1
  Coarse > 1




                                                                Leaves, insects, textile fibres, human hairs, sand, fly ash, water droplets
                             G2                    EU2
                             G3                    EU3
                                                                Beach sand, plant spores, pollen, fog
  µm




                             G4                    EU4
                             F5                    EU5          Spores, cement dust (coarse fraction), sediment dust
    Fine : 0,4 µm




                             F6                    EU6          Bigger bacteria, germs or carrier particles, PM10
                             F7                    EU7
                                                                Agglomerated soot, lung damaging dust (PM2,5), cement dust
                             F8                    EU8
                             F9                    EU9          Tobacco smoke (coarse fraction), oil smokes, bacteria



b. Mechanical fine filters shall be tested according to EN-1822 and classified accordingly.

Table 1 - 10 . EN fine filter classification


                                                                                                                                              15
                                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010


  Key
 particle               Classification acc. EN1822-1               Examples of matter retained per filter class
  size
                           H10              EU10       Germs, tobacco smoke, metallurgical fumes, viruses, radioactive particles,
                                                       carbon black
    HEPA 0,3 µm



                           H11              EU11
                           H12              EU12       Oil fumes, metallurgical fumes, sea salt nuclei, viruses, radioactive particles,
                                                       all air suspended PM
                           H13              EU13
                           H14              EU14       Filter cleanroom ISO 4, operating theatres etc.
                           U15              EU15       Filter cleanroom ISO 3
    ULPA 0,12




                           U16              EU16       Filter cleanroom ISO 2
                           U17              EU17       Filter cleanroom ISO 1
                           U18              EU18

c. Electrostatic filters shall be tested for their filter effectiveness by measuring the particle removal
efficiency at the maximum volume flow rate and related reference pressure drop of the mechanical
ventilation unit. Test method and results must be reported.


d. Gas adsorption filters (or activated carbon filters) shall be tested according EN ISO 10121-1 and 2,
and classified accordingly.


Classification of Specific Power Input (accortding EN 13142)

Table 1 - 11 . EN classification of SFP values
                                                                                              Combined mechanical
                                      Dedicated mechanical ventilation
                                                                                        exhaust and supply ventilation units
                                          Exhaust- or supply units
                  Class                                                                         with heat recovery
                                     Single room *            Dwelling *                 Single room                  Dwelling
                                       [W/m3/h]               [W/m3/h]                    [W/m3/h]                    [W/m3/h]
                  SPI 1                  ≤ 0,10                  ≤ 0,10                     ≤ 0,25                     ≤ 0,25
                  SPI 2                  ≤ 0,15                  ≤ 0,15                     ≤ 0,35                     ≤ 0,35
                  SPI 3                  ≤ 0,20                  ≤ 0,20                     ≤ 0,45                     ≤ 0,45
                  SPI 4                  ≤ 0,25                  ≤ 0,25                     ≤ 0,55                     ≤ 0,55
                  SPI 5                  ≤ 0,30                  ≤ 0,30                     ≤ 0,65                     ≤ 0,65
                  SPI 6                  ≤ 0,35                  ≤ 0,35                     ≤ 0,75                     ≤ 0,75
                  SPI 7                  > 0,35                  > 0,35                     > 0,75                     > 0,75
                    -                 Not classified         Not classified              Not classified             Not classified
* figures to be discussed with CEN/TC ad hoc WG on classification (revision 13142)



Classification of temperature ratio (according EN 13142)
(measured acc. EN13141-7 /-8)

Classification of the temperature ratio on the supply side of the unit measured at reference- air volume
flow and pressure difference and at nominal temperature difference (∆T = 13 K).
(measured according EN13141-7 /-8)

Table 1 - 12 . EN classification of temperature ratio for HR units
                                                                    Temperature ratio
                  Class
                                            (measured on supply side at reference air volume flow and nominal ∆T)
                   1                                                            ≥ 90%



                                                                                                                                     16
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


          2                                                   80 – 89%
          3                                                   70 – 79%
          4                                                   60 – 69%
          5                                                   50 – 59%
          6                                                       < 50 %
          -                                                  Not classified



Classification of humidity ratio (according EN 13142)
(measured acc. EN13141-7 /-8)

Classification of the humidity ratio on the supply side of the unit, measured at reference- air volume
flow and pressure difference and at nominal temperature difference (∆T = 13 K)
(measured according EN13141-7 /-8)

Table 1 - 13 . EN classification of humidity ratio for HR units
                                                           Humidity ratio
       Class
                                (measured on supply side at reference air volume flow and nominal ∆T)
          I                                                       ≥ 90%
          II                                                  80 – 89%
         III                                                  70 – 79%
         IV                                                   60 – 69%
          V                                                   50 – 59%
         VI                                                       < 50 %
          -                                                  Not classified



Classification of Nominal Temperature Performance Factor (NTPF) (according EN 13142)

Classification of nominal temperature performance factor NTPF, determined according to EN 13142.

Table 1 - 14 . EN classification of nominal temperature ratio for HR units
                                         Nominal Temperature Performance Factor NTPF
       Class
                             (with η measured on supply side at reference air volume flow and nominal ∆T)
          1                                                        ≥ 15
          2                                                        ≥ 12
          3                                                        ≥ 10
          4                                                        ≥8
          5                                                        ≥5
          6                                                        <5
          -                                                  Not classified



Classification of power consumption in standby modes

Table 1 - 15 . EN classification of standby power for ventilation units
                            Standby power consumption                         Standby power consumption
       Class
                                  in fan-off mode                                 in switched-off mode



                                                                                                            17
                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


           1                             ≤2W                                                 ≤ 0,5 W
           2                             ≤5W                                                     ≤1W
           3                            ≤ 10 W                                                   ≤2W
           4                            ≤ 15 W                                                   ≤5W
           5                            > 15 W                                                   >5W
           -                         Not classified                                       Not classified



Classification of control types

Table 1 - 16 . EN classification of control types for ventilation units

               Control types
                                                                         Description
    Parameter              Class
                           FRV 1      Fixed flow (no variation)
    Flow Rate              FRV 2      Multiple preset flow rates
    Variations
       FRV                 FRV 3      Variable flow

                               -      Not classified

                           FRC 1      None (no control or operation possible; runs constantly)
                           FRC 2      Manual

    Flow Rate              FRC 3      Time controlled (runs according a given time schedule)
     Control               FRC 4      Occupancy control (switched on/off or high/low on the basis of occupancy)
       FRC                 FRC 5      Presence control (flow rate controlled on basis of number of people)
                           FRC 6      IAQ sensor control (flow rate controlled on basis of IAQ sensors (CO2, VOC RV)
                               -      Not classified

                           FBC 1      No flow balance control
  Flow Balance
     Control               FBC 2      Flows are manually balanced
      FBC                  FBC 3      Fan speed control (on basis of rpm)
 (only for units with      FBC 4      Dynamic flow control
   heat recovery
                               -      Not classified
                           BPO 1      No bypass option
      Bypass               BPO 2      On or off
      Options              BPO 3      Partly
       BPO                 BPO 4      By pass with Variable flow rate
                               -      Not classified
                           BFC 1      None
      Bypass               BFC 2      Manual
     Flow rate             BFC 3      Time controlled
      Control              BFC 4      Temperature controlled
       BFC
                           BFC 5      Humidity controlled
                               -      Not classified
     Type of               TFP 1      None
      Frost                TFP2       Electric preheating
    Protection
                           TFP3       Mixing air
       TFP
                           TFP 4      Lowering air supply flow rate (or shut off)
                           TFP 5      Increasing exhaust air flow rate




                                                                                                                       18
                                                   DRAFT 11.6.2010


                        TFP 6          Bypass for defrosting
                        TFP 7          Not classified
                           -

  Combination                          Suited for combination with room air dependent fireplace. Declaring this
                         CRF           means that the system takes into account national and local building and
  with Fireplace                       combustion regulation on this topic.
                        FIT 1          Time controlled
       Filter           FIT 2          Pressure controlled
     Indicator
                        FIT 3          Optical control
       Type
        FIT             FIT 4          Air volume controlled
                           -           Not classified



Classification of sound power levels

Classification of “casing radiated sound power level” and “in-duct radiated sound power level” at
declared maximum air volume flow, determined according EN13141 -7/ -8; classification according EN
13142.

Table 1 - 17 . EN classification of sound power levels for ventilation units
                        Casing radiated sound power level
                                                                                In-duct radiated sound power level
       Class
                                          [dB(A)]
                       Applicable for mechanical ventilation units for          Applicable for mechanical ventilation units
                                dwellings and single room                          for dwellings (centralized systems)

          1                                < 35                                                   < 35
          2                               35 – 40                                                35 – 40
          3                               40 -45                                                 40 -45
          4                               45 – 55                                                45 – 55
          5                               55 – 65                                                55 – 65
          6                                 > 65                                                   > 65

          -                            Not classified                                         Not classified



Classification of sound-damping performance (sound transmitting resistance) Dn,e,w

Classification of sound-damping performance (sound transmitting resistance) Dn,e,w for single room
mechanical ventilation units, measured at reference air volume flow with a unit installed according
manufacturer installation instructions and measured according EN 20140-10.
Classification according EN 13142

Table 1 - 18 . EN classification of sound transmitting resistance for ventilation units
                                sound-damping performance (sound transmitting resistance)
       Class
                                                      Dn,e,w [dB]
          1                                                              ≥ 55
          2                                                              ≥ 50
          3                                                              ≥ 45
          4                                                              ≥ 40
          5                                                              < 40
          -                                                         Not classified



                                                                                                                              19
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




1.2.    AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS


1.2.1    Air conditioning

Air conditioning in its broader accepted meaning refers to any kind of air treatment that enables to
ensure comfort requirements of the occupants inside a building: temperature and humidity control,
Indoor Air Quality.

Air conditioning systems are defined in the standard EN15240 as systems enabling to supply all these
functions.

air conditioning system(EN 15240: 2007)
combination of all components required to provide a form of air treatment in which temperature is
controlled, possibly in combination with the control of ventilation, humidity and air cleanliness

In practice, the systems encompassing all these functions may also be called HVAC systems
(EN15243: 2007), HVAC standing for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

In what follows, air conditioning refers to systems ensuring as primary function the cooling function
(the heating function is already covered by other EuP preparatory studies1), and possibly the control of
ventilation, humidity and air cleanliness.

The control of the ventilation and of the air cleanliness are covered in this study in the part on
ventilation systems. Interactions are of course to be taken into account, whether the same system or
not stands for the ventilation and air cleanliness, temperature and humidity control.

According to EN 15251 standard, usually humidification or dehumidification is needed only in special
buildings like museums, some health care facilities, process control, paper industry etc. Thus
controlled humidification or dehumidification is not included in this study but only the uncontrolled
dehumidification as a consequence of cooling.


1.2.2    Air conditioning systems

This part gives an overview of air conditioning systems starting from physical principles and going until
the energy related product description. An air conditioning system is then considered here as an
appliance designed to maintain the temperature of indoor air at a given temperature level for a given
heat load to be extracted. Most of these systems also supply uncontrolled dehumidification, which has
important consequences regarding energy consumption.

Cooling basics

The physical principle used to cool the air is most of the time convection: cold air is forced through an
heat exchanger in which cold water or refrigerant is circulating. Radiative cooling is also used: in the
case of cooling floors or panels, heat is extracted from the room partly by radiative heat transfer and
convective heat transfer.

For convective and radiative cooling, a refrigeration cycle is used. A refrigeration cycle is a
thermodynamic cycle that enables to cool a refrigerant below the temperature of the heat carrier to

1

ENER / EuP Lot 1: Boilers and combi-boilers (gas/oil/electric)
ENER / EuP Lot 10: Airco and ventilation (residential) – heating function of reversible air conditioners
ENER / EuP Lot 20: Local room heating products
ENER / EuP Lot 21: Central heating products using hot air to distribute heat (other than CHP)


                                                                                                       20
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


extract the heat from the heat carrier. Two main technical types of refrigeration cycles are used to this
purpose, vapour compression refrigeration cycles and absorption/adsorption refrigerant cycles. For
both types of systems, the internal heat carrier is a refrigerant fluid.

In a vapour compression cycle, the refrigerant fluid evaporates in a heat exchanger in contact with
the heat carrier to be cooled. The heat is thus extracted from the sink and the refrigerant evaporates in
this heat exchanger. It then enters a compressor at low temperature and pressure and leaves it at high
pressure and temperature. The refrigerant then enters a second heat exchanger where it cools down
and condenses. The heat is thus released to the source heat carrier. The mechanical compression
energy is generally supplied by an electric motor however, the compressor can also be directly
coupled to an engine. Products are available on the EU market with gaz engines.

In absorption machines, which are also present on the EU market even if scarce, the refrigerant
vapour is absorbed by a fluid called absorbent. The resulting solution is then heated and the
refrigerant boils and enters the condenser. The heating energy is generally supplied by a gas burner
or by renewable energy (recovered or solar heat). On the principle, adsorption machines work on a
similar basis but with the refrigerant being fixed at the surface of a solid that is heated. This is not
commonly used for cold generators except for renewable heat sources. Solar refrigeration is part of
what is generally called “low energy cooling“ techniques.

Evaporative cooling is also generally included in these systems.

Evaporative cooling2 is an air-conditioning process in which the evaporation of water is used to
decrease the dry-bulb temperature of the air. Evaporative cooling works on the principle of heat
absorption by moisture evaporation. It can be divided upon three main types, as follows.

Direct evaporative coolers:
Direct evaporative cooling consists in blowing outside air through a water-saturated medium. Thus,
outside air is cooled by evaporation and then blown throughout the house. Direct evaporative cooling
requires essentially a large fan with water-moistened pads in front of it.
Direct evaporative cooling adds moisture to the air stream (coming from outside) until this air stream is
close to saturation. The dry bulb temperature is reduced, while the wet bulb temperature does not
change. Let’s recall that dry bulb is the sensible air temperature and wet bulb is the lowest air
temperature achievable by evaporating water into the air to bring the air to saturation.

Indirect evaporative cooling:
For indirect evaporative cooling, a secondary air stream is cooled by water like outside air in direct
evaporative coolers. The cooled secondary air stream goes through a heat exchanger, where it cools
the primary air stream that comes from outside. The cooled primary air stream is then blown
throughout the house. Indirect evaporative cooling does not add moisture to the primary air stream.
Both the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures are reduced.

Indirect plus direct
With indirect/direct evaporative cooling, outside air is cooled first by indirect evaporative cooling and
then by direct evaporative cooling.

The following psychometric chart summarizes the three types of evaporative coolers. Indirect
evaporative coolers enable to change climatic conditions from A to B (both dry and wet bulb
temperatures are reduced). Direct evaporative coolers enable to change climatic conditions from B to
C (the wet bulb temperature does not change) and the indirect plus direct evaporative coolers from A
to C.




2

EuP DG ENER Lot 10, Introduction to Lot 10 Study - Products and scope definition, Aug. 2007,
www.ecoaircon.eu.


                                                                                                      21
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




Figure 1 - 4 . Air enthalpy diagram, illustration of the 3 types of evaporative cooling (source EuP DG ENER
Lot 10)

Direct evaporative cooling system is useless when the wet bulb temperature is higher than 20°C or
when the dry temperature is about 30°C and humidity is higher than 40%. Evaporative cooling is often
promoted as a green (without refrigerant) and inexpensive way to cool dwellings. Nevertheless, the
comfort levels reachable with evaporative cooling greatly depends on the outside climatic conditions
and do not always enable to respect satisfactory thermal conditions (such as ones defined in comfort
standards for example). Thus, particular attention must be paid to determine under what range of
temperature and humidity evaporative cooling can deliver the required comfort thermal conditions.

Desiccant cooling

“Desiccant evaporative cooling systems appear as an alternative to classical air-conditioners. The
principle consists in drying the air in order to get a high potential of evaporative cooling of air. This
technique is refrigerant free and uses few of electricity. In the other hand, as it is necessary to
regenerate the desiccant wheel, thermal energy is required to heat up the wheel at temperatures in
the range of 50–100 °C. The use of solar energy or waste heat can make this technique interesting.”
(Stabat, 2009).

The potential of this type of system has been explored in the past few years in France (Stabat, 2003).
The required air flow rates per kW cooling is relatively high and limits its potential application as a
standalone air conditioning system in a standard climate.

Both evaporative and desiccant cooling may find some well targeted climates and application (large
volume spaces) where their application is competitive. They can also be used in hybrid cooling
solutions to decrease the working hours of more traditional refrigeration cycles.


Main types of air conditioning systems

There is a wide variety of different air conditioning systems. Several classifications can be found (Air
conditioning manuals and handbooks, EECCAC Study ...). We will use in a first attempt the system
classification proposed in the annex A of the standard EN15243:2007 which separates air conditioning
systems depending on the type of cold production unit and cooling distribution system. This standard
makes 3 categories, “all-air systems”, “water-based systems” and “package air conditioning units”.

All-air systems

In all-air systems, cold air is produced centrally and distributed amongst the room to be cooled. Cold
air is produced in an AHU with supplied air passing through a cooling coil. The cooling coil is normally
feed with water chilled by a refrigerating machine called chiller (cooling liquid). These systems can
also ensure heating even if it is not the standard situation in Europe.

These systems are made of:


                                                                                                        22
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


    -   a chilled water plant,
    -   an AHU,
    -   the water loop that feeds the cooling coil of the AHU,
    -   ducts for air distribution,
    -   terminal units that can supply complementary heating/cooling and possibly additional
        functions.

Subtypes are defined to represent the main types air distribution systems for all air systems. The USA
classification and definitions (ASHRAE, 2008) are summarized here as air based systems are more
popular in the USA than in Europe. The system classification first considers whether a single duct or
two ducts are used, secondly whether the air flow rate is constant or not (constant or variable volume)
and third, the design will differ depending upon the number of different zones (parts of the building
with different thermal requirements) to be treated.
    - Single duct systems: the main heating and cooling coil are located in a central AHU and a duct
         supplies the same air to all terminal units.
             o Constant volume
                          Single-zone system: it is the simplest system. Air flow rate is maintained
                          constant and temperature of cold air varied by the coil capacity. The coil
                          surface temperature is controlled in order to maintain adequate
                          dehumidification in a typical temperature regime at design conditions of 7 – 12
                          °C (outlet/return) in Europe.
                          Multiple-zone reheat system: the previous system is modified by simply adding
                          reheat terminal coils that enable to treat zones with different thermal needs.
                          This is a particularly inefficient system because of the successive heating and
                          cooling of the same air stream.
             o Variable volume: as opposed to constant volume systems, the air flow is varied and
                  the temperature of the cold stream is maintained constant. A VAV terminal unit adjust
                  the required air flow of cold to the zone cooling needs. Humidity control is not optimal
                  with VAV systems and a number of adaptation may be required. Dual-conduit VAV
                  system is an extension of these systems: two separate systems are used, one CAV
                  system duct supplying heat or cold for transmission losses and one VAV system
                  adjusting the requirements for perimeter loads. Variable diffuser can also be used in
                  which the air flow aperture is varied with air flow pressure in order to maintain a high
                  induction level.
    - Dual-duct systems: cold and hot air are prepared centrally and mixed in air diffuser at zone
         level. These systems can work with constant or variable air flow rates. They are thought to be
         rather uncommon in Europe.
    - Multi-zone systems: they are similar to dual duct systems except the air preparation is done
         centrally and a duct distributes the prepared air to each zone. They are thought to be rather
         uncommon in Europe.

All air systems also include what is called in the USA dedicated outdoor air systems. Ventilation air is
pre-treated by a dedicated air handling unit and is distributed in neutral conditions, for instance with a
dry bulb temperature of 19 °C to the room. There, terminal units control space temperature for local
loads. This is a common situation for ventilation systems associated to water based and package
refrigeration systems presented hereunder.

Water-based systems

For water based systems, chilled water is prepared centrally and distributed among the different
rooms. Terminal units ensure cooling and possibly dehumidification. The conditions of distribution vary
depending on the terminal unit types. Ventilation air is brought to the zone by an AHU which can be of
different types, the dedicated outdoor air system being common. These systems can also ensure
heating which can be done with the same terminal units or additional radiators.

These systems are made of:
   - a chilled water plant,
   - an AHU,
   - the water loop that feeds the terminal units (and potentially the cooling coil of the AHU),
   - ducts for air distribution,



                                                                                                       23
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


    -     terminal water to air units that can supply heating/cooling and possibly additional functions
          (like dehumidification and air filtration).

Several types of terminal units can be used (EN15243:2007): fan coils (water to air heat exchanger
with a fan to force convection), induction units, radiant cooling panels (including cold ceilings and
passive chilled beams), embedded systems (cold pipes buried in the concrete under the floor), water
to air reversible air conditioners. These terminal units are discussed in more detail hereafter.

“Package” air conditioning units

Package air conditioning units in the standard EN15243:2007 can be of the following types: room air
conditioner, package with the meaning here of the EN14511:2007 standard (ie a packaged unit is
factory assembly of components of refrigeration system fixed on a common mounting to form a
discrete unit), split system and multi-split system. For these three types of units, ventilation is ensured
centrally with central preparation of ventilation air (that may include pre-cooling of the ventilation air)
while terminal units ensure local temperature control and dehumidification.

The common ground of these systems is that the cooling coil is a refrigerant to air heat exchanger.
They are sometimes called DX (direct expansion) air conditioners as there is no secondary fluid as
water for water based units between the refrigerant and the cooled air. Above the previous categories
mentioned (package, split and multi-split), VRF is a specific type of DX system with terminal units
connected to a refrigerant network. More details are given hereunder in the definition of the system
components.

Another specific type of DX system is the rooftop air conditioner which combines the functions of
ventilation and cooling.

Cooling generators

Usual classification

Cooling generators working on the refrigeration principle (absorption / adsorption / vapour mechanical
compression) are generally classified according to the heat carrier type of their source and sink. A
table is proposed in EN14511:2007 and reproduced hereunder that summarizes the standard
classification.

Table 1 - 19 . Classification of air conditioners by source fluids, EN 14511:2007
                Heat transfer medium
        Outdoor heat                                                      Classification
                           Indoor heat exchanger
         exchanger
            Air                     Air                   Air/air heat pump or air cooled air conditioner
           Water                    Air                    Water/air heat pump cooled air conditioner
           Brine                    Air                Brine/air heat pump or brine cooled air conditioner
                                                        Air/water heat pump or air cooled liquid chilling
             Air                     Water
                                                                              package
                                                         Water/water heat pump or water cooled liquid
           Water                     Water
                                                                         chilling package
                                                         Brine/water heat pump or brine cooled chilling
           Brine                     Water
                                                                              package


Electrically driven vapour compression cycles (source EECCAC, adapted)

Evaporation of the liquid "refrigerant" (R410A, R407C, R134a, etc.) creates the "cold" in the
evaporator, which subsequently absorbs heat from the refrigerated space. The characteristics of the
evaporator technology depend primarily on the required application and the type of cold source. Two
broad categories exist:
    - air-cooled evaporators, or direct expansion evaporators consisting of a pack of finned tubes
       through which the air is forced;


                                                                                                        24
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


    -      liquid-cooled evaporators, or flooded evaporators consisting of a tubular shell in which the
           refrigerant expands and cools a fluid circulating in a bundle of tubes inserted in the shell.

After its full evaporation the refrigerant vapour is compressed using a compressor for which the
following main technologies are used:
     - rotary compressor
     - scroll compressor
     - reciprocating compressor
     - screw compressor
     - centrifugal compressor

A wide range of technologies are used to couple the compressor to the electric motor:
    - open type or accessible compressors, presenting detachable parts to access the compressor’s
        main components and coupled to separate electric or thermal engines. They can be used with
        any refrigerant but are generally employed in systems with medium to high cooling capacity.
    - "Semi-hermetic" compressors that are similar to the open type compressors but have a
        common casing with the electric motor; they are generally used for systems with medium
        cooling capacity.
    - Hermetic compressors, which have their body directly coupled to an electric motor cooled by
        the refrigerant and enclosed in a totally sealed shell; these are generally used for systems with
        a small to medium cooling capacity.

After its compression the refrigerant vapour is condensed while evacuating the heat corresponding to
the one absorbed at evaporator level and the thermal equivalent of the work of the compressor. The
condenser technology depends primarily on the required application and the heat source.

Condensers used in CAC systems are divided into three categories:
   - air-cooled condensers consisting of a finned tube heat exchanger (figure 2.3). The primary
      factor which influences the performance of the condenser, is the outside air temperature.
   - water-cooled condensers consisting of finned tubes with internal grooves to increase the heat
      transfer surface area and the overall heat transfer coefficient. The temperature and flow rate
      of water have the greatest influence on the condensing temperature. The water used as the
      coolant may be from a natural water source (such as a river or aquifer) or from re-circulated
      water that’s been cooled in a cooling tower.
   - evaporatively-cooled condensers, which are used in industrial applications and combine a
      condenser and a cooling tower in a single apparatus.

Water cooled products or systems are used with a heat rejection system, that can be natural or aquifer
water, an air to water heat exchanger and different types of cooling towers.

After condensation the refrigerant is expanded by an expansion valve, which is used to throttle the
refrigerant fluid back to the evaporator pressure and to control the refrigerant flow. Three systems are
used:
     - expansion devices with a constant pressure difference.
     - thermostatic expansion valves in which the aperture is controlled via the superheating.
     - electronic expansion valves that are also controlled via the superheating but electronically.


Chillers

Chillers can be air cooled or water cooled.

Electric driven chillers can use the four main technologies of compressors depending on their
capacities. Cooling capacity ranges from a few kW for mini-chillers to several MW for large industrial
chillers. Mini-chillers are typically dedicated to small commercial buildings (shops) or residences and
supply fan coils or cooling floors.

The new products include the following components:
   - Refrigerant fluid used: R410A (for rotary and scroll compressors), R407C (for all but
       centrifugal compressor), R134a (for rotary screw and centrifugal compressors)



                                                                                                      25
                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


    -   Compressor type: all types although reciprocating compressors have almost disappeared of
        the catalogues
    -   Expansion valve: thermostatic and electronic
    -   Evaporator (cooling mode): plate heat exchanger and tube and shell for large capacities
    -   Condenser (cooling mode): water cooled chillers use plate heat exchanger and tube and shell
        and air cooled heat exchanger use tube and fins coils.

There are several energy saving options for chillers, including:
   - free cooling (either by adding an extra air to water heat exchanger or by using the refrigerant
       cycle with a pump ot transfer heat via the refrigeration circuit with a pump instead of the
       compressor)
   - evaporatively-cooled condensers,
   - the possibility to use variable speed pumps on the chiller circuit (that can be included to the
       chiller for small capacity units).

It is common practice to associate several chillers in a refrigeration plant in order to minimise the life
cycle cost of the plant.

Figure 1 - 5 . An air cooled chiller (courtesy Climaveneta) and a water cooled chiller (Courtesy Carrier)




Gas engine chillers are not directly available in Europe. Nevertheless, some manufacturers propose
integrated solutions with a gas air to air air conditioner and a standard refrigerant to water kit to adapt
air to air gas motor air conditioner to gas air to water chiller. These are available for low to medium
cooling capacities.

Figure 1 - 6 . Air to water kit for gas engine air to air air conditioner (source AISIN)




                                                                                                            26
                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010



Common absorption machines are chillers and may be reversible. They used to compete on the large
capacity market (more than 300 or 400 kW cooling capacity). In these sizes they use a solution of
lithium bromide and water, under vacuum, as the working fluid. LiBr – H20 solutions have been
extended to smaller capacities where they compete with NH3-H2O solutions. Smaller capacities are
developed in Europe with hot water as the hot source for solar applications and waste heat.

Absorption machines can be direct fired – with the generator being heaten by a gas burner – and
indirect fired to be used with hot water. Absorption chillers can be single or multiple effect machines.
An illustration is shown hereunder: adding an effect means adding a second generator level at higher
temperature. The higher the number of effects, the higher the performance and the higher the heating
temperature with technical barriers on the solution and materials. Triple effect machines are still being
developed.

Figure 1 - 7 . Single effect absorption chiller/heater (source NorthEast CHP Application Center3)




A few manufacturers produce small capacity air to water absorption heat pumps that are reversible
and can be used to supply chilled water but with relatively low efficiency. There is a growing number of
absorption (and some adsorption products also) chillers proposed with small sizes to be coupled with
solar panels.

Split and multi-split air conditioners

With the same architecture that the products included in DG ENER Lot 10, room air conditioners with
cooling capacity larger than 12 kW are available. “Residential” product range advertised by
manufacturers (it appeared in DG ENTR Lot 10 that they were also importantly used in the commercial
sector) have capacities that range up to 14 kW and some up to 20 kW.

Figure 1 - 8 . Multi-split air conditioners (source LG)




3
    http://www.northeastchp.org/nac/businesses/refrigeration.htm


                                                                                                      27
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010



These units are generally air cooled although some units can be water cooled. There are different
indoor unit types, ducted or non ducted (non ducted units can be located outside the space to be
cooled). Non ducted indoor units can be wall mounted, cassettes, ceiling mounted cassette units,
concealed ceiling, wall mounted, ceiling suspended and floor standing.

Figure 1 - 9 . Types of indoor units (source Mitsubishi Electric)




                                                           Ceiling mounted
          Wall                     Floor type                                           Cassette
                                                            cassette units




                               Concealed ceiling
    Floor standing                                           Ducted units
                                   (ducted)


For split systems, there is a large variation of possible configurations the final sold products being a
combination between the outdoor and indoor unit for a specific building.

The new products include the following components:
   - Refrigerant fluid used: R410A, R407C
   - Compressor type: rotary and scroll
   - Expansion valve: electronic
   - Indoor heat exchanger: tube and fin coil with different types of fans
   - Outdoor heat exchanger: tube and fin coil with axial or centrifugal fan if air cooled and plate
       heat exchanger if water cooled.

VRF systems

The VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow) system is similar in shape to multisplit air conditioners.
Nevertheless, in a multisplit unit, each inside unit is connected only to the single outside unit
individually. On the contrary, in VRF systems, inside units are connected on a refrigerant network.

VRF 2 pipes: the refrigerant network can be made of 2 pipes. When heating, one duct contains high
pressure and high temperature refrigerant vapor. This vapor is cooled down in terminal units and
brought back at low temperature low pressure in diphasic state. When cooling, diphasic low
temperature high pressure refrigerant is circulated and expanded in terminal units where it is used to
cool the air in the terminal units and low pressure low temperature is brought back to the compressor
located in the outside unit.

VRF heat recovery: a heat recovery version is able to offer both cooling and heating for different zones
of the building. Heat recovery is achieved by diverting heat from indoor units in cooling mode to those
areas requiring heating. According to EN14511:2007 definitions, this may be achieved by a gas/liquid
separator or a third line in the refrigeration circuit.

For VRF systems, there is a large variation of possible configurations the final sold products being a
combination between the outdoor and indoor unit for a specific building, with different possible
circuiting depending on the possible simultaneity of heating and cooling requirements.

Figure 1 - 10 . VRF systems (left - source Daikin outdoor units, right – source Toshiba system overview)


                                                                                                           28
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




These new products include the following components:
   - Refrigerant fluid used: R410A
   - Compressor type: scroll
   - Expansion valve: electronic
   - Indoor heat exchanger: tube and fin coil with different types of fans
   - Outdoor heat exchanger: tube and fin coil with axial or centrifugal fan if air cooled and plate
       heat exchanger if water cooled.

These systems are generally air cooled although some can be water cooled.

The capacity range of these solution extended with groups of outdoor units now being able to supply
up to 150 kW cooling capacity. With smaller indoor unit size being 2 kW capacity, this enables to
connect more than 50 indoor units on an outdoor unit type. This is scalable with a capacity ratio that
enables to take into account the fact that all thermal zones do not require their design capacity at the
same time so that more indoor units can be connected to the same outdoor unit.

In general, the ventilation system is kept separated but VRF systems can also be coupled with a
centralized air system that enables to precondition centrally the air entering terminal units, filtering,
controlling fresh air renewal, etc… Hence, manufacturers tend to offer systems that cover more and
more functions as shown below.

Figure 1 - 11 . Daikin VRF complete solution for heating, cooling, ventilation and air curtain management




                                                                                                        29
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


The VRF systems integrate progressively more control options and manufacturers also offer integrated
controls that can enable to control up to 2000 indoor units of different types and to optimize jointly air
renewal, heat recovery and the air conditioning system (in its broader acceptance here).

Figure 1 - 12 . Daikin VRV control solutions for VRF systems




Package air conditioners

Package air conditioners can be located either into the room to treat or into another room or outside –
rooftop - providing the air by ducts and grilles for a better temperature homogenization. It is the same
working principle as the single package air conditioner but with higher capacities. It can be coupled
with air ducts, as rooftops, to distribute air to several rooms. Rooftop combines the cooling and
ventilation function (and heating most of the time). These products are generally air cooled although
some can be water cooled.
The new rooftop products include the following components:
    - Refrigerant fluid used: R410A, R407C
    - Compressor type: scroll
    - Expansion valve: thermostatic and electronic
    - Indoor heat exchanger: tube and fin coil with different types of fans
    - Outdoor heat exchanger: tube and fin coil with axial or centrifugal fan if air cooled and plate
         heat exchanger if water cooled.

Figure 1 - 13 . Roof top air conditioner (source Carrier)




Water to air package air conditioners are mostly used in water loop heat pump systems. A schema of
such a system is given hereunder.


                                                                                                       30
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



Figure 1 - 14 . Water loop heat pump system (source AUDITAC)




Water to air units are the terminal units of this system. The heat extracted from a room to be cooled
is rejected to a central water loop. If another room is to be heated, heat is extracted from the central
water loop thanks to the water to air unit. A for VRF, this system is particularly useful for buildings with
simultaneous needs of cooling and heating. The central water loop temperature is generally floating
between 15 and 30 °C, maintained by a cooling tower or chilling plant and a boiler.


Close control units are specific air conditioners reserved to serve computer rooms or other spaces
with restricted temperature and humidity inside conditions. A close control air conditioner “satisfies the
requirements of the process carried out in the air conditioned room” (EN14511:2007). These
temperature conditions are typically of 22 °C. Humidity is also controlled more closely around 50 %
relative humidity. Control cabinets cool down their own contents, mostly computer or electronic
controls of other process. Both product types are not for human comfort.

AHU

More detail is given on the AHU section in the paragraph before on ventilation systems. Regarding
cooling, it can be ensured by DX coil and in that case the AHU is called a rooftop or by a chilled water
cooling coil.

AHU sized for cooling have higher supply air flow rate than would require hygienic purposes only and
thus also enable free cooling. When outdoor air temperature is lower than the set point, the share of
outdoor air can be increased to supply part of the cooling needs. It is possible to control free cooling
on the difference of enthalpy and not only of dry bulb temperature in order to maximise the gains.




                                                                                                         31
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010




Terminal units

Fan-coils

Fan-coils are ‘active’ (with fan) heat/cooling emitters, combining a cooling/heating coil with a
convection fan plus a means for collecting and abducting condensate. In most fan-coil units the fan is
just for circulating the air inside a room, but in Germany around 20-25%4 of fan-coils sold combine this
with a local ventilation function by adding valves.

Cooling beams

Cooling beams mounted on the ceiling. They were originally designed as ‘passive’ emitters (without
fan), using natural convection of cold air dropping to the floor, but are now often supplemented by a
fan to induce forced convection. Cooling beams, floor-heating (tubes embedded in the floor) and other
radiator-type cooling solutions are typical ‘top-cooling’ solutions. These are suitable for moderate and
colder climates only because the air temperature must always stay above the dew-point (otherwise
condensate forms on the emitter), which limits their specific cooling capacity.

VAV terminals

VAV terminal units (a.k.a. VAV boxes) of an air-duct system, typically include a valve/damper and
some sort of –traditionally pneumatic but currently electronic—control system that tells the central
fan/AHU unit to adjust the flow according to the valve position.

Figure 1 - 15 . Typical US air-conditioning & ventilation system, supply fan only, with VAV terminals



                                                        VAV




                                         VAV




VAV systems are currently the preferred option (over CAV), as they allow for considerable electricity
saving of the fan drive energy (VSD-motors).


Heat rejection

For air cooled cooling generators, the heat rejection media to the air is the air cooled condenser.

For water cooled generators, there are three different types of heat rejection systems:
    - Dry coolers: a simple air to water heat exchanger with a fan


4
    E.g. manufacturer Schuco. EU-sales of these ‘ventilating fancoils’ are estimated at 30.000 units/year.


                                                                                                        32
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


    -   Wet-dry towers, which contain a conventional wet type tower in combination with an air-cooled
         heat exchanger. They are especially used to reduce water vapour plumes and hence water
         consumption.
    - Direct contact (Wet) cooling towers where there is a direct contact between the two fluids thus
         providing better heat transfer.
A wet cooling tower (which displays better energy performance) is more at risk of cultivating the
legionella bacillus and consumes water.

Schemas and photos of such systems are provided hereunder.

Figure 1 - 16 . Heat rejection media for water cooled cooling generators




                                                                                       Dry cooler

                                                                                       Source
                                                                                       AUDITAC
                                                                                       and CIAT




                                                                                       Closed circuit
                                                                                       cooling tower

                                                                                       AUDITAC
                                                                                       and
                                                                                       Baltimore Air
                                                                                       Coil




                                                                                       Open cooling
                                                                                       tower

                                                                                       Source
                                                                                       AUDITAC
                                                                                       and
                                                                                       Baltimore Air
                                                                                       Coil



Controls of air conditioning systems

All products described above contain more or less sophisticated controls and more or less
sophisticated interfaces depending on whether the products is intended to be integrated in a larger
system or to operate as a standalone product.

At the building level, building automation and control systems enable to control not only the HVAC
functions but also all other functions to ensure healthy, safe and economic building operation. The
standard EN ISO 16484-2:2004 gives a definition of these systems:

Building automation and control system, BACS




                                                                                                    33
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


system, comprising all products and engineering services for automatic controls (including interlocks),
monitoring, optimization, for operation, human intervention, and management to achieve energy –
efficient, economical, and safe operation of building services
NOTE 1 The use of the word ‘control’ does not imply that the system/device is restricted to control functions.
Processing of data and information is possible.
NOTE 2 If a building control system, building management system, or building energy management system
complies with the requirements of the EN ISO 16484 standard series, it should be designated as a building
automation and control system (BACS).

Controls of both products and building automation and control systems are of interest regarding the
impact their functionalities may have on the energy consumption of such systems.


1.2.2   Product scope for air conditioning systems

The Energy Related Products in this study ensure the cooling function or are part of air conditioning
systems supplying this function.

The focus is on air conditioning systems in human occupied buildings to ensure comfort air
conditioning. The cooling products that ensure this main function are cooling cycle that can extract
heat directly in the room and reject it directly to the outside. In that case, they are called air-to-air
products, using the names of the source (outside air) and sink (indoor air) they use. Whether the heat
extraction is made by water-to-air heat exchanger and then heat is rejected outside by an air-to-water
chiller. All the sin-source combinations are included: air-to-air, air-to-water, water-to-air, water-to-
water.


Energy related products included

For each system type, AC systems are made of a large number of components. Nevertheless, the
number of ecodesign products in these systems is limited.

1. Cooling generators
   - Package, split and multi split air conditioner [air-to-air > 12 kW, water-to-air, evaporatively
        cooled]
   - Roof tops [air-to-air]
   - VRF systems (centralized air conditioning systems with refrigerant fluid as the main media to
        circulate and extract heat from the building) [air-to-air and water-to-air]
   - Chillers for air conditioning applications [air-to-water, water-to-water, evaporatively-cooled]
   - Renewable cooling: evaporative and desiccant cooling, solar cooling (*)
2. Air circulation and air treatment
   - Air Handling Units including energy consuming subsystems as air to air heat recovery air
        conditioning units
3. Water circulation
   - Circulators
4. Terminal units to extract heat from the space to be conditioned
   - Fan coils, active ceiling beams, water-to-air air conditioners.
5. Heat extraction means from the cooling system
   - Cooling towers
   - Dry coolers
6. Controls to minimize energy consumption of air conditioning systems including Building Energy
Management Systems (BEMS)

(*) Regarding renewable cooling, specific renewable solutions with limited applicability such as earth
pipes, seawater cooling are not included. Applicability of desiccant, evaporative and solar cooling is to
be specified in this study.


Interaction with other ecodesign studies and regulation




                                                                                                           34
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


Cooling generation

Air-to-air air conditioners below 12 kW cooling capacity are included in ENER Lot 10. Hence, this lot
will focus on air-to-air air conditioners with cooling capacity above 12 kW and all other source-sink
type air-conditioner.

For chillers, they were not included in the ENER Lot 10 study. Consequently, there is no lower
capacity limit.
However, chillers for air conditioning can be used also for refrigeration. There are four reference
temperature levels defined by the industry5 for chilled cooling media distribution:
- air conditioning for cooling floor and other radiant cooling surfaces with leaving chilled water
temperature above 20 °C,
- air conditioning, with leaving chilled water temperature between + 2°C and + 15°C
- medium brine, with leaving brine temperature between + 3°C and - 12°C
- low brine, with leaving brine temperature between - 8°C and - 25°C
ENTR Lot 6 only considers chillers serving air conditioning temperature levels. Medium and low brine
chillers are considered in ENTR Lot 1.

Most cooling generators are reversible. Their heating function is addressed in ENER Lot 1 – water
based heating systems, ENER Lot 20 on room air heating products and ENER Lot 21 on central
heating products using hot air to distribute heat (other than CHP). In addition, the heating function of
reversible air conditioners with cooling capacity inferior to 12 kW is already included in Lot 10.
Consequently, only the consequences of possible ecodesign measures in the cooling mode will be
addressed in this study.

Compressors, fans and pumps

Main energy consumers in all air conditioning systems are compressor, fan and pump motors.

Compressor motors and controls are not the subject of any direct on-going ecodesign regulation or
study.

Fans with electric power above 125 W are included in ENER Lot 11 so that the efficiency of the fan
itself is not at stake in this study. For fans with motors between 750 W and 375 kW, motor efficiency is
regulated by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 640/2009. It is still feasible to improve the motor
transmission and control, air conditioning and ventilation motors that are not covered in the regulation
(EC) No 640/2009, and fan motor efficiency below 750 W.

Circulators and pumps are the subject of the Commission Regulation (EC) No 641/2009. Circulators
that are not covered by the regulation (EC) n° 641/2009 and used in air conditioning systems are in
the scope of ENTR Lot 6. This regards pumps of the primary chilling circuits6 as opposed to pumps of
secondary distribution chilled water network that are explicitly included in this regulation.


Energy performance scope

The energy performance of air conditioning systems will be assessed on the basis of their cooling
function. For standalone products, a direct indicator can be defined by computing the ratio of the
cooled energy supplied and of the energy consumed by the product itself. However, for products
embedded in air conditioning systems, as for instance for chillers, it means that intermediary energy
using product consumption (fans, pumps) are to be taken into account. As far as the other (passive)
components of the air conditioning system have an influence on the cooling performance, default
values will be defined for these parameters to ensure a neutral and objective comparison.

Other Environmental Performance Scope


5
 www.eurovent-certification.com
6
 Primary circuit designs the chilled water circuit where cold production occurs ; cold is then distributed
by another water distribution network into the buildings for fan coil systems for instance.


                                                                                                       35
                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


The study team assumes that the main environmental impact of air conditioning systems is their
energy consumption with direct refrigerant emission as the main second one. Following the
requirements of the Ecodesign Directive, the study will also quantify the other environmental impacts.


1.2.3   Definitions and performance parameters

This paragraph gives an overview of air conditioning systems definitions found in existing EN-product
and building standards. As such, it can serve as a summary of generally accepted terms, definitions
and classifications that are used in the EU standards that are further discussed in subtask 1.2. These
terms, definitions and classifications will be used throughout this study.

Air conditioning system definitions from EN15243:2007 standard

room
enclosed space or part of an enclosed space

HVAC system
system providing temperature control, mechanical ventilation and humidity control in a building

room conditioning system
system able to keep a comfort conditions in a room within a defined range
NOTE Air conditioning as well as surface based radiative systems are included.

room cooling load
daily profile of the energy flow rate which must be extracted from a room under design conditions in
order to keep its comfort conditions within a defined range

room sensible cooling load
daily profile of the energy flow rate which must be extracted from a room under design conditions in
order to keep its temperature (air temperature or operative temperature) within a defined range

room latent cooling load
daily profile of the energy flow rate which must be extracted from a room under design conditions in
order to keep its humidity below a defined limit

basic room sensible cooling load
daily profile of the energy flow rate which must be extracted from a room under design conditions in
order to keep its air temperature at a constant value

room cooling energy demand
energy amount to be extracted from the room in order to keep its comfort conditions within a defined
range throughout the year under typical meteorological conditions

Regarding performance parameters, in most cases, it is necessary to distinguish the performance
parameters for the different system components. Only cooling capacity and energy demand are
defined in the EN15243:2007 standard at system level.

system cooling capacity
maximum heat extraction flow rate of a system under specified conditions

system cooling energy demand
energy amount to be extracted from the system in order to keep its intended operating conditions
throughout the year under typical meteorological conditions

At the system level, there is not any other performance parameter defined. The total energy
consumption consumed by the cooling system is particularly difficult to determine as it interacts for
instance with the ventilation systems (except if systems are in fact reduced to the cooling generator as
it can be the case for air to air products). It is then quite difficult to assess the system consumption for
a specific function.




                                                                                                         36
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


Cooling generators

The main definitions for electric driven vapour compression generators are given in prEN14511:2009,
EN15218:2007 and prEN14825:2009.

air conditioner
encased assembly or assemblies designed as a unit to provide delivery of conditioned air to an
enclosed space (room for instance) or zone. It includes an electrically operated refrigeration system for
cooling and possibly dehumidifying the air. It can have means for heating, circulating, cleaning and
humidifying the air. If the unit provides heating by reversing the refrigerating cycle then it is a heat
pump

heat pump
encased assembly or assemblies designed as a unit to provide delivery of heat. It includes an
electrically operated refrigeration system for heating.
It can have means for cooling, circulating, cleaning and dehumidifying the air. The cooling is by means
of reversing the refrigerating cycle

indoor heat exchanger
heat exchanger which is designed to transfer heat to the indoor part of the building or to the indoor hot
water supplies or to remove heat from these
NOTE In the case of an air conditioner or heat pump operating in the cooling mode, this is the
evaporator. In the case of an air conditioner or heat pump operating in the heating mode, this is the
condenser.

outdoor heat exchanger
heat exchanger which is designed to remove heat from the outdoor ambient environment, or any other
available heat source, or to transfer heat to it
NOTE In the case of an air conditioner or heat pump operating in the cooling mode, this is the
condenser. In the case of an air conditioner heat pump operating in the heating mode, this is the
evaporator.

evaporatively cooled condenser
heat exchanger that condenses refrigerant vapour by rejecting heat to a water and air mixture causing
the water to evaporate and increase the enthalpy of air. Desuperheating and sub-cooling of the
refrigerant may occur as well

heat transfer medium
any medium (water, air, ...) used for the transfer of the heat without change of state
EXAMPLES cooled liquid circulating in the evaporator; cooling medium circulating in the condenser;
heat recovery medium circulating in the heat recovery heat exchanger.

outside air
air from the outdoor environment entering the outdoor heat exchanger

exhaust air
air from the air conditioned space entering the outdoor heat exchanger

recycled air
air from the air conditioned space entering the indoor heat exchanger

outdoor air
air from the outdoor environment entering the indoor heat exchanger

water loop
closed circuit of water maintained within a temperature range on which the units in cooling mode reject
heat and the units in heating mode take heat

comfort air conditioner or heat pump
air conditioner or heat pump to satisfy the requirements of the occupants of the air conditioned room

packaged unit



                                                                                                        37
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


factory assembly of components of refrigeration system fixed on a common mounting to form a
discrete unit

single split unit
factory assembly of components of refrigeration system fixed on two mountings or more to form a
discrete matched functional unit

basic multi-split system
split system incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more compressors, multiple indoor
units designed for individual operation and one outdoor unit. The system has no more than two steps
of control by either two compressors or by compressor unloading and is capable of operating either as
an air-conditioner or a heat pump. A system having a variable speed compressor where a fixed
combination of indoor units is specified by the manufacturer is also considered as a basic multi-split
system

multiple circuit multi-split system
split system incorporating multiple refrigerant circuits, two or more single speed compressors, multiple
indoor units and an integrated heat exchanger in a single outdoor unit and is capable of operating
either as an air conditioner or a heat pump

modular multi-split system
split system air conditioner or heat pump incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, at least one variable
speed compressor or an alternative compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by
three or more steps, multiple indoor units, each of which can be individually controlled, one or more
outdoor units and is capable of operating either as an air conditioner or a heat pump

modular heat recovery multi-split system
split system air conditioner or heat pump incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, at least one variable-
speed compressor or an alternate compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by
three or more steps, multiple indoor units, each capable of being individually controlled and one or
more outdoor units. This system is capable of operating as a heat pump where recovered heat from
the indoor units operating in the cooling mode can be transferred to one or more units operating in the
heating mode
NOTE This may be achieved by a gas/liquid separator or a third line in the refrigeration circuit.

liquid chilling package
factory-made unit designed to cool liquid, using an evaporator, a refrigerant compressor, an integral or
remote condenser and appropriate controls. It may have means for heating which can be reversing the
refrigerating cycle, like a heat pump

The main performance parameter for cooling generators regard the rated cooling capacity they provide
to satisfy the cooling load required and the efficiency of the process, as well as the acoustic
parameters.
NOTE: Some definitions below are specific to multi-split and VRF systems that are more complex because of the
existence of the system capacity ratio and the heat recovery option.

total cooling capacity
PC
heat given off from the heat transfer medium to the unit per unit of time, expressed in Watt

latent cooling capacity
PL
capacity of the unit for removing latent heat from the evaporator intake air, expressed in Watt

sensible cooling capacity
PS
capacity of the unit for removing sensible heat from the evaporator intake air, expressed in Watt

system capacity
capacity of the system when all outdoor and indoor units are operating in the same mode

system reduced capacity



                                                                                                          38
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


capacity of the system when some of the indoor units are disconnected

system capacity ratio
ratio of the total stated cooling (heating) capacity of all operating indoor units to the stated cooling
(heating) capacity of the outdoor unit at the rating conditions

heat recovery efficiency
HRE
ratio of the total capacity of the system (heating plus cooling capacity) to the effective power input
when operating in the heat recovery mode

sensible heat ratio
SHR
ratio of the sensible cooling capacity to the total cooling capacity, expressed in Watt/Watt

total power input
PT
power input of all components of the unit as delivered, expressed in Watt

effective power input
PE
average electrical power input of the unit within the defined interval of time obtained from:
- power input for operation of the compressor and any power input for defrosting;
- power input for all control and safety devices of the unit; and
- proportional power input of the conveying devices (e.g. fans, pumps) for ensuring the transport of
      the heat transfer media inside the unit.
It is expressed in Watt

energy efficiency ratio
EER
ratio of the total cooling capacity to the effective power input of the unit, expressed in Watt/Watt

rating conditions
standardised conditions provided for the determination of data which are characteristic for the unit,
especially:
  heating capacity, power input, COP in heating mode;
  cooling capacity, power input, EER, SHR in cooling mode.

standard rating condition
mandatory condition that is used for marking and for comparison or certification purposes

application rating condition
rating condition which is mandatory if it falls within the operating range of the unit. Results based on
application rating conditions are published by the manufacturer or supplier

Reference Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER)
The seasonal efficiency of a unit calculated for the reference annual cooling demand, which is
determined from mandatory conditions given in this standard (prEN14825) and used for marking,
comparison and certification purposes.
NOTE For calculation of SEER, the annual electricity consumption of a unit is used, including the
electricity consumption during active mode, thermostat off mode, standby mode and that of the
crankcase heater

Reference SEERon
The seasonal efficiency of a unit in active cooling mode which is determined from mandatory
conditions given in this standard (prEN14825) and used for marking, comparison and certification
purposes.
NOTE For calculation of SEERon, the annual electricity consumption during active mode is used. This
excludes the power consumption during thermostat off mode, standby mode or that of the crank case
heater.

Application SEER (SCOP) and Application SEERon (SCOPon/SCOPnet)



                                                                                                           39
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


The SEER (SCOP) and SEERon (SCOPon/SCOPnet) that takes into account the specific application
and the specific location of the unit, which are different from the ones used for determining the
reference SEER (SCOP) and reference SEERon (SCOPon / SCOPnet) given in this standard
(prEN14825).
NOTE The calculation procedures used to determine the application SEER(on)/SCOP(on/net), if
required, are those in this standard for reference SEER(on)/SCOP(on/net). However the cooling and
heating bins used in the calculations will be those of the actual location of the building. The heating
and cooling loads as well as the hours of use will be those of the actual building.


Active mode
The mode corresponding to the hours with a cooling or heating load of the building and whereby the
cooling or heating function of the unit is switched on.
NOTE The unit has to reach or maintain a temperature set point and in order to do so, the unit may
switch between being operational or not operational (e.g. by on/off cycling of the compressor).

Thermostat off mode
The mode corresponding to the hours with no cooling or heating load of the building, whereby the
cooling or heating function of the unit is switched on, but is not operational, as there is no cooling or
heating load.
NOTE 1 For the reference cooling season, this situation occurs when the outdoor temperature reaches
16°C or lower. For the reference heating seasons, this situation occurs when the outdoor temperature
reaches 16°C or higher.
NOTE 2 When a unit is cycling off during active mode, this is not considered as thermostat off mode.
3.26 Standby mode The unit is switched off partially and can be reactivated by a control device or
timer. NOTE The unit is connected to the mains power source, depends on energy input to work as
intended and provides only the following functions, which may persist for an indefinite time :
reactivation function, or reactivation function and only an indication of enabled reactivation function,
and/or information or status display.

Off mode
The unit is completely switched off and cannot be reactivated neither by control device nor by timer.
NOTE Off mode means a condition in which the equipment is connected to the mains power source
and is not providing any function. The following shall also be considered as off mode: conditions
providing only an indication of off mode condition ; conditions providing only functionalities intended to
ensure electromagnetic compatibility

Crankcase Heater mode
The mode corresponding to the hours where a crankcase heater is activated. NOTE The crankcase
heater operates when the compressor is off, and the outdoor temperature is so low that it is necessary
to avoid refrigerant to migrate to the compressor to limit refrigerant concentration in oil at compressor
start.

sound power level
LW
ten times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio of the given sound power to the reference sound
power expressed in decibels. The reference sound power is 1 pW (10-12 W)


An optional performance parameter is defined in the EN 378:2008 standard.

TEWI
The TEWI (en: total equivalent warming impact) is a way of assessing global warming by combining
the direct contribution of refrigerant emissions into the atmosphere with the indirect contribution of the
carbon dioxide and other gas emissions resulting from the energy required to operate the refrigerating
system over its operational life. The TEWI factor can be calculated by the following equation where the
various areas of impact are correspondingly separated.

TEWI = GWP ⋅ L ⋅ n + [GWP ⋅ m ⋅ (1- αrecovery)] + n ⋅ Eannual ⋅ β
where
GWP ⋅ L ⋅ n is the impact of leakage losses;


                                                                                                       40
                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010


GWP ⋅ m ⋅ (1- αrecovery) is the impact of recovery losses;
n ⋅ Eannual ⋅ β is the impact of energy consumption.
where
TEWI is the total equivalent warming impact, in kilogrammes of CO2;
GWP is the global warming potential, CO2-related;
L is the leakage, in kilogrammes per year;
n is the system operating time, in years;
m is the refrigerant charge, in kilogrammes;
αrecovery is the recovery/recycling factor, 0 to 1;
Eannual is the energy consumption, in kilowatt-hour per year;
β is the CO2-emission, in kilogrammes per kilowatt-hour.


For gas absorption and adsorption cooling generators (EN12309:1999), main performance parameters
are the same as for electric sources air conditioners except the efficiency is defined with regards to the
gas consumption. Despite its importance on part load performance, the electric consumption is not
defined in this standard. It should be added for proper performance assessment.

gas utilization efficiency in the cooling mode
ratio of the cooling capacity to the net heat input of the appliance.
Symbol: ηc

gas utilization efficiency in the heating mode
ratio of the heating capacity to the net heat input of the appliance.
Symbol: ηH

The TEWI optional performance parameter can also be used as a secondary performance parameter.

AHU

See part on ventilation for AHU definition.


Circulators

To be completed


Terminal units

To be completed


Heat rejection

To be completed


Controls

To be completed



1.1.4.   Classifications

Air conditioning systems



                                                                                                       41
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



Prodcom

For air conditioning products contained in air conditioning systems, Prodcom code gives one category
for small direct expansion systems but all other refrigerating equipment are included in one single
category or their pieces included in the different categories for parts (evaporator, condenser,
compressor …), for air handling units and terminal units of air conditioning systems and one specific
category for cooling towers.

    •   28251250: Air conditioning machines with refrigeration unit (excluding those used in motor
        vehicles, self-contained or split-systems machines)
    •   28251270: Air conditioning machines not containing a refrigeration unit; central station air
        handling units; vav boxes and terminals, constant volume units and fan coil units
    •   28296030: Cooling towers and similar plant for direct cooling by means of re circulated water
    •   28251220: Parts for air conditioning machines (including condensers evaporators and
        absorbers)
    •   28251220: Window or wall air conditioning systems, self-contained or split-systems

The prodcom air conditioning does not give supplementary information regarding classification of air
conditioning products.

EN standards

A classification is necessary to foresee all the air conditioning system types. Two classifications are
proposed in EBPD standards:
- EN 15240 : 2007, Annex A
- EN15243: 2007, Annex C

In the EN15240 standard, an air conditioning system is defined according to its structure, which is
based on the combination of the characteristics of its cooling energy distribution system, cooling
energy emission system, cooling energy generation system and energy supply system. Definitions are
given hereafter.

cooling energy distribution system (abbreviated CED-system)
subsystem, where the cooling energy is transported and distributed from the CES-system to
CEEsystem by a distribution medium, inclusive control systems (examples for the distribution medium
are air, water, refrigeration fluid)

cooling energy emission system (abbreviated CEE-system)
subsystem, where the cooling energy is emitted to the space (for example air outlets, fan coils, chilled
ceiling, surface cooling) inclusive control systems

cooling energy generation system (abbreviated CEG-system)
subsystem, where the cooling energy is generated by refrigeration units (examples are chillers,
absorber unit, heat pumps) inclusive control systems

energy supply system (abbreviated ES-system)
system supplying the necessary energy to generate the CEG-system (examples are electricity, gas,
solar) inclusive control systems

The table below gives the different possible characteristics of ES, CEG, CEE and CED subsystems. It
is to be noted the annex A in which this classification is given is informative.

Table 1 - 20 . Terms of subsystems (EN15240, Annex A, Table A.1)
Subsystem         Main components                            Term        Remarks
CEE-system        Air outlets                                E.1
                  Fan coils                                  E.2
                  Cooling ceiling system                     E.3


                                                                                                      42
                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


                    Surface cooling system                       E.4
                    Heat exchangers for ventilation system       E.5
                    Air filter                                   E.6
                    Split unit evaporator                        E.7
                    Optional                                     E.xx
CED-system          Ventilation duct system                      D.1
                    Water pipe system                            D.2
                    Refrigeration pipe system                    D.3
                    Optional                                     D.xx
CEG-system          Chiller air-cooled                           G.1
                    Chiller water-cooled                         G.2
                    Split-unit condenser                         G.3
                    Air-to-water heat pump                       G.4
                    Water-to-water heat pump                     G.5
                    Absorption system                            G.6
                    Single-package system                        G.7
                                            7
                    Air-to-air heat pumps                        G.8
                    Water-to-air heat pumps                      G.9
                    Optional                                     G.xx
ES-System           Electric supply system                       S.1
                    Gas supply system                            S.2
                    Solar energy supply system                   S.3
                    District heat system                         S.4
                    Optional                                     S.xx

It is then explained how to describe a specific system:
a) Single split room conditioner systems is classified as: E.7 + D.3 + G.3 + S.1
b) System with air cooled chiller and fan coils is classified as: E.2 + D.2 + G.1 + S.1
c) System with gas motor driven heat pump with surface cooling: E.4 + D.2 + G.5 + S.2

It can be noticed that this standard integrates in a single subsystem the generation plus the heat
rejection system that we keep separated in what follows.

In addition, the EN15243 standard gives an overview of classical system combinations according to
their CED system and more detailed design characteristics, including the ventilation means used. It
distinguishes:
1. All air systems: air is prepared centrally and distributed among the zones.
2. Water based systems: chilled water is prepared centrally and distributed in the building in terminal
units that will cool (dehumidify) the room.
3. Packaged systems: mostly terminal room air conditioners with centralized ventilation.

This system description is detailed in the part on EN standards and was discussed before in the
introduction to air conditioning systems.

Cooling generators



7
    NDLR: The difference with an air-to-air reversible split system is not evident a priori.


                                                                                                    43
                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


The main classification of (electric) cooling machines is given in the test standard EN 14511. Products
are classified according to the fluid type at their heat exchanger.

Table 1 - 21 . Classification of air conditioners by source fluids, EN 14511
              Heat transfer medium
      Outdoor heat                                                         Classification
                         Indoor heat exchanger
       exchanger
          Air                     Air                      Air/air heat pump or air cooled air conditioner
         Water                    Air                       Water/air heat pump cooled air conditioner
         Brine                    Air                   Brine/air heat pump or brine cooled air conditioner
                                                         Air/water heat pump or air cooled liquid chilling
            Air                      Water
                                                                               package
                                                          Water/water heat pump or water cooled liquid
         Water                       Water
                                                                          chilling package
                                                          Brine/water heat pump or brine cooled chilling
           Brine                     Water
                                                                               package

Specific operation conditions are defined accordingly with operating conditions that take into account
the system into which they are inserted; this standard includes either package air conditioning systems
or pieces of air conditioning systems as chillers. This classification can also be applied for gas cooling
generators.

AHU

See part on ventilation for classifications.


Circulators

To be completed


Terminal units


To be completed


Heat rejection units

To be completed


Controls

To be completed




                                                                                                        44
                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010




2. SUBTASK 1.2 - MEASUREMENT AND OTHER STANDARDS

2.1. THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS DIRECTIVE

DIRECTIVE 2002/91/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16
December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings


The Directive

The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires Member States to take a number of
actions to encourage efficient energy use in buildings. Most of these apply to the combined
performance the building and its “building technical systems” (HVAC and lighting systems).


Its impact on air-conditioning systems and their components falls into two areas:

-   Requirements that apply to the overall energy performance of buildings and their building technical
    systems. These comprise minimum performance requirements for new and refurbished buildings,
    and energy performance certification of new buildings and of existing ones when they are sold or
    let. These requirements bear only indirectly on system performance, but many of the most
    economical ways of delivering good combined “building and system” performance are by
    appropriate system design.. There are no specific performance requirements for air conditioning or
    mechanical ventilation systems within the Directive.

-   Requirements for regular inspection of existing air-conditioning systems of over 12kW cooling
    capacity. The frequency and extent of inspections is a matter for Member states. While these
    inspections can identify opportunities for improving performance by component replacement, in
    practice they focus on operational issues such as control settings and general maintenance. The
    Directive does not require the inspection of mechanical ventilation systems, though some
    countries have chosen to introduce such requirements.

The Directive leaves much of the detail of its implementation to Member States, in line with the
principles of subsidiarity and economical feasibility. Thus detailed requirements are contained in
national legislation and regulations rather than in the EPBD.

Implementation was required by Member States by 4 January 2006 with a possible 3-year extension if
there was good evidence that earlier implementation was not possible for a number of specified
possible reasons..

The Commission has set up two (sequential) EPBD Concerted Actions, at which Member States
confidentially discuss implementation experiences and problems. The second of these will finish in
September 2010 and is likely to be succeeded by a third.


The Recast

Following feedback from Member States through the Concerted Actions and other channels, and from
its own analyses, in 2009 the Commission proposed a Recast of the Directive. The European
Parliament proposed a large number of amendments, following which (as at early 2010) a
compromise text awaits consideration by the Council.

The (proposed) Recast of the Directive retains the fundamental requirements of the Directive but
clarifies and, in some cases, modifies them.




                                                                                                    45
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


In particular, it is proposed that:

-   Minimum performance requirements shall be set for new, replacement and upgraded building
    technical systems installed in existing buildings. These are to cover energy performance,
    installation, sizing, adjustment and control. The scope includes (at least) heating, hot water, air-
    conditioning, and large ventilation systems. It is not stated how these requirements should be
    defined and verified, nor what performance levels should be demanded. By implication, it seems
    to be expected that they will be, in some sense, “cost-effective”. A few countries have already
    addressed these issues as part of their national regulations implementing the EPBD.

-   The options for inspection procedures have been made more explicit and – in some areas - more
    flexible. An option is proposed for Member States to provide advice rather than have mandatory
    inspection (this was already the case for heating systems). Where inspection is retained, it is to
    include independent inspection of the “accessible parts” of the entire system at regular intervals.
    The frequency of inspection may differ according to type and size of system, taking account of
    costs and estimated savings and may be reduced where electronic monitoring and control system
    is in place. There is no need to assess sizing if no changes have been made to the system or the
    load. There is now a formal requirement for an inspection report to be issued, which must include
    recommendations for cost-effective improvements. The recommendations may be based on
    comparison with “best available system feasible and system of similar type for which all relevant
    components achieve performance levels required by applicable legislation”

-   For all inspection and certification processes covered by the Directive, there are now formal
    quality assurance requirements: Independent control mechanisms are to be established, which
    include the checking of a random selection of a statistically significant percentage of inspection
    reports.

-   The Recast is due to come into force 20 days after publication in the Official Journal, with Member
    States required to publish legislation etc 2 years from entry into force. Application is 2 ½ years
    after entry into force for most items. Among the exceptions are (revised) Minimum Performance
    Requirements, cost-optimisation calculations, and heating and air-conditioning inspections for
    non-public buildings These do not have to be implemented until 6 months later. The Directive is to
    be re-evaluated by the start of 2017.


Implementation

The Directive should have been implemented by January 2006, with some allowance deferment as
noted above. In practice, the demanding timetable, the varying degrees of existing expertise among
Member States (and, in some cases, the need for separate implementation in different regions of a
country) has resulted in different paces of implementation.

Most Member States appear to have now introduced minimum performance requirements, but these
do not always reflect differences in performance between different system types. In particular, a
number of countries have focused initially on dwellings and therefore not (yet) addressed the issues of
centralised air conditioning systems.

In virtually all countries the air conditioning inspection requirements have been one of the last parts of
the Directive to be implemented, so practical experience of this is still rather limited.


EPBD standards

Over 30 European Standards were produced in support of the EPBD under the following Technical
Committees.

TC 89 Thermal performance of buildings and building components;
TC 156 Ventilation for buildings;
TC 169 Light and lighting;
TC 228 Heating systems in buildings;


                                                                                                       46
                                                  DRAFT 11.6.2010


TC 247 Building automation, controls and building management.

ISO/TC 163 Thermal performance and energy use in the built environment. is also now working in
these areas
The majority of the standards published by CEN/TC 89 are also global standards, either prepared
under CEN/TC 89 lead or under ISO/TC 163 lead. (European standards prepared in cooperation with
ISO are designated “EN ISO XXX”.)


2.2. EUROPEAN STANDARDS FOR VENTILATION SYSTEMS

The part summarizes and gives detail of the most relevant existing standards for ventilation systems.
The table below gives an overview of the standards discussed.

Table 1 - 22 . Overview of EN design - performance - and test standards on Ventilation

                                                                         Building type
       Purpose of
      EN standard
                                               Residential                                        Non residential

      Criteria for
                                                                        EN 15251: 2007
  Indoor Environment

      Design and
     dimensioning                        CEN/TR 14788 : 2006                                      EN 13779 : 2007
 of ventilation systems
       Determining
   performance criteria
                                            EN 15665 : 2009
  residential ventilation
         systems

                                                                       EN 15242 : 2007
      Calculation
    Ventilation rates
                                            EN 13465 : 2004


      Calculation
                                                                       EN 15241 : 2007
   Ventilation energy


       Rating and
                                          prEN 13142 Rev V7                                       EN 13053 : 2006
      performance
                             on components/products for residential ventilation                  on air handling units
     characteristics

                            EN 13141-1 / air transfer devices
                                                                                  EN 1886:2007 / Mech. performance air handling
                            EN 13141-2 / exh. & supply air terminal devices
                                                                                  units
                                                                                  ISO 5801:1997/ Industrial fans, performance testing
                            EN 13141-4 / fans
                                                                                  ISO 12248 / Ind.fans, tolerances& conversion
                            EN 13141-5 / cowls and roof outlets                   methods
                            EN 13141-6 / exh. ventilation system packages         ISO 5221 / Methods for measuring air flow rates
  Performance testing       EN 13141-7 / mech. supply & exh units + HR for        ISO 5136 / Acoustics, induct radiated sound power
  of components and         dwellings                                             level
        products            EN 13141-8 / mech. supply & exh units + HR for        ISO 3746 / Acoustics, casing radiated sound power
                            rooms                                                 level
                            EN 13141-9      / ext. mounted RV-controlled air      EN 1751 / Aerodynamic testing of dampers & valves
                            transf. device
                                                                                  EN 1216 / Performance testing heating/cooling coils
                            EN 13141-10 / hum. controlled extract air terminal
                                                                                  EN 779 / Determination of filtration performance
                            device
                                                                                  EN 308 / Performance testing air-to-air HR-devices
                            EN 13141-11 / positive pressure ventilation systems




                                                                                                                          47
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



      Inspection of                                                        EN 12599 : 2000 (for AC : 2002)
                                         EN 14134
    installed systems                                                        (standard is under revision)




2.2.4.   Criteria for Indoor Environment

EN 15251:2007

Full title: Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of
buildings, addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics.
June 2007
This European Standard describes the indoor environmental parameters which have an impact on the
energy performance of buildings, being: indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics.
As such, this standard:
    - specifies how to establish indoor environmental input parameters for building system design
        and energy performance calculations
    - specifies methods for long term evaluation of the indoor environment obtained as a result of
        calculations or measurements
    - specifies criteria for measurements that can be used if required to measure compliance by
        inspection
    - specifies how different categories of criteria for indoor environment can be used (but is does
        not require certain criteria to be used; this is up to national regulations or individual project
        specifications)
    - does not include criteria for local discomfort factors (like draught, radiant temperature
        asymmetry, vertical temperature gradient and floor surface temperatures).
This standard is applicable mainly in non-industrial buildings where criteria for indoor environment are
set by human occupancy and where production processes does not have a major impact on indoor
environment. The standard is thus applicable to the following building types:
    - single family houses
    - apartment buildings
    - offices
    - educational buildings
    - health care buildings
    - hotels and restaurants
    - sports facilities
    - wholesale and retail trade service buildings

This standard is very important because it gives a fairly detailed description of what is considered an
acceptable or good indoor air quality (IAQ) and how it can be achieved. Where most of the national
building codes go no further than descriptions like “the ventilation system must be able to achieve an
IAQ that is not detrimental to the health of the inhabitants” , followed by requirements to the installed
air exchange capacity of the ventilation system, this standard is a first European Standard that
specifies the actual IAQ goal that is behind the requested air exchanges. For the purpose of
Ecodesign Legislation and related energy declaration this is crucial because – as formulated in the
introduction of this standard – “an energy declaration without a declaration related to the IAQ makes
no sense”

Informative Annex B
Informative Annex B of this standard gives methods for specifying ventilation rates for IAQ-classes and
different types of buildings.
Section B.1 of this Annex gives recommended design ventilation rates for non-residential buildings.
Section B.2 of the Annex describes the recommended design ventilation rates for residential buildings
The following tables give an overview of the recommended ventilation rates for different IAQ-
categories.

Recommended ventilation rates non residential buildings




                                                                                                       48
                                                       DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1.2.2-1 Examples of recommended ventilation rates for non-residential buildings for three categories of pollution
from buildings itself. Rates are given per person (for diluting bio effluents from people) and per m2 floor area (for
dilution of buildings emissions) (acc. Table B.3 of annex B).
                               Airflow for dilution bio                     Airflow for dilution building emissions
                                      effluents
     IAQ category
                                  Airflow per person          Very low polluting      Low polluting building    Non low polluting
                                         l/s/pp                   building                   l/s/m2                 building
                                                                    l/s/m2                                           l/s/m2

            I                             10                          0,5                         1                        2
           II                             7                          0,35                      0,7                      1,4
           III                            4                           0,2                      0,4                      0,8

Table 1.2.2-2 Examples of recommended ventilation rates for different types of non-residential buildings with default
occupancy density for three categories of pollution from buildings itself. If smoking is allowed the last column gives
the additional required ventilation rates (acc. Table B.2 of annex B).

   Type of         IAQ            Floor          qp        qB        qtot        qB         qtot       qB        qtot            Add
  building or    category         area                                                                                          when
    space                           in                                                                                         smoking
                                                  for       For very low-       For low-polluting       For non low-
                                              occupancy   polluting building         building         polluting building
                                    2                 2               2                     2                     2                     2
                                  m /pp         l/s/m           l/s/m                 l/s/m                 l/s/m               l/s/m

 Single office            I         10           1,0       0,5        1,5        1,0        2,0        2,0        3,0            0,7
                         II         10           0,7       0,3        1.0        0.7        1.4        1.4        2.1            0.5
                         III        10           0,4       0.2        0.6        0.4        0.8        0.8        1.2            0.3
 Land-                    I         15           0,7       0.5        1.2        1.0        1.7        2.0        2.7            0.7
 scaped
 office                  II         15           0,5       0.3        0.8        0.7        1.2        1.4        1.9            0.5
                         III        15           0,3       0.2        0.5        0.4        0.7        0.8        1.1            0.3
 Conference               I         2            5,0       0.5        5.5        1.0        6.0        2.0        7.0            5.0
 room
                         II         2            3,5       0.3        3.8        0.7        4.2        1.4        4.9            3.6
                         III        2            2,0       0.2        2.2        0.4        2.4        0.8        2.8            2.0
 Auditorium               I        0,75          15        0.5       15.5        1.0         16        2.0        17
                         II        0,75         10,5       0.3       10.8        0.7        11.2       1.4       11.9
                         III       0,75          6,0       0.2        6.2        0.4        6.4        0.8        6.8
 Restaurant               I        1,5           7,0       0.5        7.5        1.0        8.0        2.0        9.0
                         II        1,5           4,9       0.3        5.2        0.7        5.6        1.4        6.3            5.0
                         III       1,5           2,8       0.2        3.0        0.4        3.2        0.8        3.6            2.8
 Class room               I        2,0           5,0       0.5        5.5        1.0        6.0        2.0        7.0
                         II        2,0           3,5       0.3        3.8        0.7        4.2        1.4        4.9
                         III       2,0           2,0       0.2        2.2        0.4        2.4        0.8        2.8
 Kindergarten             I        2,0           6,0       0.5        6.5        1.0        7.0        2.0        8.0
                         II        2,0           4,2       0.3        4.5        0.7        4.9        1.4        5.8
                         III       2,0           2,4       0.2        2.6        0.4        2.8        0.8        3.2
 Department               I         7            2,1       1.0        3.1        2.0        4.1        3.0        5.1
 store
                         II         7            1,5       0.7        2.2        1.4        2.9        2.1        3.6
                         III        7            0,9       0.4        1.3        0.8        1.7        1.2        2.1

where               qp         = ventilation rate for occupancy (bio effluents) in [l/s/m2]
                    qB         = ventilation rate for emissions from building in [l/s/m2]



                                                                                                                                    49
                                                    DRAFT 11.6.2010


                     qtot     = total ventilation rate of the room in [l/s/m2]

Explanation
The values in the table are based on complete mixing in the room (concentration of pollutants is equal
in exhaust and in occupied zone). Ventilation rates can be adjusted according to the ventilation
efficiency if the performance of air distribution differs from complete mixing and can be reliably proven
(EN 13779). The ventilation required for smoking is based on the assumption that 20% of the
occupants are smokers and smoke 1,2 cigarettes per hour. For a higher rate of smoking, the
ventilation rates should be increased proportionally. The ventilation rates for smoking are based on
comfort, not on health criteria.

Low-polluting building
A building is called low-polluting or very low-polluting, when the majority of building materials used for
finishing the interior surfaces meet the national of international criteria of low-polluting or very low-
polluting materials. See the example in Annex C of this standard.

CO2 concentrations
The required ventilation rates can also be calculated based on a mass balance equation for the CO2
concentratio (acc EN 13779) taking into account the outdoor CO2 concentration. Recommended
criteria for the CO2 – calculation are given in table 1.2.2.3 (see below). The listed CO2 values can also
be used for demand controlled ventilation. If the ventilation rate is controlled automatically (DCV) the
maximum design ventilation rate has to correspond to the calculated maximum concentration of
pollutant.

Table 1.2.2-3 Examples of recommended CO2 concentrations above outdoor concentrations for energy calculations
and demand control (acc. Table B.4 of annex B)


         IAQ category                              Corresponding CO2 concentration above outdoors
                                                            in PPM for energy calculations
                I                                                                350
                II                                                               500
               III                                                               800
               IV                                                                > 800



Recommended ventilation rates residential buildings

The recommendations in annex B for residential ventilations relate to both the direction of the
ventilation air flow and the ventilation rate.

Air flow direction
It is recommended that all habitable rooms of a dwelling (living room, bedrooms, study etc.) are
directly supplied with fresh air from outside, and that polluted air in wet room or utility rooms
(bathroom, kitchen, toilets) are directly expelled to the outdoor atmosphere. Common spaces (corridor,
staircase, etc) may be ventilated with overflow air from the habitable rooms, meaning that air is
transferred from the living spaces to the common spaces and then expelled through the wet or utility
rooms. This ultimately means that the supply air for the wet rooms is the exhaust air from the habitable
rooms, after having passed the common spaces.
(Some national regulation consider the overall ventilation rate in the building (air changes per hour or
ach.), while others emphasize the minimum fresh air supply into the habitable rooms. This addition
allows for a better control of the indoor air quality in the rooms where the real occupation is).


Recommended Air flow rates (in case of overflow principle)
Table 1.2.2-4 Example of ventilation rates for residences (assuming complete mixing and at continuous operation of
ventilation during occupied hours) (acc. Table B.5 of annex B)
  Category           Total air exchange rate            Air exchange rate                Related exhaust airflow
                              house                      habitable rooms                    from wet rooms
                                                   (living, bedrooms, study)



                                                                                                                   50
                                                    DRAFT 11.6.2010


                           2                                                 2
                    Per m          Ach              Per person       Per m             Kitchen    Bathroom        Toilet
                   dwelling     (at ceiling              2              3                4a          4b            4c
                       1         height of           [l/s/pp]       [l/s/m2]            [l/s]       [l/s]         [l/s]
                   [l/s/m2]       2,5m)

      I             0,49           0,7                 10             1,4                28         20             14
      II            0,42           0,6                  7             1,0                20         15             10
     III            0,35           0,5                  4             0,6                14         10              7

Example of procedure for determining ventilation rates
1. Calculate total ventilation rate dwelling based on
       a. Total floor area dwelling (column 1)
       b. Number of occupants or total surface of all habitable rooms (column 2 or 3)
2. Select the higher value from above a) of b) for the total ventilation rate of the dwelling
3. Adjust the exhaust air flows from the kitchen, bathroom and toilets (column 4) accordingly
4. Outdoor air should be supplied primarily to habitable rooms



Recommended ventilation rates during un-occupied hours

For Non-Residential Buildings, an outdoor air flow equivalent to 2 air volumes of the ventilated space
shall be delivered to the space before occupancy (e.g. if the ventilation rate is 2 ach, the ventilation is
started one hour before the occupancy). Infiltration can be calculated as a part of this ventilation
(leakage assumptions must be described).
Instead of pre-start of the ventilation system, buildings can be ventilated during unoccupied periods
with lower ventilation rates than during occupied hours. The minimum ventilation rate shall be defined
based on building type and pollution load of the spaces. A minimum value of 0,1 to 0,2 l/s/m2 is
recommended if national requirements are not available.

For residential buildings a ventilation rate between 0,05 and 0,1 l/s/m2 is recommended if no value is
given on a national level.


Recommended criteria for (de-)humidification

If humidification or dehumidification is used, the values in the table below are recommended as design
values. Usually (de-)humidification is needed only in special buildings like museums, some health care
facilities, process control, paper industry etc.

Table 1.2.2-5 Example of recommended design criteria for the humidity in occupied spaces if (de-) humidification
systems are installed (acc table B.6 annex B)


          Type of                     Category                   Design limit value RH for       Design limit value RH
      building/space                                                dehumidification              for humidification
                                                                          in [%]                        in [%]
 Spaces where humidity                         I                                 50                          30
 criteria are set by human
 occupancy                                    II                                 60                          25
 (Special      spaces   (e.g.                 III                                70                          20
 museums)       may   require
 other limits)                                IV                                 >70                        <20




Informative Annex E
For the design of ventilation systems, the required maximum allowable sound levels shall be specified
in the design documents based on national requirements. If these are not available the recommended
values listed in this standard (Annex E) may be applied if appropriate. Noise from the ventilation (or
HVAC-) system may disturb the occupants and prevent the intended use. The noise in a space can be
evaluated using A-weighted equivalent sound pressure.


                                                                                                                           51
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


The table below is based on noise from service equipment and not on outside noise. These figures
should be used to limit the sound pressure level from mechanical equipment and to set sound
insulation requirements for the noise from adjacent rooms and buildings
Table 1 - 23 . Examples of recommended design A-weighted sound pressure levels (EN 15251, Table E.1,
annex E)
                                                                 Sound pressure level [dB{A}]
           Building              Type of space
                                                          Typical range           Default design value
 Residential               Living room                         25 to 40                   32
                           Bed room                            20 to 35                   26
 Child care institutions   Nursery schools                     30 to 45                   40
                           Day nurseries                       30 to 45                   40
 Places of assembly        Auditoriums                         30 to 35                   33
                           Libraries                           28 to 35                   30
                           Cinemas                             30 to 35                   33
                           Court rooms                         30 to 40                   35
                           Museums                             28 to 35                   30
 Commercial                Retail shops                        35 to 50                   40
                           Department stores                   40 to 50                   45
                           Supermarkets                        40 to 50                   45
                           Computer rooms, large               40 to 60                   50
                           Computer rooms small                40 to 50                   45
 Hospitals                 Corridors                           35 to 45                   40
                           Operating theatres                  30 to 48                   40
                           Wards                               25 to 35                   30
                           Bedrooms night time                 20 to 35                   30
                           Bedrooms daytime                    25 to 40                   30
 Hotels                    Lobbies                             30 to 45                   40
                           Reception rooms                     30 to 45                   40
                           Hotel rooms night rime              25 to 35                   30
                           Hotel rooms daytime                 30 to 40                   35
 Offices                   Small offices                       30 to 40                   35
                           Conference rooms                    30 to 40                   35
                           Landscaped offices                  35 to 45                   40
                           Office cubicles                     35 to 45                   40
 Restaurants               Cafeterias                          35 to 50                   40
                           Restaurants                         35 to 50                   45
                           Kitchens                            40 to 60                   55
 Schools                   Classrooms                          30 to 40                   35
                           Corridors                           35 to 50                   40
                           Gymnasiums                          35 to 45                   40
                           Teacher rooms                       30 to 40                   35
 Sport                     Covered sport stadiums              35 to 50                   45
                           Swimming baths                      40 to 50                   45
 General                   Toilets                             40 to 50                   45
                           Cloakrooms                          40 to 50                   45




           2.2.5. Design and dimensioning of ventilation systems

EN 13779 : 2007




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Full title: Ventilation for non-residential buildings; Performance requirements for ventilation and room-
conditioning systems.
May 2007

This standard provides guidance especially for designers, building owners and users, on ventilation,
air-conditioning and room conditioning systems in order to achieve a comfortable and healthy indoor
environment in all seasons with acceptable installation and running costs. The standard focuses on
the system-aspects for typical applications and covers the following:
     1. Aspects important to achieve and maintain a good energy performance in the systems,
        without any negative impact on the quality of the internal environment
     2. Relevant parameters of the indoor environment
     3. Definitions of data design assumptions and performances
(Natural ventilation systems are not covered by this standard).

The standard applies to the design and implementation of mechanical ventilation and room
conditioning systems for non-residential buildings subject to human occupancy (excluding applications
like industrial processes). It focuses on the definitions of the various parameters that are relevant for
such systems.


Where EN 15251 gives general guidance related to indoor environmental design criteria, this standard
focuses on the design criteria for mechanical ventilation and room conditioning systems for non-
residential buildings. As such it contains more detailed design criteria for the ventilation systems that
are topic of this study.
Chapter 5 of this standard describes what type of information & design specifications are necessary to
be able to design a proper ventilation and/or air-conditioning system.
Chapter 6 deals with classification of the various design parameters, making is more easy to specify
what quality is requested for the different IAQ- and system performance parameters.
Finally chapter 7 explains how these performance parameters can be met and on what design
assumptions it is founded. (Most of these classifications and design assumptions are also described in
paragraph 1.1.3 of this report)

Informative Annex A
Informative Annex A of this standard contains “Guidelines for Good Practice”. This annex reveals a lot
of detailed and practical information useful for the design of mechanical ventilation and/or air-
conditioning systems for buildings subject to human occupancy. The Guideline for Good Practice gives
guidance concerning the following topics:

A.2 Intake and exhaust openings
This paragraph of the annex contains guidelines for:
    - classification of the extract or exhaust air (ETA1, ETA2, ETA3 and ETA4)
    - the location of air intake openings
    - the location of the exhaust openings (airflow rate, air velocity, distance to adjacent buildings,
        etc)
    - distance between intake and exhaust openings (among others: dilution factor f ≤ 0,01, with
        f = √ qv / ( C1 x l + C2 x ∆h ) )
        where:
        f      = dilution factor
        qv     = discharge airflow rate in [l/s]
        l      = length of a direct line between inlet and outlet provision in [m]
        ∆h     = difference in height between inlet and outlet provision in [m]
        C1, C2 = dilution coefficients, depending on situation


A.3 Outdoor air quality considerations and the use of air filters
A.3.1 Contains proposal for a method on how to classify the outdoor air quality (see table with
       examples of key air pollutants and their guideline values)

Table 1 - 24 . Key outdoor air pollutants
Pollutant                       Averaging time           Guideline value               Source



                                                                                                      53
                                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010


Sulphur dioxide SO2                           24 h                        125 µg/m3                      WHO 1999
                                                                                      3
Sulphur dioxide SO2                          1 year                       50 µg/m                        WHO 1999
                                                                                      3
Ozone O3                                       8h                         120 µg/m                       WHO 1999
                                                                                      3
Nitrogen dioxide NO2                         1 year                       40 µg/m                        WHO 1999
                                                                                      3
Nitrogen dioxide NO2                           1h                         200 µg/m                       WHO 1999
                                                                      3
Paticulate matter PM10                        24 h            50 µg/m (max 35 days exceeding)            99/30/EC
                                                                                      3
Paticulate matter PM10                       1 year                       40 µg/m                        99/30/EC

           Step 1. Determine key pollutants
           Step 2 Search for available actual and periodical measurement data of outdoor AQ (see
           http://air-climate.eionet.europa.eu/databases/airbase/ )
           Step 3. Classify pertaining outdoor air

A.3.2      Gives recommendations for the filter classes to be used on the basis of the actual outdoor AQ
           and the requested indoor AQ.
Table 1 - 25 . Recommended minimum filter classes
                                                                     Indoor Air Quality
Outdoor Air Quality
                                           IDA 1 (High)        IDA 2 (Medium)         IDA 3 (Moderate)    IDA 4 (Low)
ODA 1 (pure air)                                 F9                 F8                      F7                 F5
ODA 2 (dust)                                  F7 + F9             F6 + F8                 F5 + F7           F5 + F6
ODA 3 (very high conc.of dust or
                                          F7 + GF + F9         F7 + GF + F9               F5 + F7           F5 + F6
gases)
GF = Gas Filter (Carbon filter and/or chemical filter)

A.4 Heat recovery: pressure conditions to avoid contaminant transfer
This part of the annex gives information on the preferred arrangement of fans in a mechanical
ventilation unit with heat recovery, for the purpose of achieving the right pressure conditions in the unit
to avoid contaminant transfer from the extract air channel to the supply air channel.


A.5 Removal of extract air
This paragraph gives guidelines on how extract air should be removed from a building depending the
extract air qualities. Ducts should be designed and maintained in accordance with EN 12097, and
removed from the building in accordance with the following requirements:

Table 1 - 26 . Recommendations on removal of extract air
 ETA category              Ducts
 ETA 1                     Extract are can be collected into a common ducts

 ETA 2                     Extract are can be collected into a common ducts

 ETA 3                     Extract air is conducted through individual ducts or common ducts from different spaces
                           with same EAT category
 ETA 4                     Extract air is conducted to the outdoors through individual extract air ducts

Paragraph A.5 also recommends extract air rates from kitchens and hygiene rooms in case no
national guidelines are available.

Table 1 - 27 . Design values for air extract rates
 Kind if use                                                  Typical range                         Default value for design
 Kitchen

      -     simple use (e.g. kitchen for hot drinks)                       > 20 l/s                             30 l/s



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                                                      DRAFT 11.6.2010



      -     professional use                                      To be determined in situ               To be determined in situ
 Toilet/Washroom*

      -     per closet or urinal                                            > 6,7 l/s                               15 l/s

      -     per floor area                                                  > 1,4 l/s                                3 l/s

 *   In use for at least 50% of the time. With shorter running times higher rates are needed. Lower values are possible with direct air
     extract at the closet (typical value: 3 to l l/s per closet or urinal)




A.6 Re-use of extract air and the use of transfer air.
In case the ventilation system is combined with an air- heating of cooling system, recirculation of air is
an important design parameter. Based on the classification of exhaust and extract air, the following re-
use of the air is recommended:

Table 1 - 28 . Design values for air extract rates
 ETA category                Comment concerning the possible re-use of the air
 ETA 1                       This air is suitable for recirculation and transfer air

 ETA 2                       This air is not suitable for recirculation, but it can be used for transfer air into toilets, wash
                             rooms, garages and other similar places
 ETA 3
                             This air is not suitable for recirculation or transfer air

 ETA 4
                             This air is not suitable for recirculation or transfer air




A.7 Thermal insulation of the system
Guideline: All ducts, pipes and units with a significant temperature difference between the medium and
the surrounding should be insulated against heat transfer, in a way that:
    - condensation does not occur in the construction itself nor on the surface
    - the insulation is protected against damage
    - proper cleaning of ducts is still possible
    - production and disposal causes as little harm to the environment as possible


A.8 Air-tightness of the system
This paragraph gives guidance to the design, the classification and testing of the air tightness of the
ventilation system.
The air-tightness class of a ventilation system should be selected so that neither infiltration into an
installation operating at negative pressure, nor exfiltration from an installation operating at positive
pressure, exceeds a defined percentage of the total system flow rate under operating conditions (this
percentage should normally be less than 2%, corresponding class B according to EN 12237 and EN
1507).
Guidance for estimating leakage rates and its influence on air flows and energy consumption is
presented in EN 15242 and EN 15241.


A.9 Airitightness of the building
The air tightness of the building should be suitable for the kind of ventilation system installed.
Buildings with balanced ventilation systems (mechanical supply and extract air) should be as airtight
as possible with a nL50-value below 1,0 /h for high buildings (above 3 stories) and below 2,0 /h in case


                                                                                                                                55
                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010


of low buildings. The method to measure nL50-values is specifi9ed in ISO 9972 or EN13829. The
values given here describe the overall air tightness of the building structure. Accordingly all windows,
doors and intentional openings as well as supply and extract air vents should be closed during such
measurements.


A.10 Pressure conditions within the system and the building
The relative pressure within the building, the different spaces and the ventilation system should be
designed so that spreading of odours and impurities in unallowable concentrations is prevented.

In the Building
In situations with no special requirements or emissions, ventilation systems should be designed for
neutal pressure conditions in the building. The pressure difference from indoors to outdoors or
between rooms should not exceed 20 Pa.
In areas where expected outdoor pollution is high (ODA2 to ODA3) or in areas where under pressure
can cause increased concentration of e.g. radon, the under pressure indoors should be designed to a
minimum. Alternatively the building should be designed for slight overpressure (in severe climates it
must be checked that internal overpressure doesn’t cause moisture damage).
High-rise buildings should be divided into separate ventilation zones with a specified maximum height.
The vertical distance (D) between the lowest and the highest intake in the same zone should not
exceed the following: Dmax        = 600 / ( θa - θout;min ), where
         Dmax     = the maximal vertical distance in [m]
         θa       = the air temperature in the room in [°C]
         θout;min = is the design outdoor temperature for winter condition in [°C]

Alternatively, the systems can be equipped with constant flow dampers or similar devices, which
automatically compensate for the stack effect.

In the Air Handling Unit (AHU)
Pressure drops for filters and filtersections, for dampers, damper sections and mixing sections in air
handling units should be specified in accordance with EN 13053. For systems with variable airflow,
additional requirements are specified for a) maximum variation for pressure difference and the ratio of
exhaust and supply airflows, and b) pressure monitoring.
The influence of variations of pressure drop on the airflows, due to pollution (e.g. dust accumulation)
or different damper positions, should be determined and estimated. No significant changes in the
airflows (generally not more than ± 10% of the total supply or exhaust airflow) or to the pressure
conditions in the building should be allowed due to changes in the pressure drops in the AHU and the
system.



A.11 Demand controlled ventilation
Practical experience shows that adapting the ventilation to the actual requirements can very often
substantially reduce the energy consumption.
In situations with variable demand, the ventilation system can be operated in such a way that given
criteria in the room are met. In rooms for the occupancy of people, the following sensors can be
adopted fro ventilation control according actual demand:
     - movement sensors
     - counting sensors
     - CO2 sensors
     - mixed gas sensors
     - infrared sensors
In rooms with known emissions, the concentration of the most important pollutant can be used as input
signal. Further information and references are available in prEN 15232.
But also more simple methods are available to adjust the ventilation according demand, amongst
which:
     - manual switch
     - combination with light switch
     - time controlled switch
     - switch at the window


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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010




A.12 Low power consumption
The specific fan power SFP depends on the pressure drop, the efficiency of the fan and the design of
the motor. The pressure drop of components in the system should be as low as practicable to meet
the performance requirements of the system.
In the table below examples of pressure drops are given; these figures may be used as default values
if such data is not available (real product data is of course preferred).
Annex D of this standard EN13779 gives further guidance for assessing the power efficiency of fans
and air handling units.

Table 1 - 29 . Examples for pressure drops for specific components in air handling systems (acc. table A.8
of EN13779)
                                                                   Pressure losses in [Pa]
 Component
                                                   Low                    Normal                  High
 Ductwork supply                                   200                      300                       600
 Ductwork exhaust                                  100                      200                       300
 Heating coil                                       40                       80                       100
 Cooling coil                                      100                      140                       200
                         1)
 Heat recovery unit H3                             100                      150                       250
 Heat recovery unit H2 – H1 1)                     200                      300                       400
 Humidifier                                         50                      100                       150
 Air washer                                        100                      200                       300
 Air filter F5 – F7 per section 2)                 100                      150                       250
                                  2)
 Air filter F8 – F9 per section                    150                      250                       400
 HEPA filter                                       400                      500                       700
 Gas filter                                        100                      150                       250
 Silencer                                           30                       50                       80
 Terminal device                                    30                       50                       100
 Air inlet and outlet                               20                       50                       70
 1)
      Class H1 – H3 according to EN 13053
 2)
      Final pressure drop before replacement




A.13 Space requirements for components and systems
This paragraph gives initial guidance for the space requirements necessary to facilitate easy cleaning,
maintenance and repair operations.



A.14 Hygienic and technical aspects to installation and maintenance
Al components installed in a ventilation system and room conditioning system should be suitable, i.e.
corrosion resistant, easy to clean, accessible and hygienically unobjectionable. Moreover, they should
not encourage the growth of micro-organisms.
The basic requirements for ductwork components to facilitate maintenance are given in EN12097. But
this standard also applied to all ductwork components and other equipment of ventilation systems.


A.15 Ventilation rates for indoor air
This paragraph gives guidelines for minimum ventilation rates.

Table 1 - 30 . Rates of outdoor or transferred air per unit floor area (net area) for rooms not designed for
human occupancy
                                                                                                 2
                                                    Rate of outdoor or transferred air in [ l/s/m ]
              IDA Category
                                                   Typical range                         Default value



                                                                                                            57
                                                   DRAFT 11.6.2010


                  IDA 1                                         *)                                      *)
                  IDA 2                                       > 0,7                                    0,83
                  IDA 3                                    0,35 – 0,7                                  0,55
                  IDA 4                                       < 0,35                                   0,28
 *) For IDA 1 this method is not sufficient


Outdoor air rates by CO2 level
CO2 levels may be used for the design of a demand controlled system. Typical ranges and default
values are in the table below

Table 1 - 31 . CO2-levels in rooms

                                                          CO2 level above level of outdoor air in [ppm]
             IDA Category
                                                          Typical range                            Default value
                  IDA 1                                       ≤ 400                                    350
                  IDA 2                                    400 - 600                                   500
                  IDA 3                                    600 – 1000                                  800
                  IDA 4                                       > 1000                                   1200
See also paragraph 1.1.5.4


Outdoor air rates per person
The table below presents recommended minimum air rates per person.


Table 1 - 32 . Rates of outdoor air per personCO2-levels in rooms

                                                                     Rate of outdoor air per person
             IDA Category
                                                    Non-smoking area                          Smoking area
                                              Typical range          Default value    Typical range          Default value
                  IDA 1                           >15                     20              > 30                     40
                  IDA 2                         10 – 15                  12,5            20 – 30                   25
                  IDA 3                          6 – 10                   8              12 – 30                   16
                  IDA 4                           <6                      5               < 12                     10




A.16 Acoustic environment
See Table 1.2.2-6 “Examples of recommended design A-weighted sound pressure levels”



A.17 Internal loads
This paragraph gives information about the heat load caused by persons, lighting and equipment. For
the design of HVAC Systems it is essential to clearly define realistic internal loads with their time
schedule.
An overestimation of internal loads may result in unnecessary high investment and running costs,
whilst an underestimation may result in too high room temperatures in the cooling season.




Informative Annex D
This annex describes a method for assessing the electric power consumption of fans and air handling
units (AHU) in ventilation systems for buildings.


                                                                                                                        58
                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010



D.2 SFP of an entire building
The SFP for an entire building is defined as follows: “The combined amount of electric power,
consumed by all he fans in the air distribution system divided by the total airflow rate through the
building under design load conditions in [W/m3/s] :

         SFP      = ( Psf + Pef ) / qmax
Where
         SFP      =   specific fan power demand in [W/m3/s]
         Psf      =   the total fan power of the supply air fans at the design air flow rate in [W]
         Pef      =   the total fan power of the extract air fans at the design air flow rate in [W]
         qmax     =   the design airflow rate through the building, which should be the extract air flow in
[m3/s]

Design load condition is the condition when the filter drop is the average of the clean filter and
recommended maximum (dirty filter) pressure drops. Also the pressure drops for other components
(heat exchanger, cooling coil, humidifier) is the mean of start- and end values.


D.3 SFP of individual air handling units or fans (SFPE)
To enable the designers of building projects to quickly determine whether a given air handling unit will
comply with the requirements on power efficiency, a SPFE for the individual fan or AHU has been
defined.
In a constant air volume flow system, the demands on SPFE shall be met at the design airflow and at
design external pressure drop (pressure drop in ducting). In a variable air volume flow system, the
demands on SPFE shall be met at the partial air flow and the related external pressure drop. If data on
partial air flow rate and related external pressure is not specified, 65% of the maximum design airflow
rate and external pressure will be used.
The specific fan power, SPFE is the total amount of electric power in W, supplied to the fans in the
AHU, divided by the largest of either supply air or extract air flow rates (i.e. not the outdoor air or the
exhaust air flow rates) expressed in [m3/s] under design load conditions.

         D.3.2 SFP of heat recovery AHU:
         SFPE     = ( Psfm + Pefm ) / qmax
Where
         SFPE     =   specific fan power of a heat recovery AHU in [W/m3/s]
         Psfm     =   the total fan power of the supply air fans at the design air flow rate in [W]
         Pefm     =   the total fan power of the extract air fans at the design air flow rate in [W]
         qmax     =   the design airflow rate through the AHU (largest of supply or extract air flow rate) in
[m3/s]


         D.3.3 SFP of separate supply air or extract air handling units (AHU’s) and individual fans
         SFPE     = Pmains   /   q
Where
         SFPE     = specific fan power of the AHU / fan in [W/m3/s]
         Pmains   = the power supplied to the fans in the AHU in [W]
         q        = the design airflow rate through the AHU / fan in [m3/s]


CEN/TR 14788:2006

Full title: Ventilation for buildings – Design and dimensioning or residential ventilation systems.
April 2006

This Technical Report specifies recommendations for the performance and design of ventilation
systems which serve singe family, multi family and apartment type dwellings, both during summer and
winter. It is of particular interest to architects, designers, builders and those involved with implementing
national, regional and local regulations and standards.



                                                                                                          59
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Four basic ventilation strategies are covered: natural ventilation, fan assisted supply air ventilation, fan
assisted exhaust air ventilation and fan assisted balanced air ventilation, including combinations of
these systems.
The Technical Report describes in detail the need for ventilation in dwellings (Chapter 5) and the
design assumptions that need to be specified in order top be able to design a proper working
ventilation system (Chapter 6) , such as air-tightness of the building, outdoor meteorological
conditions, pollutant level outdoors, outdoor noise levels, noise characteristics of the building, etc.
Chapter 7 deals with the performance requirements for ventilation systems and represents - together
with Chapter 8 that covers the design rules for ventilation systems - the core of this Technical Report
on residential systems. The key elements of these two chapters will be summarized here.

§ 7.1 Ventilation air volume rate
General
For all residential ventilation systems it is necessary to specify ventilation air volume flow rates such
that assumed or predicted concentrations of certain known indoor pollutants are not exceeded. The
ventilation air volume flow rate is specified in many different ways in the regulations and standards of
different countries and unfortunately this TR does not give an overview of the different national
regulations, nor does it give the common denominator of these national regulations. However, this
Technical Report (TR) does describe a method of establishing the required ventilation air volume flow
rate by calculation, using pollutant production rates and defined indoor and outdoor air conditions.
Examples of the ventilation air flow rates resulting from such calculations are given in Annex F of this
TR.

Pollutant groups
The most common pollutants occurring in dwellings may be grouped into three different groups which
can lead to different but complementary ventilations strategies:

Group of background pollutants
The first type includes a large number of pollutants emitted by materials, furnishings and products
used in the dwelling. They are generally not perceivable by the occupants and their sources are at a
relatively low but continuous rate.
The second type includes metabolic products from occupants mainly represented by water vapor and
carbon dioxide from respiration, and odours.

Group of specific pollutants
This group is mainly represented by water vapor, carbon dioxide and odours. Their production is
related to specific human activities in the dwelling such as cooking, washing, bathing etc. whose
duration is relatively short, resulting in high pollutant production in a specific location of the dwelling.

Group of combustions products
Combustion products from fuel burning appliances for space and water heating, the most dangerous
of which is carbon monoxide. These should be dealt with by a chimney or flue system which carries
the pollutant directly to the outside.

Ventilation strategies
One of the following two ventilation strategies is normally used:
Either a continuous and normally constant ventilation air flow rate is provided and deals with both the
specific and the background pollutants together. Or a continuous (relatively low) background
ventilation air flow rate is provided to deal with the background pollutants, together with a higher
intermittently operated ventilation air flow rate in the rooms with the high specific pollutant production.
This intermittent operation may be controlled manually (by the occupant), or automatically by suitable
sensors.



Direction of the airflow
If the ventilation system allows for air transfer between rooms, the direction of this air flow between
rooms should be from low polluting rooms to activity rooms. Air should be supplied and extracted in
such a way as to restrict the movement of air from activity rooms to low pollution rooms. Low pollution
rooms therefore usually have an outside air supply, whilst activity rooms have an air extract device.


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                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


This intended air flow direction between rooms must be achieved with windows and all doors closed,
meaning that air transfer openings between rooms are necessary to achieve the design air flow rates.

Energy
The main purpose of a residential ventilation system is to provide adequate indoor air quality for the
occupants and to protect the dwelling fabric from damage due to high indoor humidity. It is desirable to
minimize the effect on energy consumption by a ventilation system (heat load, cool load, electrical
consumption) but it is important that this strive for energy savings does not adversely affect the IAQ.
Ventilation systems may be controllable (e.g. running time and/or flow rate) to eliminate or reduce the
occurrence of high ventilation air flow rates when they are not needed. The control can be automatic
(DCV) or manual. It is possible to use automatic controls which ensure ventilation is provided where
and when occupants actually need it. For activity rooms (e.g. bathrooms, kitchens) the ventilation
demand is best evaluated on bases of the relative humidity instead of presence or occupancy.


§ 8. Design rules for residential ventilation systems
General
The design process of residential ventilation systems consists of the five following basic steps:
   i)      specify the required design assumptions according to chapter 6
   ii)     determine the design performance requirements in accordance with chapter 7
   iii)    select the ventilation strategy (natural, mechanical) and control strategy (automatic,
           manual, continuous, intermittent)
   iv)     plan the layout of the system (locations air supply, transfer and extract devices
   v)      determine size and performance specifications of all components involved

System layout
Each low pollution (habitable) room should be equipped with at least one fresh air supply device.
Precautions should be taken to ensure that the source of the outside air is not contaminated due to the
proximity of an exhaust air outlet, flue terminal, or other avoidable sources of polluted air. The location
of air inlets in rooms should be chosen or designed to minimize the risk of draughts (location on top
level of occupied zone or following calculations based thermal comfort criteria in national regulations)
Air supply devices may also be fitted in activity rooms to provide adequate air supply when the extract
system is running on boost setting, but these supply devices should not adversely affect pattern of air
flows in the other rooms when running on a normal setting.
Each activity room should be outfitted with at least one extract device. Extract devices are usually
placed at high level and as close to the pollutant source as possible.
Internal air transfer devices are used to allow air to move between rooms in a dwelling. They are best
located near the floor to avoid transfer of smoke.
Ventilation systems should not allow significant re-entry of exhaust air into the dwelling or adjacent
building. Arrangements should be made to avoid re-entry through outdoor air intakes and windows.
This may be achieved by a careful design of terminals or by adequate special separation.
Where the systems uses ducts, the duct runs should be kept as short as possible to reduce heat
losses, leakage and flow resistance.


System design
The ventilation system should be subjected to a schedule of periodic cleaning and maintenance to
ensure it continues to meet the required performance. Therefore it should be possible to gain acces to
clean and maintain any parts of the ventilation system which could adversely effect the performance,
the IAQ, or safety of the system if they were not cleaned or maintained. This includes air terminal
devices, air transfer devices, ductwork, heat exchangers , fans and filters.
The thermal energy involved in establishing the requested IAQ with the requested air volume flow
rates can be calculated with the following formula:

                  P   = cair * Q * ∆t      in [W]
Where
                  cair = specific heat of air : 1,224 [ J/dm3.K]
                  Q = the air flow rate in [dm3/s]
                  ∆t = the indoor/outdoor air temperature difference in [K]

Informative Annex F



                                                                                                        61
                                                       DRAFT 11.6.2010


Examples of calculated values for ventilation air flow rates

F.3 Bedroom
Assumptions for calculation:
    - CO2 production per human adult while sleeping : 12 l/h
    - Water vapor production per human adult while sleeping : 40 g/h
    - Room temperatures : 16 °C
    - Rooms size: floor area 9 m2, ceiling height 2,5 m.
    - Occupancy : 2 adults
    - Ventilation air enters the room from outside

Table 1.2.4-1 Calculated ventilation air flow rates for CO2 removal from a bedroom and related humidity
/condensation risk at bedroom air temperature of 16 °C
  Max CO2
                Recom. vent.             Outdoor temperature                   Outdoor temperature                    Outdoor temperature
   level at
                air flow rate                   -5 °C                                 0 °C                                  +10 °C
 equilibrium
                                        Humidity             Risk ?           Humidity             Risk ?            Humidity             Risk ?
                [m3/h]     [l/s]     [g/kg]      %RH   Cond.     Mould     [g/kg]      %RH    Cond.     Mould     [g/kg]      %RH    Cond.       Mould
   1000         36,4       10,1      3,8         34      N            N    5,0         44      N            N     8,8         78      N            N
   1500         20,7       5,8       4,5         40      N            N    5,6         50      N            N     9,5         83      N            Y
   2000         14,4       4,0       5,0         45      N            N    6,2         55      N            N     10,0        88      Y            Y
   2500         10,8       3,0       5,6         50      N            N    6,8         60      N            N     10,6        93      Y            Y
   3500         6,9        1,9       6,8         60      N            N    7,9         70      Y            Y     11,6        100     Y            Y
   5000         3,8        1,1       8,7         77      Y            Y    9,7         86      Y            Y     13,2        100     Y            Y




F.4 Living room
Assumptions for calculation:
    - CO2 production per human adult while active : 18 l/h
    - Water vapor production per human adult while active : 45 g/h
    - Water vapor production from plants : 30 g/h
    - Room temperatures : 20 °C
    - Rooms size: floor area 20 m2, ceiling height 2,5 m.
    - Occupancy: room occupied by all persons living in dwelling for 6 h.
    - Number of occupants 2, 4 and 6 persons
    - Ventilation air enters the room from outside

Table 1 - 33 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for CO2 removal from a living room and related humidity
/condensation risk at bedroom air temperature of 16 °C
   Max CO2
                 Recom. vent.                 Outdoor temperature                   Outdoor temperature                    Outdoor temperature
  level after
                 air flow rate                       -5 °C                                 0 °C                                  +10 °C
   6 hours
     2 person occupancy                  Humidity             Risk ?           Humidity              Risk ?           Humidity              Risk ?
     [ppm]        [m3/h]     [l/s]    [g/kg]     %RH    Cond.     Mould     [g/kg]     %RH     Cond.     Mould     [g/kg]     %RH     Cond.       Mould
    1000          54,5      15,1       4,0        28      N            N     5,1        36      N             N     9,0        62      N             N
    1500          30,2      8,4        4,8        33      N            N     6,0        41      N             N     9,8        67      N             N
    2000          19,6      5,4        5,8        40      N            N     6,9        43      N             N    10,8        74      N             Y
    2500          13,3      3,7        6,9        48      N            N     8,1        56      N             N    11,9        81      Y             Y
    3500           5,5      1,5       11,2        76      Y            Y    12,2        84      Y             Y    15,8        100     Y             Y
    5000            -          -        -          -      -            -      -          -       -            -      -          -       -            -
     4 person occupancy                  Humidity             Risk ?           Humidity              Risk ?           Humidity              Risk ?
     [ppm]        [m3/h]     [l/s]    [g/kg]     %RH     Cond     Mould     [g/kg]      %RH    Cond      Mould     [g/kg]     %RH     Cond.       Mould
    1000          109       30,3       3,9        28      N            N     5,1        35      N             N     8,9        61      N             N
    1500           62       17,2       4,7        33      N            N     5,9        40      N             N     9,7        66      N             N
    2000          43,1      12,0       5,4        37      N            N     6,6        45      N             N    10,4        71      N             N




                                                                                                                                            62
                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010


    2500        32,6      9,1     6,1      43      N            N    7,2      50    N            N   11,1     76     N            N
    3500        20,9      5,8     7,5      52      N            N    8,6      59    N            N   12,5     85     Y            Y
    5000        11,5      3,2     10,3     71      Y            Y   11,3      78    Y            Y   15,2     100    Y            Y

   Max CO2
                Recom. vent.          Outdoor temperature               Outdoor temperature              Outdoor temperature
  level after
                air flow rate                -5 °C                             0 °C                            +10 °C
   6 hours
     6 person occupancy              Humidity          Risk ?          Humidity         Risk ?          Humidity         Risk ?
    [ppm]       [m3/h]    [l/s]   [g/kg]   %RH   Cond.     Mould    [g/kg]   %RH   Cond.    Mould    [g/kg]   %RH   Cond.    Mould
    1000        163,5     45,4    3,9      27      N            N   5,1      35     N            N   8,9      61     N            N
    1500        93,0      25,8    4,7      33      N            N   5,9      41     N            N   9,7      67     N            N
    2000        65,0      18,1    5,5      38      N            N   6,6      46     N            N   10,5     72     N            N
    2500        49,8      13,8    6,1      42      N            N   7,3      50     N            N   11,1     76     N            N
    3500        33,5      9,3     7,4      51      N            N   8,5      59     N            N   12,4     84     Y            N
    5000        21,3      5,9     9,2      63      Y            N   10,4     71     Y            N   14,3     97     Y            N

F.5 Bathroom
Assumptions for calculation:
    - CO2 production not relevant
    - Water vapor production from shower : 10 minutes at 3000 g/h = 500 g/shower
    - Water vapor production from clothes drying: 15 h at 100 g/h per person in dwelling
    - Room temperature : 22 °C
    - Rooms size: floor area 6 m2, ceiling height 2,5 m.
    - Occupancy : All occupants take a shower every day. Number of occupants: 2, 4 or 6
    - Extracted air is at 22°C and either 70% RH or 100% RH
    - Ventilation air enters the room from outside, or from other rooms (at 19 °C and 50% RH
    - Assume that condensation is unavoidable but that it all evaporates and is totally removed by
        ventilation each day over a period of 14 h.




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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 34 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for a bathroom; Extracted air at 100% RH and 22 °C
  Time for                               Required ventilation air volume flow rate
 removal of
   water          Outdoor temp.              Outdoor temp.          Outdoor temp.       Air from dwelling at
   vapor              -5 °C                      0 °C                  +10 °C            19°C and 50% RH
      h          m3/h          l/s        m3/h          l/s      m3/h          l/s        m3/h            l/s
                                               2 person occupancy
     14          16,8         4,7         18,3         5,1       26,1         7,2         24,2           6,7
     20          11,8         3,3         12,8         3,6       18,2         5,1         16,9           4,7
     24           9,8         2,7         10,7         3,0       15,2         4,2         14,1           3,9
                                               4 person occupancy
     14          33,7         9,4         36,5         10,1      52,1         14,5        48,4           13,4
     20          23,6         6,6         25,6         7,1       36,5         10,1        33,9           9,4
     24          19,7         5,5         21,3         5,9       30,4         8,4         28,2           7,8
                                               6 person occupancy
     14          50,5         14,0        54,8         15,2      78,2         21,7        72,6           20,2
     20          35,4         9,8         38,3         10,7      54,7         15,2        50,8           14,1
     24          29,5         8,2         32,0         8,9       45,6         12,7        42,3           11,7



Table 1 - 35 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for a bathroom; Extracted air at 70% RH and 22 °C
  Time for                               Required ventilation air volume flow rate
 removal of
   water          Outdoor temp.              Outdoor temp.          Outdoor temp.       Air from dwelling at
   vapor              -5 °C                      0 °C                  +10 °C            19°C and 50% RH
      h          m3/h          l/s        m3/h          l/s      m3/h          l/s        m3/h            l/s
                                               2 person occupancy
     14          26,5         7,3         30,1         8,4       59,5         16,5        50,7           14,1
     20          18,5         5,1         21,1         5,9       41,7         11,6        35,5           9,0
     24          15,4         4,3         17,6         4,9       34,7         9,6         29,6           8,2
                                               4 person occupancy
     14          52,9         15,0        60,3        16,8       119,0        33,0       101,3           28,1
     20          37,0         10,3        42,2        11,7       83,3         23,3        70,9           19,7
     24          30,9         8,6         35,2         9,8       69,4         19,3        59,1           16,4
                                               6 person occupancy
     14          79,4         22,0        90,4        25,1       178,6        49,6       152,0           42,2
     20          55,6         15,4        63,3        17,6       125,0        34,7       106,4           29,6
     24          46,3         12,9        52,7        14,6       104,2        28,9        88,7           24,6



F.6 WC
Assumptions for calculation:
- odor produced at pollutant at a rate of 2 l/s for 1 min.
- odor to be reduced to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60% of its initial concentration within 15 min. for each use
- Rooms size: floor area 3 m2; ceiling height 2,5 m.
- Zero odor in air entering the room

Table 1 - 36 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for a WC
 % of initial concentration after
                                      10%            20%         30%           40%          50%                 60%
              15 min.
       Air flow rate [m3/h]           69,5           48,6        36,4          27,4         20,9                15,5




                                                                                                                64
                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010



        2.2.6. Determining performance criteria

EN 15665:2009

Full title: Ventilation in buildings – Determining performance criteria for residential ventilation systems.
April 2009

Scope:
This European Standard sets out criteria to assess the performance of residential ventilation systems
(for new, existing and refurbished buildings) which serve single family and apartment type dwellings
throughout the year. This standard specifies ways to determine performance criteria to be used for
design levels in regulations and/or other standards. It is meant to give guidance and support to those
who develop new regulations or standards for residential ventilation.

Interesting in the introduction is the acknowledgement that, although all ventilation requirement
nowadays are based on airflow rates, there is limited knowledge about the basis for these airflow
rates. This standard therefore proposes a more detailed approach to assess the way air exchange and
dilution change human exposure to pollutants.
The standard is meant to be applied to, in particular:
     - mechanically ventilated buildings (mechanical exhaust, supply or both)
     - natural ventilation with stack effect pr passive ducts
     - hybrid systems, switching between mechanical and natural modes
     - windows opening by manual operation for airing or summer comfort issues

The parts that are considered relevant for this Preparatory Study are summarized in this paragraph
1.2.5

Chapter 5. Needs for residential ventilation
This chapter explains the need for residential ventilation systems. It summarizes the sources of
pollutants, acknowledges that these source related pollutants represent a risk for both human health
&comfort and the building and finally describes the purpose of residential ventilation systems; so far no
new elements.

Chapter 6. General approach
§ 6.1 Way of proceeding
This paragraph describes the following six steps that in general need to be used to determine the
requested airflow rates:
Step 1: verify what national regulations/standards are applicable that lead to certain limits in airflows
Step 2: identify the pollutants that are considered relevant
Step 3: for each pollutant, make a detailed description of the nature, sources and distribution (in
        dependency of time); choose the appropriate criteria for each pollutant (according to chapter 7
        of the standard). And finally describe the ventilation system, the occupancy patterns, the
        outdoor conditions and the relevant building parameters that are applicable.
Step 4: select and use the appropriate calculation method able to handle the chosen criteria and
        assumptions
Step 5: formulate requirements on the selected criteria and verify the performance of the calculation
        results with other applicable requirements (health, fire protection, noise, gas, etc.)
Step 6: present the results which can be expressed as an equivalent airflow

§ 6.2 Requirements for designing ventilation systems
The paragraph describes what the requirements are to design a ventilation systems and discriminates
three different levels for calculation:

Level 1: Assumptions and criteria chosen for ventilation airflow rates
The design specification shall describe the following items:
a) Type of room, natural or mechanical supply or extract, floor level or the room
b) Ventilation regime: continuous (min, max), intermittent (min, max, time schedule), air inlets
   closable or not.
c) Air flow rates, expressed either in l/s per m2, l/s per person, l/s per room



                                                                                                         65
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


d) Global airflow rates
e) Global air infiltration
At the level of components (exhaust and supply air terminal devices, air transfer devices) requirements
can be expressed in equivalent area mm2, in airflow at a certain ∆P, etc. Pressure loss due to closed
inside doors between air inlets and air exhaust shall be taken into account.
All in all resulting in a table giving the design airflow rates per individual room of the dwelling.

Level 2: Assumptions and criteria chosen for “a single calculation representing point”
This single calculation representing point can e.g. be used for designing or specifying a specific
component in a certain (critical) point; for example an average point in winter time to roughly design a
natural shaft (passive stack). The table containing the necessary assumptions could then look like the
table below.

Table 1 - 37 . Assumptions for level 2 (Table 2, page 10 of EN 15665)
      Assumptions           Case under consideration           Default value                    Unit
 Indoor temperature                                                    19                           °C
 Outdoor temperature                                                    8                           °C
 Wind speed                                                             1                           m/s
 Wind direction*                                               60° windward                          -
 Shielding*                                                        Shielded                          -
 Air leakage class                                                   N50 = 1                        1/h
 Air leakage splitting                                    See table 4 of EN 15665                    -
 Outdoor humidity                                                    optional                % RH
 * According to EN 15242

Level 3: Assumptions and criteria chosen for a yearly calculation done for design days
For this level of calculation, assumptions shall be made for one day, at a suitable frequency for all
patterns concerning occupancy, outside conditions, ventilation system use and pollutant sources (see
table below). This level shall be used for daily or yearly calculations. Each day can have the same or
different patterns if needed, e.g. week-end patterns are often used and are different from week
patterns.
Airflow rates shall be calculated according to chapter 6 of EN 15242:2007


Table 1 - 38 . Assumptions for level 3 (Table 3, page 14 of EN 15665)
                                                                                                3
              Assumptions               Case under consideration                Default value              Unit
                                   Thermal and meteorological assumptions
 Indoor temperature                                                                                        °C
 Outdoor temperature                                                                                       °C
 Wind speed                                                                           1                    m/s
 Wind direction1                                                                60° windward                -
 Shielding1                                                                       Shielded                  -
 Outdoor humidity                                                                                         % RH
                                            Building assumptions
 Air leakage classes                                                               N50 = 1
 Air leakage splitting                                                   See table 4 of EN 15665
                                             Occupancy pattern


                                           Ventilation assumptions
 Ventilation system use pattern
                                                           2
                                         Pollutant emission (water)
 Water vapour awake                                                                  55                   g/h/pp
 Water vapour sleeping                                                               40                   g/h/pp
 Breakfast                                                                           50                   g/pp




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                                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


 Lunch                                                                                                  75                        g/pp
 Dinner                                                                                                300                        g/pp
 Natural gas cooking                                                                                   350                       g/day
 Shower4                                                                                               300                     g/shower
 Washing drying inside                                                                                1200                    g/washing
 Frequency of showers/person                                                                             1                 shower/pp/day
 Frequency of washing/person                                                                             1                 washing/pp/day
                                                                        2
                                                  Pollutant emission (metabolic CO2)
 CO2 awake                                                                                              16                       l/h/pp
 CO2 sleeping                                                                                           10                       l/h/pp

 1.   According to EN 15242
 2.   In case of calculations, assumptions of one or more pollutants is needed, in relation with the criteria chosen for the requirements
 3.   If the parameter is used
 4.   Drying towels is included in the shower (default value): it is a 6 minutes shower




Chapter 7. Criteria
§ 7.1 General
The starting point for the calculation method is to define the most important or key pollutant in each
type of room in the dwelling. It is assumed that if the key pollutant is adequately controlled, then other
pollutants in that room are also adequately controlled. For some rooms calculations might be
necessary to determine what the key pollutant is. The following key pollutants shall be taken into
account:
    - metabolic CO2 emissions and water vapour for low polluting rooms
    - water vapour, odours and CO2 from combustion of fuels in kitchens
    - water vapour in bathrooms and laundry/utility room
    - odours in WC

Pollutant emission rates shall be calculated for each room separately based on either known emission
rates or data given as assumptions in the standard frame defined in chapter 6. This may require
assumptions about the number of occupants and their presence in the various room of the dwelling,
the type and rating of combustions appliances, and occupant habits (clothes washing, cooking,
bathing, etc.)
Humidity is taken into account in a separate way due to the fact that it impacts on building
independent of occupancy and external value is varying in large proportion. Another particularity of
humidity is that both toom high levels and too low levels can induce discomfort or impact the building.

The actual criteria used to value pollutant levels can be one of the following (§ 7.2 - § 7.7):

§ 7.2 Threshold or limit of the level
The criteria is the threshold of the pollutants concentration. It shall be associated with one or more of
the following:
    - time above threshold during a reference period
    - maximum continuous duration above this threshold during the reference period
The reference period can be for example the occupied period (e.g. for CO2) or the whole year (for
humidity).
Criteria can e.g. be the average concentration during a reference period.

§ 7.3 Weighted average concentration
Here different concentration classes are weighted (continuous function or discrete classes). In the
following example C is the original concentration, C’ = value after discrete weighting, C’’ = value after
continuous weighting. Example discrete weighting:


C < 1000                         C’ = C
1000 < C < 1500                  C’ = 2 x C
1500 < C < 2000                  C‘ = 3 x C
2000 < C                         C’ = 4 x C


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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


Example continuous weighting:
C’’ = C x (C/500)

§ 7.4 Average concentration above a threshold with limited compensation
This method does not compensate values that are higher than the limit with values that are lower than
the limit values. All values that are lower than the limit are considered equal to the limit. On this basis,
the average concentration is calculated.

§ 7.5 Average concentration above a limit
This method sets criteria for the average value above a limit value, calculated with the time during
which this value is exceeded.

§ 7.6 Dose above a given value
This method sets criteria on the basis of the time integral of the concentration above a certain limit
value

§ 7.7 Decay criteria
The decay method is based on defining a time limit that is necessary for the ventilation system to
achieve a given reduction in concentration levels

Which of these methods should be used depends on the type of pollutant.

§ 7.8 Use of criteria depending on pollutant
Three families of criteria are considered:
1. criteria for humidity
    • number of hours under a certain limit
    • max. duration under a certain limit
    • number of times the level is under the limit for more than a certain duration
    • number of hours above a certain limit
    • max. duration above a certain limit
    • number of times the level has exceeded the limit for more that a certain duration
2. criteria for specific activities such as cooking, showers/bathing, odours in toilets, hobbies
    • time to obtain a given percentage of the max. value
    • value after a certain time
    • dose above a certain value
    • average
    • average above a threshold
3. criteria for background pollutants (CO2, VOC from furniture and building materials)
    • maximum limit


    •    average
    •    weighted average
    •    average above a certain limit
    •    dose above a certain limit


         2.2.7. Calculation Ventilation rates

EN 15242 : 2007 and EN 13465:2004

Full title: Ventilation for buildings – Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates in
buildings including infiltration. June 2007

This standard defines the way to calculate the airflows due to the ventilation system and due to the
infiltration. The calculation of the airflows through the building envelope and the ventilation system for
a given situation is described in chapter 6. Applications depending on the intended use are described
in chapter 7
These calculated airflow rates can be used for applications such as energy calculations, heat and
cooling load calculations, summer comfort and indoor air quality evaluation.


                                                                                                         68
                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010



The results provided by this standard are ‘the building envelope flow either through leakages or
purpose provided openings and the air flows due to the ventilation system, taking into account the
product and system characteristics’.

 Note:
 In the context of this Preparatory Study we will only look at the airflow rates that are induced by the dedicated ventilation
 system. Airflow rates caused by infiltration and airing are the domain of the EPBD (see also § 1.1.3 Scope).
 Only the parts of the standard that are relevant for determining the airflow of the ventilation system will be summarized here.



Chapter 5. General approach
The airflows are calculated for a building or a zone in a building. A building can be separated in zones
if:
     - the different zones are related to different ventilation systems
     - the zones can be considered as more or less airflow independent (e.g. air leakage between
         two adjacent zones are negligible and there is no air transfer between the zones)
The best way to do the calculation is to consider the air mass (dry air) flow rate balance, but it is also
allowed to consider the volume flow rate when evident. For air heating and air-conditioning systems
however the use of mass flow rate is mandatory.
The INPUT data are the ventilation system airflows and the airflows vs pressure characteristics of
openings (vents) and leakages. The OUTPUT data are airflows entering and leaving the building
through:
     - leakages
     - openings (vents)
     - airing (windows opening)
     - ventilation systems, including duct leakages
Air entering the building/zone is counted positive; air leaving is counted negative.

Chapter 6. Instantaneous calculation (iterative method)
§ 6.1 Basis of the calculation method
An iterative method is used to calculated the air handling unit air flow, and the air flow through
envelope leakages and openings for a given situation of:
    - outdoor climate (wind and temperature)
    - indoor climate (temperature)
    - system running
This chapter explains the different steps of calculation:
1. Calculation airflow rate of mechanical ventilation
2. Passive duct for residential and low rise non-residential buildings
3. Calculation of infiltration and exfiltration
4. Combustion air flow
5. Calculation of additional airflow through windows (airing)
6. Overall airflow

§ 6.2 Mechanical airflow calculation
The ventilation is based on required airflow (either supplied or extracted in each room) which is
defined at national level, assuming in general perfect missing of the air. To pass from these room-
based values to an overall figure for the mechanically induced airflow, the following coefficients (and
impacts) shall be taken into account:
1. Cuse : coefficient corresponding to switching on (Cuse = 1) or off (Cuse = 0) the fan
2.   εv : local ventilation efficiency
3.   Ccont : coefficient depending on local air flow control
4.   Csyst : coefficient depending on inaccuracies of the components and system (adjustment…etc)
5.   Cleak : due to duct and AHU leakages
6.   Crec : recirculation coefficient, mainly for VAV system


The mechanical airflows supplied to or extracted from the zone are calculated by:


                             qv;sup;req * Ccont * Cindoorleak * Crec
                                                    ε   v

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                                                      DRAFT 11.6.2010


qv;sup          =




                              qv;exh;req * Ccont * Cindoorleak * Crec
qv;exh          =
                                                          ε      v


With:
qv;sup;req      = supply airflow according to building design and national regulations
qv;sup;req      = exhaust airflow according to building design and national regulations
Cindoorleak     = Cductleak + CAHUleak


Where                               qv;ductleak
Cductleak       = 1 +
                              qv;req * Ccont * Csyst

                                            ε   v


                In which
                qv;ductleak             =       Aduct * K * dPduct   0,65
                                                                            / 3600   = air through the duct leakages in
m3/h
                Aduct                   = duct area in m2 (to be calculated according to EN 14239)
                K                       = air tightness of duct in m3/s/m2 at 1 Pa; the duct leakage shall be
determined
                                            according to EN 12237 (for circular ducts) ; EN1507 (rectangular
                         ducts)
                dPduct                  = pressure difference between duct and ambient air in Pa

                           qv;AHUleak
CAHUleak             +
                = 1 qv;req * Ccont * Csyst

                                ε   v




                In which

                qv;AHUleak              = airflow lost by the AHU determined according to EN 1886




The mechanical airflows supplied to or exhausted from the AHU are calculated by:

                                qv;sup;req * Ccont * Cleak * Crec
qv;sup;AHU      =        =
                                                          ε      v




                                qv;exh;req * Ccont * Cleak * Crec
qv;exh;AHU      =        =
                                                         ε   v


With:



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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


Cleak             = Cindoorleak + Coutdoorleak


If the AHU is situated indoor:
                  Cindoorleak       = Cductleak + CAHUleak
                  Coutdoorleak      = 1


If the AHU is situated outdoor:
                  Cindoorleak       = 1 + Rindoorduct * ( 1 - Cductleak)
                  Coutdoorleak      = 1 + ( 1 - Cductleak) * ( 1 - Rindoorduct ) * CAHUleak

                  With
                  Rindoorduct       = Aindoorduct / Aduct
                  Aduct             = area of duct situated indoors



§ 6.3 Passive and hybrid duct ventilation
This paragraph presents formulas for calculating the cowl airflow in a natural ventilation system with a
ducted natural exhaust, depending on:
    - wind velocity
    - pressure loss coefficient
    - roof angle and position and height of cowl
    - duct pressure drop

The other airflows that are calculated in this chapter relate to airflows that are not within the scope of
this preparatory study (domain of EPBD); these are the following:

§ 6.4   Combustions air flows
§ 6.5   Air flow due to window openings
§ 6.6   Exfiltration and infiltration using iterative method
§ 6.7   Exfiltration and infiltration using direct method

Chapter 7. Applications

§7.1 General
The airflows that are calculated according to this standards can be applied for:
   - energy calculation
   - determining heating load
   - determining cooling load
   - determining summer comfort
   - determining IAQ


§7.2 Energy calculation
For energy calculations it is allowed to neglect the internal partition in each zone.
  Note:
  An assessment that does not look into the airflows per individual room however, is not sufficient for assessing the
  energy rating of the ventilation function on the basis of the IAQ-performance. To compare energy performance of the
  ventilation function in a correct manner, it is also necessary to look at the airflows (IAQ) per individual room.
  For this Preparatory Study we will have to try to link the IAQ and the related airflows in separate rooms with the
  energy use. § 7.6 of this standard give some leads for such an assessment, since it states that for IAQ-purposes, not
  only the overall air exchange needs to be looked at, but also the fresh supply air for all habitable rooms, and the
  exhaust air for all service/utility/wet rooms.

Default values for Cuse , εv , Ccont , Csyst Cairing
The following default values are proposed for calculating airflow rates (can be modified in national
annexes)



                                                                                                               71
                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


Cuse      = 1 for occupied hours, 0 for unoccupied hours
εv        =   1
Ccont     =   1
Csyst     =   1,2
Cairing   =   1,8

In other words, it is assumed here that:
    - ventilation airflows are only applied when rooms are occupied (fans are switched on during
         occupancy and switched off when no one is present
    - the ventilation effectiveness of the applied ventilation system is always 1 (the extracted air
         has the same pollutant concentration as the indoor air)
    - the coefficient for local airflow control is 1, which implies that the airflow per room is exactly
         tailored to the actual need
    - the inaccuracies of the ventilation system and its components are within the 20% range.

The default values that are assumed here, highly overestimate the performance of ventilation systems
and their components. Accepting these default values implies that further differentiation between
ventilation systems is no longer possible. The energy saving potential related to ventilation systems
that have better ventilation effectiveness, better controls, less system inaccuracies etc. can not be
assessed when these default values would be accepted for this Preparatory Study.

  Note:
  In order to be able to differentiate between the ventilation performance and related energy use of different ventilation
  systems, the technical analysis of this Preparatory Study will assess the differences in Cuse ,   εv    , Ccont , Csyst for
  the various ventilation systems and their components.


Duct system air leakages
For energy calculation purposes, the AHU leakages may be neglected if the AHU has been tested
according to EN 1886 and the class obtained is at minimum L3.
If the values of Aduct and dpduc are not known, it is allowed to apply default a value of Cleak according
to the following tables:

Table 1 - 39 . Typical values for indoor duct leakages
                                            K                        % airflow lost                 Cindoorleak
 Default = 2,5 ; class A               0,0000675                          15                             1,15
 Class A                                0,000027                           6                             1,06
 Class B                                0,000009                           2                             1,02
 Class C or better                      0,000003                         0,00                             0



Table 1 - 40 . Typical values for indoor AHU leakages
                                            K                        % airflow lost                  CAHUleak
 Default = 2,5 ; class L3              0,0000675                           6                             1,06
 Class L3                               0,000027                           2                             1,02
 Class L2                               0,000009                          0,7                            1,01
 Class L1 or better                     0,000003                          0,2                            1,00




          2.2.8. Calculation Ventilation energy

EN 15241 : 2007




                                                                                                                     72
                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


Full title: Ventilation for buildings – Calculation methods for energy losses due to ventilation and
infiltration in commercial buildings. June 2007.

This standard defines the way to calculate the energy impact of airflows due to the ventilation system,
including airing. Its purpose is to define how to calculate the characteristics (temperature, humidity) of
the air entering the building, and the corresponding energies required for its treatment and the
auxiliary electrical energy required.

The ventilation systems considered here, do not directly include the room controlled heating and
cooling functions, but only preheating and precooling coils.
The aim of this standard therefore is to provide the following information:
    - Air flows (from EN 15242), temperature and humidity, entering the heated/conditioned area
         both for ventilation and infiltration
    - Electrical needs for fan and ventilation system auxiliaries
    - Required energy for defrosting, preheating, precooling, humidifying, dehumidifying
The heating and cooling needs due to infiltration are not part of the standard.

The applicable calculation procedures is described in Chapter 6

Chapter 6: Steady state calculation

§ 6.1 General principle is to define the airflow rates, their temperatures and humidity, that are entering
the heated or cooled areas and to assess the energy needed for the air treatment applied.

§ 6.2 For air that enters the building through infiltration, passive air inlets or windows, the air
characteristics are similar to the outdoor ones. If the air is taken from an adjacent space, the air
temperature in this space shall be calculated according to prEN ISO 13790.

§ 6.3 For air entering the building through balanced or supply only systems, the following clauses
describe how to calculate the energy related parameters for each component:

§ 6.3.2 Duct heat losses
Heat transfer through the parts of ducts situated in the heated/conditioned area can be neglected for
systems that do not provide heating or cooling. If the system provides heating/cooling and the losses
are considered significant, the equations are the same as for systems with ducts situated out of the
heated/conditioned area, in which case the equations are:

           θ2 = θ1 + ∆Tduct

           x2 = x1

Where:

∆Tduct = the difference in air temperature between the inlet and the outlet of the duct, in [K]

θ1, x1     = air temperature and humidity at the inlet of the duct, in [°C] and [g/kg] of dry air
θ 2, x 2   = air temperature and humidity at the outlet of the duct, in [°C] and [g/kg] of dry air

∆Tduct is calculated by:
                                                                Hduct
           ∆Tduct                               (
                            = ( θ1 + θsurduct ) -(1 - e                                         )
                                                   0,34 qvduct )

Where:
θsurduct = the temperature of the air surrounding the duct (equal to the outdoor air) in [°C]
Hduct      = the heat loss from the duct to the surrounding, in [W/K]

qvduct     = the air volume flow rate in the duct, in [m3/h]




                                                                                                       73
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


§ 6.3.3 Duct flow losses
The infiltrated or exfiltrated flow into or from the duct is calculated according to EN15242. If the air is
exfiltrated, there is no change in air characteristics in the duct (but only a difference in air flows). If the
air is infiltrated, the outdoor air is mixed with the air entering the duct.

§ 6.3.4 Fan
The air temperature is increased by the fan with a ∆Tfan value:

∆Tfan    = Ffan * Rf;r / ρ * c * qvfan

Where:

∆Tfan    = the difference in air temperature between the inlet and the outlet of the duct, in [K]

Ffan     = the fan power, in [W]

Rf;r     = the fan power recovered ratio

ρ*c      = the product of the air density and the specific heat, in [Wh/m3/K]. A default value of 0,34 may
         be used
           (value at 20 °C)
qvfan    = the airflow through the fan, in [m3/h]


Rf;r : The fan power recovered ratio is the ratio of the electrical energy to the fan transferred to the air.
The table below gives default values. When the position is unknown, the worst value shall be used
(motor in airflow for cooling, out of airflow for heating)

Table 1 - 41 . Default values for Rf;r
 Motor position                                        Rf;r
 In airflow                                             0,9
 Out of airflow                                         0,6

For demand controlled ventilation (DCV) or VAV systems without any recirculation air (100% outdoor
air), it may be assumed that the fan power consumption in average is similar to the fan power level
obtained at the average airflow of Ccont * qv in order to simplify the calculation

For VAV systems with recirculation, Ccont depends on the action of the outdoor air damper while the
fanned absorbed power depends on the average supply air ratio compared to the maximum.

If no information is available, the following curve gives some ideas of the fan absorbed power ratio
versus the airflow ratio for different type of airflow control principles:




                                                                                                            74
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


Figure 1 - 17 . Examples of fan absorbed power versus airflow




If no design assumption is possible, the average airflow and a default value of 80% can be used.

For example:
If it has been determined that Ccont = 0,5 on a DCV system, it may be assumed that the fan power
consumption is equivalent to the power at 50% ratio, i.e. in this case 30% of the maximum one with
speed control.

The following table gives the ratio that may be applied to the fan power at max speed, depending on
Ccont and the airflow control principle.

Table 1 - 42 . Example of fan power ratio in relation to airflow ratio and airflow control principle
                                                                                Airflow ratio
 Airflow control principle
                                                                 0,2          0,4          0,6         0,8
 Damper control on forward blades centrifugal fan                55%          75%          90%         100%
 Damper control on backward blades centrifugal fan               50%          55%          70%         100%
 Speed control                                                   10%          18%          35%         65%



§ 6.3.5 Heat exchanger

“Sensible heat only” heat exchangers
For balanced supply and extract airflows, the temperature variations are calculated with:

        θs2 = θs1 + ∆THEsup


                                                                                                             75
                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010



         θe2 = θe1 + ∆THEextr

Where:

θe1     = temperature of the extract air before the heat exchanger
θe2     = temperature of the extract air after the heat exchanger
θs1     = temperature of the supply air before the heat exchanger
θs2     = temperature of the supply air after the heat exchanger
∆THEsup = EffHE ( θe1 - θs1 )
∆THEextr = - ∆THEsup
EffHE   = the heat exchanger efficiency for a given set of (almost) equal supply and extract airflows.

For single residential supply and exhaust units (tested according to EN13141-7) the overall efficiency
includes fan temperature increase when the position of fan allows it to be recovered.

“Sensible and latent” heat exchangers
It is possible to write the equations separating temperatures and humidity impacts, but product
standards have only one point of testing for hygroscopic units, which is not enough to characterize
both impacts.

Defrosting issues
Defrosting issues are dealt with in EN 13053, Annex A
Preventing frosting can be done in several ways, amongst which:
a. direct defrosting control by action on the heat exchanger
b. use a defrosting coil that preheats the outdoor air

In both cases θe2 is limited to a certain value     θe2min. The following default values for θe2min can be
used if no national information is available:
         - Residential applications                 : 5 °C
         - Non residential plate exchanger          : 0 °C
         - Non residential rotary exchanger         : -5 °C
         - Default value                            : 5 °C

In case of a) direct defrosting control, a correction value shall be applied to θe2. If exhaust and supply
flow are equal, the same correction has to be applied to θs2.

In case of b) the outdoor air is preheated to a θsetdefrost value. The power needed to preheat the air,
Pdefrost is calculated by:

         Pdefrost = max ( 0 ; 0,34 * qv * ( θsetdefrost - θs1 )

The θsetdefrost value shall be calculated in such a way that the requested θe2min can be achieved. For
situations in which the supply and extract flow are equal this leads to the following formula:

         θsetdefrost = θe1        + (θe2min - θe1 ) / EffHE

The air characteristics to be used here are:
        θs1 = θext
        xs1 = xs2 = xextr


Free cooling / Limitation of supply temperature (Only valid with by-pass provisions)
The θs2 can be limited to a θs2max value in order to prevent air heating in a cooling period. The
∆THEsup must then be corrected with the related value.

§ 6.3.6 Mixing boxes
When mixing (or recirculation) boxes are used, the supply air is a mix of outdoor air and recirculated
air. Mixing is established in the mixing box with dampers.




                                                                                                       76
                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


If the airflows to and from the building (supply and exhaust) are known, the recirculation factor Rrec (=
ratio of recirculation air in the supply air) can be used to determine the different flows and
temperatures using the following formulas:

         qvs1     = ( 1 – Rrec ) * qs2

         qve2     = ( 1 – Rrec ) * qe1

         θs2      = Rrec * θe1 + ( 1 – Rrec ) * θs1

         xs2      = Rrec * xe1 + ( 1 – Rrec ) * xs1

         θe2      = θe1

         xe2      = xe1



§ 6.3.7 Pre-heating
With pre-heating the supply air is warmed up to a θsetPH value for comfort reasons. The heating
power Ppreheat required, the temperature and the humidity can be calculated with the following
formulas:

         Ppreheat = max ( 0 ; 0,34 * qvPH * ( θsetPH - θs1 )

         θs2      = max (θs2, θsetPH )

         x2       = x1


§ 6.3.8 Pre-cooling
With pre-cooling the supply air is cooled down to a θsetPC value for comfort reasons. The cooling
power Pprecool required, the temperature and the humidity can be calculated with the following
formulas:

         Pprecool =   qpc * ( 0,83 * ( x2 – x1 )   + 0,34 ( θs2 - θs1 )

         θs2      = θs1     +   ∆Tpc

         xs2      = xs1     +   ∆xpc

with:

         ∆Tpc     = max ( 0; θs1 – θsetPC )

         ∆xpc     = min ( 0; xcoil – x1 ) * ( 1 - BPavfactor )

         xcoil    = EXP (18,8161 – 4110,34 / (θcoil + 235 ))

         θcoil    = coil temperature with a default value of 8°C

         BPavfactor = min ( 1; (θs2 – θcoil) / (θs1 – θcoil)

The BPavfactor is an averaged Bypass factor, taking into account the temperature control and can
therefore be higher than the actual coil bypass factor.

§ 6.3.9 Humidifying in winter

§ 6.3.10 Dehumidification




                                                                                                      77
                                       DRAFT 11.6.2010




       2.2.9. Rating and performance characteristics

prEN 13142 Rev V7on components/products for residential ventilation

EN 13053: 2006 on air handling units

       2.2.10. Performance testing of components and products

EN 13141-1 / air transfer devices

EN 13141-2 / exh. & supply air terminal devices

EN 13141-4 / fans

EN 13141-5 / cowls and roof outlets

EN 13141-6 / exh. ventilation system packages

EN 13141-7 / mech. supply & exh units + HR for dwellings

EN 13141-8 / mech. supply & exh units + HR for rooms

EN 13141-9 / ext. mounted RV-controlled air transf. device

EN 13141-10 / hum. controlled extract air terminal device

EN 13141-11 / positive pressure ventilation systems

EN 1886:2007 / Mech. performance air handling units

ISO 5801:1997/ Industrial fans, performance testing

ISO 12248 / Ind.fans, tolerances& conversion methods

ISO 5221 / Methods for measuring air flow rates

ISO 5136 / Acoustics, induct radiated sound power level

ISO 3746 / Acoustics, casing radiated sound power level

EN 1751 / Aerodynamic testing of dampers & valves

EN 1216 / Performance testing heating/cooling coils

EN 779 / Determination of filtration performance

EN 308 / Performance testing air-to-air HR-devices

       2.2.11. Inspection of installed systems

EN 14134

EN 12599 : 2000 (for AC : 2002)(standard is under revision)


       2.2.12. Supplementary standards resulting from information request



                                                                            78
                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010


Information from Soler & Palau (ES):
 Standard at Eu level regarding AHU:
  - EN 308: 1997 Heat exchangers. Test procedures for establishing the performance of air to air and
flue gases heat recovery devices
  - EN 779 (filtración).
  - EN 1216 (rendimientos baterías de calor y frío).
  - EN 1751 (compuertas)
  - EN 1779 (ensayos de fugas).
  - EN 1886 (rendimientos mecánicos).
  - EN 13053 (componentes, secciones, clasificaciones, rendimientos etc.).
  - EN 13501 (clasificación según comportamiento al fuego).
  - ISO 5801 (características aerodinámicas).
  - EN ISO 3741, 3744, 3746, 9614 y 5136 (potencia sonora en aspiración y descarga).
  - EN ISO 3741, 3744, 3746 y 9614 (ruidos radiados en aspiración y descarga).

Carrier, standards on ventilation systems (AHU)
EN 13053: Ventilation for buildings – Air handling units – Rating and performance for units,
components and sections.
Eurovent certification scheme for air handling units
Standards at Member State level
EPN:     Energy      Performance      Standardisation (for energy   efficiency    in    buildings)
(EnergiePrestatieNormering voor gebouwen). This standard comprises calculation rules to establish
an energy performance coefficient for both residential and non-residential buildings; taking into
account all energy related parameters.

AL-KO THERM:
existing standards:
EN 1886 (Ventilation for buildings - Air handling units - Mechanical performance)
EN 13053 (Ventilation for buildings - Air handling units - Rating and performance for units,
components and sections) with a new amendment concerning energy efficiency - coming this year
EN 308 (HEAT EXCHANGERS. TEST PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE OF
AIR TO AIR AND FLUE GASES HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES)
EN 13779 (Ventilation for non-residential buildings - Performance requirements for ventilation and
room-conditioning systems)
 - different Eurovent certification schemes
- Eurovent energy label system for air handling units

Lindab GmbH:
Tightness of ductwork, EN 1507, EN 12237




                                                                                                 79
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



2.3. EUROPEAN STANDARDS FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

The Standard project prCEN/TR 15615:2006 gives an overview of EPBD related standards for air
conditioning systems. These standards are depicted in the figure below.
Figure 1 - 18 . Outline of linkage diagram for air conditioning systems




For air based system, the same standard as for ventilation are also used (EN 13779, EN 15241, and
EN 15242). EN ISO 13791 et 13792 are used for calculation of indoor temperature for building without
mechanical cooling and then are not useful in the frame of this study.

This is completed here with EU standards at product and component level.

Table 1 - 43 . Overview of EN design - performance - and test standards for Air Conditioning systems
    Purpose of
                                                           EN Standard
    EN standard
                                              System level

     Criteria for
                        EN 15251: 2007
 Indoor Environment

      Design and
     dimensioning
                        Further standard planned under ISO/TC 205/WG9
  of air conditioning
        systems




                                                                                                       80
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


                        EN ISO 13790:2008 - Energy performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use
                        for space heating and cooling
                        EN 15255:2007 - Thermal performance of buildings – Sensible room cooling load
                        calculation – General criteria and validation procedures
                        EN 15265:2007 - Energy performance of buildings - Calculation of energy needs for
                        space heating and cooling using dynamic methods - General criteria and validation
Calculation of energy
                        procedures
    consumption
                        EN 15243:2007 - Ventilation for buildings - Calculation of room temperatures and of
          &
                        load and energy for buildings with room conditioning systems
  presentation of
                        EN 13779 : 2007 - Ventilation for non-residential buildings - Performance
   performances
                        requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems
                        EN 15241 : 2007 - Ventilation for buildings - Calculation methods for energy losses
                        due to ventilation and infiltration in commercial buildings
                        EN 15242 : 2007 - Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates in
                        buildings including infiltration
                        EN 15603 : Energy performance of buildings — Overall energy use and definition of
                        energy ratings
                        - Systems and generators
                        EN 15240:2007 - Ventilation for buildings - Energy performance of buildings -
   Inspection of        Guidelines for inspection of air-conditioning systems
 installed systems      - AHU and air terminal devices
                        EN 12599:2000 /AC:2002 - Ventilation for buildings - Test procedures and measuring
                        methods for handing over installed ventilation and air conditioning systems

                        EN 15232:2007 - Energy performance of buildings - Impact of Building Automation,
  Control functions
                        Controls and Building Management

                                           Cooling production

                        EN 14511:2007 (and prEN14511:2009) Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and
                        heat pumps with electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling
                        - Part 1: Terms and definitions
                        - Part 2: Test conditions
                        - Part 3: Test methods
                        - Part 4: Requirements
                        prEN14825 :2009 - Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps, with
     Rating and         electrically compressors, for space heating and cooling- Testing and rating at part
    performance         load conditions and calculation of seasonal performance
                        EN 12309 - Gas-fired absorption and adsorption air-conditioning and/or heat pump
                        appliances with a net heat input not exceeding 70 kW
                        - Part 1: Safety (1999)
                        - Part 2: Rational use of energy (2000)
                        EN 15218:2006 Air conditioners and liquid chilling packages with evaporatively
                        cooled condenser and with electrically driven compressors for space cooling - Terms,
                        definitions, test conditions, test methods and requirements

                        EN 12102:2008 - Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages, heat pumps and
       Noise            dehumidifiers with electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling -
                        Measurement of airbone noise - Determination of the sound power level

                        EN 378-1:2008 Refrigerating systems and heat pumps - Safety and environmental
                        requirements
                        - Part 1: Basic requirements, definitions, classification and selection criteria
       Safety
                        - Part 2: Design, construction, testing, marking and documentation
                        - Part 3: Installation site and personal protection
                        - Part 4: Operation, maintenance, repair and recovery
                                            Air Handling unit

                        - Air handling units
                        EN 13053:2006 Ventilation for buildings - Air handling units - Rating and
     Rating and         performance for units, components and sections
    performance         - Cooling coils
                        EN 1216: 1998 - Heat exchangers – Forced circulation air-cooling and air-heating
                        coils – Test procedures for establishing the performance




                                                                                                               81
                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


                                                  Circulators

                          EN 1151-1:2006 Pumps - Rotodynamic pumps - Circulation pumps having a rated
                          power input not exceeding 200 W for heating installations and domestic hot water
                          installations - Part 1: Non-automatic circulation pumps, requirements, testing,
      Rating and
                          marking
 performance, noise,
                          EN 1151-2:2006 Pumps - Rotodynamic pumps - Circulation pumps having a rated
        safety
                          power input not exceeding 200 W for heating installations and domestic hot water
                          installations - Part 2: Noise test code (vibro-acoustics) for measuring structure- and
                          fluid-borne noise
                                                Terminal units

                         - Fan coils
                         EN 1397:1998 Heat exchangers - Hydronic room fan coil units - Test procedures for
                         establishing the performance
                         - Chilled ceilings
                         EN 14240:2004, Ventilation for buildings — Chilled ceilings — Testing and rating
                         - Chilled beams
                         EN 14518:2005 Ventilation for buildings - Chilled beams - Testing and rating of
                         passive chilled beams
                         EN 15116:2008 Ventilation in buildings - Chilled beams - Testing and rating of active
                         chilled beams
                          - Floor cooling
      Rating and         EN 1264:2009 - Floor heating - Systems and components
     performance
                         Part 1: Definitions and symbols
                         Part 3: Dimensioning
                         Part 4: Installation
                         Part 5: Heating and cooling surfaces embedded in floors, ceilings and walls -
                         Determination of the thermal output
                         EN 15377-1:2008 - Heating systems in buildings - Design of embedded water based
                         surface heating and cooling systems
                         Part 1: Determination of the design heating and cooling capacity
                         Part 2: Design, dimensioning and installation
                         Part 3: Optimising for use of renewable energy sources


                                                Heat rejection

                         - Dry cooler
                         EN 1048:1998 - Heat exchangers - Air-cooled liquid coolers "dry coolers" - Test
                         procedure for establishing the performance
      Rating and         - Cooling towers
     performance         EN 14705:2005 - Heat exchangers - Method of measurement and evaluation of
                         thermal performances of wet cooling towers
                         EN 13741:2004 - Thermal performance acceptance testing of mechanical draught
                         series wet cooling towers
                                                   Controls
                         EN ISO 16484 - Building automation and control systems (BACS)
                         Part 1: Overview and Vocabulary (PrEN 2009)
                         Part 2: Hardware (2005)
                         Part 3: Functions (2007)
Technical caracteristics
                         Part 4: Applications (No draft available)
                         Part 5: Data communication - Protocol (2010)
                         Part 6: Data communication - Conformance testing (2009)
                         Part 7: Project specification and implementation (No draft available)

2.3.1.   System level

The figure and table below gives an idea of the specific objective of each standard and of the link
between them.

Figure 1 - 19 . Linkage diagram for ventilation and air conditioning systems, EN15241:2007



                                                                                                                   82
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




Table 1 - 44 . Relationship between standards, from EN15241:2007

   from              To              Information transferred                           variables
15251        15243                Indoor climate requirements        Heating and cooling Set points


             15242                                             for   Required supply and exhaust Air flows
13779                             Airflow requirement
15251                             comfort and health

15242        15241                Air flows                          Air flows entering and leaving the building

15241        13792                Air flows                          Air flow for summer comfort calculation
15241        15203-15315          energy
                                                                     Energies per energy carrier for ventilation
             ;15217
                                                                     (fans, humidifying, precooling, pre heating),
                                                                     + heating and cooling for air systems
15241        13790                                                                                           of air
                                  data for heating and cooling       Temperatures, humilities and flows
                                  calculation                        entering the building

15243        15243                Data for air systems               Required energies for heating and cooling
15243        15242                                         and       Required airflows when of use
                                  Data for air heating
                                  cooling systems
15243        13790                data for building heating and
                                                                     Set point, emission efficiency, distribution
                                  cooling calculation
                                                                     recoverable losses, generation recoverable
                                                                     losses

13790        15243                Data for system calculation        Required energy for generation




EN 15251:2007

Full title: Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of
buildings, addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics.
June 2007

Design conditions specific to dimension air conditioning systems

Indoor temperature

This standard defines the thermal comfort requirements to design air conditioning systems. Regarding
maximum room temperature in summer for mechanically cooled buildings, it should be defined at MS



                                                                                                        83
                                                     DRAFT 11.6.2010


level. Recommended values in terms of operative temperature are given and reported in the table
below.

Table 1 - 45 . Examples of recommended design values of the indoor temperature for design of buildings
and HVAC systems (EN 15251, Annex A, Table A.2)

        Type of building/ space             Category     Operative temperature oC

                                                          Minimum for heating        Maximum for cooling
                                                         (winter season), ~ 1,0     (summer season), ~ 0,5
                                                                  clo                        clo

                                                I                21,0                        25,5
 Residential buildings: living spaces
 (bed rooms, drawing room, kitchen             II                20,0                        26,0
       etc) Sedentary ~ 1,2 met
                                               III               18,0                        27,0

                                                I                18,0
Residential buildings: other
   storages, halls, etc)          spaces:      II                16,0
Standing-walking ~ 1,6 met
                                               III               14,0

                                                I                21,0                        25,5
Single office (cellular office) Sedentary
                ~ 1,2 met                      II                20,0                        26,0

                                               III               19,0                        27,0

                                                I                21,0                        25,5
 Landscaped office (open plan office)
                                               II                20,0                        26,0
        Sedentary ~ 1,2 met
                                               III               19,0                        27,0

                                                I                21,0                        25,5

Conference room Sedentary ~ 1,2 met            II                20,0                        26,0

                                               III               19,0                        27,0

                                                I                21,0                        25,5

   Auditorium Sedentary ~ 1,2 met              II                20,0                        26,0

                                               III               19,0                        27,0

                                                I                21,0                        25,5
 Cafeteria/Restaurant Sedentary ~ 1,2
                 met                           II                20,0                        26,0

                                               III               19,0                        27,0

                                                I                21,0                        25,0

   Classroom Sedentary ~ 1,2 met               II                20,0                        26,0

                                               III               19,0                        27,0

                                                I                19,0                        24,5
 Kindergarten Standing/walking ~ 1,4
                                               II                17,5                        25,5
                met
                                               III               16,5                        26,0

Department store Standing-walking ~             I                17,5                        24,0
              1,6 met
                                               II                16,0                        25,0




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                                                  DRAFT 11.6.2010


                                            III               15,0                        26,0


Indoor humidity

It also gives the design conditions for (de)humidification. Humidification and dehumidification is
generally not required except in specific buildings and if used, excess humidfication / dehumidification
should be avoided.

Recommended design values of indoor humidity for occupied spaces for dimensioning of
dehumidification and humidification systems are reported in the table below. Additionally, it is
recommended to limit the absolute humidity to 12g/kg.

Table 1 - 46 . Example of recommended design criteria for the humidity in occupied spaces if
humidification or dehumidification systems are installed (EN 15251, Annex B, Table B.6)
  Type of building/space           Category                      Design relative                 Design relative

                                                                 humidity for                  humidity for
                                                              dehumidification, %            humidification, %

 Spaces where humidity                 I                                50                             30

 criteria are set by human
         occupancy.                   II                                60                             25
      Special spaces
   (museums, churches                 III                               70                             20

  etc ) may require other
           limits                     IV                               > 70                           < 20


Indoor noise

Noise design requirements are described in paragraph 2.2.4.

Indoor environment parameters for energy calculation specific to air conditioning systems

Indoor temperature

For seasonal and monthly calculations of energy consumption, the same temperatures as for design
should be used. For hourly (dynamic) calculations, an acceptable range of temperature is given in
Table 1 - 47 and the target value should be the midpoint of this temperature range. Deviations within
the temperature range are acceptable.

Indoor humidity

The same criteria as for design should be used.

Table 1 - 47 . Temperature ranges for hourly calculation of cooling and heating energy in three categories
of indoor environment (EN 15251, Annex A, Table A.3)
Type of building or space                          Category      Temperature range for      Temperature range for
                                                                     heating, oC                cooling, oC


                                                                     Clothing ~ 1,0 clo          Clothing ~ 0,5 clo

Residential buildings, living        (bed          I
                                                                         21,0 -25,0                  23,5 -25,5
spacesroom’s living rooms etc.)
Sedentary activity ~1,2 met
                                                   II
                                                                         20,0-25,0                   23,0 -26,0




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                                                   DRAFT 11.6.2010


                                                    III
                                                                        18,0- 25,0                  22,0 -27,0

Residential buildings, other spaces (kitchens,      I
                                                                        18,0-25,0
storages etc.) Standing-walking activity ~1,5
met
                                                    II
                                                                        16,0-25,0

                                                    III
                                                                        14,0-25,0

Offices and spaces with similar activity            I                   21,0 – 23,0                 23,5 -25,5
(single offices, open plan offices, conference
rooms, auditorium, cafeteria, restaurants, class
rooms, Sedentary activity ~1,2 met                  II
                                                                       20,0 – 24,0                  23,0 -26,0

                                                    III
                                                                       19,0 – 25,0                 22,0 - 27,0


Kindergarten Standing-walking activity ~1,4         I
                                                                       19,0 – 21,0                  22,5 -24,5
met
                                                    II
                                                                       17,5 – 22,5                 21,5 – 25,5

                                                    III
                                                                       16,5 – 23,5                 21,0 - 26,0

Department store Standing-walking activity          I
                                                                       17,5 – 20,5                  22,0 -24,0
~1,6 met
                                                    II
                                                                       16,0 – 22,0                 21,0– 25,0

                                                    III
                                                                       15,0 – 23,0                 20,0 - 26,0




EN ISO 13790:2008
Full title : Energy performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling

This standard defines the different calculation method that can be used to compute the sensible
cooling needs of a room, dynamic hourly simulation, simplified hourly, monthly and seasonal methods.
For each of the methods, the different calculation steps are described as well as the input. Regarding
system input modifying the sensible needs, the link is made with the system standards.


EN 15255:2007
Full title: Thermal performance of buildings – Sensible room cooling load calculation – General criteria
and validation procedures

The purpose of this European Standard is to validate calculation methods used to:
- evaluate the maximum cooling load for equipment selection and cooling system design;
- evaluate the temperature profile when the cooling capacity of the system is reduced;
- provide data for evaluation of the optimum possibilities for load reduction;
allow analysis of partial loads as required for system design, operation and control.

This European Standard includes the criteria and the level of input and output data required for a
simplified calculation method of the cooling load of a single room. Any calculation method satisfies the
standard if it complies with the assumptions, data requirements and the validation procedures
described in Clause 7.

Cooling system device are split into purely convective cooling system devices and cooled surface
devices (for which heat transmission is partly convective and partly radiative, e.g. for cooling floors).




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A simplified load calculation method is given in the informative Annex A. The share of convective and
radiative parts depending on the emitter type is given.

Table 1 - 48 . Sharing of radiative and convective heat transfer for cooing terminal devices (EN 15255,
Annex A, Table A.1)




EN 15265:2007
Full title : Energy performance of buildings - Calculation of energy needs for space heating and cooling using
dynamic methods - General criteria and validation procedures

This is the parallel standard to EN 15255 for dynamic calculation of cooling and heating load, with
criteria for validation and example of hourly weather data file for Trappes France for validating
calculation methods.


EN 15243:2007
Full title: Ventilation for buildings - Calculation of room temperatures and of load and energy for
buildings with room conditioning systems

Scope

The scope of this European Standard is:
- To define the procedure how the calculation methods to determine the temperatures, sensible
   loads and energy demands for the rooms shall be used in the design process.
- To describe the calculation methods to determine the latent room cooling and heating load, the
   building heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification loads and the system heating,
   cooling, humidification and dehumidification loads.
- To define the general approach for the calculation of the overall energy performance of buildings
   with room conditioning systems.
- To describe one or more simplified calculation methods for the system energy requirements of
   specific system types, based on the building energy demand result from prEN ISO 13790, and to
   define their field of application.

General approach

The general approach for the calculation procedure of a building with a room conditioning system is
shown in the figure below with main steps described:

After the choice of the system, an appropriate room cooling and heating load calculation shall be
performed. This is the base for sizing the room based cooling equipment such as air volume flow rate,
chilled ceiling power, fan coil power, radiator power, embedded system power etc. It generally consists
of three parts:
- Room sensible cooling load.
- Room cooling load due to room based ventilation.
- Room latent cooling load.

The load due to room based ventilation only occurs and has to be taken into account, when there is
room based ventilation such as natural ventilation through windows or vents or room based
mechanical ventilation.




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The latent room cooling load has been taken into account in the beginning, when the humidity of a
room has to be controlled. But the latent gains have an influence on the local or central equipment
also in the other cases (uncontrolled dehumidification by cooling coils).

The zone load calculation, which is done by superposition of the room load profiles, gives then the
base for the sizing of central cooling equipment.

An outline for a “best procedure” for this general approach is given in Annex A.




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                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010


Figure 1 - 20 . Flow chart for general approach (all dotted steps and loops are optional) (Figure 2,
EN15243:2007)




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Room cooling load calculation

Sensible load calculation, both basic room calculation and system calculation, is made according to
EN 15255 standard.
This standard specifies how to compute latent load at room level including for uncontrolled
dehumification via cooling coils. It gives the principles and the method to be implemented for hourly
calculation in Annex H. System dehumidification load calculation is described in EN 15241 standard.

Boundary conditions are also described for:
- climate: EN ISO 15927-2
- internal loads : EN 13779
- flow rate for ventilation: EN 15242

Room based equipment sizing

No further precision than common engineering rules are given.

Zone load calculation

Non coincidence of load requirements in different rooms should be taken into account for sizing
equipment.

System heating and cooling load calculation

No further precision than common engineering rules are given.

Central system sizing

No further precision than common engineering rules are given.

Room and building energy calculation

Room cooling load should be calculated according to EN ISO 13790 standard. Building related issues
are only addressed to the extent that HVAC systems have an influence on the building energy
demand. This particularly includes latent load calculation that for detailed calculation should take into
account humidity properties of pieces of furniture in rooms to make complete mass balance according
to EN 15026. However, it is precised that the procedure can generally be simplified.

HVAC system energy calculation

Simplified versus detailed methodology

According to prEN ISO 13790, building energy demand calculation methods are divided into detailed
and simplified categories. System behaviour calculation methods can be divided in hourly, monthly,
seasonal, and annual categories. The main distinction is between hourly methods and methods using
larger time steps. The table below shows a classification of combinations of calculation methods.
Table 1 - 49 . Classification of building vs system calculation methods (EN 15243, Table 3)




Type BhSh




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


This configuration makes it possible to take into account hourly interactions between building
behaviour and system behaviour. It is the case for example for VAV system where the air flow
depends on the cooling demand, or for latent load which are difficult to calculate on a monthly basis.

Type BmSh
In this case the system behaviour is calculated based on hourly values before the building calculation
is performed. This can be done when the system behaviour is not dependent on the building
behaviour. It can be for example for systems reacting mainly to outdoor climate (for example
combination of outdoor air temperature and humidity). Some assumptions can also be used e.g.
relating for example indoor temperature to outdoor temperatures.

Type BmSm and BhSm
In this case the system behaviour is calculated by averaged monthly, seasonal or annual values, using
in general statistical analysis based on hourly calculation for typical climates, configurations etc.. It can
also be done directly if the system is simple enough to neglect the interaction with both outdoor
climate and the building behaviour. A commonly used category of system calculation method is based
on the frequency distribution of hourly outdoor air temperature and/or humidities. This can be
combined with either hourly or monthly/seasonal building calculations, thus belong to category BhSh
or BmSh.

Energy calculation structure

Figure 1 - 21 . General HVAC system structure and energy flows (EN15243:2007, Figure 3)




The formula for calculation proposed is straightforward, the energy consumption being the sum of the
individual consumption of system components. In case of several energy sources, they should be
splitted (e.g. gas and electricity).

HVAC and ventilation system types

The standard gives a classification of air conditioning systems and of ventilation systems that is
reported hereunder.

Table 1 - 50 . HVAC system overview (EN 15243, Table 4a)




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Table 1 - 51 . HVAC system overview (EN 15243, Table 4b)




Factors affecting energy consumption of air conditioning systems

It is then discussed which parameters should be included in HVAC energy consumption calculation
methods. The table below gives the main parameters that affect the energy consumption of such
systems and that should subsequently be taken into account in the energy calculation methods.



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                                                                        DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 52 . Important technical features that affect the energy consumption of different types of HVAC system (EN 15243, Table 5a)




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Annex A gives “the best procedure for design process”.

Annex C gives the description of common AC combinations. The simplified classification is the one
shown in table 4a. However, more detailed description of main system types functions and controls is
also given. The structure of the energy flows for main AC systems is also presented.

Annex D gives a schematic relationship between HVAC system energy procedure, building energy
demand calculations, data and outputs.

Annex E gives examples of simplified energy consumption calculation, two MS methods from the
Netherlands and Germany and a monthly method based on degree days calculation.

Annex H explains how to compute the latent energy demand for hourly calculation method.

Annex I shows example of how to compute the efficiency of cold generators and chillers. Default
cooling load curves are proposed and method to compute seasonal performances are discussed.
Default values for EER, SEER and part load performances per category of equipment are proposed.

Annex J shows how to calculate the water system losses including default values for the losses.


EN 13779 : 2007
Full title : Ventilation for non-residential buildings – Performance requirements for ventilation and
room-conditioning systems

The provisions of this standard have been described in the ventilation system section and fully apply to
the air side of air conditioning systems. It is to be noticed the design conditions should take into
account properly humidity in summer time where default design conditions are proposed (operative
temperature 26 °C and relative humidity 60 % or specific humidity 12 g/kg).


EN 15241 : 2007
Full title : Ventilation for buildings - Calculation methods for energy losses due to ventilation and
infiltration in commercial buildings

This European Standard describes the method to calculate the ventilation air flow rates entering and
leaving the buildings to be used for cooling load calculation. It explains the method to compute the
flow and temperature of air through the ventilation system / all air cooling system and the interaction
with each element of the system. It enables to compute the effects of:
- duct heat losses, flow losses, and added fan consumption depending on the control of the fan,
- free cooling,
- pre-cooling,
- dehumidification by cooling coil on the air stream.


EN 15242 : 2007
Full title : Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates in buildings including infiltration

The standard enables to calculate the mechanical air flow rates for ventilation and all air air
conditioning systems. It includes specific provisions for VAV systems.

EN 15603
Full title : Energy performance of buildings — Overall energy use and definition of energy ratings -
Systems and generators

The purpose of the standard is to:
a) collate results from other standards that calculate energy use for specific services within a building;
b) account for energy generated in the building, some of which may be exported for use elsewhere;


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


c) present a summary of the overall energy use of the building in tabular form;
d) provide energy ratings based on primary energy, carbon dioxide emission or other parameters
defined by
national energy policy;
e) establish general principles for the calculation of primary energy factors and carbon emission
coefficients.

Calculation principles of the recovered gains and losses

The standard defines the principle of recoverable system losses: the interactions between the different
energy services (heating, cooling, lighting) are taken into account by the calculation of heat gains and
recoverable system losses which can have a positive or negative impact on the energy performance of
the building.

Two method, a detailed iterative method and a simplified approach are described. The simplified
approach uses a default recovery factor and 80 % is set as a default value.

Building thermal needs

The building thermal needs, the building thermal transfers and the building heat gains and recoverable
thermal losses are reported using the table below. The rows and columns of this table should be
adapted to the building concerned. The standard lists the standards to be used to compute each of
these values.

Table 1 - 53 . Building energy needs (EN 15603, Table 4)




Technical building systems

Table 1 - 54 . System thermal losses and auxiliary energy without generation (EN 15603, Table 5)




The system thermal losses without the building generation devices include the emission, distribution
and storage losses (if not included in the generation part) of the respective system. The thermal output
of the cooling distribution system includes the thermal need for dehumidification. The thermal output of
the ventilation system includes the thermal need for humidification.




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 55 . Energy generation systems (EN 15603, Table 6)




In the case that a generator provides the input to another generator (e.g. cogenerator for absorption
chiller) it is distinguished between the thermal output to the distribution system and the thermal output
for generation. The thermal output, the thermal losses and the energy input of the second generator
are only given for information but not counted in the energy balance of the generation systems.

NOTE 2 In the calculation method for combined heat and power (EN 15316-4-4) the energy input and
all system losses are related to the thermal output. The electricity is counted as a bonus (power bonus
method).

For a heat pump the difference between the energy input and the thermal output plus the thermal
losses is taken into account in the building energy balance either as heat recovery (inside the system
boundary) or as renewable energy produced on the building site if the heat is collected through the
system boundary (e.g. heat pump with a ground source heat exchange).

If a heat pump is used to generate heat for heating or domestic hot water and to extract heat for
cooling the required heat supply and extraction are indicated in row L8 of Table 6 as separate
quantities.

If a generator provides energy for heating and cooling, then the generator thermal losses and the
auxiliary energy are divided between these two services according to the thermal outputs.


EN 15240:2007
Full title : Ventilation for buildings - Energy performance of buildings - Guidelines for inspection of air-
conditioning systems- AHU and air terminal devices

This European Standard describes the common methodology for inspection of air conditioning
systems in buildings for space cooling and or heating from an energy consumption standpoint. The
inspection can consider for instance the following points to assess the energy performance and proper
sizing of the system:
- System conformity to the original and subsequent design modifications, actual requirements and
     the present state of the building.
- Correct system functioning.
- Function and settings of various controls.
- Function and fitting of the various components.
- Power input and the resulting energy output.

It is not intended that a full audit of the air conditioning system is carried out, but a correct assessment
of its functioning and main impacts on energy consumption, and as a result determine any
recommendations on improvement of the system or use of alternative solutions. National regulations
and guidelines targeting energy efficiency and in line with the main objectives of this standard are also
applicable.

NOTE Provision of adequate ventilation and system balancing are dealt with in EN 15239.


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


The legal requirements regarding the precise inspection items and frequency of checks according to
the categories of systems are to be established at member state level.

The standard proposes a classification of air conditioning systems which is discussed in paragraph
1.1.4.

EN 12599:2000 /AC:2002
Full title : Ventilation for buildings - Test procedures and measuring methods for handing over installed
ventilation and air conditioning systems

This European Standard specifies checks, test methods and measuring instruments in order to verify
the fitness for purpose of the installed systems at the stage of handing over.
The standard enables the choice between simple test methods, when sufficient, and extensive
measurements, when necessary.
The standard applies to mechanically operated ventilation and air conditioning systems as specified in
CR 12792 and comprising any of the following:
- Air terminal devices and units
- Air handling units
- Air distribution systems (supply, extract, exhaust)
- Fire protection devices
- Automatic control devices.


EN 15232:2007
Full title : Energy performance of buildings - Impact of Building Automation, Controls and Building
Management

Scope

This European Standard specifies:
- a structured list of control, building automation and technical building management functions which
    have an impact on the energy performance of buildings;
- a method to define minimum requirements regarding the control, building automation and
    technical building management functions to be implemented in buildings of different complexities;
- detailed methods to assess the impact of these functions on a given building. These methods
    enable to introduce the impact of these functions in the calculations of energy performance ratings
    and indicators calculated by the relevant standards;
- a simplified method to get a first estimation of the impact of these functions on typical buildings.

Abbreviations and acronyms

BAC: Building Automation and Control
BACS: Building Automation and Control System
BM: Building Management
HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
TBM: Technical Building Management

Impact of BACS and TBM on the energy performance of buildings

Building Automation and Control (BAC) equipment and systems provides effective control functions of
heating, ventilating, cooling, hot water and lighting appliances etc., that lead to increased operational
and energy efficiencies.

The standard defines BAC efficiency classes.
- Class D corresponds to non energy efficient BACS. Building with such systems shall be retrofitted.
   New buildings shall not be built with such systems.
- Class C corresponds to standard BACS.
- Class B corresponds to advanced BACS and some specific TBM functions.
- Class A corresponds to high energy performance BACS and TBM.



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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


The table below defines the list of functions corresponding to each energy efficiency classes for air
conditioning and ventilation systems.

Table 1 - 56 . Function list and assignment to BAC efficiency classes, AC & V (EN 15232, Table 1)




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




Of course, the energy spent for cooling will also be influenced depending on the control of the other
end users of the buildings including lighting and occupancy. The table below defines the list of
functions corresponding to each level for other automatic control than heating, air conditioning and
ventilation.

Table 1 - 57 . Function list and assignment to BAC efficiency classes, other functions (EN 15232, Table 1
continued)




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010




Reference BAC functions

The functions of the reference BAC of class C are further defined.




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                  103
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Calculation method for BAC efficiencies




                                                            104
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


The standard then defines the gains that can be reached with improved BAC functionalities referring to
adequate EPBD standards including for cooling and ventilation systems. Efficiency factors noticed fBAC
are defined for each energy consumption item.

To simulate the impact of the BAC efficiency on the cooling needs increased of the system efficiency
losses for instance, the sum of total cooling needs should be multiplied by the ratio
fBAC,class X / fBAC,class C.

The table below gives the factors the BAC efficiency will affect.




Typical factors have been computed with the TRNSYS software and are presented for the whole
energy consumption of different types of non residential buildings. Individual BAC efficiencies by
function (cooling needs, cooling electricity consumption, …). However, detailed occupation and system
scenarios are given in example in Annex A that are useful to compute standard energy consumption of
buildings.




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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010




2.3.2.   Cooling generators

EN 14511:2007 and prEN14511:2009
Full title: Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically driven
compressors for space heating and cooling.

Part 1: Scope, Terms and definitions

As opposed to ISO or other regional test standards, the EN 14511 standard covers all types of air
conditioning equipment working on the mechanical vapour compression cycle with electrically driven
compressor for space heating or cooling. They are classified according to the fluids used at their
evaporators and condensers (Cf paragraph 1.1.4).



This standard applies to factory-made units, which may be ducted. In the case of units consisting of
several parts, the test standard apply only to those designed and supplied as a complete package,
except for liquid chilling packages with remote condenser.

The following units are excluded:
- heat pumps for sanitary hot water,
- the units having their condenser cooled by air and by the evaporation of external additional water
are not covered by this standard (covered by standard EN 15218), while to air cooled air conditioners
which evaporate the condensate on the condenser side are included.

Water cooled multi-split are included in the latest draft version as well as double duct units. Part load
testing of units is dealt with in the technical standard CEN/TS 14825 (having been revised to
prEN14825:2009 in the meanwhile).

VRF systems are included, including the VRF systems enabling heat recovery between the different
indoor units.

Part 2 : test conditions

This standard only defines tests for rating the performances of the units; only the tests in the standard
conditions are mandatory. However, application rating performances should be published by
manufacturers or manufacturer representative whether application testing conditions lie in the range of
operation specified. Complementary tests as defined in the ISO 5151 and 13253 standards are
defined in part 4 and compatible with the ISO standards.

The test conditions are defined in the cooling mode and in the heating mode following the
classification by evaporator and condenser external fluids.

For air to air and water to air units, testing conditions are compatible with ISO 5151 and with ISO
13253 standards both in cooling and heating mode. Distinction is also made according to the type of
air stream (exhaust air, outdoor air, recycled air) in order to better translate the conditions of operation
of these products.

Table 1 - 58 . Air to air, testing conditions in the cooling mode
                                               Outdoor heat exchanger          Indoor heat exchanger

                                               Inlet dry         Inlet wet     Inlet dry        Inlet wet
                                                 bulb              bulb          bulb             bulb
                                             temperature       temperature   temperature      temperature
                                                  °C                 °C           °C                °C

Standard rating     Comfort (outdoor air           35               24 a           27              19


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                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


    Conditions         / recycled air)
                    Comfort (exhaust air
                                                   27               19                 27              19
                       / recycled air)
                    Comfort (exhaust air
                                                   27               19                 35              24
                        / outdoor air)
                         Single ductb              35               24                 35              24
                      Control cabinet              35               24                 35              24
                       Close control               35               24                 24              17
                    Comfort (outdoor air
                                                   27               19 a               21              15
                      / recycled air)
    Application        Single duct b c             27               19                 27              19
      rating        Comfort (outdoor air                                  a
                                                   46               24                 29              19
    conditions         / recycled air)
                      Control cabinet              50               30                 35              24
                       Close control               27               19                 21              15
a The  wet bulb temperature condition is not required when testing units which do not evaporate condensate.
b When using the calorimeter room method, pressure equilibrium between indoor and outdoor compartments shall
be obtained by introducing into indoor compartment, air at the same rating temperature conditions.
c The pressure difference between the two compartments of the calorimeter room shall not be greater than 1,25
Pa. This pressure equilibrium can be achieved by using an equalising device or by creating an open space area in
the separation partition wall, which dimensions shall be calculated for the maximum airflow of the unit to be
tested. If an open space is created in the partition wall, an air sampling device or several temperature sensors
shall be used to measure the temperature of the air from the outdoor compartment to the indoor compartment

Table 1 - 59 . Air to air, testing conditions in the heating mode
                                               Outdoor heat exchanger             Indoor heat exchanger
                                                Inlet dry    Inlet wet            Inlet dry     Inlet wet
                                                  bulb         bulb                 bulb          bulb
                                              temperature temperature           temperature temperature
                                                   °C            °C                  °C             °C
                    Outdoor air / recycled
                                                     7                6                20           15 max
                             air
Standard rating     Exhaust air / recycled
                                                    20               12                20              12
  Conditions                 air
                    Exhaust air / outdoor
                                                    20               12                7                6
                             air
                    Outdoor air / recycled
                                                     2                1                20           15 max.
                             air
                    Outdoor air / recycled
                                                    -7               -8                20           15 max.
                             air
    Application
                    Outdoor air / recycled
      rating                                       - 15               -                20           15 max.
                             air
    conditions
                    Exhaust air / outdoor
                                                    20               12                2                1
                             air
                    Exhaust air / outdoor
                                                    20               12                -7              -8
                             air

Table 1 - 60 . Water to air and brine to air, testing conditions in the cooling mode




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Table 1 - 61 . Water to air and brine to air, testing conditions in the heating mode




Table 1 - 62 . Water to water and brine to water, testing conditions in the cooling mode




Table 1 - 63 . Water to water and brine to water, testing conditions in the heating mode for low, medium
and high temperature application




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Table 1 - 64 . Air to water and brine to air, testing conditions in the cooling mode
                                               Outdoor heat exchanger             Indoor heat exchanger
                                                Inlet dry    Inlet wet
                                                                                  Inlet         Outlet
                                                  bulb         bulb
                                                                               temperature   temperature
                                              temperature temperature
                                                                                   °C            °C
                                                   °C            °C
                            water                  35             -                    12          7
                            brine                  35             -                    0          -5
 Standard rating
   conditions          water (for floor
                      cooling or similar            35               -                 23         18
                        application)
                                                                                       a
                            water                   27               -                            7
                       water (for floor                                                a
  Application
                      cooling or similar            27               -                            18
    rating
                        application)
  conditions                                                                           a
                            water                   46               -                             7
                                                                                       a
                            brine                   27               -                            -5


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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


a
 The test is performed at the water flow rate obtained during the test at the corresponding standard rating
conditions.

Table 1 - 65 . Air to water, testing conditions in the heating mode for low, medium and high temperature
application




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                  112
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Table 1 - 66 . Water to water, testing conditions in the cooling mode




Table 1 - 67 . Water to water, testing conditions in the heating mode
                                                  Outdoor heat exchanger              Indoor heat exchanger
                                                    Inlet        Outlet                 Inlet        Outlet
                                                 temperature temperature            temperature temperature
                                                     °C            °C                    °C           °C
                                                                          a
                               Water                    10                 7               40               45
                                                                              a
                                Brine                    0                -3               40               45
Standard rating       Water (for floor heating                                a
                                                        10                 7               30               35
   conditions          or similar application)
                      Brine (for floor heating
                                                                              a
                                  or                     0                -3               30               35
                        similar application)
                               Water                    15                  b               b               45
                                Brine                    5                  b               b               45
   Application        Brine (for floor heating
                                                         5                  b               b               35
      rating           or similar application)
   conditions                   Brine                   -5                  b               b               45
                                Brine                    0                  b               b               55
                               Water                    10                  b               b               55
a
  For units designed for heating and cooling mode, the flow rate obtained during the test at standard rating
conditions in cooling mode (see Table 8) is used.
b
  The test is performed at the flow rate obtained during the test at the corresponding standard rating conditions.




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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 68 . Liquid chilling packages with remote condenser




For VRF with heat recovery, a heat recovery test is required.

Table 1 - 69 . Heat recovery conditions for air cooled multi-split system
                                                Three room
                                                                                      Two room
                                              calorimeter or
                                                                                     Air enthalpy
                                                air enthalpy
                                          Dry bulb       Wet bulb             Dry bulb        Wet bulb
                                        temperature temperature             temperature     temperature
                                             °C              °C                  °C             °C

 Application       Outdoor side               7                6                 7                  6
   rating
                 Indoor      Heating          20               -                20              19
 conditions
                  side       Cooling          27              19                20              19

For water cooled multi-split, specific test conditions are proposed in cooling and in heating modes
(prEN14511:2009).

Table 1 - 70 . Cooling capacity conditions for water-cooled multisplit systems




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 71 . Heating capacity conditions for water-cooled multisplit systems




Part 3: Test methods

For air to air and water to air air conditioners, two testing methods are defined, namely the “enthalpy
method”, which consists in the direct measurement of cooling capacity by measurement of air flow
rates and inlet and outlet temperatures as well as weighting of the condensates on the coil and the
indirect “calorimeter room” method in which the heat and water that have been removed from the
inside room by the unit are measured.

This latter method is reputed much more certain than the direct measurement method. However, for
large capacity air conditioners, it is likely not to be used for practical limitations.

For measurement of capacity of the enthalpy change of liquid, the direct method should be used:
determination of the volume flow of the heat transfer medium, and the inlet and outlet temperatures,
taking into consideration the specific heat capacity and density of the heat transfer medium

Correction for fans and pumps

In order to avoid manufacturers to increase the energy efficiency of their products to the detriment of
increased pressure losses that would not be credited to the unit but to the auxiliaries of the system (for
manufacturers that supply units without internal fan or pump), the power needed to overcome the
pressure losses at the inside heat exchanger is taken into account. Two cases may occur, whether or
not an inside fan (or pump) is part of the unit:

Without fan or pump:
P2 = q . ∆pi / η [in Watts]
where
- η is the pump or fan efficiency ; 0.3 for fans ; for pumps, a default formula is proposed as a function
of the hydraulic power.
- ∆pi is the measured internal static pressure difference, in Pascals;
- q is the nominal air flow rate, in cubic meters per second.
P2 is to be added to the unit electric power, the cooling capacity must be decreased (and the heating
capacity increased).

With fan or pump that deliver static pressure (for air, it concerns ducted units only):
P1 = q . ∆pe / η [in Watts]
where


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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


- η is 0,3 by convention;
- ∆pe is the measured available external static pressure difference, in Pascals;
- q is the nominal air flow rate, in cubic meters per second.
P1 is to be excluded from the unit electric power, removed from the cooling capacity (added to the
heating capacity).

Non ducted air cooled air conditioners are rated equally by ISO 5151 standard and EN 14511.

For ducted units (or units supplied with a pump), the supplementary electric power that enables to
deliver static pressure to the network for duct connection (or pipe connection) is not accounted for in
the efficiency of the unit. It enables to make rated performances of ducted and non ducted units
comparable. However, this does create a European specificity for ducted air to air units and water to
air units as ISO 5151 and ISO 13253 standards do not take into account these corrections (for fans).

It is also to be noticed that the correction for chillers is generally not applied outside Europe. Big units
being sold without a pump, this generally makes European rating lower, called net capacity lower than
gross capacity, with also lower energy efficiencies. Eurovent-Certification catalogue data reported
hereafter are gross capacity values.

Part 4: requirements
Supplementary requirements are defined in this part:
- a starting test,
- a maximum operating test (cooling mode),
- a freeze-up test,
- a test outside the operating range,
- a safety test consisting in shutting off the heat transfer medium flows,
- a complete power supply failure test,
- a condensate draining and enclosure sweat test,
- information on the defrosting means (where applicable).

Instructions are given for the information that should be marked on the plate of the unit (namely
manufacturer and machine designation and rated performances).

The information that should be published in the technical documentation of the unit is also described.
It entails:
- trade mark, model designation;
- power supply (voltage, frequency);
- denomination of the unit (e.g.: air-to-water);
- intended use of the unit (e.g.: control cabinet air conditioner);
- number of separate component units;
- type and mass of refrigerant charge;
- overall dimensions and weight of each separate component unit.
- the cooling capacity, the effective power input, the EER and the SHR (where applicable);
- the heating capacity, the effective power input and the COP (where applicable);
- the heat recovery capacity and the type of liquid (where applicable).
- non ducted air-to-air units: flow rates or rotational speeds of fans (rated point);
- non ducted air-to-water units: air flow rate or rotational speed of fan; water flow rate and pressure
difference (rated point),
- unit intended to discharge into double floor: nominal flow rate and external static pressure difference
(rated point),
- other types of units: nominal flow rates and external static pressure differences for air and water
(rated point).
- Sound characteristics: the manufacturer shall provide the sound power level and the corresponding
test method according to ENV 12102.

The manufacturer shall specify the electrical the characteristics in accordance with EN 60335-2-40 or
EN 60204-1 as applicable and:
- maximum starting current of the unit, as defined in EN 61000-3-11;
- total power input and current at the rated point, excluding the starting period;




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


- reactive power or power factor at the rated point, for units with a total power input greater than 10
kW;
- power input of fan and pump if included in the units.
- limits of use (temperatures and flows);
- whether there are devices fitted which do not allow the unit to operate when these limits are
exceeded.

If not already required by other standards, the manufacturer shall provide the supplementary
information as described below:
- specify the refrigerant, air and liquid circuits preferably providing circuit diagrams, showing every
- functional unit, control and safety device and specifying their type;
- if the unit uses water in the heat exchangers specify the water capacity contained in the unit, and
specify either the constructional materials of the heat exchangers or the water quality;
- if used, specify the type of brine and the concentration into any other liquid;
- specify the type of oil to be used in the compressor.
- specify the type and location of additional heating devices and their control and safety devices.
- state the functions achieved by the control and safety devices provided with the unit and specify
when applicable their provision for adjustment and the method by which the safety devices are reset;
- provide specifications for any control or safety devices necessary to ensure correct operation of the
unit but which are not provided with the unit;
- specify any limitation to the use of the rest of the installation.
- specify the required location conditions (whether units are to be installed outside or in a weather
proof enclosure, or in a heated space);
- specify the requirements of physical layout, access and clearance;
- specify the requirements for the electrical, liquid, air and refrigerant connections, to be made on site;
- specify the location of warning and tripping devices;
- specify the installation precautions to be taken to ensure, in particular:
- advice for correct circulation of the heat transfer media;
- advice for water draining;
- advice for maintaining cleanliness of heat exchange surfaces;
- advice to minimise noise, vibration or other adverse effects.
- Special indications for units using soil, sea water, ground water or surface water: specify any
materials which are in contact with the water or with the brine.
- content and frequency of routine maintenance operations to be performed by the user;
- content and frequency of maintenance and inspection operations which shall be performed by a
specialist.


PrEN14825 – 2009
Full title: Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps, with electrically compressors, for
space heating and cooling- Testing and rating at part load conditions and calculation of seasonal
performance

The standard applies to factory made units defined in EN14511-1, except single duct, control cabinet
and close control units.

The method is compatible with methodologies applied in studies DG ENER lot 1 for water based
heating and DG ENER Lot 10 for air conditioners up to 12 kW.

Cooling mode

A bin method is used to compute a seasonal efficiency ratio in cooling mode noted SEERon which
only accounts for hours with non zero cooling load.
A second figure SEER is defined to take into account parasitic electricity power consumption in low
power modes: thermostat off mode, standby mode, off mode and crankcase heater mode.

A reference climate is defined. It is an average climate for Europe. The load curve is a straight line as
a function of outdoor air temperature with no load at 16 °C and 100 % load (matching the full load
capacity of the unit) at 35 °C.



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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


reference design conditions for cooling (Tdesignc)
Temperature conditions at 35oC dry bulb (24oC wet bulb) outdoor temperature and 27oC dry bulb
(19oC wet bulb) indoor temperature

Part load ratio % = (Tj-16) / (35-16)

The hours of operation in each bin are defined below.

Table 1 - 72 . bin number j, outdoor temperature Tj in oC and number of hours per bin hj corresponding to
the reference cooling season




The EER values at each bin are determined via interpolation of the EER values at part load conditions
A,B,C,D as mentioned in the tables below with methods as described below. For part load conditions
above part load condition A, the same EER values as for condition A are used. For part load
conditions below part load condition D, the same EER values as for condition D are used.

To compute SEERon and SEER, the formulas to be applied are:




Where :
Tj = the bin temperature
j = the bin number
n = the amount of bins
Pc(Tj) = the cooling demand of the building for the corresponding temperature Tj.
hj = the number of bin hours occurring at the corresponding temperature Tj
EER(Tj) = the EER values of the unit for the corresponding temperature Tj .




Where :
QCE = The reference annual cooling demand, expressed in kWh
HTO, HSB, HCK, HOFF = the number of hours the unit is considered to work in respectively
thermostat off mode, standby mode, crankcase heater mode and off mode. NOTE the number of
hours to be used for several types of units is indicated in Annex C
PTO, PSB, PCK, POFF = the electricity consumption during respectively thermostat off mode, standby
mode, crankcase heater mode and off mode, expressed in kW

And



For units up till 12 kW cooling capacity, the number of equivalent cooling hours equals 350 and
equivalent hours of operation are available (DG ENER Lot 10).


The 4 testing conditions A, B, C and D are defined for each type of sink-source combination.



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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 73 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : air to air units




Table 1 - 74 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : water-to-air and brine to air
units




Table 1 - 75 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : air-to-water units




Table 1 - 76 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : water-to-water units and
brine to water units




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                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010




At full load (= part load condition A), the declared capacity of a unit is considered equal to the cooling
load (Pdesignc).

In part load conditions B,C,D the declared capacity of a unit may or may not match the cooling load : If
the declared capacity of a unit is matching with the required cooling loads, the corresponding EER
value of the unit is to be used. This may occur with staged capacity or variable capacity units.

If the declared capacity of a unit is higher than the required cooling loads, the unit has to cycle on/off.
This may occur with fixed capacity, staged capacity or variable capacity units. In such cases, a
degradation factor (Cd or Cc) has to be used to calculate the corresponding EER value. Such
calculation is explained below.

For water based units when cycling, the unit will have to operate at lower leaving temperature than 7
°C (for fixed outlet) in order to be able to supply 7 °C on average. The correction formula (both for
fixed and variable outlet) is as follows:
toutlet,average = tinlet,full load test + toutlet,full load test – tinlet, full load test) * CR

For stage capacity units and variable capacity with capacity stages not matching the required part load
conditions (+/- 3 % of DC for capacity stage and 5 % for variable capacity units), EERx should be
computed by linear interpolation between the capacity stages the closest to the part load required for
the same temperature conditions.

Cd correction for air to air and water to air



    -   EERDC = the EER corresponding to the declared capacity (DC) of the unit at the same
        temperature conditions as for part load conditions B,C,D
    -   Cd = the degradation coefficient
    -   CR = the capacity ratio The capacity ratio is the ratio of the cooling demand (Pc) over the
        declared capacity (DC) of the unit at the same temperature conditions

The Cd value can be determined by test or the default degradation coefficient Cd shall be 0.25. It
takes into account both the power consumption of the unit when the compressor is off and the
pressure equalisation that reduces the cooling/heating capacity when the unit is restarted. Test is
made at 20 % load over a cycle of 30 mn.


Cc correction for air to water and water to water




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                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


    -    Cc = the degradation coefficient

The Cc value can be determined by test or the default degradation coefficient Cc shall be 0.1. It takes
into account both the power consumption of the unit when the compressor is off but does not account
for the pressure equalisation that reduces the cooling/heating capacity when the unit is restarted that
has been estimated to be negligible. Test is then simply the measurement of electric power when the
compressor is off (over 10 mn).

Heating mode

The same procedure is applied in heating mode8 as in cooling mode. For the purpose of reference
SCOP and reference SCOPon, there are 3 reference conditions: average (A), warmer (W) and colder
(C). A supplementary SCOPnet, without backup nor consumption of the low power modes, is defined
in view of the RES directive.

reference design conditions for heating (Tdesignh)
Temperature conditions for average, colder and warmer climates.
Average: -10oC dry bulb outdoor temperature and 20oC dry bulb indoor temperature
Cold: -22°C dry bulb outdoor temperature and 20°C dry bulb indoor temperature
Warm: +2°C dry bulb outdoor temperature and 20°C dry bulb indoor temperature

A bivalent point is defined and illustrated in the figure below.

bivalent temperature (Tbivalent)
It is the lowest outdoor temperature point at which the heat pump is declared to have a capacity able
to meet 100% of the heating demand.
NOTE Below this point, the unit may still deliver capacity, but additional back up heating is necessary to fulfill the
full heating demand.
The declared bivalent temperature can be any outdoor temperature within following limits:
      -    for the average heating season, the bivalent temperature is +2°CDB or lower
      -    for the colder heating season, the bivalent temperature is -7°CDB or lower
      -    for the warmer heating season, the bivalent temperature is +7°CDB or lower

In addition, the bivalent point is fixed for reversible air to air units falling in the scope of DG ENER Lot
10 study (cooling capacity below 12 kW). Average season bivalent point shall be – 7 °C, cold climate
bivalent point should be - 7 °C and warm climate bivalent point should be 2 °C.

Figure 1 - 22 . Illustration of the bivalent point for a on-off cycling air to water unit (prEN14825:2009,
Annex B, p 40)




8
 For water based heating, there are 3 temperature levels with fixed or variable outlet temperature.
Only the very high temperature application is not covered (50 °C – 65 °C).


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


The heating bins are given hereunder. The load curve in heating mode is also computed with 16 °C as
the balance point temperature (ie outdoor dry bulb temperature with no heating load) with the following
formula:
The heating demand Ph(Tj) can be determined by multiplying the full load value (Pdesignh) with the
part load ratio % for each corresponding bin. This part load ratio % is calculated as follows :
    - For the average climate : Part load ratio % = (Tj-16) / (-10-16) %
    - For the warmer climate : Part load ratio % = (Tj-16) / (+2-16) %
    - For the colder climate : Part load ratio % = (Tj-16) / (-22-16) %

Table 1 - 77 . bin number j, outdoor temperature Tj in °C and number of hours per bin hj corresponding to
the reference heating seasons ―warmer, ―average, ―colder




    -

The SCOP and SCOPon are computed as in the cooling mode but taking into account the electric
heating required to cover the heating load below the bivalent point.

Default equivalent full load hours are given for air to air reversible units with cooling capacity lower
than 12 kW as well as hours for low power mode consumption to compute reference SCOP and
SCOPon values. They are reported in the tables below.




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                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


EN 12309
Full title: Gas-fired absorption and adsorption air-conditioning and/or heat pump appliances with a net heat input
not exceeding 70 kW - Part 1: Safety 1999 - Part 2: Rational use of energy 2000

The first part of the standard deals with the safety of these gas burning products. The second part of
this standard is parallel to the EN14511 standard for absorption and adsorption machines below 70
kW cooling capacity. There is not comparable CEN standard for larger capacity absorption/adsorption
chillers. There is not any part load or seasonal performance standard equivalent to the prEN14825
standard for absorption/adsorption machines. The classification and testing conditions defined are
similar to the ones defined in the standard 14511. Despite its importance on part load performance,
the electric consumption is not defined in this standard. It should be added for proper performance
evaluation.

EN 15218: 2006
Full title: Air conditioners and liquid chilling packages with evaporatively cooled condenser and with
electrically driven compressors for space cooling - Terms, definitions, test conditions, test methods
and requirements.

This standard is dedicated to evaporatively cooled air conditioners for space cooling having their
condenser cooled by air and by the evaporation of external additional water. Inside dry and wet bulb
temperatures for air conditioners, and chilled water conditions for chillers, are compatible with the
EN14511 standard.
This standard defines the water temperature to be used for those tests according to its origin:
- for evaporatively cooled condenser air conditioner with continuous water supply circuit, a single
      water temperature of 15 °C is used,
- for evaporatively cooled condenser air conditioner with a water tank, water temperature is set to
      35 °C for air-to-air air conditioners.
Air conditioners evaporating the indoor condensates at their condenser are excluded (included in the
EN 14511 standard) since the water has to be “external”, except if they have a water tank that can be
filled in also with external water.


EN 12102:2008
Full title: Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages, heat pumps and dehumidifiers with electrically
driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Measurement of airbone noise - Determination of
the sound power level

General laws for measuring the sound power level are standardized in ISO standards on noise, ISO
3741, …., ISO 3748. The standard EN 12102 gives specific test conditions that are the reference
rating standard condition of EN14511 standard. Inverter compressors and chillers are covered.
Results are ratings in dB(A). As for the energy rating, noise measurement is done in specific
conditions that are not the ones observed in real life, low fan speed, part load … Nevertheless, the
standard leaves the choice to choose either rating or application conditions that may be a problem to
compare noise of different units. Method and corrections are supplied for ducted units. There is a
tolerance of 2 dB on the final sound power rating for the application of the labelling directive
2002/31/EC, provisional value while not yet fixed by a regulation. There is no indication for larger
capacity air conditioners nor for chillers.


EN 378:2008
Full title: Refrigerating systems and heat pumps - Safety and environmental requirements
- Part 1: Basic requirements, definitions, classification and selection criteria
- Part 2: Design, construction, testing, marking and documentation
- Part 3: Installation site and personal protection
- Part 4: Operation, maintenance, repair and recovery

The scope includes refrigerating systems and heat pumps (EN14511 products and ab/adsorption
machines). The EN 378 "refrigerating systems and heat pumps – safety and environmental
requirements" standard answers to the requirements of the European Directive on pressure equipment


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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


(97/23/EC), to the European Directive on machinery (98/37/EC modified by 2006/42/EC) and to the
requirements of the regulation 2006/842/EC on fluorinated greenhouse gases. This standard is now
being revised.

This standard applies to the design of refrigerating systems and heat pumps concerning the use of any
refrigerant fluid, toxic, inflammable or not.

EN378:1 gives general definitions and indications concerning the design, installation and recovery of
refrigerant fluids. Annex B (informative) defines the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), Annex C
(normative) defines the Refrigerant Charge Limitations, Annex E (normative) defines the Safety
classification and information about refrigerants, Annex F (informative) defines the Safety group
classifications.

In annex C, Table C.1 determines refrigerant charge limitations for a given system. In order to
determine the charge limit the system has to be classified according to the four categories:
- safety group of the refrigerant;
- occupancy;
- system category;
- location of the refrigerating system.

Part C.3 gives the calculation of the maximum charge amount of flammable refrigerants.

The analysis of the table C.1 limitations, the properties of refrigerant (Annex E) and air conditioning
systems to be considered in this study allows to select alternative refrigerants of Annex E for a given
system.

refrigerant
fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system, which absorbs heat at a low temperature and a
low pressure and rejects heat at a higher temperature and a higher pressure usually involving changes
of the state of the fluid

heat-transfer medium
fluid for the transmission of heat usually without any change in its phase (e.g. brine, water, air) or with
a change in its phase at the same pressure (e.g. R744). When fluids listed in Annex E are used they
need to comply with all requirements of refrigerants — even if they are used as a heat transfer
medium

toxicity
ability of a fluid to be harmful or lethal due to acute or chronic exposure by contact, inhalation or
ingestion
NOTE Temporary discomfort that does not impair health is not considered to be harmful.

lower flammability limit (LFL)
minimum concentration of refrigerant that is capable of propagating a flame within a homogeneous
mixture of refrigerant and air

halocarbon and hydrocarbon
these are:
⎜ CFC: fully-halogenated halocarbon containing only chlorine, fluorine and carbon;
⎜ HCFC: halocarbon containing hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon;
⎜ HFC: halocarbon containing only hydrogen, fluorine and carbon;
⎜ PFC: fully fluorinated halocarbon containing only fluorine and carbon;
⎜ HC: hydrocarbon containing only hydrogen and carbon

Refrigerants safety group classifications

Classes of refrigerants are defined according to their toxicity, A1 (lower toxicity), B1 (Higher Toxicity)
and flammability Class 1 (No Flame Propagation), Class 2 (Lower Flammability), Class 3 (Higher
Flammability).




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Toxicity class A1 (lower toxicity) : refrigerants with a time weighted average concentration not having
an adverse effect on nearly all workers who may be exposed to it day after day for a normal 8-hour
workday and a 40-hour workweek whose value is equal to or above 400 ml/m3 (400 ppm by volume)

Class B1 (Higher Toxicity): refrigerants with a time weighted average concentration not having an
adverse effect on nearly all workers who may be exposed to it day after day for a normal 8-hour
workday and a 40-hour workweek whose value is below 400 ml/m3 (400 ppm by volume).

The conditions to classify the flammability regard 3 criteria:
- flame propagation when tested at 60 °C and 101,3 kPa
- has a LFL < or ≥ 3,5 Vol% (the lower the more flammable)
- has a heat of combustion that is < or ≥ 19 000 kJ/kg (the higher the more flammable)

Specific provisions are given for refrigerant blends.

These leads to the following categories:

Table 1 - 78 . Safety group classification system




Occupancies

General occupancy — Class A. A location where people may sleep or where the number of people
present is not controlled or to which any person has access without being personally acquainted with
the personal safety precautions.
EXAMPLES hospitals, prisons, nursing homes, theatres, supermarkets, transport termini, hotels,
lecture halls, dwellings, restaurants, ice rinks

Supervised occupancy — Class B. Rooms, parts of buildings or buildings, where only a limited number
of people may be assembled, some of them being necessarily acquainted with the general safety
precautions.
EXAMPLES laboratories, places for general manufacturing, office buildings

Occupancy with authorised access only — Class C. An occupancy which is not open to the public and
where only authorised persons are granted access. Authorised persons shall be acquainted with
general safety precautions of the establishment (e.g. industrial production facilities).
EXAMPLES cold stores, refineries, abattoirs, non-public areas in supermarkets, manufacturing
facilities e.g. for chemicals, food, ice and ice cream

More than one category of occupancy
Where there is the possibility of more than one category of occupancy, the more stringent
requirements apply. If occupancies are isolated, e.g. by sealed partitions, floors and ceilings, then the
requirements of the individual category of occupancy apply.
NOTE Attention is drawn to the safety of adjacent premises and occupants in areas adjacent to a
refrigerating system.


Refrigerating system categories

Direct system : the evaporator or condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact with the air
or the substance to be cooled or heated. Systems in which a secondary coolant is in direct contact
with the air or the goods to be cooled or heated (spray or ducted systems) shall be treated as direct
systems. Examples of such systems are given in the standard. All systems based on air to air and
water to air cooling generators mentioned previously are in this category.




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                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


Indirect systems : the evaporator cools or the condenser heats the heat-transfer medium which passes
through a closed circuit containing heat exchangers that are in direct contact with the substance to be
treated. Examples of such systems are given in the standard. All systems based on air to water and
water to water cooling generators mentioned previously are in this category.

Location of the refrigerating system

The three types of location are:
a) refrigerating system located in an occupied space;
b) refrigerating system with the compressors, liquid receivers and condensors located in an
unoccupied machinery
room (see EN 378-3:2008, 5.2) or in the open air;
c) refrigerating system with all refrigerant containing parts located in an unoccupied machinery room
(see EN 378-3:2008, 5.2) or in the open air.

EN378:2 defines the design, construction, testing, marking and documentation. The following annexes
explain the link between the EU directives applying to these products and the EN378 standard.
- Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
    Requirements of EU Directive 97/23/EC
- Annex ZB (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
    Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC
- Annex ZC (informative) !Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
    Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC"

EN378:3 deals with installation site and personal protection.

EN378:4 deals with operation, maintenance, repair and recovery of refrigerant fluid. All refrigerants
shall be recovered for reuse, recycled or reclaimed for reuse, or shall be disposed of as defined in the
standard.
A performance criteria for fluid recovery is defined: the recovery equipment shall at a corresponding
temperature of 20 °C be able to operate down to a final pressure of 0,3 bar absolute.
NOTE A method for measuring the performance of this equipment is contained in ISO 11650.

2.3.3.   AHU

EN 13053:2006
Full title: Ventilation for buildings - Air handling units - Rating and performance for units, components
and sections
This standard is addressed in the ventilation section.

EN 1216: 1998
Full title: Heat exchangers – Forced circulation air-cooling and air-heating    coils – Test procedures for
establishing the performance

This standards applies to chilled water cooling coils (and also to refrigerant cooling coils).
It specifies how to ascertain in standard rating conditions:
- The product identification
- The capacity (latent and sensible)
- Th air side pressure drop
- The fluid side pressure drop

Forced-circulation air-cooling coil or air-heating coil
A tubular heat exchanger, with or without extended surfaces, for use in an air flow, circulated by fans

Forced-circulation air-cooling coil
An air-cooling coil thorough which a cooling fluid is circulated for the purpose of the sensible cooling,
or sensible cooling and dehumidification of a forced-circulation air flow, including all components
necessary for the distribution and collection of fluid.




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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


The standard conditions for comparison purpose are given in the table 1 of the standard reported
below. In cooling mode, it corresponds to the standard rating conditions of chillers for chilled water
cooling coils and to the conditions of air to air machines for refrigerant to air cooling coils.

Table 1 - 79 . Standard conditions for cooling coil testing




2.3.4.    Water circulation

Regarding circulators, no standard for circulators with motor rated power input above 200 W has been
identified9 and present standard are anterior to the regulation (EC) 641/2009. We will thus refer to the
regulation (EC) 641/2009 in this study regarding circulators.

EN 1151-1:2006
Full title: Pumps - Rotodynamic pumps - Circulation pumps having a rated power input not exceeding
200 W for heating installations and domestic hot water installations - Part 1: Non-automatic circulation
pumps, requirements, testing, marking

EN 1151-2:2006
Full title: Pumps - Rotodynamic pumps - Circulation pumps having a rated power input not exceeding
200 W for heating installations and domestic hot water installations - Part 2: Noise test code (vibro-
acoustics) for measuring structure- and fluid-borne noise

2.3.5.    Terminal units

EN 1397:1998
Full title: Heat exchangers - Hydronic room fan coil units - Test procedures for establishing the
performance

This standards applies to units with an air flow lower than 0.7 m3/s and an external static pressure
lower than 65 pa.
It specifies how to ascertain in standard rating conditions:
- the product identification,
- the performance on condensation on the casing,
- the capacity (latent and sensible),
- the performance on condensate disposal,
- the air side pressure drop,
- the liquid side pressure drop,
- the air volume flow rate,
- the sound power level.

Room fan coil unit
A factory-made assembly which provides one or more of the functions of forced circulation of air,
heating, cooling, dehumidification and filtering of air, but which does not include the source of cooling
or heating. This device is normally designed for free intake of air from a room and delivery of air into

9
    The same conclusion was reached also in DG ENER Lot 11 study available on www.ecomotors.org.


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                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


the same room, but may applied with minimum ductwork. This device may be designed for built in
application, or with and enclosure for application within the conditioned space.

The principal components are:
- one or more heat exchanger,
- one or more fans with drive mechanism,
- a common casing,
- on air filtering device.

NOTE These parts may be complemented by:
- an air mixing device,
- safety devices,
- control devices,
- a condensate collecting device.

The standard conditions for capacity comparison purpose are given in the table 1 of the standard
reported below. In cooling mode, the water temperature corresponds to the standard rating conditions
of chillers and air temperatures indoor are similar to the indoor air conditions of air conditioning
equipment as specified in the standard EN 14511. IT is to be noted that the fan speed setting should
be the maximum.

Table 1 - 80 . Standard conditions for capacity of fan coil units




In addition ot the capacity test, several tests are defined:
- Air flow rate (at the same fan speed as for the rating conditions): this test is performed without
    water in the coils.
- Sweat and condensate disposal test: the sweat test ensures there is not any condesantion of
    water on the casing and water dripping from or being blown off the fan coil ; condensate disposal
    test enables to check the constant disposal of condensing water ; for both tests, the minimum
    speed is used ; the water temperature regime is 6 °C – 10 °C with 27 °C dry bulb inlet and 24 °C
    wet bulb.
- Sound pressure level test (at the same fan speed as for the rating conditions)


EN 14240:2004
Full title: Ventilation for buildings — Chilled ceilings — Testing and rating

This European Standard specifies test conditions and methods for the determination of the cooling
capacity of chilled ceilings and other extended chilled surfaces.

NOTE The result is valid only for the specified test set up. For other conditions (i.e. different positions of heat
loads, forced flow around the test object, variations in surface area) the producer should give guidance based on
full scale tests.




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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010



chilled surfaces
surfaces that are part of the room periphery (such as ceiling, walls and floor) and cooled with water

test room
room in which the test object is mounted (specified in the standard)

room air temperature (θa)
air temperature measured with radiation shielded sensor

globe temperature (θg)
dry resultant temperature of the room, measured with a temperature sensor placed in the centre of the
globe as in 4.3

reference room temperature (θr)
average of the measured globe temperature, measured in the middle of the room at a height of 1,1 m
above the floor, during the test period

cooling water flow rate (qw)
average of the measured water flow rate during the test period

cooling water inlet temperature (qw1)
average of the measured water temperature into the test object during the test period

cooling water outlet temperature (qw2)
average of the measured water temperature out of the test object during the test period

mean cooling water temperature (qw)
the mean value of the sum of the cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures

temperature difference (∆q)
difference between reference room temperature and mean cooling water temperature [∆θ=θr-θw]

active area (Aa)
reference area to calculate the specific cooling capacity of the test object (see figure below)




cooling capacity (P)
total cooling capacity of the test object calculated from the measured cooling water flow rate and the
cooling water temperature rise

specific cooling capacity of a chilled surface (Pa)
cooling capacity divided by the active area of the chilled surface

nominal temperature difference (∆qN)
temperature difference between the reference room temperature and the mean cooling water
temperature

nominal cooling water flow rate (qwN)
flow rate that gives a cooling water temperature rise of (2 ± 0,2) K at the nominal temperature
difference of 8 K


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



nominal cooling capacity (PN)
cooling capacity calculated from the curve of best fit for the nominal cooling water flow rate at the
nominal temperature difference (∆θN)


The cooling capacity of the test object shall be determined from measurements of the cooling water
flow rate, and the cooling water temperature rise, under steady state conditions. The cooling capacity
shall be presented as a function of the temperature difference between the reference room
temperature and the mean cooling water temperature.

Measurements shall be carried out in steady state conditions for each water flow rate with at least 3
different temperature differences (∆θ); e.g. (6 ± 1) K, (8 ± 1) K, (10 ± 1) K.

At least one test series, as above, shall be carried out at the nominal water flow rate. The reference
room temperature shall be between 22 °C and 27 °C. The cooling water inlet temperature shall be at
least 2 K higher than the dew point temperature of the test room air.

The nominal cooling capacity of the test subject should be at least 35 W/m² at a temperature
difference of 8 K.

The specific cooling capacity of ceiling cooling panels shall be calculated from the equation:



With :



where k is a characteristic constant
and n is the exponent

Figure 1 - 23 . Typical example of measurements and results for chilled ceilings




EN 14518:2005
Full title: Ventilation for buildings - Chilled beams - Testing and rating of passive chilled beams

This European Standard specifies test conditions and methods for the determination of the cooling
capacity of chilled beams or other similar systems with free convection, i.e. without forced air flow.
Also included is the method to determine local air velocity and temperature below the beam.



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                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


chilled beam
convector cooled with water and mounted under the ceiling of the test room with suspended ceiling

cooling length (L) of a chilled beam
active length of the cooling section

total length (Lt) of a chilled beam
total installed length of the cooling section including casing

The test procedure and presentation of results is identical as for chilled radiative surface, with the
change in the specific capacity which is expressed by active area for radiant surfaces and by cooling
length for chilled beams.

Figure 1 - 24 . Typical example of measurements and results for passive chilled beams




With: X Temperature difference ∆θ in K, Y1 Total cooling capacity P in W, Y2 Specific cooling capacity
PLN in W/m


EN 15116:2008
Full title: Ventilation in buildings - Chilled beams - Testing and rating of active chilled beams

This European Standard specifies methods for measuring the cooling capacity of chilled beams with
forced air flow. The evaluation of aerodynamic air performance is not part of this standard. It will be
dealt with in the future in a new standard entitled "Air terminal devices - Aerodynamic testing and
rating for mixed flow applications for non isothermal testing - Cold jets" (indicated as a project of the
CEN TC 156). The testing chamber is the same as for radiative surfaces and passive chilled beams.

active chilled beam
convector with integrated air supply where the induced air only passes through the cooling coil(s). The
cooling medium in the coil is water
NOTE For the purpose of this standard primary air does not pass through the cooling coil.

water side cooling capacity (Pw)
cooling capacity of the test object calculated from the measured cooling water flow rate and the
cooling water temperature rise Pw=cp qm (θw2 - θw1)

primary air flow rate (qp)
airflow supplied to the test object through a duct from outside of the test room or with primary air fan
and ducting inside the test room

induced air flow rate (qi)
secondary airflow from the test room induced into the test object by the primary air

exhaust air flow rate (qe)
airflow discharged from the test room or return air if the primary air fan is located in the test room. The
exhaust air flow rate is the same as the primary air flow rate



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                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010


primary air pressure drop (∆pa)
pressure drop across induction nozzle plus discharge loss

cooling water flow rate (qw)
the average of the measured water flow rates during the test period

nominal temperature difference (∆θN)
nominal temperature difference (8 K) between the reference air temperature and the mean cooling
water temperature (∆θN=θr - θw=8 K)

primary air temperature difference (∆θp)
temperature difference between the reference air temperature and the primary air temperature

primary air cooling capacity (Pa)
cooling capacity calculated from the primary air flow rate and primary air temperature difference
Pa= cp qp ρp (θr - θp)

specific cooling capacity per unit length (PL)
water side cooling capacity divided by the (active) cooling section length

specific cooling capacity (PK)
cooling capacity divided by the difference between reference air temperature and mean cooling water
temperature, ∆θ=θr - θw raised to the exponent m i.e. PK = Pw/∆θm
nominal cooling capacity (PN) or nominal specific cooling capacity (PLN)
water side cooling capacity calculated from the curve of best fit for the nominal cooling water flow rate
at nominal temperature difference (∆θN = 8 K) and at nominal air flow rate

The testing procedure is similar to the one of passive chilled beams except the primary air flow is
varied and not only the temperature difference.

The measurements shall be carried out in steady state conditions with at least three different ∆θ = ( 6,
8, 10 K) ± 1 K, driving the test sample with the nominal primary air flow rate, according to the
manufacturers recommendations. Varying the primary air flow rate at nominal ∆θ = 8 K, qp= (0,8 × qpN
, qpN , 1,2 × qpN ) ± 5 %, will determine the influence of primary air on thermal performance. These
tests are necessary for each water flow rate. The nominal cooling capacity of the test object shall be at
least 15 W/m2 floor area.

The cooling capacity shall be plotted in diagrams as functions of the temperature difference ∆θ and
the primary air flow rate. Curves of best fit shall be drawn through the plotted points. The curves are
expected to be of the form:



                                                    or:




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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010



Figure 1 - 25 . Typical example of measurements and results for chilled ceilings




Y = waterside cooling capacity Pw in W                  Y = specific cooling capacity Pk W K-1
X = reference air temperature – Mean water              X = primary air flow rate qp l(litre) s-1
temperature ∆θ in K                                     3 = nominal water flow rate
1 = nominal water flow rate                             4 = 0,5 x nominal water flow rate
2 = 0,5 x nominal water flow rate


EN 1264:2009
Full title: Floor heating - Systems and components
Part 1: Definitions and symbols
Part 3: Dimensioning
Part 4: Installation
Part 5: Heating and cooling surfaces embedded in floors, ceilings and walls - Determination of the
thermal output


EN 15377-1:2008
Full title: Heating systems in buildings - Design of embedded water based surface heating and
cooling systems
Part 1: Determination of the design heating and cooling capacity
Part 2: Design, dimensioning and installation
Part 3: Optimising for use of renewable energy sources


2.3.6.   Heat rejection units

EN 1048:1998
Full title: Heat exchangers - Air-cooled liquid coolers "dry coolers" - Test procedure for establishing
the performance

This European standards applies to remote forced convection air cooled liquid coolers, within which no
change in the liquid phase occurs. Its purpose is to ascertain:
- Product identification
- CapacityAir flow rate
- Liquid side pressure drop
- Energy requirements

Forced convection air cooler or “dry cooler”
A self contained system, that cools a single phase liquid by rejecting sensible heat via a heat
exchanger to air that is mechanically circulated by integral fan(s).


Inlet temperature difference
Difference between the liquid inlet temperature and air inlet temperature of the dry cooler.


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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



Liquid temperature difference
Difference between the liquid inlet and liquid outlet temperatures of the dry cooler

The standard rating conditions are defined as follows:
- Water inlet temperature of 25 °C
- Inlet temperature difference of 15 K (the inlet temperature of the air is of 10 °C)
- A liquid temperature difference of 5 K
- Air properties corrected to standard atmosphere.

The capacity is measured on the liquid side. It depends on the inlet air and liquid temperature
difference, the mass flow of air and liquid, the type of liquid and its temperature, the mounting of the
unit. Duplicate tests are performed around the standard rating conditions in order to ensure the
accuracy of the resulting capacity.

A specific air flow test is performed.

The test results should include the capacity, electric power input of the fan motor, the air flow, the
liquid pressure drop and information on the geometry.


EN 14705:2005
Full title: Heat exchangers - Method of measurement and evaluation of thermal performances of wet
cooling towers

This European Standard specifies requirements, test methods and acceptance tests for thermal
performances pumping head verification of wet cooling towers and plume abatement for wet/dry
cooling towers. This European Standard is applicable to natural draught wet cooling towers (see in
3.1.2.2) fan assisted natural draught cooling tower (see 3.1.2.3), wet/dry cooling towers (see 3.1.2.4)
and "Mechanical draught cooling towers", except series ones.

Thus it only applies to:

non series type mechanical draught wet cooling tower
mechanical draught wet cooling tower, the design of which is project dependent and for which the
performance data and test evaluation at specific operating conditions may be subject to agreement

EN 13741:2003
Full title: Thermal performance acceptance testing of mechanical draught series wet cooling towers

This European Standard specifies requirements, test method and acceptance tests for thermal
performance of mechanical draught series cooling towers. This European Standard is applicable to
series type wet cooling towers.

Definitions

air flow rate
total amount of dry air and associated water vapour moving through the cooling tower

approach
difference between cold water temperature and the inlet wet bulb temperature

approach deviation
deviation between the design approach and the measured (adjusted) approach

barometric pressure
atmospheric pressure at the test site

basin
open structure located beneath the cooling tower for collecting the circulating water and directing it to


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


the sump or suction line of the circulating pump

basin curb
top elevation of the tower basin usually the datum from which the tower elevations are measured.

blow-down
water discharged from the system to control the concentration of salts or other impurities in the
circulating water

cell
smallest subdivision of the tower, bounded by exterior walls and partition walls , which can function as
an independent unit Each cell may have one or more fans or stacks and one or more distribution
systems

cold water temperature
average temperature of the water entering or leaving the tower basin In the case where the
measurement is downstream of the basin or the pump, corrections are needed for the effects of the
pump, and any other make up water blow down or heat sources entering the basin

cooling range
difference between the temperature of the water entering the distribution system and the cold water
temperature

cooling tower
apparatus in which water is cooled down by heat exchange with ambient air

drift eliminator
the assemblies downstream of the heat transfer media, which serve to reduce the drift loss

drift loss
portion of the water flow rate lost from the tower in form of fine droplets mechanically entrained in the
discharge air stream, commonly expressed as mass per unit time or a percentage of the circulating
water flow rate. It is independent by water lost from evaporation

fan power
power consumed by the fan driver, including the indication whether the efficiency of the driver is
included or not

make up
water added to the system to replace the water lost by evaporation, drift blowdown and leakage

mechanical draught cooling tower
cooling tower where the air circulation is produced by a fan. May further be categorized as either:
- forced draught: the fan is located in the entering air stream
- induced draught: the fan is located in the discharge air stream

non series type wet cooling tower
wet cooling tower, the design of which is project dependent, and for which the performance data and
test evaluation at specific operating conditions may be subject to agreement

open circuit (wet) cooling tower
cooling tower wherein the process fluid is warm water which is cooled by the transfer of mass and
heat through direct contact with atmospheric air

pump head
sum of static head and dynamic head from the contractual interface to the discharge of the distribution
system to the atmosphere

series type wet cooling tower
wet cooling tower, the design of which is fixed and described in the manufacturer’s catalogue and for



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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


which the performance data are available, which allows test evaluation over a defined range of
operating conditions

water flow rate
quantity of warm water flowing into the open cooling tower

water loading
water quantity expressed as quantity per unit of fill plan area of the tower

Performance testing

In order to measure on site the performance declared by the manufacturer (guaranteed performance),
manufacturers should present performance curves that allow to check the adequacy of the measured
performances with the declared performances.

Consequently, manufacturers are to present performance curves including the parameters that affect
the cooling performance of the cooling tower : performance curves shall be submitted in a way that
they describe the relation between the cold water temperature (tc) and wet bulb temperature (tw) for a
variation of water flow (m), of range (z) and fan power (FP).

The variations around the « guaranteed performances » are defined for these parameters as follows :




This standard does not give standard or reference values to evaluate the standard cooling capacity as
is done for other products. An example of performance curve is given below. It enables to read the
cold temperature variation for a variation of the temperature and flow variations.

Figure 1 - 26 . Example of performance curve of open cooling tower (EN 13741 :2003, Annex B, Figure B.1)

x cold water temperature tc
y wet bulb temperature tw (°C)

Performance curve with example to find the change of the cold water temperature tc due to changes
of the influencing factor "wet bulb temperature" tw.




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




Water consumption

There is no provision for the measurement of water consumption.


2.3.7.   Control

EN ISO 16484
Full title: Building automation and control systems (BACS)
Part 1: Overview and Vocabulary (PrEN 2009)
Part 2: Hardware (2005)
Part 3: Functions (2007)
Part 4: Applications (No draft available)
Part 5: Data communication - Protocol (2010)
Part 6: Data communication - Conformance testing (2009)
Part 7: Project specification and implementation (No draft available)

The most interesting part for this study should be part 4. It will specify the requirements for specific
communicating applications/devices, e.g. for general room automation and for sophisticated
optimization of controls for heating, fan coil and induction units, CAV, VAV and radiant cooling.

Part 2: Hardware (refer to the scope of this part)
Part 2 of the standard specifies the requirements for the hardware to perform the tasks within a BACS.

Part 3: Functions



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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


Part 3 of this standard specifies the requirements for the overall functionality and engineering services
to achieve building automation and control systems

Part 4: Applications
Part 4 of this standard specifies the requirements for specific communicating applications/devices, e.g.
for general room automation and for sophisticated optimization of controls for heating, fan coil and
induction units, CAV, VAV and radiant cooling.

Part 5: Data Communication – Protocol
Part 5 of this standard specifies data communication services and objects for computer equipment and
controllers used for monitoring and control of HVAC&R and other systems of building services.

Part 6: Data Communication – Conformance testing
Part 6 of the standard specifies the technical requirements of the conformance test suite and the
methods for testing the products for the conformance with the protocol. It provides a comprehensive
set of procedures for verifying the correct implementation of each capability claimed on a BACS
network protocol implementation conformance statement (PICS).

Part 7: Project specification and implementation
Part 7 of this standard specifies methods for project specification and implementation of BACS and for
integration of other systems into the BACS.




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010



2.4.    SUBTASK 1.2.2 - STANDARDS AT MEMBER STATE LEVEL

Most countries adopt the European standards. Some of the standards may have national appendices
to explicit default values required in the standards but when this is the case, this has been developed
when describing the European standards.

No national Member State standard has been indicated as useful for this study by stakeholders except
for standards relating to national building codes. In that case, these standards are addressed in the
subtask 1.3 of this report.




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



2.5.      SUBTASK 1.2.3 - THIRD COUNTRY STANDARDS

This part aims at developing two main types of standards:
- International standards or regional standards that are required for the correct interpretation of
    regional legislation in subtask 1.3.3
- International of regional standards that are of interest for Europe as they could be used for Europe
    in case a standard is missing.

The international standards that have been indicated useful by stakeholders are reported.

2.5.1.    Ventilation systems

JIS B 8628
Full title: Air to air heat exchanger (in AHU)

An English translation of this standard is available and still to be analyzed

2.5.2.    Air conditioning systems

Table 1 - 81 . Overview of third country test standards for air Conditioning systems
     Purpose of
                                                     Description of the standard
    the standard
                                          Cooling production

                        International
                        ISO 5151, 2005, Non-ducted air conditioners and heat pumps — Testing
                        and rating for performance.
                        ISO 13253, 2005, Ducted air-conditioners and air-to-air heat pumps —
                        Testing and rating for performance, revision of the 1995 version approved on
                        Dec 12 2005.

                        USA (Canada also if CSA is indicated)
                        ANSI/AHRI 210/240-2008: Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning &
                        Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment
                        ANSI/AHRI/CSA 310/380-2004: Standard for Packaged Terminal Air-
                        Conditioners and Heat Pumps (CSA-C744-04)
        Rating and
       performance
                        ANSI/AHRI 340/360-2007: Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial
                        Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment
                        AHRI 550/590-2003: Performance Rating of Water Chilling Packages Using
                        the Vapor Compression Cycle
                        ANSI/AHRI 560-2000: Absorption Water Chilling and Water Heating
                        Packages
                        AHRI 1230 - 2010: Performance Rating of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF)
                        Multi-Split Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment

                        Japan
                        Standards JRA: 4046 (JRA, 2004) - “Calculating method of annual power
                        consumption for room air conditioners” and JRA: 4048 (JRA, 2006) - “Annual
                        Performance Factor of Package Air Conditioners”
                                            Air Handling unit

                                                 Circulators

                                      Terminal units Heat rejection

                                             Heat rejection




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



      Rating and        USA - CTI standard STD-201 – cooling towers
     performance

                                                Controls

ISO 5151

To be completed


ISO 13256

To be completed


ANSI/AHRI 210/240-2008: Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning & Air-Source Heat
Pump Equipment

Scope
A central air conditioner or heat pump is defined as a ‘product other than a packaged terminal air
conditioner, which is powered by single phase electrical current, air cooled, rated below 65000 Btu/h
(19.05 kW), not contained within the same cabinet as a furnace, the rated capacity of which is above
225000 Btu/hr and is a heat pump or cooling only unit’. This definition includes split-packaged (single
and multi split) room air conditioners, cooling only and reversible. The official US test procedure is
contained in DOE regulations Code of Federal Regulations 430 Appendix M. Test method for
measuring the energy consumption of central air conditioners is the ARI 210/240-2008.

Temperature and load conditions

Cooling mode

A single load curve, representative of a typical building in a given climate, is used to represent the
cooling period climate of the whole USA to compute the SEER (seasonal energy efficiency ratio). The
building cooling load is assumed to be a straight line function of outdoor air temperature. The sizing
hypothesis is that at full load and outdoor air temperature of 95 °F (35 °C), the cooling capacity of the
air conditioner is 110 % of the cooling needs, which is translated in the equation below:
            Tj − 65 Pc (FL, Rating)
BL(Tj ) =
            95 − 65       1.1
with the following notations:
- Tj: temperature axis is discretized by intervals of 5 °F (about 2.8 °C)
- BL(Tj): building load for temperature of bin j in kW
- Pc(FL, rating): rated cooling capacity (P for power) at full load (FL), identical to ISO T1
condition, in kW.
- 65 °F = 18.3 °C ; 95 °F = 35 °C

In order to be able to average the efficiency at different (load, temperature) conditions, hours of
occurrence of each outdoor temperature during the cooling season are added for each of the bin
intervals and the median temperature of the interval bounds is kept as representative.

Table 1 - 82 . Distribution of fractional hours within cooling season temperature bins, ARI 210/240
Bin Temperature Representative            Fraction of total
Range [°F]      temperature for           temperature bin
                bin °F | °C               hours
65-69           67        19,4            0.214
70-74           72        22,2            0.231
75-79           77        25,0            0.216


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80-84                                                          82         27,8     0.161
85-89                                                          87         30,6     0.104
90-94                                                          92         33,3     0.052
95-99                                                          97         36,1     0.018
100-104                                                        102        38,9     0.004

                                                                                                                                nj
By multiplying cooling load (kW) by the fractional hours of operation (                                                              , with N: number of hours
                                                                                                                                N
with cooling operation and nj: number of hours with cooling operation in temperature bin j), one can get
an idea of the energy spent at each temperature level (or equivalently each load ratio).

Figure 1 - 27 . Cooling energy needs as a function of outdoor air temperature, ARI 210/240

                                   0,25
  % of the annual cooling energy




                                    0,2




                                   0,15




                                    0,1



                                   0,05




                                     0
                                                67        72         77    82      87       92           97          102

                                                               Outside air dry bulb temperature
                                                               [°F]


Hence, for standard SEER rating, energy is spent in average for an outdoor air temperature of about
82 °F (27.8 °C) and 52 % load.


Computing seasonal and yearly performance

Cooling mode: SEER

For each temperature (median temperature of the intervals of 5 °F), a given load ratio is associated via
the building load straight line. Testing and modelling the performances of the unit for these different
points enable to compute electric power for each one of these conditions. Then, the SEER is
calculated as shown below by calculating the ratio of the energy delivered to the electric energy
consumption.
                                          8      q(Tj )
                                          ∑        N
SEER =
                                          j=1                   (1)
                                           8     e(Tj )
                                          ∑
                                          j=1        N
T j are the eight temperature bins defined in ARI 210/240 (section 2.12.1). For each temperature bins,
two terms must be calculated:
q(Tj )                                                                                   q c (Tj )                         nj
                                      : bin weighted net cooling loads with                          = BL(Tj ).
  N                                                                                         N                              N
e(Tj )                                                                                           e c (Tj )       •                    nj
                                      : bin weighted energy consumptions with                                 = Q e (Tj , X(Tj )).
       N                                                                                             N                                N



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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


Where X(Tj) is the load ratio for temperature in bin j: the ratio of the building load required to the
cooling capacity of the air conditioner. The introduction of this factor enables to introduce the effect of
                                                       •        •
part load in computing seasonal performances.         Qe and Qc respectively refer to the electric power and
to the cooling power (or capacity) of the unit.




Testing and modelling to compute performances for different (load, outdoor temperature) couples

In order to calculate the performances of the unit for each one of the bins, corresponding outdoor air
temperature and humidity, (indoor air conditions are fixed) and load ratio, methods are separated by
technology of air conditioners and heat pumps. The general principle is to build, with a few testing
points, performance curves of the units. These performance curves give the cooling and heating
capacity and the electric consumption as a function of outdoor air conditions for different capacity
levels of the air conditioners (two capacity steps, minimum or maximum speed of an inverter …). As a
consequence, the following paragraphs are split by technology type of capacity control.

Cooling mode

- Units with single speed compressor
Only two testing points are required, A and B in the table below. C and D points are optional, they are
used to compute the coefficient of degradation of energy efficiency with decreasing load rates, which
is supposed to be a straight line with shape factor equal to the coefficient CDc. Whether supplementary
tests are performed, CDc can be computed, or alternatively a default value of 0.25 is kept.
Table 0-1: Single speed compressor test conditions in cooling mode, ARI 210/240




The following simplified formula is used to compute the SEER: 82 °F and about 50 % load is the peak
of the cooling needs distribution as reported before.
                                                    With:
                                                    - EER B = net steady-state efficiency (Btu/Wh) at
SEER = EER B .PLF(0.5)
                                                    the ARI B rating point
              (
PLF(0.5) = 1 − 0.5.C D c    )                       - PLF(0.5) = degradation of EER at 50 % load
                                                    ratio


- Units with two capacity steps


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                                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010


Four testing points are required, the two cyclic testing points still being optional. As shown in the table
below, 2 tests are required at full capacity for two different outdoor air temperature and two other tests
on the smaller capacity step for the same temperature level.
Erreur ! Source du renvoi introuvable. gives shows the load curve and the capacity of the two
stages of the air conditioner that vary with outdoor air temperature. The supposed linear variation is
computed for each capacity stage thanks to the two testing points, hence capacity and electric power
of each stage may be computed for a different temperature of the ones tested with the following
formula (for capacity, with k =1 or 2).
                              • k =1           • k =1
 • k =1        • k =1         Q (95) − Q c (82)
Q c (Tj ) = Q c         (82) + c                (Tj − 82)
                                  95 − 82

Table 1 - 83 . Two-Capacity compressor test conditions in cooling mode, ARI 210/240




Figure 1 - 28 . Illustration of the procedure to compute SEER of a two steps air conditioner, ARI 210/240

   140%

   120%                                B2
                                                        A2
   100%                                                                    Building load (% of rated
                                                                           cooling capacity A2)
    80%
                                                                           Cooling capacity, capacity
                                                                           stage k=2
    60%                                B1
                                                        A1                 Cooling capacity, capacity
    40%                                                                    stage k=1

    20%

      0%
        15,0       20,0       25,0          30,0        35,0   40,0



In order to compute the electric power for a specific couple (Tj, BL(Tj)), two cases may occur.
                                                                                                        • k =1
     •    The building load       BL(Tj) is lower than the steady state capacity at low speed Qc (Tj) .
The cooling load factor for this temperature bin is defined as:




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                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010


               BLT (T j)
X k =1(T j)=     • k =1
                                 (2)
               Q c (T j )
As for single speed air conditioner, cycling loss is modelled by PLF and CDc coefficient. The cooling
capacity supplied equals to the building load while the electric power is increased by the cyclic
degradation.
                                                                    • k =1
qc(T j)                     • k =1       ec(T j) X (T j).E (T j) n j
                                                           k =1
        = X k =1(T j).Q c (T j). n j and
                                                                      c
                                                =               .
  N                              N         N        PLF j         N
   • The building load BL(Tj) lies between than the steady state                     capacity of lower and higher
        stages.
In this configuration, the appliance cycles between the two stages to supply the required cooling
capacity. Cooling capacity supplied by each stage can be computed as a simple barycentre:
                  • k =2
                 Q c (Tj ) − BLT(Tj )
X k =1 (Tj ) =                                 and      X k = 2 (Tj ) = 1 − X k =1 (Tj )
                  • k=2          • k =1
                 Q c (Tj ) − Q c (Tj )
Electric power is then calculated as:
e c (Tj )     ⎡              • k =1                    • k =2    ⎤ nj
            = ⎢ X k =1 (Tj ).E c (Tj ) + X k = 2 (Tj ).E c (Tj ) ⎥
   N          ⎣                                                  ⎦N
- Inverter driven units

The 5 tests required are presented in the table below. Intermediate frequency of test Ev is defined as:
Intermediate speed = Low speed + (High speed – low speed)/3.
These tests enable to calculate the laws of variation of cooling capacity and electric power at low
speed (B1, F1) and high speed (A2, B2). For intermediate frequency, law of performance evolution is
computed from the two preceding performance curves.

Table 1 - 84 . Inverter compressor test conditions in cooling mode, ARI 210/240




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010


The only difference with the calculation method for two capacity steps units, is when the building load
BL(Tj) lies between than the steady state capacity of lower and higher stages (minimum and maximum
compressor speed). It is assumed the energy efficiency ratio for cooling capacity that matches the
building load in that interval can be expressed as a second order polynomial equation as follows:
EER k =i (Tj ) = A + B.Tj + C.Tj2
In order to compute coefficients A, B and C, it is first necessary to identify the three points of
interpolation between cooling capacity lines and the building load curve for the 3 frequencies.


ANSI/AHRI/CSA 310/380-2004: Standard for Packaged Terminal Air-Conditioners and Heat
Pumps (CSA-C744-04)

To be completed

ANSI/AHRI 340/360-2007: Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-
Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment

This standard defines the EER, IPLV (different figure of the one for chillers) and the IEER
(improvement of the IPLV figure for large unitary air conditioners) figures and testing conditions
(integrated part load index) for chillers.

To be completed


AHRI 550/590-2003: Performance Rating of Water Chilling Packages Using the Vapor
Compression Cycle

This standard defines the EER and IPLV figures and testing conditions (integrated part load index) for
chillers.

ANSI/AHRI 560-2000: Absorption Water Chilling and Water Heating Packages

This standard defines the EER and IPLV figures and testing conditions (integrated part load index) for
absorption chillers.

AHRI 1230 - 2010: Performance Rating of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Multi-Split Air-
Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment

To be completed


Japan: Standards JRA: 4046 (JRA, 2004) - “Calculating method of annual power consumption
for room air conditioners” and JRA: 4048 (JRA, 2006) - “Annual Performance Factor of Package
Air Conditioners”

These methods define the “Annual Performance Factor (APF)” described in the JRA standard
“Calculating method of annual power consumption for room air conditioners” [JRA, 2004], for air
conditioners primarily intended to residential use (cooling capacity < 10 kW and electric power < 3 kW)
and [JRA, 2006] for package air conditioners (cooling capacity < 28 kW), for air conditioners primarily
intended to commercial use.
These two standards adopt the same methodology as in the ARI 210/240 standard. The CSPF
(Cooling Seasonal Performance Factor – American SEER) and HSPF, in combination with cooling
hours and heating hours give the APF. Differences in scope, building load curve, climate, testing and
modeling performances, are reported hereafter. It is to be noted that the APF is used for all air
conditioners and reversible heat pumps in Japan ; it replaced the old COP (COP(rated) + EER(rated))
/ 2.




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Package air conditioners, [JRA, 2006]

As opposed to the residential standard, requirements for marking and for information to be included in
the technical documentation of the air conditioner are described. Namely, all test results should be
included in the technical documentation, which is very useful to building system designers.

Building load curves and air conditioner use are specified for offices, stand-alone and tenant shops.
Load curves in cooling and heating modes for standard [JRA, 2004] and these 3 building types are
shown on the figure below.

Figure 1 - 29 . Building heating and cooling load, [JRA, 4046] and [JRA, 4048]




To compute hours of operation, opening and days schedule are set for the 3 types of buildings. Also a
definition of the cooling and heating season is given for each of the buildings: “the cooling season
starts from the day of the third-time occurrence of the mean day temperature is equal to or higher than
20 °C for stand-alone shops, 18 °C for tenant shops and 16 °C for offices and ends at the day of the
third-time occurrence of the said temperature before the day when the said temperature is registered
last.” The same definition is applied for heating with respectively 12 °C, 10 °C and 8 °C. The default
climate is also Tokyo.

Concerning testing and calculation for seasonal performances, the methodology is the same as for
residential units. Variable capacity units are treated as inverter units but the without allowance for
extended operating range at low outdoor temperature in heating mode.

For multi-split units, different coefficients are to be used for the performance curves at intermediate
speed or capacity in cooling mode and correction coefficients are supplied whether tests of indoor
units are led in the same room instead of separate rooms.

To be completed


USA - CTI standard STD-201 – cooling towers

To be completed



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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




3.       SUBTASK 1.3 - EXISTING LEGISLATION


3.1.     SUBTASK 1.3.1 - LEGISLATION AND AGREEMENTS AT EUROPEAN COMMUNITY LEVEL
3.3.1. 89/106/EC relating to Construction Product
To be completed


3.3.2. 98/37/EC relating to machinery
To be completed

3.3.3. 2004/108/EC relating to electromagnetic compatibility
To be completed


3.3.4. 94/9/EC relating to explosive atmospheres
To be completed

3.3.5. 2006/95/EC relating to low voltage
To be completed

3.3.6. EuP measures and EU energy labels
To be completed

3.3.7. ROHS, WEEE
To be completed

3.3.8.   Directives regarding health

3.3.9. Fgas (– to be revised in 2011)
Refrigerant regulation EC/842/2006 ; the progress of the contract ENV.C.4/SER/2009/0033: OJ
2009/S 103147721, “Service contract to provide technical support for conducting a review of
Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases” may be of interest for this
study.

3.3.10. Existing voluntary agreements

To our knowledge there is no specific voluntary agreements at EU level for products in the scope.

However, there are voluntary certification programs that are useful to this study as they give
information of the technical characteristics of the products:
     - Eurovent
     - Are there other European certification program of interest regarding ventilation and air
        conditioning systems ?

Eurovent Certification Company (ECC).

Eurovent Certification Company in a third party organism that supplies public certified data on HVAC
products to professionals. There are presently 19 certification programs defined. These are “Certify-all”
programmes : when a manufacturer enters the scheme, he should declare all the products in its range
(e.g. all chillers manufactured). Amongst certified products, chillers, rooftops and air handling units
have an ad-hoc labeling system (with air conditioners below 12 kW using the official EU label). These
labels are sometimes referred by Member States or regions legislations when no EU energy efficiency


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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


class is available. These programs are described hereafter from information available on ECC
website10.

Liquid Chilling Packages (LCP)

Scope of the program

This programme applies to standard chillers used for air conditioning and for refrigeration. They may
operate with any type of compressor (hermetic, semi-hermetic and open) but only electrically driven
chillers are included. Only refrigerants authorised in EU are considered. Chillers may be air-cooled,
liquid cooled or evaporative cooled. Reverse cycle liquid chillers shall be certified in cooling and
heating mode. The programme covers all chillers with the limitation of cooling capacities of approved
independent laboratories

The following units are specifically excluded from the certification programme:
- chillers powered by other than electric motor drives
- free cooling ratings
- heat recovery and no-reverse cycle heat pumps
- 60 Hz units

Participating companies must certify all production models within the scope of the programme :

 Application Maximum capacity
Air cooled               600 kW
Water cooled           1500 kW
Medium Brine             300 kW
Low Brine                200 kW

Product classification

Products are classified by chilled water / brine temperature levels and then by their technical
characteristics (split/package, reversible or cooling only, ducted/non ducted).

Certified values

The following characteristics of Liquid Chilling Packages are verified by tests at Standard Rating
Conditions and at one of Application Rating Conditions selected by Eurovent:

a) cooling capacity
b) energy efficiency (EER)
c) the European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (ESEER)
d) water pressure drop or available pressure at evaporator in cooling
e) water pressure drop or available pressure at condenser in cooling
f) heating capacity for reverse cycle unit
g) energy efficiency (COP)
h) water pressure drop or available pressure at evaporator in heating
i) water pressure drop or available pressure at condenser in heating
j) A-weighted sound power for Air Cooled Units

EER labelling scale

The classification is established in terms of EER with the temperature and flow conditions of the EN
14511:2008 standard. Corrections for head losses at evaporator side of the EN14511 standard are not
included. EER and capacity values are named “gross” values accordingly, by opposition to “net”
values in the EN14511 standard. The EER classes are described hereunder.


10
     http://www.eurovent-certification.com


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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 85 . Eurovent chiller energy efficiency classes, cooling mode




The tables hereunder gives the repartition of the number of products by class, as in the Eurovent
certification online database of May 24 2010.

A first analysis to be refined, shows that the label, defined in 2004, nearly seizes the full EER range
with the G class appearing almost empty except for floor application.

Table 1 - 86 . Eurovent chiller EER repartition by energy efficiency classes for AC and CHF applications


                     AC - 7 °C - Non ducted - Cooling only - Package



                                                                                       Total
                                  Grades                   EER            AC
                                                                                       in %
           Grades

          Eurovent
                                   A+++         >=          4.1            0           0.0%
                                   A++          >=        3.8          0               0.0%
                                   A+           >=        3.4          4               0.1%
              A                     A           >=        3.1         327              8.7%
              B                     B           >=        2.9         697             18.6%
              C                     C           >=        2.7        1122             30.0%
              D                     D           >=        2.5         961             25.7%
              E                     E           >=        2.3         476             12.7%
              F                     F           >=        2.1         145              3.9%
              G                     G            <        2.1          13              0.3%
                                                         TOTAL       3745             100%
                                                           EER Average                    2.73
                                                            EER Median                    2.68
                                                              EER Min                     1.89
                                                              EER Max                     3.47



         AC - 18 °C - Non ducted - Cooling only or reversible - Package or split


                                                                                       Total
                                  Grades                   EER            CHF
                                                                                       in %
           Grades
                                   A+++         >=          5.1            0           0.0%
          Eurovent
                                   A++          >=          4.6           0            0.0%
                                   A+           >=          4.2           4            0.8%
              A                     A           >=          3.8           22           4.4%


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


              B                     B           >=        3.65          32             6.5%
              C                     C           >=         3.5          56            11.3%
              D                     D           >=        3.35          54            10.9%
              E                     E           >=         3.2          39             7.9%
              F                     F           >=        3.05          98            19.8%
              G                     G            <        3.05         191            38.5%
                                                         TOTAL         496            100%
                                                            EER Average                   3.18
                                                             EER Median                   3.30
                                                               EER Min                    3.05
                                                               EER Max                    3.55


                                WC - 7 °C - Reversible or not

                                                                                      Total
                                 Grades                   EER            AC
           Grades                                                                      in %
                                  A+++          >=         6.7          0              0.0%
          Eurovent                A++           >=         6.1          7              0.4%
                                   A+           >=         5.6          92             5.4%
              A                    A            >=        5.05         214            12.5%
              B                    B            >=        4.65         274            16.0%
              C                    C            >=        4.25         494            28.9%
              D                    D            >=        3.85         295            17.3%
              E                    E            >=        3.45         212            12.4%
              F                    F            >=        3.05         114             6.7%
              G                    G             <        3.05          8              0.5%
                                                         TOTAL        1710            100%
                                                            EER Average                   4.49
                                                             EER Median                   4.12
                                                               EER Min                    1.88
                                                               EER Max                    6.35

ESEER or part load index certification

A seasonal performance indicator, results of the SAVE EECCAC study, is described. The efficiency is
computed at 4 different conditions defined by their part load ratio and condensing temperature.
ESEER is calculated as follows: ESEER = A.EER100% + B.EER75% + C.EER50% + D.EER25%
With the following weighting coefficients: A = 0.03 ; B = 0.33 ; C = 0.41 ; D = 0.23
Results are presented in the figures below that compares EER and ESEER for air cooled and water
cooled chillers (cooling only, package, leaving water temperature of 7 °C). The dispersion of the
results shows the interest of the method. In average, there is however a good correlation between the
average EER and the ESEER except for new chillers with Turbocor® Danfoss compressor which at
equal EER supersede all competitors with ESEER values close to 6 for air cooled chillers and close to
9.5 for water cooled chillers.

Figure 1 - 30 . Eurovent Certified chillers, air cooled package AC chillers, ESEER Vs EER




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                                                      DRAFT 11.6.2010



                         ESEER - APC - AC
 7

 6

 5

 4

 3

 2

 1

 0
     1.5           2         2.5                 3         3.5          4
                                    EER




Figure 1 - 31 . Eurovent Certified chillers, water cooled package AC chillers, ESEER Vs EER
                              ESEER - WPC - AC
 10

  9

  8

  7

  6

  5

  4

  3

  2

  1

  0
      1.5    2.5       3.5           4.5             5.5         6.5    7.5
                                     EER




Comfort Air Conditioners (AC1 water cooled, AC2 and AC3 – from 12 to 100 kW)

Scope, certified characteristics, programme description

There are two programs for large comfort air conditioners according to the rated cooling capacity
range:
    - 12 kW ≤ Pc < 45 kW
    - 45 kW ≤ Pc < 100 kW

In this paragraph, we also consider smaller than 12 kW water cooled air conditioners.

Comfort air conditioners are classified according to the following characteristics: air/water cooled,
package/split/multi-split, cooling only/reverse cycle, and the type of indoor unit.

The following characteristics of comfort air conditioners are verified by tests :
a) Total cooling capacity
b) Heating capacity for reverse cycle units
c) Energy efficiency ratio (Cooling mode)
d) Coefficient of performance (Heating mode)
e) A-weighted sound power indoor side (non ducted units)
f) A-weighted sound power outdoor side (non ducted units)
g) A-weighted sound power radiated from the duct (ducted units)

Energy ratings are performed according to the EN 14511:2008 standard.

There is no specific label for these larger air conditioners as opposed to smaller than 12 kW air
conditioners for which the EU label 2002/31/EC is used.


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



Certified products, quantities and efficiency

The table below summarizes the number of products in ECC subcategories for comfort air conditioners
at stake in this study.

There are very few water cooled air conditioners certified, 3 products only all reversible with
performance still compatible with the EU Air conditioning label 2002/31/EC.

The large number of comfort air conditioners in the category AC2 is dominated by products with
cooling capacity below 15 kW (and above 12 kW) which represents roughly 75 % off all models. This
coincides with the end of smaller product ranges for mainly reversible split and multisplit products with
peaking number of units at 12.5 kW and 14 kW cooling capacity. These higher concentration extends
up to 20 kW for reversible split and up to 25 kW for reversible multisplit. For these products, the EER
and COP distribution is wider than the one of the 2002 EU label (this is just an indication on efficiency
as the EU label is not to be applied for these products).
For other product categories or larger capacities in the same categories, the average energy efficiency
lies between the 2002 EU label G and A (for units below 12 kW), when respecting the efficiency
categories of the label.

Table 1 - 87 . Eurovent comfort air conditioners, EER and COP analysis for some of the categories


                                                                                        EU EU EU EU
               Package                                                                  <12 <12 <12 <12
        Air
                    /   Cooling                                                         kW kW kW kW
      cooled                         Nb            EER                 COP
                Split    only                                                          2002 2002 2002 2002
         /                           of
                   /       /                                                           Label Label Label Label
      Water                       products
                Multi- Reversible                                                        G     A     G     A
      cooled
                 split


                                             Min Max Med Ave Min Max Med Ave EER EER COP COP

AC1     W         P         R         3      2.9 3.5   3.2 3.10 3.8 4.1    3.9   3.9    2.9   4.4   3.2   4.7

         A        M         R        145     2.2 3.7   3.0   3.0 2.6 4.4   3.5   3.4    2.2   3.2   2.4   3.6

         A        P         C         36     2.0 2.8   2.4   2.4 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2.0          3.0   N/A   N/A

         A        P         R         52     1.9 2.8   2.3   2.3 2.3 3.3   2.8   2.8    2.0   3.0   2.2   3.4
AC2
         A        S         C         58     2.2 2.9   2.6   2.7 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2.2          3.2   N/A   N/A

         A        S         R        435     2.1 4.0   3.0   2.9 2.4 4.4   3.4   3.3    2.2   3.2   2.4   3.6

        W         P         R         7      2.9 3.2   3.1   3.1 3.4 3.8   3.6   3.5    2.9   4.4   3.2   4.7

         A        P         C         10     2.2 2.6   2.4   2.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2.0          3.0   N/A   N/A

         A        P         R         15     2.2 2.6   2.4   2.4 2.6 2.9   2.8   2.8    2.0   3.0   2.2   3.4

AC3      A        S         C         7      2.3 2.8   2.5   2.7 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2.2          3.2   N/A   N/A

         A        S         R         7      2.2 2.8   2.5   2.6 2.4 3.1   2.8   2.9    2.2   3.2   2.4   3.6

        W         P         R         3      3.1 3.4   3.3   3.2 3.6 3.9   3.7   3.7    2.9   4.4   3.2   4.7




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                                                       DRAFT 11.6.2010


The distribution of EER versus rated cooling capacity is illustrated in the figure below. The high
number of models between 12 and 17 kW clearly appears as well as their relatively higher nominal
efficiency.

Figure 1 - 32 . Eurovent comfort air conditioners, EER Vs capacity for air cooled split
                               EER - AC2 - ASR
 4.5
   4
 3.5
   3
 2.5
   2
 1.5
   1
 0.5
   0
       12          17   22         27             32      37      42
                                 Capacity in kW




Rooftops

The classification is established in terms of EER with the temperature and flow conditions of the EN
14511:2008 standard.

Table 1 - 88 . Eurovent rooftop energy efficiency classes, cooling mode




The table hereunder gives the repartition of the number of products by class, as in the Eurovent
certification online database of May 24 2010.

A first analysis to be refined, shows that the label nearly seizes the full EER range with the G class
appearing almost empty for air cooled applications. There are only 5 water cooled units certified with
average EER of 4.1 (one product range from one manufacturer).

Table 1 - 89 . Eurovent rooftop EER repartition by energy efficiency classes, cooling mode

                                                                       Air cooled

                                                                                    Numbers
                                                                   Numbers          Air cooled
            Grades
                                                                   Air cooled        cooling     Total   Total
                             Grades                       EER      reversible          only      in nb   in %
            Eurovent
                              A+++               >        4.0           0                0          0     0%
                              A++                >        3.6           0                0          0     0%
                               A+                >        3.3           3                2          5     4%
               A               A                 >          3           4                3          7     6%
               B               B                 >        2.8          18                8         26    20%
               C               C                 >        2.6          20               18         38    30%
               D               D                 >        2.4          13               14         27    21%
               E               E                 >         2.2          9               10         19    15%


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


             F             F          >        2              3            2          5           4%
             G             G         <=        2              0            0          0           0%
                                             TOTAL           70           57         127         100%
                                                                           EER Average             2.65
                                                                            EER Median             2.88
                                                                             EER Min               2.15
                                                                             EER Max               3.60


Fan Coil Units (FC)

Scope
This Certification Programme applies to Fan Coil Units using hot or chilled water. The units are
designed for an air flow of less than 0.7 m3/s and an external static duct pressure below 50 Pa.

Definition

A Fan Coil Unit is a factory made assembly which provides the functions of cooling and/or heating air
using hot or chilled water, with air flow to the room ensured by one or more electrically driven fans.
Fan Coil Units may be of the cabinet style within a room for free air delivery, or of the chassis style
concealed within the building structure, with minimal ducting appropriately connected to the inlet
and/or outlet of the unit.

The principal components are:
- one or more heat exchangers
- one or more fans with electric motors
- an appropriate enclosure
- condensate collecting facilities when cooling
- air filter

Testing

Testing is done according to Eurovent standards. Differences with corresponding EN standards is not
known.

3.1 Performance testing
Eurovent 6/3
"Thermal Test method for Fan Coil Units"
3.2 Acoustic testing
Eurovent 8/2
"Acoustic testing of Fan Coil Units in Reverberation Room"
3.3 Air Flow
ISO 5801
"Industrial Fans - Performane testing using standardized airways"

Ratings

Cooling mode

Air temperature entering the unit:
- dry bulb : 27°C
- wet bulb : 19°C
Water temperature entering the unit 7°C
Water temperature rise 5 K

Heating mode

Room air temperature 20°C
-For 2 pipe units :


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                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


. Water inlet temperature 50°C
. Water flow rate same as for the cooling test
- For 4 pipe units :
. Water inlet temperature 70°C
. Water temperature decrease 10 K

Certified characteristics

a) Total cooling capacity
b) Sensible cooling capacity
c) Heating capacity
d) Water pressure drops (heating and cooling)
e) Fan power input
f) A-weighted sound power for all published fan speeds

Classification

Classification is done as follows:
Table 1 - 90 . Eurovent classification of fan coil units




In the product database, there are three main categories, 2 pipes cooling only, 2 pipes reversible
(alternatively used for cooling or heating), 4 pipes reversible (2 pipes for cooling and 2 pipes for
heating).

Ducted Fan Coil Units (FCP)
Scope

The Ducted Fan Coil units have to meet the following criteria:

1. Air flow <=1 m3/s
2. Available pressure<=300 Pa
3. Direct driven motor
4. Single box with fan, coil and filter
5. No heat recovery
6. No double skin

The declaration is mandatory for all the units which meet the criteria 1 to 5 and optional for units with
criteria 6.

Definition

As compared to non ducted fan coil, ducted fan coil have one more component, a discharge plenum.

Testing

Testing is adapted to the specificities of ducted units as follows:

• Performance testing
Eurovent 6/9
"Thermal test methode for Ducted Fan Coils"
• with discharge plenum


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


• with standard filter
• with static pressure of 50 Pa at medium speed (for units with more than 3 speeds, the manufacturers
will specify a medium speed. The speed of choice has to be hard-wired to the fan)

• Air flow testing
Eurovent 6/10
"Air Flow test method for Ducted Fan Coil Units"
Beside test for medium speed, a test will be performed for maximum and minimum speed with the
same setting of installation

• Acoustic testing:
Eurovent 8/12
"Sound test method for Ducted Fan Coil Units"
Units will be installed between two reverberation rooms. Two sound powers will be measured:
discharge and inlet + radiated. Testing will be performed for all three speeds used for air flow rate
measurements.

Ratings
See fan coil above.

Certified characteristics
The minimum and maximum available static pressure for speeds 1 and 3 are added.

Classification
See fan coil above.

Chilled Beams (CB)
Definition

2.1 Passive Chilled Beam
Convector cooled with water or any other liquid and mounted under the ceiling or integrated into a
false ceiling.

2.2 Active Chilled Beam
Convector with integrated air supply where the induced air or primary air plus induced air pass through
the cooling coil cooled with water or any other liquid and mounted under the ceiling or integrated into a
false ceiling.

2.3 Range of Products
In order to be considered in the same range, the products must have some fixed characteristics, while
all others may be variable.

The basic element of an active chilled beam is a coil and the following characteristics must be fixed:
- Coil width
- Coil height
- Fin material, surface and spacing
- Pipe material, shape (internally smooth or rifled) and pattern
- Plenum and diffuser geometry.

Other characteristics may differ between products in the same range, such as:
- Coil length
- Pipe connections
- Nozzle configuration
- Pipe diameter
- With/without heating
- Discharge (one way and two ways).

For passive beams, the fixed characteristics shall be:
- Coil height
- Fin material, surface and spacing


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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


- Pipe material, shape (internally smooth or rifled) and pattern.

Other characteristics may differ between products in the same range, such as:
- Coil length
- Coil width
- Casing depth below coil
- Open discharge or perforation.

Testing

3.1 Active Chilled Beams
pr EN 15116, December 2004
"Determination of cooling capacity of Active Chilled Beams"

3.2 Passive Chilled Beams
EN 14518, 2005
"Testing and Rating of Passive Chilled Beams".

Ratings

4.1 Mounting of passive chilled beams
Passive beam shall be mounted under a ceiling.

4.2 Pressure testing and correction for water cooling capacity
The test shall be performed for nominal primary airflow rate. The measured Dp must be within ± 10%
of claimed value. If Dp may be adjusted, the manufacturer is allowed to do it. In any case, the capacity
shall be corrected, following the formula:

with:
Pc = Pressure corrected water cooling capacity
Pm = Measured water cooling capacity
Dpn = Chamber pressure or total pressure loss given in manufacturer's documentation
Dpn = Pressure recorded during the measurement from the product's measurement connection or
static pressure measured using 4 static taps connected by piezometric ring.
The corrected value Pc shall be compared with the claimed value.

Certified characteristics

The following performance characteristics shall be certified and verified by tests:

5.1 For Passive Beams
Cooling capacity in compliance with the requirements of EN 14518, including testing with three values
of Dp , only for the nominal air flow rate.

5.2 For Active Beams
Cooling capacity in compliance with the requirements of pr EN 15116 - three values of air flow rate
(nominal air flow rate, 80 and 120% of the nominal air flow rate), for the nominal temperature
difference (8 K) only for the nominal water flow rate.

Classification
Active or passive.

Dry Coolers Certify All (HEDCOOL)
Definition

Forced Convection Liquid Coolers
A refrigeration system component that cools liquid by rejecting heat to air mechanically circulated by
fans




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Testing
Performances characteristics - Standard ratings are verified by tests conducted in accordance with the
following standard:
EN 1048: Tests procedures for establishing performance of forced convection liquid coolers.

Certified characteristics

-     Standard capacity
-     Fan power imput
-     Energy ratio
-     Air flow rate
-     Liquid side pressure drop
-     A-weighted sound power level
-     Surface area

The “energy ratio” represents the energy efficiency of the dry cooler: it is the ratio of the electric power
input of the unit to the standard cooling capacity.

Classification
No specific classification.

Cooling Towers (CT)
This program is under constructed.

Drift eliminators (DE)
This program is under constructed but some information is already available. Devices aimed at are
Drift Eliminators used for evaporative water-cooling equipment.

Definitions

Drift Eliminator: Inertial water droplet stripping devices used to reduce the amount of circulating water
that can be entrained in the unit airflow and leave the equipment.

Evaporative cooling equipment: Any equipment that uses water distribution and generates aerosols for
the purpose of heat transfer.

Drift Rate: Proportion of the drift volumetric flow rate to the circulating water flow rate entrained in the
airflow and exiting at the discharge of the eliminator, expressed as a percentage.

Break-through air velocity: Air velocity for which drift losses become visible at any point of the drift
eliminator, expressed in m/s.

Testing requirements
All standard ratings shall be verified by isokinetic tests conducted in accordance with the Cooling
Technology Institute test code ATC-14011. Measurements shall be 1.5 m downstream in the airflow
leaving the eliminators.

Certified caracteristics
- The certified drift eliminator has produced a drift rate less than or equal to 0.01% when tested
    according to the relevant Eurovent Rating Standard.
- The value over time of this certification is subject to proper installation and maintenance of the drift
    eliminator and to the respect of adequate manufacturer's recommendations.
- Breakthrouugh velocity is given for information only.


Air Handling Units (AHU)



11
     http://www.cti.org


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                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


Scope
Participant must certify all models in the applied product ranges up to the maximum stated air flow.
The minimum air flow rate must be under 25 000 m3/h.

Testing

3.1 Mechanical characteristics :
European Standard prEN1886 : Ventilation for buildings - Air Handling Units - Mechanical performance
(November 1997)

3.2 Rating performances
European Standard prEN13053 : Ventilation for buildings - Air Handling Units - Ratings and
performance for units, components and sections (July 1999)

Certified characteristics

4.1 Mechanical characteristics

The following mechanical characteristics are certified :
a - Casing strength
b - Casing air leakage
c - Filter bypass leakage
d - Thermal transmittance of the casing
e - Thermal bridging factor
f - Acoustical insulation of casing

4.2 Performance characteristics

The following mechanical characteristics are certified :
a - Air flow - Available static pressure - power input
b - Octave band in-duct sound power level
c - Airborne sound power level
d - Heating capacity*
e - Cooling capacity*
f - Heat recovery*
g - Pressure loss on water side*

* If standard features of the product range

Eurovent energy efficiency of Air Handling Units

A label system has been put in place. It is described hereafter.

The velocity of air (measured in the area of the filter section) was combined to the efficiency and the
pressure losses of the heat recovery system, and the active power of fans, to define the efficiency of the
unit, and a voluntary classification, issued in 2009. Units were grouped in three categories: 1) Units
connected to outdoor air with a design temperature (winter time) below 9°C – classes A to <E; 2)
Units with 100% circulation air and units connected to outdoor air with a design temperature (winter
time) above 9°C – classes A to <E ; 3) Stand-alone extract units – classes A to <E .

<E classes have no requirements. For classes A to E, the following table was defined, giving reference
values to be used in calculations. In final check f, the absorbed power factor, has to be inferior to fref.




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




∆px , ∆py, ∆py corrections were based on the following assumptions and correlations :
- The relationship between velocity in the cross section of the unit and internal static pressure drop
    is considered to be exponential to the power of 1.4.
- For pressure drop evaluation of the heat recovery section, the design air volume flows across the
    heat recovery for winter time shall be taken. Pressure drop increase due to condensation is not
    taken into account. Heat recovery efficiency figures for run around coil systems are based on fluid
    with 25% ethylene glycol and inlet temperatures 0°C, 22°C respectively.
- Weighting ratio between electric energy and thermal energy is 2 in Europe, meaning that 1 kWh of
    electric energy is equivalent to 2 kWh of primary thermal energy. The empirical formula for the
    equivalence between the efficiency and the pressure drop of a heat recovery system, as a function
    of the outdoor climate, has been derived from numerous energy consumption calculations all over
    Europe.
Table 1 - 91 . Eurovent energy efficiency classes for AHU




For the preparation of this table, an amendment of EN13053 was necessary, in order to refine the
velocity and heat recovery classes, so it was submitted to CEN/TC 116 in spring 2009.


Cooling and Heating Coils (HECOILS)
Scope
Forced circulation air cooling and heating coils

Definition

1.1 Forced circulation air cooling and air heating coils
Tubular heat exchanger, with or without extended surfaces, for use in airflow circulated by fan

1.2 Range
Coils designed for the same application and using the following common features:
- fin designation
- tube diameter
- tube spacing/pattern configuration


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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010



Testing
Tests shall be conducted in accordance with EN 1216:1998 - Heat exchangers - Forced circulation air-
cooling and air-heating coils - Test procedures for establishing the performance

Ratings

For cooling coils:




For heating coils:




Where:




Certified characteristics

- Capacity
- Air Side Pressure Drop
- Liquid Side Pressure Drop


Air to Air Plate Heat Exchangers (AAHE)
Definition
2.1 Air to Air Plate or Tube Heat Exchanger
Heat Exchanger designed to transfer thermal energy (sensible or total) from one air stream to another
without moving parts.
Heat transfer surfaces are in form of plates. This exchanger may have parallel flow, cross flow or
counter flow construction or a combination of these.

2.2 Product Range
A family of products of different size built according to the same design and using the same selection
procedure.

2.3 Dry efficiency
Ratio of dry temperature differences (without condensation):




with:

11 Warm air inlet


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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


12 Warm air outlet
21 Cold air inlet
22 Cold air outlet

2.4 Wet efficiency
Ratio of wet temperature differences (with condensation):




2.5 Pressure Drop
Loss in total pressure between the inlet and the outlet of a unit.

2.6 Internal Air Leakage
Air leakage between two air streams.

Testing
Tests are conducted in accordance with:

EN 308
"Heat exchangers - Test procedures for establishing performance of air to air and flue gases heat
recovery devices".

Particular specifications shall be applied during the test according to Eurovent document 8/C/001-
2005.

Certified characteristics
a - Dry efficiency
b - Wet efficiency
c - Pressure drop

Published data corresponds to a unit with 1 m width (without side wall), 200 Pa pressure loss and a
density of 1.2 kg/m3.


Air to Air Rotary Heat Exchangers (AARE)
Scope
Eurovent Air to Air Rotary Heat Exchangers Certification Programme applies to all Rotary Heat
Exchangers including casing.
Participants shall certify all models, if available, including:

• all classes:
   condensation rotor / non hygroscopic
   rotor enthalpy rotor / hygroscopic rotor
   sorption rotor
• all rotor geometry (wave height, foil thickness)
• all sizes (rotor diameters and rotor depths)
• all materials
• all airflow rates
• all different types of sealing (if available)

The class “sorption rotor” has to fulfill specific additional requirements on the latent efficiency (see the
section "Certified Characteristics”)

Definition

2.1 Rotary Heat Exchanger :

A Rotary Heat Exchanger is a device incorporating a rotating cylinder or wheel for the purpose of
transferring energy (sensible or total) from one air stream to the other. It incorporates heat transfer


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


material, a drive mechanism, a casing or frame, and includes any seals which are provided to retard
the bypassing and leakage of air from one air stream to the other.

2.2 Product Range

The Certification Programme applies to the Rotary Heat Exchanger classes “Condensation Rotor/non
hygroscopic rotor”, “Enthalpy Rotor/hygroscopic rotor” and “Sorption Rotor”.

Testing

The following standards are used to test the rotors:

EN 308 (June 1997)
"Heat exchangers – Test procedures for establishing performance of air to air and flue gases heat
recovery devices".

ARI Standard 1060-2001
"Rating Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers for Energy Recovery Ventilation Equipment".

Particular specifications shall be applied during the test according to Eurovent document 8/C/002-
2006.

Ratings


Certified characteristics

a. Sensible efficiency
b. Latent efficiency
c. Pressure drop

The class “sorption rotor” has to fulfil specific additional requirements on the latent efficiency:
Under all tested conditions with nominal airflow rate the latent efficiency has to be at least 60% of the
sensible efficiency. Rotors which have lower latent efficiency only can be certified in the class
“enthalpy rotor / hygroscopic rotor”.

Published data

5.1 Rotor diameters are real outside diameters

5.2 Air velocities are calculated according to the free face area of the rotor (inside seals and without
hub) and according to a density of 1,2 kg/m3

5.3 The nominal air flow is calculated according to the above defined velocity and a density of 1,2
kg/m³

5.4 Pressure drop is according to a density of 1,2 kg/m³

Air Filters class F5-F9 (FIL)
Scope

This Certification Programme applies to air filters elements rated and sold as "Fine Air Filters F5-F9"
as defined in EN779.

Definition

2.1 Air Filter Element
A filter unit to clean air from particulate contamination comprising filter material including framing,
supporting parts and gaskets, the total to be inserted into a filter housing device.



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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


2.2 Performance Data
Single values out of the filter test report as carried out in accordance with EN 779.

2.3 Product Group
A product group is characterised by the following:

  * the same filter material
  * the same basic construction (e.g. pocket filters, rigid pocket filters or flat sheet etc.)
  * the same or lower media velocity : rated air-flow / min. net filter area; (does not have to be
published, for info to EUROVENT CERTIFICATION only)
  * the same filter class F5, F6, F7, F8 or F9
  * published data available about: basic construction, filter media, filter class available via internet or
other published sales brochures.

2.4 F-Filter Class: Class of fine air filters based on classification according to EN 779.

2.5 Initial Pressure Drop: Pressure drop of a new filter at the rated air-flow

Testing

Verification of performance characteristics shall be carried out in accordance with the European
Standard:

EN 779.2002 or subsequently superseded:
"Particulate air filters for general ventilation - Determination of filtration performance - without Annex A
(discharge)."

Ratings
Certified characteristics

The following performance characteristics shall be certified:

  * Filter class: F5 up to F9
  * Initial pressure drop ∆p0 in Pa, measured according to EN779 page 12/13




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.    SUBTASK 1.3.2 - LEGISLATION AT MEMBER STATE LEVEL

The relevant existing legislation on ventilation and air conditioning systems in the Member States has
been scrutinized.

Regarding ventilation, Member States legislation that have been consulted base their requirements on
the EU standards. Some countries have specific requirements regarding the construction of aeraulic
systems, their efficiency and control. Where this information has been identified, it has been reported
below country by country.

Regarding cooling, most countries, following the requirements of the EPBD, had adopted in 2007
already requirements for summer comfort. These developments are more or less important and may
include the evaluation of the risk of overheating (consistent with EU standard), limitation of the cooling
needs by improving the building envelope and a calculation methodology for cooling requirements.
Only a few of them added explicit requirements for the cooling systems. Where this information has
been identified, it has been reported below country by country.

Both for ventilation and cooling, there are relatively few dedicated technical or efficiency requirements,
the reason being that the requirements are generally set upon the total primary energy consumption of
the building per square meters. Hence, cooling systems as well as other end uses of the building are
constrained without individual requirements on the components of the systems. We collected
hereunder the few exceptions where requirements have been identified.

Regarding health and safety, further requirements regarding for instance legionella regulations are
also of specific interest for cooling towers. Identified legislation have been added below on a country
basis.




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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.1    Finland


1. General

2. Cooling generators

3. Air distribution systems

Ministry of the Environment, Housing and Building Department: D2: Indoor Climate and Ventilation of
Buildings Regulations and Guidelines 2003.
 
        4.1.2 
        A quantity of heating energy that corresponds to at least 30% of heating energy required for 
        the heating of the ventilation system shall be recovered from the extract air of the ventilation 
        system. A similar reduction in the need for thermal energy can be implemented by improving 
        the  thermal  insulation  of  the  building  envelope,  which  shall  be  verified  by  relevant 
        calculations. 
        It is permissible not to have heat recovery from extract air for certain individual areas of the 
        building,  and  also  without  any  corresponding  reduction  in  energy  consumption,  provided 
        that such heat recovery system can be shown to be inappropriate. 
        4.1.2.1 
        A mechanical supply and extract air system is normally equipped with heat recovery from the 
        extract  air;  in  which  the  heat  exchanger.s  supply  air  temperature  efficiency  shall  be  at  least 
        50%  in  a  test  situation  when  the  mass  flow  rates  of  the supply air and extract air are equal, 
        and  protection  against  freezing  and  removal  of  water  condensed  from  the  extract  air  is 
        arranged in a reliable way. 
        The  annual  efficiency  of  the  heat  recovery  equipment  used  in  the  calculations  is  the  heat  
        exchanger.s  supply  air  temperature  efficiency  value  multiplied  by  0.6,  unless  proved  to  be 
        otherwise by calculations. 
        4.1.2.2 
        Heat  recovery  system  can  be  shown  to  be  inappropriate  for  instance  in  cases  where  the 
        exceptionally 
        contaminated state of the extract air prevents the functioning of the heat recovery system or 
        the temperature of the extract air is less than +15 oC during the heating season. 


4. Others




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.2   France

1. General

The French Thermal Regulation12 (2005 for new buildings and 2007 for existing buildings) defines the
minimum energy requirements for construction of new buildings and the retrofit of existing buildings. A
new version is being prepared and shall enter into force in 2012.

New construction

The global primary energy consumption of the building which includes heating, cooling, hot water,
ventilation and lighting, Cep (kWhpe/m2.year) should be lower than the reference value Cepref
allowed for the specific building characteristics and climate. The map of French climates for the
thermal regulation is presented hereunder.




Figure 1 - 33 : Map of France climates (source French Thermal Regulation 2005)

Two categories of buildings are considered regarding summer comfort:


12
  French Republic, Code of Construction law and habitation, articles L.111-9, R.111-6 et R.111-20
and application decrees, for new construction.
French Republic, Code of Construction law and habitation, articles L. 111-10 et R.131-25 à R.131-28
and application decrees, for existing construction.



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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


- CE1: No allowance for cooling consumption. The thermal envelope of these buildings shall enable to
limit overheating in summer to a maximum operative hourly temperature Tic < Ticref of 28 °C for
dwellings and 26 °C for other buildings.
- CE2: Allowance for the reference cooling consumption and no constraint regarding Tic. The complex
map of buildings allowed to be cooled at the time of construction is reproduced hereunder. It depends
on climate, elevation, noise and the type of activity of the building zone considered.
Table 1 - 92 . French RT: Map of building characteristics with energy consumption provision for cooling




In addition, generic requirements apply to air conditioning and ventilation systems.

Existing buildings

For existing buildings, provisions are similar to new buildings for refurbishment of building with area
larger than 1000 m2, when the investment of the retrofit is larger than 25 % of the value of the building
and if the building has been built after 1948. In all other cases, requirements component by
component apply and do include minimum performance requirements for air conditioning and
ventilation systems.


2. Cooling generators

Art. R. 131-29 of the construction law: operation of cooling systems

In all rooms equipped with a cooling system, the system should not be working for operative
temperatures below 26 °C.

New construction

Reference characteristics

Reference values for cooling generators:
- electric : EERcorr = 2.45
- gas: EERcorr = 0.95

These values are the product of the standard EER (NF EN14511) and of correction factors (grouped
below as CEER to take into account a possible variation of chilled water with outdoor air temperature,
the type of distribution system, the nature of the cold source and the part load control.

EERcorr = EERnom * CEER

This seasonal performance indicator is directly used to compute the electricity and/or gas consumption
by dividing the cooling requirements.




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


This method is going to be modified in the 2012 version of the French Thermal Regulation. The
method will be based on an hourly calculation of the cooling requirements, and an hourly value of the
EER, taking into account corrections from performance maps for non nominal temperature conditions
and part load performance curves.

Energy consumption measurement

For buildings other than dwellings, whether the cooled area is larger than 400 m2, it should be installed
a system to measure the cooling energy consumption and the indoor temperature in at least one
temperature room by branch of the chilling network.

Existing buildings

Minimum requirements

For the installation of a new cooling system or the replacement of an existing one, provisions are
required on the solar factor of windows of the room with requirements to install blinds to reach the
required factors if needed.

In addition, the energy grade (CE/31/2002) of air conditioners with a cooling capacity lower than 12
kW should be higher than B. For other cooling generators, the EER (NF EN 14511) should be higher
than:
- Min EER for A35/A27 : 2.8
- Min EER for W30/A27 : 3
- Min EER for A35/W7 : 2.6
- Min EER for W30/W7 : 3

Controls

Pumps should be stopped when the system is not working.

Energy consumption measurement

For buildings other than dwellings, whether the cooled area is larger than 400 m2, it should be installed
a system to measure the cooling energy consumption and the indoor temperature in at least one
temperature room by branch of the cooling network system.

3. Air distribution systems

New construction

Reference characteristics

For dwellings, the reference system is a mechanically controlled exhaust system. Exhaust air handling
units in kitchen have two speeds. The reference fan power is of 0.25 W / m3h-1 and 0.4 W / m3h-1 if the
system is equipped of a F5 to F9 class filter. For dwellings with electric direct heating, the reference
ventilation system can modulate the flow.

For buildings that are not dwellings, the reference ventilation system is a mechanical balanced
ventilation system without heat recovery nor preheating. The impact of air leakage of the ventilation
system is taken into account. The reference fan power is of 0.3 W / m3h-1 and 0.45 W / m3h-1 if the
system is equipped of a F5 to F9 class filter.


Energy consumption follow up

For buildings that are not dwellings, whether the heated area is larger than 400 m2, it should be
installed a system to measure the time of operation of each handling unit.




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


Existing buildings

Minimum requirements

For dwellings, the maximum fan power allowed is of 0.25 W / m3h-1 and 0.4 W / m3h-1 if the system is
equipped of a F5 to F9 class filter.

For buildings that are not dwellings, the reference fan power is of 0.3 W / m3h-1 and 0.45 W / m3h-1 if
the system is equipped of a F5 to F9 class filter.

Control

For buildings that are not dwellings, whether the heated area is larger than 400 m2, it should be
installed a timer to stop the mechanical ventilation system during inoccupation periods.


4. Health and safety

In France, the installation and construction of cooling towers is submitted to an authorization by the
French DRIRE (in charge of industry control regarding environment). Measurement of legionella
concentration levels is now frequent and the law now imposes cleaning of the heat rejection system
when certain concentration levels are reached. This is defined in French public health authority circular
97/311 on the disinfection of air conditioning systems.




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.3   Germany


1. General

2. Cooling generators

3. Air distribution systems

EnEV 2009 regulates AHU’s >4000 m3/h and air-conditioners with a cooling capacity >12 kW.
Mandatory: Minimum SFP4 level , automatic controls for humidity (if that is a fuction offered) and –if
the flow rate exceeds 9 m3 per m2 (net or building-) floor—area the air flow, insulation of piping and –
new and at replacement-- heat recovery at least at level H3. Applicable standards are EN 13779;2007
for SFP4 and EN 13053 for H3. For the constraints on operating hours DIN 18599-10 : 2007-02
applies. Pipe insulation (not relevant for ventilation systems) shall be in accordance with appendix 5.

        Regulation 
        amending the German Energy Saving Ordinance  (18.3.2009)13 
        Section 15 
        Air‐conditioning and other air‐handling systems 
         
        (1) Upon installation in buildings of air‐conditioning systems with a cooling capacity of  
        more than twelve kilowatts and air handling systems for a volume power of delivery air of at 
        least 4 000 cubic metres per hour, as well as upon replacement of central devices or air duct 
        systems of such systems, these systems must be designed in such a way, that 
        1. the electrical power of the individual ventilators related to the delivery volume or 
        2. the weighted average value of the electric power of all delivery and exhaust air fans 
        related to the relevant delivery volume 
        does not exceed the threshold value of Category SFP 4 in accordance with DIN EN 13779 : 
        2007‐09 at design flow rate. The threshold value for Class SFP 4 can be increased by 
        tolerances according to DIN EN 13779 : 2007‐09 Part 6.5.2 for gas and HEPA filters as 
        well as heat feedback components of Classes H2 or H1 in accordance with DIN EN 
        13053. 
         
        (2) Upon installation of systems in buildings in accordance with paragraph 1 sentence 1 and 
        in the case of replacement of central controllers of such systems, if these systems are intended 
        to directly change the humidity of the ambient air, these systems must be equipped with 
        automatic regulating devices, in which separate target values for the humidification and 
        dehumidification can be set and the directly measured humidity of the supply or exhaust air 
        serves as a reference variable. If such devices are not present in existing systems in 
        accordance with paragraph 1 sentence 1, the operator must upgrade in the case of air 
        conditioning systems within six months of expiration of the relevant time limit in section 
        12 paragraph 3, in the case of other ventilation and air‐conditioning systems with 
        appropriate application of the time limits in section 12 paragraph 3. 
         
        (3) Upon installation of systems in buildings in accordance with paragraph 1 sentence 1 and 
        in the case of replacement of central controllers or air duct systems of such systems, these 
        systems must be furnished with devices for automatic regulation of flow rates depending on 
        the thermal and material loads or for timed setting of the flow rates if the supply air rate of 

13
                                                           http://www.zukunft-haus.info/fileadmin/zukunft-
haus/energieausweis/Gesetze_Verordnungen/EnEV_2009_aktuelle_nichtamtliche_Lesefassung_180309_englisc
h_Internetversion__ohne_Formulare_.pdf


                                                                                                      172
                                                  DRAFT 11.6.2010


         these systems per square metre of net floor area serviced exceeds nine cubic metres per hour, 
         in residential buildings per square metre of building floor space serviced. Sentence 1 does not 
         apply if increased supply air flow rates are required in the rooms serviced based on industrial 
         or health protection or if load changes cannot be ascertained either by technical measurement 
         or over the course of time. 
          
         (4) If cooling distribution and cold water pipes and fittings belonging to systems 
         within the meaning of paragraph 1 sentence 1 are initially installed or replaced in 
         buildings, their heat absorption is to be limited in accordance with Appendix 5. 
          
         (5) If systems in line with paragraph 1 sentence 1 are installed in buildings or central 
         controllers of such systems are replaced, these must be equipped with a device for heat 
         recovery which at least corresponds to Class H3 in accordance with DIN EN 13053 : 
         2007‐09. For the number of operating hours the general constraints on usage in 
         accordance with DIN V 18599‐10 : 2007‐02 are decisive, and for the air flow rate it is the 
         external air flow rate. 


Table 1 - 93 . Passiv Haus Institute. Certification of of “Passive House suitable component – heat recovery
device”

 Passive House Institute (Germany). Criteria for certification heat recovery device
 Passive House – comfort           Minimum supply temperature of 16, 5 oC (at -10 oC outdoors)
 criterion
 Efficiency criterion (heat        The effective dry heat recovery must be higher than 75% with balanced mass
                                   flows at external temperature between -15 and +10 oC and dry extract air
                                   (ca. 20 oC)
 Electrical efficiency criterion   At the designed mass flow rate the total electrical power consumption of the
                                   ventilation device may not exceed 0,45 W per (m3/h) of transported supply
                                   air flow
 Balancing and controllability     Outdoor air and exhaust air mass flows must be balanceable for the rated air
                                   flow rate, with controllability of at least 3 levels (basic ventilation 70-80%,
                                   standard ventilation 100%, increased ventilation 130%)
 Sound absorption                  Noise level in installation room < 35 dB(A), in living areas < 25 dB(A), in
                                   functional areas < 30 dB(A)
 Roomair hygiene                   Outdoor filter at least F7, extract air filter at least G4
 Frost protection                  Frost protection for heat exchanger without supply air interruption, frost
                                   protection for an air heater in case of failure of the extract air fan or frost
                                   protection heater coil.




4. Others




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.4   Ireland


1. General

The regulations that implement the EPBD impose calculated primary energy emission limits for new
buildings and for those that undergo major refurbishment. These do not define explicit performance
limits for systems or components. However, the need to meet the requirements places limits on
system performance and also provides an incentive to go beyond minimum permitted levels .


2. Cooling generators

There are no specific requirements


3. Air distribution systems

Irish Building Regulations stipulate maximum allowable system specific fan powers.

For new buildings this is 2.0 W/l/s and for new installations or major changes in existing buildings, 3.0
W/l/s. Higher (unspecified) values are permitted when the air conditioning is primarily for process
rather than personal comfort. This explicitly includes: large kitchens, large conference rooms, sports
facilities and computer and communications rooms.




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3.2.5     Netherlands


Current situation

The Building Regulations (Bouwbesluit 2003) contain the performance requirements on ventilation
airflow rates and on Energy Performance of the overall building. The method for determining the
energy performance of buildings is described in:
         - NEN5128 : 2004,               “Energieprestatie van woonfuncties en woongebouwen –
             Bepalingsmethode” for new residential dwellings
         - NEN2916 : 2004, “Energieprestatie van utiliteitsgebouwen – Bepalingsmethode” for new
             built non residential buildings

For Existing Buildings, the energy performance can be determined with determined with the ISSO
Guidelines for residential buildings (EPA-W) and non-residential buildings (EPA-U).

The method for determining the energy performance follows the holistic approach whereby the energy
use of the building for the five functions heating, cooling, hot water, ventilation and lighting is
calculated, assuming average occupation and average inhabitant behaviour, expressed in a single
figure called the Energy Performance Coefficienct (EPC). This approach implies that no specific
performance requirements for the individual five functions applies, but that the overall energy
performance of these combined functions is assessed. In this context stakeholder will try to find the
cheapest way to comply with these EPC-requirements.

Currently there are energy performance requirements for new residential and non residential buildings.
For existing buildings it is only mandatory that an Energy Performance Assessment with related
Energy label can be presented when the building or dwelling is sold or rented.
The existing values for the EPC for new residential and non residential buildings (0,8, see table below)
result in a market situation where ventilation systems with heat recovery and/or IAQ-control are a
reasonably good alternative, but not strictly necessary to comply with the EPC-requirements.
Alternative approaches (better DHW-efficiency, higher U-values, etc.) can still prove to be a cheaper
way. With the expected higher values for residential buildings per jan. 1st 2011, the application of heat
recovery and IAQ-control is expected to become more or less standard.

Table 1 - 94 . Existing and expected values for the EPC of new buildings
 Function of the building*                                                                Existing EPC-          Expected
                                                                                           requirement             EPC-
                                                                                                                requirement
 Residential                                                                                     0,8                0,6
                                                                                                                                   st
                                                                                                                     (per Jan. 1
                                                                                                                        2011
 Places of Assembly                                                                              2,0
 Prison                                                                                          1,8
 Hospitals                                                                                       2,6
 Other health care functions                                                                     1,0
 Offices                                                                                         1,1
 Hotels                                                                                          1,8
 Schools                                                                                         1,3
 Sports                                                                                          1,8
 Shops and supermarkets                                                                          2,6
* A non-residential building can have more functions (to be indicated as a percentage of overall building surface)



The applicable rating scale for energy labels for residential and non-residential are presented in the
table below. With the current EPC requirements all new residential dwelling carry label A. Per 01-02-
2011 the new residential dwellings will all have Energy label A+




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 95 . NL Rating scale Energy Labels for Residential and non residential buildings.
                   A++       A+         A         B        C         D         E         F         G
Residential                 0,51 -   0,71 –    1,06 –    1,31 –    1,61 –    2,01 –    2,41 –
                   ≤ 0,50                                                                        > 2,90
                             0,70     1,05      1,30      1,60      2,00      2,40      2,90
Non                         0,51 -   0,71 –    1,06 –    1,16 –    1,31 –    1,46 –    1,61 –
                   ≤ 0,50                                                                        > 1,75
Residential                  0,70     1,05      1,15      1,30      1,45      1,60      1,75


Future situation

Currently the new standard NEN7120, “Energy performance of Buildings – Determination method” is
being developed. This new standard will be applicable for all buildings (residential and non residential)
both for existing and new ones; it will replace NEN5128 and NEN2916, and also the EPA-W and EPA-
U methods from ISSO.

Simultaneously with this new NEN7120 standard, a new ventilation standard NEN8088 is being
developed based on EN 15242. One of the purposes of this new ventilation paragraph will be the
accommodation of the various new innovative ventilation systems that have been brought on the
market in the Netherland, in which the energy performance evaluation of the various ventilation
systems with their different heat recovery and controls solutions will play an important role.




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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.6   Poland


Air distribution systems

In Poland minimum air flow rates are regulated in the Polish Standard PN-83 B-03430/Az3:2000 and
are fairly in line with EU standards.14 Minimum energy requirements are in the MSHP, Decree of
Minister of Spatial Planning and Housing MGPiB, Dec. 14 1994 r. (with amendments) Dziennik Ustaw.
Nr. 15/1999 poz. 140. It makes heat recovery ventilation mandatory for systems > 10.000 m3/h,
prescribes maximum leakage (<0,25% in plate heat exchangers, <5% in rotary wheels) and requires at
least G4 filters for heat exchangers and F6 filters for systems with humidifiers. Ductwork should
comply with maximum leakage coefficients (< 4,78 m3/(m2.h) at 400 Pa overpressure) . Design
parameters for indoor air are given in PN-78/B-03421. 15


3.2.7   Portugal


1. General

The Portuguese national thermal regulation RCCTE (REGULAMENTO DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE
COMPORTAMENTO TÉRMICO DOS EDIFÍCIOS) establishes the minimum energy efficiency
requirements to reduce the HVAC energy needs.

This regulation applies to residential buildings and non-residential buildings with less than 1000 m²
(usage area) and in which the HVAC system nominal cooling capacity installed is less than 25 kW. In
the case of a collective residential building, each apartment must be considered separately. For non-
residential buildings with more than 1000 m² another regulation is applied, the RSECE
(REGULAMENTO DOS SISTEMAS ENERGÉTICOS DE CLIMATIZAÇÃO EM EDIFÍCIOS)

RCCTE

The RCCTE is to be applied for new buildings and in case of retrofit if the retrofit cost is higher than
the reference value (reference value = 630€/m²). The RCCTE defines the minimum thermal
characteristics of the buildings shell such as: U values (W/m².K) of walls, roofs …, cold bridges and
the solar factor of windows.

It sets also the limits for heating/cooling needs, hot water heating needs and the total primary energy.
Heating nominal energy needs limit – Ni > Nominal heating energy needs –Nic
Cooling nominal energy needs limit – Nv > Nominal cooling energy needs –Nvc
Hot water nominal energy needs limit – Na > Nominal hot water energy needs –Nac
Total primary energy needs limit – Nt > Total primary energy needs – Ntc

Nominal cooling final useful energy needs (Nv) maximum value: Nv depends only of the local climate
zone.
a) Zone V1 (north), Nv=16 kWh/m2.year;
b) Zone V1 (south), Nv=22 kWh/m2.year;
c) Zone V2 (north), Nv=18 kWh/m2.year;
d) Zone V2 (south), Nv=32 kWh/m2.year;
e) Zone V3 (north), Nv=26 kWh/m2.year;
f) Zone V3 (south), Nv=32 kWh/m2.year;
g) Azores, Nv=21 kWh/m2.year;
h) Madeira, Nv=23 kWh/m2.year.

14
   J. Sowa (Warsaw University of Technology), Trends in the Polish building ventilation market and drivers for
change, Ventilation Information Paper no. 24, AIVC, May 2008.
15
   Additional market info Poland: 120.000 air-conditioning units (all types, including multi-splits) with avg.
electricity consumption 3 kW were installed. Chillers: 2000 units with on average 60 kW power consumption.


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



Total annual primary energy needs maximum value (Nt): 0.9 (0.01 Ni + 0.01 Nv + 0.15 Na)
(kgep/m².year)

The total annual primary energy needs calculation (Ntc) is calculated as follows.

Ntc = 0.1 (Nic/ηi)Fpui + 0.1(Nvc/ηv)Fpuv + Nac Fpua (kep/m².year )

Nic = (Qt + Qv – Qgu) / Ap (Final useful Heating energy needs)
        Qt – conduction losses through building shell
        Qv – ventilation losses
        Qgu – thermal gains (internal and solar)

        ηi – heating nominal efficiency
        ηv – cooling nominal efficiency
        Fpui - Conversion factor between useful energy and primary energy for the heating system
        Fpuv - Conversion factor between useful energy and primary energy for the cooling system
        Fpua - Conversion factor between useful energy and primary energy for the hot water system
        Fpu_electricity = 0.29 kgep/kWh
        Fpu solid, liquid and gas fuels = 0.086 kgep/kWh

Nvc = Qg . (1- η) / Ap

        Qg – total brut gains
        η - usage factor of energy gains
        Ap – usage area (m²)

Nac = (Qa / ηa – Esolar – Eren) / Ap (hot water useful energy needs)

        Qa – useful energy to heat hot water by conventional systems
        ηa – Efficiency of the hot water system
        Esolar – contribution of solar systems to hot water
        Eren – contribution of any other renewable source to hot water


RSECE

The RSECE (REGULAMENTO DOS SISTEMAS ENERGÉTICOS DE CLIMATIZAÇÃO EM
EDIFÍCIOS) is applied to non-residential buildings with more than 1000 m² and to HVAC system with a
nominal cooling power higher than 25 kW.

The requirements of the RSECE include the following sections:

-   Minimal quality of the building shell: U, solar factor (with requirements identical to the RCCTE
    regulation).
-   Minimum levels of Ventilation.
-   Maximum power of HVAC systems to be installed: maximum of dynamic simulation (multizone) +
    40 % ; simulations take into account sensible gains in non-permanent regime, building losses
    through conduction, internal gains, ventilation, occupants, infiltrations, radiation gains and as well
    loads due to the several components of the HVAC system, notably for the heating system
    components, ventilation components, air conditioning components, pumps, ventilators,
    dehumidification or terminal heating; calculation is made for each zone and for the simultaneous
    maximum of all zones where the cooling system works.
-   Use renewable energies and cogeneration systems.
-   Maintenance plans.
-   Maximum primary energy consumption (heating/cooling, ventilation, pumps, lighting and all other
    equipments on the building) through a fixed Energy efficiency index (IEE – Indicador de efficiencia
    energética) by building type. Once the IEE is calculated the value is compared to a table that
    contains the limit values for this index by building type.




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


Definition of the Energy efficiency index (IEE – Indicador de efficiencia energética)


IEE = IEEI + IEEV +


Qout – Energy consumption from other processes than heating and cooling (kgep/year)
Ap – usage area (m²)
IEEI – heating energy efficiency (kgoe/m².year)
IEEV – cooling energy efficiency (kgoe/m².year)


                    IEEI =       x FCI                                   IEEv =         x FCV

Qaq– heating energy consumption (kgoe /year)         Qarr– cooling energy consumption (kgoe/year)


FCI – Correction factor for heating                  FCV – Correction factor for cooling
        FCI = Ni1 / Niz                                     FCV = Nv1 / Nvz

Ni1/Nv1 - Maximal heating/cooling needs limits defined by the RCCTE for the reference climate zone
(I1)
Niz/Nvz - Maximal heating/cooling needs limits defined by the RCCTE for the climate zone (z) of the
building

NOTA: Conversion factor between useful energy and primary energy – (reference values for the
existing Portuguese energetic mix) : Electricity – 0.29 kgoe/kWh, Solid, liquid and gas fuel – 0.086
kgoe/kWh

Table 1 - 96 . RSECE, Annex 11, Maximal heating and heating + cooling primary energy consumption
values for tertiary buildings (kgep = kgoe, aquecimento = heating, arrefecimento = cooling)




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                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010




For new buildings, the heating and cooling energy consumption are calculated by simulation methods:
- Buildings with 500 m² <area< 1000 m² - a simplified method is applied
- Buildings with area >1000 m² - detailed simulation is used. It can be made a simulation zone by
    zone and then to add the results each hour based on the EN ISO 13790 standard.

For existing buildings the global energy consumption should be determined, in normal operation,
through periodic energy audits (following the SCE - methodology). In case that the nominal
consumption exceeds the maximum defined value, an energy reduction plan should be put in place,
and the renovation should occur in the maximum delay of 3 years.

New buildings with less than 1000 m² and with a HVAC system of more than 25 kW should respect the
primary energy consumption requirements (heating/cooling, ventilation, pumps, lighting, all equipment
consuming energy) and they should not exceed by 80 % the maximum energy requirements for
heating and cooling as defined by the RCCTE.

However the existing buildings with less than 1000 m² and with a HVAC system larger than 25 kW do
not have any energy consumption limit.

Residential buildings affected by this regulation should not exceed 80 % of the maximum energy
needs for heating and cooling as defined by the RCCTE.

This is the main legislation of interest for the Lot 6 study since it contains the requirements on the
HVAC systems and components. In the following sections, main requirements on systems are
described.


2. Cooling generators

Power limitation and system preference



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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


- The maximum installed power should not exceed for more than 40 % the results of the detailed
building simulation (the 40 % include the latent load). Some exceptions are allowed for hospitals,
hotels with more than 3 stars and other buildings where the lack of capacity could be unacceptable. In
these buildings the installation of reserve units to exceed the established limit is allowed.
- Centralized systems are mandatory for HVAC systems with more than 25 kW.
- If the sum of all HVAC systems in a tertiary building with different autonomous areas is superior to
100 kW a centralized systems should be installed.
- Heating by joule effect cannot exceed 5% of the thermal power of heating, with a maximum value of
25 kW.
- For systems dimensioned only for cooling purpose, the installation of re-heating equipment cannot
exceed 10% of the cooling power.
- Splits systems are only allowed in spaces with special thermal loads or special interior conditions or
do not exceed a total input power of 12 kW by building.


Efficiency

-   The nominal heating/cooling equipments efficiencies, expressed in final energy, should not be
    lower than the values defined in the European directives.
-   All elements providing transportation of fluids should have motors with the minimum ranking EFF2.

System controls

In any HVAC system, it is mandatory to have a regulation and control system with the following
options:
- Limit the maximum and minimum comfort temperature
- Regulation of the heating/cooling power of the HVAC system to the building thermal needs.
- Possibility to limit or stop the HVAC system, by zones or group of zones, during the occupation
    period or not.
- Minimal capacity stages of the cooling generators as a function of their nominal cooling capacity :

Table 1 - 97 . RSECE, cooling generator capacity steps as a function of total installed capacity




-   When possible the regulation and control system should allow its integration in a building energy
    management system (BEMS).
-   Monitoring and energy management are mandatory for HVAC systems larger than 100 kW
-   A BEMS is mandatory for HVAC systems from 200 kW
-   HVAC systems of more than 250 kW must have an energy management system that allows the
    central optimization of the HVAC parameters.

The following equipments are mandatory for new buildings and big renovations if it is economically
viable to install them.
- Geothermal systems (when available)
- Energy autonomous systems combined with thermal solar panels, photovoltaic panels, wind
    turbines, ..., in places far from the public electric network
- Connection to district heating or cooling (if available)

Maintenance periodicity

-   Air conditioning equipments with useful nominal power from 12 to 100 kW – 3 years
-   Air conditioning equipments with useful nominal power higher than 100 kW – 1 year



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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010


3. Air distribution systems

All elements providing transportation of fluids should have motors with the minimum ranking IE2.


4. Heat recovery and free cooling

Heat recovery and free-cooling
- It is mandatory* to recover the extracted air energy, in a heating station, with a minimum efficiency
   of 50% if the extracted air thermal power is superior to 80 kW.
- In “All Air” HVAC systems with a flow of more than 10 000 m3/h, it is mandatory* the installation of
   equipments allowing free-cooling.

* If economically viable.


5. Monitoring and Energy Audit

Monitoring HVAC systems

All HVAC systems covered by the RSECE need to have a dedicated metering system. Mandatory
measuring points are:
- Electric consumption of motors with power higher than 5.5 kW
- Clogging state of the air filter and water filter
- Exhaust gas from boiler with power higher than 100 kW
- Exterior air temperature
- Average indoor air temperature or for each zone where the is a distinct temperature control
- Water temperature in the primary circuits (going/return)
- Supply temperature of the air handling unit (AHU)
- Indoor air quality per “big” zone to condition (zones with big occupation levels or special
    functioning conditions)

Audit requirements

- For existing buildings the heating and cooling energy consumption are based on an energy audit.
- The new buildings should pass through an audit before their usage and after 3 year the beginning of
usage.




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.8     Spain

The Regulation on Indoor Heating/Air-conditioning Systems (Reglamento de Instalaciones Térmicas
en los Edificios – RITE) lays down the conditions that must be met by systems intended to provide
thermal comfort and hygiene by providing heating, air-conditioning, and hot water, so as to achieve a
rational use of energy. The requirements have been promulgated in the Royal Decree 1027/2007. This
decree is to be revised in 2012 since the RITE also creates an obligation to revise and update energy
efficiency requirements on a regular basis (at least once every 5 years). Autonomous regions may
introduce additional requirements16 and part of the decisions are also of their responsibility as the
frequency of the inspection of cooling generators.

1. General

The RITE applies to all air conditioning (in its broader acceptance) systems in human occupied
buildings, for new installation or refurbishment (while it leads to a modification of the installed
systems).
In addition of the process of the design, certification, maintenance, inspection … of these installations,
it defines the following requirements for these installations:
- technical requirements,
- hygiene and health requirements,
- energy efficiency requirements.


2. Cooling generators and distribution

Regarding temperature and humidity, indoor design conditions in terms of operative temperature are
set between 23 and 25 °C with relative humidity between 45 and 60 %.

Cooling generators

-     Information on part load EER and COP for design temperature conditions between the full
      capacity and the minimum capacity step of the generator (and of the plant) is mandatory.
-     The leaving chilled water temperature should be maintained constant when the load varies,
      exception should be justified.
-     The difference between the inlet and outlet water temperature at the evaporator should increase
      with the capacity of the generator (or generators for a plant) in order to reduce the pump
      consumption (within the limits fixed by the manufacturer).
-     In case of a plant with several generators, the plant should be designed to operate at optimal
      efficiency whatever the load.
-     If the cooling load may be lower than the minimum step of the generator, supplementary
      equipment (smaller generator or cooling storage) should be installed to cover this specific capacity
      level.

Heat rejection

-     Air cooled chillers should be designed, according to the climate, for 0.4 % yearly or 1 % seasonal
      design dry bulb temperature as defined in the technical construction code plus 3 °C. NOTA:
      Evaporative cooling on existing air cooled generators is advised.
-     Cooling towers and evaporatively cooled condensers should be designed, according to the
      climate, for 1 % seasonal design wet bulb temperature as defined in the technical construction
      code plus 1 °C.
-     Cooling tower control is detailed: water temperature at the condenser inlet should be decreased
      as low as allowed by the generator manufacturer.
-     Plants with several generators will be controlled in series whether the efficiency of individual
      generators decreases at part load or in parallel if it increases at part load.



16
     Source: http://www.idae.es/


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                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


Water pipe insulation

Chilled water network losses should be limited to 4 % of the cooling capacity. Simplified and detailed
method are given to apply this requirement. Below 70 kW rated cooling capacity and for pipe
diameters with diameter smaller than 20 mm and shorter than 5 m length, a minimum insulation
thickness of 10 mm is acceptable (insulation coefficient for 10 K being of 0.04 W/(m.K)).

Terminal units

Water terminal units(e.g. fan coils) should be equipped with inlet and outlet valves and a means
(automatic or manual) to control the thermal capacity. One of the valves is destinated to pressure
equilibrium.


3. Ventilation and air distribution systems

Ventilation is mandatory in human occupied buildings. The RITE defines different control classes for
IAQ tat are described in the table below. Classes C5 and C6 are mandatory in Cinemas, theaters and
other rooms with high occupancy levels. It means that ventilation should be controlled a function of the
number of people or of the CO2 or VOC concentration.

Table 1 - 98 . RITE, classification of IAQ control in buildings




Air duct pressure losses

The leakage rate is defined in prEN 15727:2010 using the following equations :

f = c . p0.65

Where:
f is the leakage ratio in dm3 / (s.m2)
p the static pressure in Pa
c the coefficient that defines the leakage rate class.

4 classes of leakage are defined as reported in the table below :

Table 1 - 99 . RITE, air leakage classes




The air duct should be of class B or higher (C or D).




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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


In addition, the maximum admissible pressure losses by components of the aeraulic systems are
defined below (NOTA: the following corrections should be considered, heat recovery from 100 to 260
Pa) :

Table 1 - 100 . RITE, aeraulic system individual components maximal pressure loss authorized




Filters

- A prefilter is mandatory.
- Except for fresh air inlet filters, the relative humidity of air in a filter should be lower than 90 %.
- For heat recovery units, an F6 or more efficient filter should be installed.

Table 1 - 101 . RITE, filter classes to be installed as a function of the type of air and its quality




Fan products

SFP is limited to 750 W/(m3/s) for supply and exhaust ventilation systems, and to 2000 W/(m3/s) for air
conditioning systems.
For fan with flow rates larger than 5 m3/s, they should be equipped with an indirect metering and
control means. (NOTA: electronic variable frequency drive is advised by authorities for the control)

Air duct insulation for cooling systems

The same requirement as for pipes apply. Below 70 kW rated cooling capacity, a minimum insulation
thickness of 30 mm for indoor ducts and 50 mm for outdoor ducts is acceptable (insulation coefficient
for 10 K being of 0.04 W/(m.K)).




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010


4. Heat recovery and free cooling

Free cooling

When the installed rated cooling capacity is higher than 70 kW, a free cooling system on air is
mandatory.
- for all air systems, maximum speed of exhaust and inlet air in the air handling unit should be
   limited to 6 m.s-1. The mixing section efficiency should be higher than 75 %.
- For mixed systems (with water and air): for water cooled systems, the heat rejection media should
   be used ; for air cooled chillers, free cooling should be provided by an air/water coil located in
   parallel with the chiller evaporator.

Heat recovery

Heat recovery is mandatory when installing a cooling system with fresh air flow rate superior to 0.5
m3. s-1. On the exhaust air flow, an adiabatic cooler should be installed. Minimum efficiency of the
heat recovery system and maximum pressure drop are gven in the table below as a function of the
number of working hours of the installation and of the fresh air intake.

Table 1 - 102 . RITE, heat recovery minimum efficiency and maximum pressure drop




5. Monitoring and Energy Audit

Maintenance

Maintenance is mandatory. Points to be checked are specified as well as the frequency of these
verifications.

Performance assessment of cooling generators

Above 70 kW and below 1 MW, the efficiency should be calculated every 3 months and above 1 MW,
efficiency should be checked every month. Improvement recommendations should be notified to the
user.

Monitoring

For systems serving several users, the installation should be equipped with a system enabling to
partition the energy consumption.
- Above 70 kW, thermal generators should be equipped with meters for energy consumed and to
    register the number of working hours.
- Above 20 kW, fans and pumps should also register the number of working hours as well as
    compressors above 70 kW cooling capacity.
- Above 400 kW, the thermal energy should also be measured and sub-metering of the electric
    consumption of the plant is mandatory.

All required physical values required by the different interventions on the thermal installations should
be measured.

-


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                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.2.9    United Kingdom

DRAFT – Regulation requirements shown here are based on proposals for implementation in 2010
which are not yet in the public domain and may change. Similar requirements (although less tough)
are already in place.


1. UK General

The UK regulations that implement the EPBD impose calculated carbon emission limits for new
buildings and for those that undergo major refurbishment. These do not define explicit performance
limits for systems or components. However, the need to meet the requirements places limits on
system performance and also provides an incentive to go beyond minimum permitted levels.

Other parts of the regulations contain explicit performance requirements17. In particular, there are
performance requirements for chillers, ventilation heat recovery equipment and various aspects of
mechanical ventilation systems.

This information is contained in the “Non-domestic Building Services Compliance Guide: 2010
Edition”18 which, strictly speaking, applies to England and Wales but, in practice, is recognised in
Scotland and Northern Ireland. Tables of minimum requirements below and much of the text are taken
from that document. Strictly speaking the document only provides guidance offers recommendations
that are likely to be acceptable to building control departments. In practice, its contents are the normal
means of demonstrating compliance.

More demanding performance levels are required for some products for eligibility for Enhanced Capital
Allowances (ECAs) – accelerated depreciation for tax purposes. ECA may also be claimed for some
components of products such as motors and drives, and compact heat exchangers.


2. UK Air conditioners and chillers requirements

2.1 Building Regulations: minimum performance requirements

There are minimum performance requirements for new installations of air conditioners and chillers for
comfort cooling in new and existing buildings. These are summarised below

For comfort cooling systems in new and existing buildings:
- the full load Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of each cooling unit of the cooling plant should be no
    worse than in Table 34; and
- controls should be no worse than in Table 35.

Table 1 - 103 . Minimum Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) for comfort cooling

                                    Type                                 Minimum cooling plant full load EER

        Packaged air conditioners                  Single duct types                     2.5

                                                      Other types                        2.5

                   Split and multi-split air conditioners                                2.5

                    Variable refrigerant flow systems                                    2.5




17 The figures shown are due to come into force in the second half of 2010, in many cases being
more demanding than previously existing requirements
18 Compliance Guide ref (not yet published)


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                                                     DRAFT 11.6.2010


           Vapour compression cycle chillers, water cooled <750 KW                                        3.85

           Vapour compression cycle chillers, water cooled >750 kW                                        4.65

            Vapour compression cycle chillers, air cooled <750 kW                                          2.5

            Vapour compression cycle chillers, air cooled >750 kW                                          2.6

                              Water loop heat pump                                                         3.2

                            Absorption cycle chillers                                                      0.7

                   Gas engine driven variable refrigerant flow                                             1.0


Table 1 - 104 . Minimum controls for comfort cooling in new and existing buildings

                                    Minimum controls

 Cooling Plant                      Multiple cooling modules should be provided with controls to provide the most efficient
                                    operating modes for the combined plant

 Cooling System                     Each terminal unit capable of providing cooling should be capable of time and temperature
                                    control either by its own or by remote controls.
                                    In any given zone simultaneous heating and cooling should be prevented by a suitable
                                    interlock.


Energy efficiency ratio (EER) means for chillers the ratio of the cooling energy delivered into the
cooling system divided by the energy input to the cooling plant as determined by BS EN 1451119. In
the case of packaged air conditioners, the EER is the ratio of the energy removed from air within the
conditioned space divided by the effective energy input to the unit as determined by BS EN 14511 or
other appropriate standard procedure. The test conditions for determining EER are those specified in
BS EN 14511.

2.2 Building Regulations: Calculation of Seasonal EER (SEER)

Although there is no direct regulation of SEER, it has to be calculated in order to carry out the
calculation of carbon emissions. The Compliance Guide describes how this should be done.

Where an industry approved test procedure for obtaining performance measurements of cooling plant
at partial load conditions exists, the SEER of the cooling plant may be estimated from the EER of the
cooling plant measured at partial load conditions, adjusted for the cooling load profile of the proposed
building.

For a single chiller well matched to the applied load, SEER is estimated using the following equation :

                              SEER = a(EER25) + b(EER50) + c(EER75) + d(EER100)

where

EERx is the EER measured at the defined partial load conditions of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%

and

a, b, c, and d are the load profile weighting factors relevant to the proposed application.




19
     BS EN 14511-2:2007 Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically driven compressors for space
                                                heating and cooling. Test conditions.



                                                                                                                           188
                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010


Part load performance for individual chillers is determined assuming chilled water provision
at full load of 7ºC out and 12ºC in and maintaining 7 °C out constant, under the following
conditions:

Table 1 - 105 . Operating conditions and their weighting factors to compute the ESEER

    Percentage part load                   25%               50%               75%                100%

    Air-cooled chillers ambient entering          20                25                30                 35
    air (ºC)


    Water-cooled chillers entering                18                22                26                 30
    condenser water (ºC)



More generally, the value of the SEER to be used in the SBEM compliance calculation tool
can be calculated in a number of ways according to the availability of information and the
application. The following section describes how the SEER may be calculated for situations
where suitable data exist to a greater or lesser extent. The situations are:
   a) chillers with no part load performance data;
   b) unknown load profiles;
   c) office type buildings;
   d) other building types with known load profile data.

For chillers that have no part load data,
        a)      the SEER is the full load EER.

Where the load profile under which the cooling plant operates is not known but there are some data on
chiller part load EER, then:

           b)     for chillers where the full and half load (50%) EERs are known, the SEER is the
           average of the EERs, ie the 100% and 50% are equally weighted;

            c)       for chillers with four points of part load EER, the SEER is calculated using Equation 10
                     with each EER weighted equally, ie a, b, c and d each equal to 0.25;

            d)       if the chiller used does not have data for four steps of load, then the weights are
                     apportioned appropriately.

For office type accommodation, the weighting factors in the table below can be taken as
representative of the load profile:

Table 1 - 106 . Operating conditions and their weighting factors to compute a ESEER for office buildgins
in the UK

    a       b       c        d


    0.20    0.36    0.32     0.12


For other buildings with known load profile, the SEER may be derived as above using appropriate
weights and EERs at given loads.

Multiple-chiller systems For systems with multiple-chillers for use in office buildings, combined EER
values may be calculated based on the sum of the energy consumptions of all the operating chillers. In
this case care must be taken to include all the factors that can influence the combined performance of
the multiple-chiller installation. These will include:
-       degree of oversizing of the total installed capacity;
-       sizing of individual chillers;


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                                                     DRAFT 11.6.2010


-       EERs of individual chillers;
-       control mode for the multiple-chiller – eg parallel or sequential;
-       load profile of the proposed cooling load.

When these are known it may be possible to calculate a SEER which matches more closely the
proposed installation than by applying the simplifications described earlier.
There is reference to the guidance on calculating the seasonal efficiency of cooling generators and
chillers contained in BS EN 15243:2007 but following it is not mandatory.

2.3 Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs)

The ECA Scheme covers four categories of chillers :
- Air-cooled packaged chillers that provide cooling only and have a cooling capacity that is less than
   or equal to 1,500 kW.
- Air-cooled, reverse cycle, packaged chillers that provide heating and cooling and have a cooling
   capacity that is less than or equal to 750 kW.
- Water-cooled packaged chillers that provide cooling only and have a cooling capacity that is less
   than or equal to 2,000 kW.
- Water-cooled, reverse cycle, packaged chillers that provide heating and cooling and have a
   cooling capacity that is less than or equal to 2,000 kW.

To be eligible, products must incorporate the following items of equipment:
- One or more electrically powered compressors.
- One or more air-cooled or water-cooled condensers.
- One or more evaporators.
- A control system that ensures the safe, reliable and efficient operation of
- the product.
- And be CE Marked.

Where the product incorporates an integral free-cooling mechanism, it must be:
  - Fully integrated into the packaged chiller unit during product manufacturing.
  - Directly controlled by the product’s control system in a manner that maximises the
      use of free cooling for outside air, dry bulb temperatures between 2.0 and 15.0 °C.
  - Able to provide a cooling capacity at an outside air, dry bulb temperature of 2.0 °C
      and an outlet water temperature of 7.0 °C that is at least (≥) 50 % of the cooling
      capacity obtained at the standard rating condition specified in Table 2 below.

ECA Performance Criteria

Products must have a cooling energy efficiency rating (EER) that is equal to or greater than the values
set out in Table 1, which vary with product category. In addition, reverse cycle products must have a
coefficient of performance (COP) equal to or greater than the values set out in Table 1.

Table 1 - 107 . UK Performance thresholds for packaged chillers


                                                                                       Performance
                                                                                         thresholds
                  Product Category                                                   Cooling
                                                           Cooling Capacity (kW)                Heating
                                                                                      EER
                                                                                                  COP
                                                                  Up to 100kW        >= 2.60
                                  Without integral
                                                              Over 100 to 500 kW      >=2.60
                                    free cooling
          Air-cooled packaged                                 Over 500 to 750 kW     >= 2.70
                                    mechanism
                 chillers                                     Over 750 to 1,500 kW   >= 2.80
    1
          that provide cooling                                    Up to 100kW        >= 2.50
                  only.                                       Over 100 to 500 kW     >= 2.50
                                  With integral free
                                 cooling mechanism            Over 500 to 750 kW     >= 2.60
                                                              Over 750 to 1,500 kW   >= 2.70



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                                                   DRAFT 11.6.2010


                                                                    Up to 100kW             >= 2.70        >= 2.70
      Air-cooled, reverse cycle, packaged chillers that
 2                                                               Over 100 to 500 kW         >= 2.70        >= 2.70
                provide heating and cooling
                                                                 Over 500 to 750 kW         >= 2.80        >= 2.80
                                                                    Up to 100kW             >= 4.10
        Water-cooled packaged chillers that provide              Over 100 to 500 kW         >= 4.10
 3
                       cooling only                              Over 500 to 750 kW         >= 4.50
                                                                Over 750 to 2,000 kW        >= 5.00
                                                                    Up to 100kW             >= 4.10        >= 3.70
       Water-cooled, reverse cycle, packaged chillers            Over 100 to 500 kW         >= 4.10        >= 3.70
 4
             that provide heating and cooling.                   Over 500 to 750 kW         >= 4.50        >= 4.10
                                                                Over 750 to 2,000 kW        >= 4.60        >= 4.20


ECA Required test procedures
All products must be tested in accordance with the procedures set out in:
BS EN 14511: 2004 or 2007, “Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat
pumps with electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling”.
The product’s cooling capacity (kW), EER and COP must be determined at the standard rating
conditions set out in Table 2 below, which vary by product category.

Table 1 - 108 . UK Standard rating conditions for Packaged Chillers

         Product category                              Cooling EER                          Heating COP
                                                  AND Cooling capacity (kW)
       Air-cooled packaged chillers that              BS EN 14511: 2004 or 2007
 1            provide cooling only.             Table 10, Standard rating conditions,
                                                               Water

            Air-cooled, reverse cycle,
                                                      BS EN 14511: 2004 or 2007         BS EN 14511: 2004 or 2007
        packaged chillers that provide
 2                                              Table 10, Standard rating conditions,    Table 9, Standard rating
              heating and cooling.
                                                               Water                     conditions, Outdoor air.

                                                      BS EN 14511: 2004 or 2007
       Water-cooled packaged chillers
 3                                               Table 8, Standard rating conditions,
            that provide cooling only.
                                                            Water to water
         Water-cooled, reverse cycle,                 BS EN 14511: 2004 or 2007         BS EN 14511: 2004 or 2007
 4      packaged chillers that provide           Table 8, Standard rating conditions,    Table 7, Standard rating
              heating and cooling.                          Water to water                  conditions, Water


Enhanced Capital Allowances are also available for Evaporative Condensers but there are no
performance criteria.


3 UK Air Distribution Systems

The “Non-domestic Building Services Compliance Guide:2010 Edition” contains minimum specific fan
powers different types of newly-installed ventilation systems. It also contains recommendations for
duct and air handling unit leakage. The requirements differ between new buildings and existing
buildings.

3.1 Scope

The guidance applies to the following types of air distribution system:
   - central air conditioning systems;
   - central mechanical ventilation systems with heating, cooling or heat recovery;
   - all central systems not covered by the above two types;
   - zonal supply systems where the fan is remote from the zone, such as ceiling void or roof-
       mounted units;
   - zonal extract systems where the fan is remote from the zone;


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                                                    DRAFT 11.6.2010


    -     local supply and extract ventilation units such as window, wall or roof units serving a single
          area (eg toilet extract);
    -     other local ventilation units, eg fan coil units and fan assisted terminal VAV units.

3.2 Definitions

Air conditioning system means a combination of components required to provide a form of air
treatment in which temperature is controlled or can be lowered, possibly in combination with the
control of ventilation, humidity and air cleanliness.

Ventilation system means a combination of components required to provide air treatment in which
temperature, ventilation and air cleanliness are controlled.

Central system means a supply and extract system which serves the whole or major zones of the
building.

Local unit means an unducted ventilation unit serving a single area.

Zonal system means a system which serves a group of rooms forming part of a building, ie a zone,
where ducting is required.

Demand control is a type of control where the ventilation rate is controlled by air quality, moisture,
occupancy or some other indicator for the need of ventilation.

Specific fan power of an air distribution system (SFP) means the sum of the design circuit-watts of the
system fans that supply air and exhaust it back outdoors, including losses through switchgear and
controls such as inverters (ie the total circuit-watts for the supply and extract fans), divided by the
design air flow rate through that system.

The specific fan power of an air distribution system should be calculated according to the procedure
set out in EN BS 13779:200720 Annex D Assessing the power efficiency of fans and air handling units
– Calculating and checking the SFP, SFPE and SFPV.

                    Psf + Pef
        SFP =
                         q
where:

SFP is the specific fan power demand of the air distribution system (W/l/s);

Psf is the total fan power of all supply air fans at the design air flow rate,including power losses through
switchgear and controls associated with powering and controlling the fans (W);

Pef is the total fan power of all exhaust air fans at the design air flow rate including power losses
through switchgear and controls associated with powering and controlling the fans (W);

q is the design air flow rate through the system, which should be the greater of either the supply or
exhaust air flow (l/s). Note that for an air handling unit, q is the largest supply or extract air flow
through the unit.

External system pressure drop means the total system pressure drop excluding the pressure
drop across the air handling unit (AHU).

3.3 Criteria

Air distribution systems in new and existing buildings should meet the following minimum standards:

     20
          EN BS 13779:2007 Ventilation for non-residential buildings – Performance requirements for ventilation and room-
                                                     conditioning systems.



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                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010


     a) air handling systems should be capable of achieving a specific fan power at 25 % of design
        flow rate no greater than that achieved at 100 % design flow rate;
     b) in order to aid commissioning and to provide flexibility for future changes of use, reasonable
        provision would be to equip with variable speed drives those fans that are rated at more than
        1100 W and which form part of the environmental control system(s), including smoke control
        fans used for control of overheating. The provision is not applicable to smoke control fans and
        similar ventilation systems only used in abnormal circumstances;
     c) In order to limit air leakage, ventilation ductwork should be made and assembled so as to be
        reasonably airtight. Ways of meeting this requirement would be to comply with the
        specifications given in:
             o HVCA DW14421. Membership of the HVCA specialist ductwork group or the
                 Association of Ductwork Contractors and Allied Services is one way of demonstrating
                 suitable qualifications; or
             o British Standards such as BS EN 1507:200622, BS EN 12237:200323 and BS EN
                 13403:200324.
     d) in order to limit air leakage, air handling units should be made and assembled so as to be
        reasonably airtight. Ways of meeting this requirement would be to comply with Class L2 air
        leakage given in BS EN 1886:199825;
     e) the specific fan power of air distribution systems at the design air flow rate should be no worse
        than in Table 36 for new buildings and in Table 39 for existing buildings;
     f) where the primary air and cooling is provided by central plant and an air distribution system
        which includes the additional components listed in Table 37, the allowed specific fan powers
        may be increased by the amounts shown in Table 37 to account for the additional resistance;
     g) pressure drops for air distribution systems in new buildings should not generally exceed the
        values given in Table 36. Exceptions may be made for certain systems such as those with
        high velocities needed for long throws over 20m;
     h) a minimum controls package should be provided in new and existing buildings as in Table 38.

Table 1 - 109 . UK Maximum specific fan powers and pressure drop in air distribution systems in new
buildings

                                                                                           Maximum external system
                            System type                               Maximum SFP, W/l/s   pressure drop, Pa

 Central mechanical ventilation system including heating and                 1.8                  400 supply
 cooling                                                                                          250 extract

 Central mechanical ventilation system including heating only                1.6                  400 supply
                                                                                                  250 extract

 All other central mechanical ventilation systems                            1.4                  400 supply
                                                                                                  250 extract

 Zonal supply system where the fan is remote from the zone, such             1.2                     200
 as ceiling void or roof mounted units

 Zonal extract system where the fan is remote from the zone                  0.6                     200

 Zonal supply and extract ventilation units such as ceiling void or          2.0                     150
 roof units serving a single room or zone with heating and heat
 recovery

 Local supply and extract ventilation system such as wall/roof               1.8                     150
   it     i      i l         ith h ti      dh t

21
         Ductwork Specification DW/144 Specifications for sheet metal ductwork – Low, medium and
high pressure/velocity air systems (Appendix M revision 2002), HVCA, 1998.
22
         BS EN 1507:2006 Ventilation for buildings – Sheet metal air ducts with rectangular section –
Requirements for strength and leakage.
23
         BS EN 12237:2003 Ventilation for buildings – Ductwork – Strength and leakage of circular
sheet metal ducts.
24
         BS EN 13403:2003 Ventilation for buildings – Non-metallic ducts – Ductwork made from
insulation ductboards.
25
         BS EN 1886:1998 Ventilation for buildings – Air handling units – Mechanical performance.


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                                                  DRAFT 11.6.2010


 units serving a single area with heating and heat recovery

 Local supply or extract ventilation units such as                                 0.4                          30
 window/wall/roof units serving a single area (eg toilet extract)

 Other local ventilation units                                                     0.6                          30

 Fan assisted terminal VAV unit                                                    1.2                          30

 Fan coil units (rating weighted average*)                                         0.6                          30

 Notes:
 * The rating weighted average is calculated by the following formula



                                  Pmains,1.SFP1+Pmains,2.SFP2+Pmains,3.SFP3+...
                                            Pmains,1+Pmains,2+Pmains,3+...

 where Pmains is useful power supplied from the mains, W.


Table 1 - 110 . UK Extending SFP for additional components
 Component                                                                                            SFP, W/l/s

 Additional return filter for heat recovery                                                           +0.1

 HEPA filter                                                                                          +1.0

 Heat recovery – thermal wheel system                                                                 +0.3

 Heat recovery – other systems                                                                        +0.3

 Humidifier/dehumidifier (air conditioning system)                                                    +0.1


Table 1 - 111 . UK Minimum controls for air distribution systems in new and existing buildings from BS EN
15232:200740
 System type                                                                 Minimum controls package

 Central mechanical ventilation system         Air flow control at the       Time control
 including heating, cooling or heat            room level
 recovery

                                               Air flow control at the air   On/off time control
                                               handler level

                                               Heat exchanger                With defrosting control – during cooling periods a
                                               defrosting control            control loop enables to warranty that the air
                                                                             temperature leaving the heat exchanger is not too
                                                                             low to avoid frosting

                                               Heat exchanger                With overheating control – during cooling periods
                                               overheating control           where the effect of the heat exchanger will no
                                                                             more be positive a control loop stops modulates
                                                                             or bypass the heat exchanger

                                               Supply temperature            Variable set point with outdoor temperature
                                               control                       compensation

 Central mechanical ventilation system         Air flow control at the       Time control
 including heating or heat recovery            room level

                                               Air flow control at the air   On/off time control
                                               handler level

                                               Heat exchanger                With defrosting control – during cooling periods a
                                               defrosting control            control loop enables to warranty that the air
                                                                             temperature leaving the heat exchanger is not too


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                                                       DRAFT 11.6.2010


                                                                                   low to avoid frosting

                                                   Heat exchanger                  With overheating control – during cooling periods
                                                   overheating control             where the effect of the heat exchanger will no
                                                                                   more be positive a control loop stops modulates
                                                                                   or bypass the heat exchanger

                                                   Supply temperature              Demand control
                                                   control


Table 1 - 112 . UK Minimum controls for air distribution systems in new and existing buildings from BS EN
15232:2007147

 System type                                                                    Minimum controls package

 Zonal system                           Air flow control at the room            On/off time control
                                        level

                                        Air flow control at the air             No control
                                        handler level

                                        Supply temperature contro               No control

 Local system                           Air flow control at the room            On/off
                                        level

                                        Air flow control at the air             No control
                                        handler level

                                        Supply temperature control              No control


Table 1 - 113 . UK Maximum specific fan powers in existing buildings
 System type                                                                                                   Maximum SFP, W/l/s

 Central balanced mechanical ventilation system including heating and cooling                                  2.2

 Central balanced mechanical ventilation system including heating only                                         1.6

 All other central balanced mechanical ventilation systems                                                     1.8

 Zonal supply system where the fan is remote from the zone, such as ceiling void or roof mounted units         1.5

 Zonal extract system where the fan is remote from the zone                                                    0.6

 Zonal supply and extract ventilation units such as ceiling void or roof units serving a single room or zone
                                                                                                               2.0
 with heating and heat recovery

 Local balanced supply and extract ventilation system such as wall/roof units serving a single area with
                                                                                                               1.8
 heating and heat recovery

 Local supply or extract ventilation units such as window/wall/roof units serving a single area (eg toilet
                                                                                                               0.5
 extract)

 Other local ventilation supply and/or extract units                                                           0.6

 Fan assisted terminal VAV unit                                                                                1.2

 Fan coil units (rating weighted average*)                                                                     0.6




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                                                   DRAFT 11.6.2010


Notes:
* The rating weighted average is calculated by the following formula


                  Pmains,1.SFP1+Pmains,2.SFP2+Pmains,3.SFP3+...
                            Pmains,1+Pmains,2+Pmains,3+...


where Pmains is useful power supplied from the mains, W.




                                                                       196
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



4. UK Heat Recovery Equipment

There are minimum performance requirements for new installations in new or existing buildings. In
addition, these products can be eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances if they satisfy more
demanding requirements.26

4.1 Minimum performance requirements

Air supply and extract ventilation systems including heating or cooling should be fitted with a heat
recovery system. The application of a heat recovery system is described in 6.5 of BS EN
13053:200627. The methods for testing air-to-air heat recovery devices are given in BS EN 308:199728.

The minimum dry heat recovery efficiency with reference to the mass flow ratio 1:1 should be no less
than given in Table 40.


Table 1 - 114 . UK Minimum dry heat recovery efficiency for heat exchangers in new and existing
buildings
                    Heat exchanger type                                  Dry heat recovery efficiency, %

                    Plate heat exchanger                                               50

                         Heat pipes                                                    60

                       Thermal wheel                                                   65

                       Run around coil                                                 45


4.2 Enhanced Capital Allowances

ECA Performance criteria
Products must have:
   • A net sensible effectiveness at the product’s maximum rated air flow under balanced flow
       conditions that is greater than or equal to the values set out in Table 1 below.
   • A pressure drop across each side of the heat exchanger(s) within the product at the product’s
       maximum rated air flow that is less than the values set out in Table 1 below.

Table 1 - 115 . UK Performance requirements for air-to-air recovery products.
             Product category               Net sensible                  Pressure drop
                                            effectiveness                  (in pascals)
     1        Plate heat exchangers             >= 49%                < 250 Pa across each side
     2      Rotating heat exchangers            >= 68%                < 200 Pa across each side
                                                                 <100 Pa across each air side and < 25
     3          Run-around coils                >= 45%
                                                                      kPa across each water side
     4      Heat pipe heat exchangers           >= 49%                <200 Pa across each side.


ECA Required test procedures



26
   Note that the minimum performance requirements shown are new values for 2010, while the ECA
values are from 2009. In some cases the former are more demanding than the latter, but this is likely
to be corrected by revison to the ECA values.
27
   BS EN 13053:2006 Ventilation for buildings – Air handling units – Rating and performance for units,
components and sections.
28
   BS EN 308:1997 Heat exchangers – Test procedures for establishing the performance of air to air
and flue gases heat recovery devices.


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


All products must be tested in accordance with the relevant procedures and test conditions in one of
the following standards:
- BS EN 308:1997 “Heat Exchanger: Test procedures for establishing performance of air to air and
     flue gases heat recovery devices”.
- ANSI / AHRI 1060:2005 “Performance rating of air-to-air heat exchangers for energy recovery
     ventilation”, Air-conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration Institute.
- JIS B 8628: 2003, “Air to air heat exchanger”.
- Other equivalent test standards where the resulting performance data can be
- scientifically proven, using the methodologies in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 84-2008 “Method of
     Testing Air-to-Air Heat/Energy Exchangers”, to be equivalent to that obtained under BS EN
     308:1997. Where the net sensible effectiveness should be calculated using the formulae in
     Appendix C3 of AHRI 1060:2005, and the test data collected when rating the product’s
     performance in heating mode at the test conditions specified in the selected standard.

Where the product is not tested in accordance with AHRI 1060: 2005, then the Exhaust Air Transfer
Ratio (EATR) may be determined using the internal exhaust air leakage rate obtained under section
5.3 of BS EN 308: 1997, or the carryover mass flow rate obtained under section 5.4 of BS EN 308:
1997 (as appropriate), or the leaking rate obtained under section 3.1.5 (b) of JIS B 8628: 2003.

For run-around coils, EATR value of zero should be used when calculating net sensible effectiveness.

Where products are too large to be been tested at their maximum rated air flow under the standard
test conditions specified in AHRI 1060: 2005, BS EN 308: 1997 or JIS B 8628: 2003, then
performance data obtained at other test conditions may be extrapolated using validated models (or
correlations), in accordance with the methodology outlined in Appendix D of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
84-2008.


5. Energy consumption assessment

Current estimates for annual energy use by central air-conditioning systems in the UK is 7313 GWh,
which compares to 9325 GWh for packaged air-conditioning. This is believed to be predominantly in
offices and retail premises, although recent data on this is sparse.

Air conditioning energy consumption varies with building type, climate, system type, component
performance and quality of management. In the UK, empirical data exist for offices (shown below),
which illustrates the wide range that is possible in similar situations, and that the auxiliary energy can
easily exceed the energy used for cooling.

Table 1 - 116 . UK Benchmark Energy Consumptions for Office Air Conditioning (KWh/m2)
           UK Benchmark Energy Consumptions for Office Air Conditioning (KWh/m2)
Function                    Standard Office                        Prestige Office
                    Good Practice         Typical        Good Practice            Typical
Cooling                  14                 31                21                    41
Auxiliary Energy         30                 60                36                    67
Humidification (if       8                  18                12                    23
present)

Calculations suggest that exising retail premises have cooling consumptions of the order of 90
kWh/m2 and auxiliary energy consumptions of about 32 kWh/m2.

However, changing preferences for system types and pressures from more demanding Building
Regulations (in part reflecting the impact of the EPBD) are believed to have reduced the consumptions
for new buildings. In particular, the move away from air-based systems has reduced auxiliary energy
use, supported by regulatory restrictions on specific fan power. The regulatory limit (and associated
calculation software) on calculated whole-building carbon emissions exerts pressure on energy
consumption by lighting – reducing cooling demands and therefore consumption – and encourages
the choice of more efficient air conditioning systems and components.




                                                                                                      198
                                                                      DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 117 . Example UK Calculations of Air-Conditioning Energy Use (kWh/m2
              Example UK Calculations of Air-Conditioning Energy Use (kWh/m2)
                               Large Office                            Retail
                       Cooling        Auxiliary Energy       Cooling        Auxiliary Energy
1995 Regulations         38                  49                91                  32
2006 Regulations         23                   9                92                  15
Technically              18                   5                14                   7
Feasible

These figures are optimised for the whole building and include, for example, changes to lighting
efficiency.

The sensitivity of (calculated) consumption is illustrated by the diagram below. Each bar represents a
system type, the ranges for each bar show the impact of different component choices.

Figure 1 - 34 . UK Example of Air Conditioning Consumption (cooling plus auxiliary energy)


                                     Example of Air Conditioning Consumption (cooling
                                                    plus auxiliary energy)

                              200
  Annual Consumption kWh/m2




                              180
                              160
                              140
                              120
                              100
                               80
                               60
                               40
                               20
                                0
                                    Chilled Ceiling   Split system   Fan Coil   Variable Air   Constant Air   Terminal
                                          and         and Natural    System      Volume          Volume        Reheat
                                    Displacement       Ventilation
                                     Ventilation




6. Health and safety

In the UK, the relevant guidance is the Health and Safety Authority Guide “The control of legionella
bacteria in water systems. Approved Code of Practice and guidance” . This approved code of practice
and guidance gives practical advice on the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act
1974, and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 1999, concerning the risk from exposure to
legionella bacteria. The Code also gives guidance on compliance with the relevant parts of the
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. It includes risk assessment and
management, guidance on management and treatment of cooling towers, treatment programmes.




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3.3.     SUBTASK 1.3.3 - THIRD COUNTRY LEGISLATION

Third country legislation is shortly described. Investigation regards minimum energy performance
requirements on air conditioning and ventilation products, link between building codes and
requirements on equipment and other relevant information regarding the life cycle of these systems.


3.3.1.   USA


Introduction
The United States is currently the largest energy producer and consumer in the world
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html). In 2007, the US used about 100 quadrillion
(quad) BTU or 29 PWh of energy, representing 21% of the world total (this comes out to 337 million
BTU or 355 GJ per capita). 30% of US primary energy was imported. By contrast, the EU-27
consumed 77 quadrillion BTU (23 PWh, or 16% of world total), of which 56% was imported. On a per
capita basis, the EU-27 energy intensity (166 GJ) is less than one-half of the US value (337 GJ).

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) compiles and reports energy statistics according to
four broad categories, which include: industrial, transportation, commercial and residential buildings.
The residential sector includes living quarters for private households, while the commercial sector
includes service-providing facilities and equipment (e.g., businesses, government & other institutions).
According to recent statistics, the partition of energy use by sector is 33%, 28%, 17% and 21%,
respectively, for industrial, transportation, commercial and residential buildings. Together, residential
and commercial properties account for nearly 40% of the total US annual energy use. A further
breakdown of total building energy consumption by end use is presented in Table 1 (additional
information may be found in the Buildings Energy Data-book; http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/).
Figure 1 shows US carbon equivalent emissions for base year 2008.




Figure 1 - 35 . US greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 (http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/)

In the US, more than half of commercial building energy use and operational costs is allocated to
heating, cooling and ventilating activities. Commercial systems differ from residential ones in a number
of important ways. While most residential homes and apartments rely on operable windows (airing)


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and structure-related infiltration (air leaks) for fresh air, commercial buildings are subject to minimum
(mandatory) ventilation requirements (e.g., ASHRAE 62.1) and minimum energy performance
standards and design (prescriptive) decisions concerning the use of heating/cooling technologies
(e.g., ASHRAE 90.1), which are aimed at promoting a pleasant working environment for occupants
and achieving indoor air quality (IAQ) compliance. With increasing building size, heating, ventilating,
and air conditioning (HVAC) needs are increasingly dominated by the use of air conditioning to reject
heat from lighting systems, equipment, and people working in the building. The ability to introduce in a
building a large amount of outdoor air with the mechanical system allows the use of outdoor air instead
of conditioned-air whenever the heating load can be satisfactorily met using the cool outdoor air flow
(“free” cooling). This “economizer” mode uses the fan more and the refrigeration compressor less,
resulting in significant energy savings and avoided environmental pollution (e.g., carbon emissions).
The impact of the economizer varies with climate, being greatest in regions with mild to cooler
temperatures, larger diurnal temperature variations and lower air humidity (see BASE study results
presented later on in this document).

Table 1 - 118 . Energy breakdown by end use in US building sector in 2006, % of total (primary)
                                       All buildings           Residential           Commercial
    Category
                                         [39 quad]              [21 quad]             [18 quad]
    Space heating                           20%                   26%                    12%
    Space cooling                           13%                   13%                    13%
    Ventilation                              3%                     −                     7%
    Refrigeration                            6%                    7%                     4%
    Water heating                           10%                   12%                     6%
    Electronics (incl., computers)          10%                    9%                    11%
    Lighting                                18%                   12%                    25%
    Cooking                                  3%                    5%                     2%
    Appliances                              12%                   10%                    13%


Buildings smaller than 10,000 to 20,000 square feet (930 to 1,860 square meters), typically, use
factory-built, air-cooled "unitary" (packaged) equipment. Packaged units are used in two-thirds of all
commercial floor space in the US and, de facto, are the primary choice for small projects and low-rise
construction because of low installation and maintenance costs (Table 2). Buildings larger than
100,000 square feet (9,300 square meters) and multi-building complexes, usually, employ water-
cooled "built-up" or site-specific assembled systems. For other cases, buildings may employ multiple
large packaged units or small built-up systems. The use of very large packaged units (20 to 60 tons) of
cooling capacity has been growing steadily in the US.


Table 1 - 119 . Characteristics of different cooling systems




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It should be noted, that performance comparisons among different configurations of the same type
and between unitary and built-up systems should consider the whole HVAC system. In a holistic
assessment, all system parts are considered, including primary components (e.g., chiller) and auxiliary
or “parasitic” equipment (such as fans and pumps). Simply selecting a high efficiency chiller, for
example, does not, a priori, guarantee an overall optimal system performance, unless proper
consideration is given to auxiliary equipment, system design decisions and system maintenance.

Packaged equipment such as chillers, boilers, and furnaces come in wide range of efficiencies. At the
Federal level, there are legal minimum energy efficiency standards. The National Appliance Energy
Conservation Act (NAECA, http://ees.ead.lbl.gov/projects/past_projects/central_a_c_heat_pumps or
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/pdfs/central_ac_hp_finalrule.pdf)
and the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) have established minimum-efficiency standards for furnaces,
boilers, and packaged equipment to which manufacturers must comply. NAECA applies to smaller
equipment, whereas EPAct deals with larger equipment. NAECA standards for central air conditioners
and central air conditioning heat pump (up to 30,000 BTU/h or 9 kW) after January 23, 2006 are
required to have a Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of 13.0 BTU per Wh (3.8 W/W). Energy
Star criteria are generally 10% above NAECA values. Many of the EPAct standards are based on
those developed for the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE) Standard 90.1. The ASHRAE standard also includes efficiency requirements for many
types of equipment not yet covered by EPAct, such as chillers. Increasingly, the ASHRAE standards
are becoming legally binding, as they have been widely adopted as part of the US commercial building
energy code at the federal, state and local levels.



US Energy Policy Act of 2005
Reading material
(i) www.epa.gov/oust/fedlaws/publ_109-058.pdf (complete legislation)
(ii) http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/pdfs/epact2005_appliance_stds.pdf
        (Subtitle C - Energy efficiency products, Sections 135, 136 and 141)

The US Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) is a bill passed by the United States
Congress on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President G.W. Bush on August 8, that same year.
The 2005 edition supersedes the EPAct of 1998, which itself amended the EPAct of 1992. The EPAct
is a comprehensive piece of legislation whose primary aim is rooted in achieving energy security by
having access to an abundant and sustainable supply of “clean” energy using national energy
resources. The bill has multiple provisions to achieve its objectives:
  • Reduce energy inefficiencies in the industrial, transportation, residential and commercial building
    sectors. Regarding HVAC equipment, the EPAct establishes Federal minimum energy efficiency
    standards that are based on ASHRAE 90.1-2004 requirements (Table 3). The USDOE is still


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      responsible for assessing that future revisions of Standard 90.1 will lead to lower energy use
      intensity in commercial buildings.
  •   Starting in 2006, federal agencies are required to reduce their year-to-year energy intensity by
      2% per annum, and by up to 20% by year 2015. Furthermore, agencies are required to purchase
      Energy Star rated or Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) approved products, and at
      least 7.5% of electricity consumption for green-power purchases must come from renewable
      sources by 2015.
  •   Encourage energy conservation, increase awareness of energy efficient alternatives (e.g.,
      familiarization of product labeling and Energy Star products) and influence consumer behavior
      through use of incentives and rebate programs (Table 4). $1.3 billion earmarked for conservation
      and energy efficiency improvements, in the form of tax reductions. Commercial building designed
      to use 50% less energy than ASHRAE 90.1 receives a tax deduction of $1.80 per square foot.
  •   Foster research and development of alternative technologies and environmentally friendly “clean”
      energy resources, such as wind, solar, wave, tidal power, nuclear power and clean coal. $4.3
      billion tax incentive earmarked for nuclear power, $2.7 billion for renewable energy, $1.6 billion
      for clean coal and $1.3 billion for alternative fuelled vehicles (up to $3,400 tax credit toward the
      purchase of a hybrid, light-duty passenger vehicles).
  •   Promote fossil fuel exploration and recovery, $2.8 billion tax credits.

The Act did not include a few of the provisions in the original bill; most notably, drilling for oil in the
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, requiring increased vehicle efficiency standards (Corporate Average
Fuel economy) and dependence on non-GHG energy sources similar to the Kyoto Protocol.

Table 1 - 120 . Federal Minimum Efficiency Standard for Commercial Equipment from the Energy Policy
Act of 2005




Table 1 - 121 . HVAC tax incentive of the Energy Policy Act of 2005


                                                                       Credit, $




Source: http://www.aceee.org/press/tax_incentive05.pdf




American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


(Website: http://www.ashrae.org/)

Since its founding in 1894, ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning
Engineers) has grown into an international organization committed to the advancement of indoor-
environment-control technology in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R)
industry. ASHRAE offers educational information, courses, seminars, career guidance, and also
publishes a variety of technical materials concerning, among other things, with sustainable building
design and efficient energy performance. The Society is organized into Regions, Chapters and
Student Branches that allow field practitioners and all interested in the general public to participate in
the development of new knowledge (research opportunities), to contribute on Technical Committees,
and to the free exchange of technical and practical knowledge on HVAC systems. The Society has
approximately 50,000 members and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

ASHRAE develops standards for its members and other professional organizations dealing with
refrigeration processes and indoor air quality standards (http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/548).
Standards are written for the purpose of establishing consensus among all interested parties on (a)
testing methods for use in commerce, (b) establishing minimum performance criteria and (c) design
methods and specifications. A list of ASHRAE publications may be found at
http://www.ashrae.org/publications/. ASHRAE is accredited by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) and follows their practice for due process and standards development.

Since the publishing of ASHRAE’s Sustainability Roadmap, in 2006, ASHRAE has made sustainability
a central part of its long-term strategic plan and its culture (“ASHRAE will lead the advancement of
sustainable design and operations”). ASHRAE future activities on sustainable buildings include:
  • Through research, publication and education, lead to the development, construction and
    operation of Net-Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). These buildings will use no more energy than is
    provided by on-site renewable energy resources, and, thus, will have a neutral carbon footprint.
    Initially, all new buildings will be designed such that their annual energy demand based on fossil
    fuel use will be limited to no more than 50% of the regional average for that building type. The
    remaining 50% share will be reduced gradually until 2030 when no net fossil fuel energy will be
    required to operate the building. It is an ambitious program, but ASHRAE and its partners are
    committed to the challenge of future carbon neutral buildings, especially since the US building
    sector, presently, accounts for approximately 40% of the total primary energy use in the United
    States and for nearly an equal share of total US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In a business
    as usual economic assessment, these fractions are expected to increase further in the coming
    years, unless aggressive energy savings goals are set now.
  • Cooperate with other organizations to “integrate” HVAC and refrigeration systems with other
    building systems and building design to enhance the overall effectiveness of Total Building
    Design (optimal building performance).
  • Promote research to develop equipment and systems that support sustainable buildings and
    enhance the effectiveness of maintenance procedures.
  • Develop design guidance and tools for building operators to integrate indoor environmental
    quality, energy efficiency and other aspects of sustainable building performance. Various
    sustainability standards are being developed, including Standard 189.1 and Standard 189.2,
    which provide minimum requirements for the design of high performance “green” buildings of the
    non-residential low rise buildings type and healthcare facilities, respectively.
  • Support the use of a life-cycle approach to encourage better decision-making by building
    designers, owners and operators on issues concerning energy use, indoor air quality,
    environmental impact and financial costs.


ASHRAE 62.1-2007 – Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (non Residential Buildings)
(Web-links:
   Standard 62.1-2007 publication   http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/132, and
   Addenda to 62.1-2007  http://www.ashrae.org/docLib/20081030_62_1_Supplement_FINAL.pdf)

Purpose




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


The aim of this standard is to specify minimum ventilation rates and other requirements necessary to
achieve “acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) conditions” that minimize adverse health effects. By
acceptable IAQ is meant that building occupants are not at a significant risk of being exposed to any
known indoor air pollutants at harmful concentrations and that the majority of people (e.g., at least
80%) find the air quality to be acceptable. The ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 is the latest incarnation
of Standard 62.1, which was first published in 1973, with subsequent revisions/updates in 1981, 1989,
1999, 2001, and every third year thereafter. The standard 62.1 is due to be updated by the end of the
year 2010. The 2007 edition combines Standard 62.1-2004 and eight approved addenda to the 2004
edition. In response to changes in knowledge, experience and technology, Standard 62.1 is
continuously revised by means of addenda, which undergo a public review process aimed at reaching
a consensus among interested parties before it is considered for approval by the ASHRAE and ANSI
Board of Directors. Addenda that have been approved are published periodically, every 18 months.

Scope
Standard 62.1-2007 applies to all indoor spaces intended for human use, except living areas in single
family homes or low-rise multi-family apartment buildings of less than three-stories above ground – for
these structures, instead, the requirements in ASHRAE 62.2-2007 would apply. Other exceptions
include interior spaces in road vehicles and aircraft. For laboratory, industrial and healthcare facilities,
additional safety and environmental regulatory codes and guidelines based on prevailing workplace
conditions may still apply (e.g., regulations and guidelines imposed by the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration).

The provisions of Standard 62.1 apply to new or new portions of buildings and their systems and
changes to systems in existing buildings. The goal is to design a ventilation system (Figure 2) that
meets minimum air quality standards that are perceived as acceptable to the majority of building
occupants and that are meant to protect human health by limiting the accumulation and exposure to
indoor air contaminants. Although the standard is not intended to be applied retroactively as a
mandatory regulation or code, the provisions may also be used to “improve” the indoor air quality in
existing buildings. Consideration or control of thermal comfort is within the scope of ASHRAE
Standard 90.1-2007.


Figure 1 - 36 . Ventilation system diagram (Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007)




Report overview
The report for Standard 62.1-2007 consists of nine sections, plus nine appendices, covering
requirements for ventilation design, air-cleaning system design, construction and system start-up
(commissioning) and operation and maintenance. The standard does not prescribe specific ventilation
rates to achieve acceptable indoor air quality for spaces that contain secondhand smoking
(Environmental Tobacco Spaces – ETS), but a number of mandatory requirements are specified in
Section 5.18 to keep ETS zones separate from ETS-free areas (separated physically & airflow-wise).

Chapter 4 (“Outdoor air quality”) covers requirements dealing with:


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


  • “Regional air quality” compliance with US national ambient air quality standards for the
    geographic area of the building site (EPA NAAQS criteria are available at http://www.epa.gov),
    and
  • “Local air quality” assessment to identify local pollution sources of contaminants of potential
    concern that may enter the building during normal hours of operation.

Documentation summarizing the findings and conclusions regarding the acceptability of outdoor air
quality shall be provided to and reviewed with building owners.

Chapter 5 (“Systems and equipment”) covers several topics, including, for example, design
characteristics and decisions affecting the following:
  • “natural ventilation systems”
  • “ventilation air distribution systems” (prescriptive criteria for air balancing and plenum systems)
  • “Ventilation system controls“ (e.g., mechanical ventilation systems shall include controls that
    enable fan operation whenever spaces are occupied; and shall maintain the minimum outdoor
    airflow requirements as listed in Table 5)
  • “Outdoor air intakes“ (provisions for managing rain and snow entrainment into the system, for
    avoiding rain intrusion into the airstream and for preventing bird nesting within outdoor air intake)
  • “Dehumidification systems“ (e.g., interior relative humidity shall be limited to less than 65% at
    conditions specified in Sec. 5.10.1; and when mechanical air-conditioning systems are
    dehumidifying, the design minimum outdoor air supply rate shall be greater than the maximum
    exhaust airflow to prevent system imbalances that may lead to unwanted outward air leakage
    from conditioned spaces to unconditioned areas or to the outdoors – building “ex-filtration”)
  • “Airstream surfaces, Building envelope and Interior surfaces” (e.g., airstream surfaces shall be
    designed and constructed to prevent biological growth and to be resistant to erosion; pipes, ducts
    and other surfaces within buildings whose surface temperature may fall below the local dew point
    shall be insulated; exterior joints, seams or penetrations in the building envelope shall be
    caulked, weather-stripped and sealed to limit the uncontrolled inward leakage of airflow and
    moisture or entry of contaminants to conditioned spaces from unconditioned areas or from the
    outdoors – building “in-filtration”; etc.)
  • “Local capture of contaminants and Combustion air” (e.g., the discharge from non-combustion
    equipment shall be vented outdoors; fuel burning appliances shall have an adequate supply of air
    for complete combustion and for combustion product removal; and contaminants generated by
    vented equipment shall be exhausted to the outdoors)
  • “Particulate Matter (PM) removal” (PM filters or air cleaners shall be placed upstream of all
    cooling coils (Fig.2) or other devices with wetted surfaces used to treat supply airflow and shall
    have a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value, MERV, of at least 6, as rated according to
    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2), and
  • “Air classification and recirculation” (Sec. 5.17 covers air quality classifications based on
    “subjective criteria” for return, transfer and exhaust airflows. There are four air quality
    classifications, ranging from low contaminated air with little or no sensory irritation intensity and
    offensive odor (Class 1), to highly objectionable fumes or gases, or dangerous levels of particles
    or bio-aerosols, or gases at harmful concentrations (Class 4). “Class 2” air is defined as air
    having a moderate contaminant concentration with mild sensory irritation intensity or mild
    offensive odor; although Class 2 air may not be harmful, it is unsuitable for transfer and
    recirculation to other building spaces. This section also covers air “re-designation” (Sec. 5.17.2)
    and air recirculation limits for minimum ventilation requirements (Sec. 5.17.3)).

Additional prescriptive provisions are provided for (a) drain pans, (b) finned-tube coils and heat
exchangers, (c) humidifiers and water spray systems, (d) access for inspection, cleaning and
maintenance and (e) buildings with attached parking garages (e.g., buildings with attached garages
shall limit the transfer of vehicular exhaust air to human occupied spaces by (i) maintaining the garage
pressure below that of the adjacent building or (ii) use of a vestibule to provide an airlock between the
garage and the adjacent building, or (iii) any other means to prevent air transfer of contaminants
between adjacent structures).




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Chapter 6 (“Procedures”) is concerned with provisions for mechanically powered equipment, such as
motor-driven fans and blowers, used in the design of building ventilation systems. Ventilation refers to
the process of supplying or removing air from a building space for the purpose of managing
contaminant, humidity and temperature levels within that space or “breathing zone”. Breathing zone is
that region of an occupied space that lies between 3 to 72 inches (7.5 to 180 cm) above the floor and
more than 2 feet (60 cm) away from the walls or from any local air-conditioning equipment. Two design
approaches or “procedures” are described in the standard documentation.
  • The “Ventilation rate procedure” is a prescriptive based approach for determining design outdoor
    air intake flow rates based on space type, occupant density, size of conditioned floor area, zone
    air distribution effectiveness (i.e., the effectiveness of air mixing in a space for a given air supply
    and return configuration; cf. Table 6.2 on p.16 of the report) and system ventilation efficiency (i.e.,
    the efficiency of a system at delivering outdoor air from the intake point to an individual breathing
    zone; cf. Table 6.3 p.16 of the report). Section 6.2, along with the supplemental information
    provided in Appendix A, outlines the steps for computing outdoor air intake requirements for (a)
    “breathing zone” of the occupiable building space, (b) single-zone systems, (c) 100% outdoor air
    systems and (d) multiple-zone re-circulating systems. Regarding air re-circulation limits, the
    provisions outlined in Sec. 5.17.3 shall prevail.

     Minimum requirements for breathing zone ventilation and system exhaust flow rates are provided
     below in Tables 5 and 6, respectively. The mandatory outdoor air intake required at the breathing
     zone accounts for both occupant related contaminants (e.g., odors) and area related sources,
     such as building materials, furnishings and contaminant emissions due to non-occupant activities
     and processes. The breathing zone outdoor airflow shall be determined in accordance with the
     provisions specified in Sec. 6.2.2 (see footnote to Table 5). Furthermore, the system shall include
     dynamic rest controls to account for varying operating conditions, including changes in
     occupancy load, variations in system ventilation efficiency, or changes in supply outdoor air
     fraction (proportion of outdoor air included in total design supply air flow) due to economizer use
     or exhaust air makeup.

     Outdoor air treatment before delivery to occupied spaces is required when NAAQS limits for
     particulate matter or ozone are exceeded, except for systems supplying air to enclosed parking
     garages, warehouses, storage rooms, janitor’s closets, trash rooms, recycling areas and
     shipping, receiving and distribution areas. Standard 62.1-2007 does not specify a mandatory
     minimum ventilation rate in smoking areas, although such areas shall have higher ventilation
     rates and shall employ additional air cleaning devices compared to no-smoking areas.

  • The “Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) procedure” is a performance based approach to designing a
    building and its ventilation system. Minimum design ventilation rates for achieving “acceptable”
    IAQ standards are based on both scientific considerations that would maintain indoor
    contaminant concentrations at or below a “threshold” value that would limit the potential harmful
    effects to human health and public perception, on the part of building occupants and/or visitors, of
    what constitutes an acceptable air quality level. Appendix B provides some contaminant
    concentration guidelines that are provided solely on the basis as reference values. It should be
    noted that ASHRAE does not select or recommend default values. For particulate matter with an
    aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), the proposed “target concentration limit” or
    “concentration of interest” is 50µg/m3. That is, the accumulated inhalation exposure due to PM10
    indoor concentrations less than 50µg/m3 should not pose a significant increase in the risk of
    adverse health effects in the “general” population (there will, of course, be variations in
    susceptibility among individuals). For the purpose of this procedure, perceived IAQ acceptability
    does not include occupant dissatisfaction due to thermal discomfort, noise and vibration, lighting
    and psychological stressors. The design level of acceptability is achieved when a majority
    consensus is established among building occupants (e.g., at least 80% of people agree or
    perceive that the indoor air quality is acceptable or better).

     Sec. 6.3.1.4 discusses several ventilation design approaches to determine space and supply
     airflows, including supply outdoor air intake, and other design parameters deemed relevant by
     the building designer. Option “a”, for example, discusses the “mass balance analysis” approach
     for ventilation systems serving a single space (details are provided in Appendix D). Compliance
     with the IAQ procedure requires the submittal of a “summary design” report including the
     following information: (a) an analysis of contaminant sources, (b) choice of target concentration



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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


       limits and references for these limits, (c) the design approach used to achieve acceptable IAQ
       and (d) any background or justification for the design approach selected.

According to Sec. 2.9 in ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 (p.3): “Acceptable indoor air quality may not be
achieved in all buildings meeting the requirements of this standard for one or more of the following
reasons:
  a. because of the diversity of sources and contaminants in indoor air;
  b. because of the many other factors that may affect occupant perception and acceptance of IAQ;
  c.    because of the range of the susceptibilities in the population; and
  d. because outdoor air brought into the building may be unacceptable or may not be adequately
     cleaned.”




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Table 1 - 122 . Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone




Note, Breathing zone outdoor airflow = Rp × Zone population + Ra × Zone floor area; zone population is the
maximum number of people expected to occupy the zone during normal usage, whereas zone floor is the net



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                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


occupied floor area. Zone outdoor airflow is Breathing zone outdoor airflow divided by the Zone air distribution
effectiveness (cf. Table 6.2 in ASHRAE report). Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007

Table 1 - 123 . Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone (cont.)




Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007



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Table 1 - 124 . Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone (cont.)




Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007




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Table 1 - 125 . Minimum Exhaust Rates




Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007




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ASHRAE 90.1-2007 – Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
(Web-Link: http://openpub.realread.com/rrserver/browser?title=/ASHRAE_1/ashrae_90_1_2007_IP_1280)

Purpose
The objective of this standard is to provide “Minimum Energy Performance Standards” (MEPS) and
requirements for the “energy efficiency design” of buildings except low-rise residential buildings.
Standard 90.1 was first issued in 1975, and has since been revised six times (1980, 1989, 1999, 2001,
2004 and 2007). The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 made Standard 90.1-1989 “the law of the
land”. Since then, the standard has been widely adopted across the United States and has become a
point of reference in building and energy codes around the world. Starting with the 2001 edition, the
standard has been published every third year to coincide with the release of updated regulatory
building codes (such as those published by the International Energy Conservation Code, IECC).

The standard is due to be updated again by the end of December 2010; and if all goes as planned, the
new regulations should go into effect in the United States by 2013. The main goal of the 2010 edition
is a 30% energy reduction relative to the 2004 version of the standard, which would imply a building
Energy Use Intensity (energy consumption per unit surface area) of 33,000 BTU/yr per square foot, or
about 12 W per square meter (down from 53,000 BTU/yr-ft2). According to the Energy Policy Act of
2005, all US government buildings are now required to be at least 30% more energy efficient than the
specification outlined in Standard 90.1. Since the baseline is continuously updated, the EPAct of 2005
sets a moving target relative to the ASHRAE standard.

Starting in 1999, the ASHRAE Board of Directors placed the standard on “continuous maintenance”,
meaning the standard is now changed on an ongoing basis through the use of addenda, which are
subject to public review, comment and consensus building among all interested parties. Addenda
become part of the standard, and equipment manufacturers, for example, are obliged to meet the new
specifications, upon the final approval and publication by the Board of Directors. All approved addenda
and errata by a given date are included in the next standard version. Forty-four approved addenda
were added to Standard 90.1-2004 when the 2007 edition was released. Over twenty additional
addenda have been approved since the release of 90.1-2007, and several more are presently in the
review/resolution/approval process (http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/132).

Scope
This standard applies to new or new portions of buildings and their systems and to new systems in
existing buildings. The standard does not apply, however, to single family houses or multi-family
structures of less than three-stories above ground (ASHRAE 90.2 covers low-rise buildings), nor does
it apply to manufactured homes (mobile or modular) and buildings that do not use electricity or fossil
fuel. Equipment whose primary energy use is for industrial, manufacturing or commercial processes,
are also outside the scope of this standard.

Provisions of Standard 90.1 apply to building envelope, provided the heating demand is greater than
or equal to 3.4 BTU/h-ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or the sensible cooling load is at least 5 BTU/h-ft2 (15.8 W/m2),
heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems, service water heating, lighting, electric motors and
belt drives and other equipment in conjunction with building operation. This standard is not intended to
bypass norms of safety or circumvent health and environmental requirements.

HVAC mandatory provisions and prescriptive requirements
The report for Standard 90.1-2007 consists of twelve sections, plus seven appendices. Chapter 6
covers heating, ventilation and air-conditioning requirements for new buildings, additions to existing
buildings and alterations to existing HVAC systems. All new or replacement HVAC systems must
comply with the standard, except as noted in the documentation. Compliance is not required, for
example, when (a) the equipment is being relocated, modified or repaired but not replaced; (b)
replacement would require extensive modification of existing systems and replacement involves like-
for-like equipment, or (c) HVAC to a building addition is provided by an existing HVAC system.

Compliance paths




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


The standard provides for three pathways of compliance (Figure 1 - 37). The “Simplified Approach”
option applies to buildings with a gross floor area less than 25,000 ft2 (2,300 m2) and a building height
less than two stories. In addition, the installed HVAC system must meet all requirements as stated in
Section 6.3.2. For example, (a) heating and cooling demand must be provided by a single zone, air- or
evaporatively-cooled, unitary packaged or split HVAC system complying with the “mandatory”
minimum energy efficiency standards (MEPS) summarized below in Table 1 - 126 to Table 1 - 130
(note, a building designer or building owner can always exceed these basic conditions); (b) an air
economizer must be installed, unless the system cooling efficiency exceeds by a sufficient margin the
MEPS requirements (cf. Table 6.3.2 on p.31); and (c) simultaneous heating and cooling of occupied
spaces or reheating for humidity control does not occur. Furthermore, compliance with the standard
requires submission of “record drawings”, “manuals” and evidence of “system balance”. These
submittals (Section 6.7) should include, for example: (a) location and performance data for each piece
of equipment, (b) configuration of duct and pipe distribution system (incl. size and design flow rates),
(c) size and options of each piece of equipment, (d) operation and maintenance manuals, incl. at least
one service provider, (e) detailed narrative and diagrams of how each piece of equipment is intended
to operate, incl. recommended setpoints, maintenance and calibration notes, and (f) evidence that
system controls are in proper working condition. “Completion requirements” are a necessary part of
any path for demonstrating compliance with the standard.

In the “Mandatory – Prescriptive Approach” option, compliance is established when the prospective
HVAC system design satisfies both “Mandatory” and “Prescriptive” provisions, as outlined,
respectively, in Sections 6.4 and 6.5 of the standard and verified through supporting documentation
(completion requirements). In the “Mandatory – Energy Cost Budget Method” (Chapter 11), the
building designer is allowed to tradeoff between various building systems and components as long as
the building annual total energy cost for the prospective design is no more than the equivalent cost for
a design based on the “prescriptive” path. Verification of energy cost savings requires the use of
simulation software that can model building energy consumption. Approved computerized
methodologies include BLAST, TRACE and DOE-2 software (http://gundog.lbl.gov/dirsoft/d2whatis.html).

Figure 1 - 37 . ASHRAE 90.1-2007 compliance paths




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                                        DRAFT 11.6.2010



Mandatory provisions

                         When tested in accordance with the specified test protocols, HVAC
                         equipment at the specified operating conditions shall have the minimum
                         performance standards summarized in the tables below. Note, the
                         standard does permit the use of equipment not listed in the tables, and a
                         protocol is outlined for verifying equipment efficiency information provided
                         by manufacturers (Sec. 6.4.1.4).
Equipment efficiencies   Table 6.8.1.A – Unitary air-conditioners and condensing units
                         Table 6.8.1.B – Unitary and applied heat pumps
                         Table 6.8.1.C – Water chilling packages (see Table 11 for water-cooled
                           centrifugal chillers operating at non-standard conditions)
                         Table 6.8.1.D – Packaged terminal & room air-conditioners and heat
                           pumps
                         Table 6.8.1.G – Heat rejection equipment
                         For the purpose of sizing equipment and systems, heating and cooling
Load calculations        loads are determined using accepted engineering standards.
                         (i) Zone heating or cooling is controlled thermostatically.
                         (ii) A temperature range or “dead band” of at least 5 F (2.8 C) will be
                         established such that simultaneous heating and cooling within a given
                         zone will not occur or will be kept to a minimum.
                         (iii) HVAC systems not intended to operate continuously or having a
                         design heating/cooling capacity less than 15,000 BTU/h (<4.5 kW) shall
                         be equipped with “off-hour” controls, including automatic or manual start
                         and stop, setback, zone isolation and optimum start controls.
                         (iv) Both outdoor air supply and exhaust systems shall be equipped with
                         motorized dampers that will shut when the airflow is off.
Controls
                         (v) Fans with motors greater than 0.75 hp (≈ 0.5 kW) shall be shut off
                         when not required.
                         (vi) Systems providing humidification and de-humidification capability to a
                         given zone shall not operate simultaneously.
                         (vii) Demand control ventilation is required for spaces larger than 500 ft2
                         (46 m2), an occupant density greater than 40 people per 1000 ft2 (43
                         persons per m2) and served by systems with one or more of the following:
                         an air-side economizer, automatic outdoor air damper control, or a design
                         outdoor airflow in excess of 3,000 ft3 (85 m3). One notable exemption are
                         exhaust air energy recovery systems complying with Sec. 6.5.6.1.
                         (i) All supply and return ducts and plenums shall be thermally insulated
                         and sealed. Insulation shall be protected from damage due to sunlight,
HVAC system              wind, moisture and equipment maintenance.
construction and         (ii) Piping shall be thermally insulated.
insulation
                         (iii) All ductwork that is designed to operate at static pressures in excess
                         of 3 inches water column shall be leak tested.




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                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010



Prescriptive criteria

                          Cooling systems with fans must be equipped with an air or water
                          economizer. An economizer is not required, for ex., when (a) systems
                          operate 20 hours or less a week, (b) systems operate in warm to very hot,
                          humid environments identified by climate zones 1a, 2a, 3a and 4a (see
                          tables and figures in Normative Appendix B of ASHRAE 90.1-2007 report
                          for zone definitions; climate zone equivalents for international locations
                          are available at http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/938), (c) system
                          size is below a climate zone specific threshold cooling capacity (e.g., in a
                          hot but dry climate, an economizer is not required if system size is below
                          135,000 BTU/h or 39 kW; cf. Table 6.5.1 on p.36), or (d) system efficiency
                          meets or exceeds the minimum efficiency for that type of system listed in
                          Table 6.3.2 (cf. p.31).
Economizers               (i) An air economizer shall modulate the outdoor and return air dampers
                          to supply up to 100% outdoor air for cooling purposes. Economizer
                          controls shall be integrated with other mechanical cooling components
                          and operation shall not be determined solely by mixed air temperature.
                          Means to relieve excess outdoor air intake will be provided to avoid over
                          pressurizing the building.
                          (ii) When outdoor air can no longer reduce cooling demand, an air
                          economizer shall reduce the outdoor intake to a minimum quantity
                          needed to maintain a healthy indoor environment. Control will be based
                          on outdoor air temperature, relative humidity and outdoor air enthalpy.
                          (iii) Water economizers shall be capable of cooling supply air by indirect
                          evaporation and providing up to 100% of cooling load when outdoor air
                          temperatures are below 50 F (10 C) dry bulb or 45 F (7 C) wet bulb.
                          Generally speaking, simultaneous heating and cooling of air and water
                          flow streams is not permitted, although there are special circumstances
                          when it may be allowed. This requirement applies to air systems with
                          thermostatic and humidistatic controls and to hydronic systems supplying
                          heated or chiller water (Sec. 6.5.2).
                          (i) Zone thermostatic controls shall prevent reheating, recooling or mixing
                          of air streams that have previously been cooled or heated by either
                          mechanical means or by economizer usage. Exceptions are permitted
                          when the re-conditioned airstream volume is less than the larger of: (a)
                          30% of the zone design peak supply rate, (b) 0.4 ft3/min per ft2 of
                          conditioned space, (c) the volume of outdoor air required to meet the
                          ventilation requirements in Section 6.2 of ASHRAE 62.1-2007, and (d)
                          any higher rate for which the energy penalty for reheating/recooling the air
                          is offset by the lower energy demand due to reduced outdoor air intake.
Simultaneous heating      Another exception is allowed when at least 75% of the reheat energy is
and cooling limitations   provided by on-site heat recovery systems or solar energy.
                          (ii) The simultaneous heating and cooling of fluids in hydronic systems
                          shall be limited. In a “two-pipe changeover system” that uses a common
                          supply system for delivering heated and chilled water, for example, shall
                          be designed to allow a dead band of at least 15 F (8 C), based on outdoor
                          temperature, between changeover from one mode to the other. At the
                          changeover point, the heating and cooling supply temperatures must not
                          be more than 30 F (17 C) apart, and the system must operate in one
                          mode for at least four hours before switching to the other.
                          In a “three-pipe system”, a common return for both heated and chilled
                          water shall not be allowed.
                          (iii) Systems with humidistatic controls may simultaneously heat and cool
                          airstreams provided the system is capable of reducing supply airflow
                          volume up to 50% or more below design specification, while still meeting
                          ASHRAE 62.1-2007 requirements. There are other exceptions.


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                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010



Prescriptive criteria (cont.)

                                An HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower
                                greater than 5 hp (3.7 kW) shall not exceed at “full load” fan system
                                design conditions the maximum fan motor size as determined by the
                                relationships indicated below. The “full load fan power limitation” applies
                                to supply, return, relief, and exhaust fans, and to fan-powered terminal
                                boxes associated with heating & cooling systems.

                                Constant volume system (full load power limitation)
                                hp ≤ 0.0011 x CFMS (allowable nameplate motor)
                                bhp ≤ 0.00094 x CFMS + A (allowable fan system bhp)

                                Variable volume system (full load power limitation)
                                hp ≤ 0.0015 x CFMS (allowable nameplate motor)
                                bhp ≤ 0.0013 x CFMS + A (allowable fan system bhp)

                                CFMS is the maximum design airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the
                                system in cubic feet per minute; hp is the maximum combined motor nameplate
                                horsepower, bhp is the maximum combined fan brake horsepower and A is a
                                pressure drop adjustment factor, which compensates for pressure increases due
                                to ducts, filters, gas-phase air cleaners, heat recovery devices, sound attenuation
Air system design and           sections, etc.
control
                                (i) For each fan, the selected fan motor shall be no larger than the first
                                available motor size greater than the “bhp” rating.
                                (ii) Individual exhaust fans with a motor nameplate horsepower less than
                                1 hp and fans exhausting air from fume hoods are exempt.
                                (iii) Hospital and laboratory systems that use exhaust/return fans to
                                maintain space pressure relationships needed for a healthy and safe
                                indoor environment may use variable air volume fan power specification.
                                (iv) “Part-load fan power limitation” (Sec. 6.5.3.2.1). Individual VAV fans
                                with motors greater than 10 hp shall meet one of the following criteria: (a)
                                the fan shall be driven by a mechanical or electrical variable speed drive,
                                (b) the fan shall be a vane-axial fan with variable pitch blades, or (c) fan
                                motor demand shall be no more than 30% of design wattage at 50% of
                                design air volume when static pressure is ⅓ of total design static
                                pressure.
                                (v) “Fan pressure optimization” (Sec. 6.5.3.2.3). For air systems that use
                                direct digital control of individual zoned boxes that report to the central
                                control panel, the static pressure set-point shall be reset based on the
                                zone requiring the most pressure. That is, the static pressure is reduced
                                until the damper position on the critical VAV box is nearly wide open.
                                Provisions apply to HVAC hydronic variable flow systems capable of
                                reducing pump flow rate to 50% or less of design flow rate at full load, and
                                having a total pump system power greater than 10 hp (7.5 kW).
                                (i) “Part-load pump power limitation” (Sec. 6.5.4.1). Individual variable
                                flow pumps with motors larger than 50 hp and having a pump head of 100
Hydronic system                 ft water column or greater shall have controls and/or devices that will limit
design and control              power consumption to no more than 30% of design wattage when used at
                                50% of design water flow. Exceptions include (a) systems with no more
                                than three fluid control flow valves and (b) systems when the minimum
                                flow rate is below the manufacturer’s recommended rate for proper
                                equipment operation and total pump system power is ≤ 75 hp.
                                (ii) For systems consisting of multiple chilled and hot water units, the fluid



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                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


                                flow rate shall be reduced when a unit is powered off.

Prescriptive criteria (cont.)

                                (iii) Chilled and hot water systems with a design capacity of at least
                                300,000 BTU/h (88 kW), shall be provided with controls to automatically
                                reset the supply water temperature in response to building load or outdoor
Hydronic system                 air temperature, except in circumstance where changes in the supply
design and control              temperature may cause improper operation of heating/cooling systems.
                                (iv) Hydronic pump systems shall be equipped with a two-position
                                automatic valve intended to shut off water flow when the compressor is
                                not running.
                                (i) Heat rejection systems for comfort cooling usage include: air-cooled
                                and evaporative condensers, plus open- and closed-circuit cooling
                                towers. The prescriptive requirements do not apply to heat rejection
                                devices integrated directly into cooling equipment and whose energy
Heat rejection                  usage is already reflected in the mandatory equipment efficiency norms.
equipment
                                (ii) Each fan having a motor rated at 7.5 hp (5.5 kW) or larger shall
                                include controls to operate the fan at two-thirds or less of full speed, and
                                automatically vary fan speed to control leaving fluid temperature and
                                temperature and pressure at the condenser of the heat rejection device.
                                (i) Individual fan systems with a design supply air capacity exceeding
                                5000 ft3 or 140 m3, of which the “outdoor air fraction” (defined as the ratio
                                of the outdoor air supply divided by the design supply airflow) is 70% or
                                more, shall have an energy recovery system with at least 50% energy
                                recovery efficiency. That is, the change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air
                                supply is equal to 50% of the difference between the enthalpies of the
                                outdoor air and return air at design conditions.
                                (ii) Provisions shall be made to control or bypass the heat recovery unit so
                                as not to interfere with air economizer operation.
                                (iii) Exceptions include (a) systems serving spaces that are un-cooled or
                                not heated above 60 F (15 C), (b) systems involved in the removal of toxic
Energy recovery                 fumes or dust (e.g., paint), (c) commercial kitchen hoods used for grease
                                vapor and smoke removal and (d) systems when more than 60% of the
                                preheat energy is already supplied by other on-site recovered heat
                                sources, e.g., by solar energy.
                                (iv) A condenser heat recovery system shall be installed for service hot
                                water heating provided the facility is operational around the clock, the
                                design service hot water load is at least 1,000,000 BTU/h (290 kW) and
                                the installed heat rejection capacity of the water cooled system exceeds
                                6,000,000 BTU/h (1,760 kW). Furthermore, the heat recovery system
                                shall either have a 60% recovery efficiency of the peak heat rejection load
                                or be capable of preheating service hot water draw to 85 F (29 C) at peak
                                design conditions.
Exhaust hoods,                  Provisions dealing with kitchen and fume hoods, use of radiant heating for
Radiant heating                 unenclosed and enclosed spaces and regarding hot gas bypass
systems, & hot gas              limitations are covered, respectively, in Sections 6.5.7, 6.5.8 and 6.5.9.
bypass limitation




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                                        DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 126 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Electrically operated Unitary Air Conditioners and
Condensing Units, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Table 6.8.1.A




Note, EER, SEER and IPLV have units of BTU per Wh (BTU/h = 0.293 W). IPLV is a weighted
average of efficiency measurements at various part-load conditions. The Coefficient of Performance,
COP = performance indicator in table / 3.413.
Source: ASHRAE 90.1-2007




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                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




Source: ASHRAE 90.1-2007




                                             220
                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 127 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Electrically operated Unitary and applied Heat pumps,
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Table 6.8.1.B




Note, EER, SEER, IPLV and HSPF have units of BTU per Wh (BTU/h = 0.293 W). IPLV is a weighted
average of efficiency measurements at various part-load conditions. The Coefficient of Performance,
COP = performance indicator in table / 3.413.




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DRAFT 11.6.2010




                  222
                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 128 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Water chilling packages, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007,
Table 6.8.1.C




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                                        DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 129 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Air conditioners, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Table
6.8.1.D




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 130 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Centrifugal chillers at non-standard conditions, ASHRAE
Standard 90.1-2007


  Leaving            Entering                           Condenser flow rate
chilled water       condenser
                                        2 gpm/ton            4 gpm/ton           6 gpm/ton
temperature           water
      (F)         temperature (F)     COP       NPLV       COP      NPLV       COP       NPLV
                         Cooling capacity less than 150 tons (530 kW)
                          COP = 5.00 and IPLV = 5.25 (ARI 550/590)
                         75           5.11       5.35      5.67      5.93      5.88       6.15
      40                 80           4.62       4.83      5.27      5.52      5.45       5.70
                         85           3.84       4.01      4.84      5.06      5.06       5.29
                         75           5.42       5.67      6.07      6.34      6.37       6.67
      44                 80           5.03       5.26      5.58      5.84      5.79       6.05
                         85           4.49       4.69      5.20      5.43      5.38       5.62
                         75           5.66       5.92      6.47      6.77      6.88       7.20
      47                 80           5.27       5.51      5.85      6.12      6.11       6.39
                         85           4.84       5.06      5.43      5.67      5.61       5.87
           Cooling capacity greater than 150 and less than 300 tons (530 to 1055 kW)
                          COP = 5.55 and IPLV = 5.90 (ARI 550/590)
                         75           5.65       6.03      6.26      6.68      6.51       6.94
      40                 80           5.10       5.44      5.83      6.22      6.03       6.43
                         85           4.24       4.52      5.35      5.71      5.59       5.97
                         75           6.00       6.40      6.71      7.15      7.05       7.52
      44                 80           5.56       5.93      6.17      6.58      6.40       6.82
                         85           4.96       5.29      5.74      6.13      5.94       6.34
                         75           6.26       6.68      7.16      7.63      7.61       8.11
      47                 80           5.83       6.21      6.47      6.90      6.75       7.20
                         85           5.35       5.70      6.00      6.40      6.20       6.61
                       Cooling capacity greater than 300 tons (1055 kW)
                         COP = 6.10 and IPLV = 6.40 (ARI 550/590)
                         75           5.65       6.03      6.26      6.68      6.51       6.94
      40                 80           5.10       5.44      5.83      6.22      6.03       6.43
                         85           4.24       4.52      5.35      5.71      5.59       5.97
                         75           6.00       6.40      6.71      7.15      7.05       7.52
      44                 80           5.56       5.93      6.17      6.58      6.40       6.82
                         85           4.96       5.29      5.74      6.13      5.94       6.34
                         75           6.26       6.68      7.16      7.63      7.61       8.11
      47                 80           5.83       6.21      6.47      6.90      6.75       7.20
                         85           5.35       5.70      6.00      6.40      6.20       6.61
 Note, ARI standard test conditions 550/590 corresponds to 44F leaving chiller water temperature,
 85F entering condenser water temperature and 3 gpm/ton condenser flow rate; 1 gallon per minute,
 gpm, is equivalent to 0.0631 liters per second (1 gpm/ton = 64.6 L/kWh)




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                                       DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 131 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Heat rejection equipment, Table 6.8.1G, ASHRAE
Standard 90.1-2007




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



Select addenda to 90.1-2007
(Web-link: http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/132)


Addendum “h”

This addendum revises and adds a new exception to Section 6.5.2.1 (Simultaneous Heating and
Cooling Limitation – Zone Controls) that takes advantage of the energy savings potential of Direct
Digital Controls (DDC) and alleviates a common problem that arises when the maximum reheated
airflow that is currently permitted in the 2007 standard is insufficient to meet peak heating demand,
unless a very high supply air temperature is maintained. At high supply air temperatures, a portion of
the supply airflow is circuited directly to the return duct (a phenomenon identified as “short-circuiting”),
which in turn leads to poor occupant comfort and ventilation effectiveness. The new proposal would
alleviate this situation by increasing the amount of reheated air from the current limit of 30% of the
zone design peak supply rate to the new maximum of 50%, provided the reconditioned volume of air in
dead band is limited to 20% of design peak flow rate (down from 30%).

Addendum “l”

The purpose of this proposal is to revise and add separate performance and certification requirements
for both open and closed circuit cooling towers (Table13 replaces Table 12). Closed circuit systems
differ from open systems in that a heat exchanger (typically a coil) keeps the process fluid separate
from the open loop airflow and spray water (a pump is used to recirculate the spay water).
Performance ratings for closed circuit systems include unit fan and spay pump energy usage, and are
based on typical water cooled heat pump operating conditions, as this industry is the largest user of
this type of equipment.

Table 1 - 132 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Heat rejection equipment corrected values, Table 6.8.1G,
“Addendum l ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007 (http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/132)




                                                                                                        227
                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010


Air cooled condensers mentioned here are refrigerant direct condensers for remote condenser chillers
for instance.




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010



Addendum “m”

In recent years, technological advancements in variable speed drives (VSD) has brought about a
significant improvement in water cooled chiller performance at partial loads (IPLV), with enhancements
of up to 30% possible, compared to traditional systems. These gains have come at the expense of a
small penalty, a drop of up to 4%, in the chiller full-load performance due to inherent drive losses and
usage of auxiliary devices. The provisions in this addendum (Table 14), due to take effect on January
1st, 2010, revise and extend the list of mandatory energy efficient requirements applied to air – and
water-cooled chillers that were published in Tables 6.8.1C, 6.8.1H, 6.8.1I and 6.8.1J of the 2007
edition of the standard (Tables 9 and 11 above). Non-standard performance rating tables for water
cooled chillers (NPLV) have been eliminated and replaced by an algebraic equation. Data for
absorption chillers remain unchanged, as these units have not undergone significant changes in
efficiency and their market share in recent years has been steadily decreasing (only 150 units were
sold in the United States in 2006). Efficiencies in Table 14 have been expressed in EER (in BTU/Wh)
for air cooled chillers, kW/ton for water cooled units and COP for absorption chillers. According to
ASHRAE estimates, compared to the norms specified in the 2004 edition, the new mandatory
requirements should reduce annual energy consumption by as much as 460 GWh (or just over 13%).

Addendum “n”

This revision extends the usage of variable air volume (VAV) fans for application to large scale, single
zone units – VAV fan control for multiple-zone systems is already a requirement in the standard.
Requirements, to take effect on January 1st, 2012, apply to unitary (packaged) equipment and air-
handling units having a cooling capacity in excess of 110,000 BTU/h (32.3 kW). The provision can be
met using either two-speed motors or variable-speed drives on the supply fan(s). To prevent/reduce
coil frosting, the minimum fan speed is set at 67% of design specification.

Addendum “p”

Addendum corrects the fan power limitation deficiencies of Standard 90.1-2004 concerning fan
systems exhausting air from fume hoods in a laboratory setting.

Addendum “s”

Addendum g to standard 90.1-2004 increased the minimum energy efficiency standards of commercial
air-cooled air conditioners and heat pumps having a capacity in excess of 65,000 BTU/h or 19 kW.
The amendment was approved by the ASHRAE Board of Directors in the Summer of 2005, and
matched, at that time, the US Federal efficiency standards for this type of equipment. Values for EER
and COP (at 47 F) were revised, and implementation of the new regulation was to take effect on
January 1st, 2010. In this addendum to standard 90.1-2007, the part-load and COP values at 17 F
have now also been updated (Tables 15 and 16). A new energy efficiency descriptor quantifying the
part-load performance of all commercial unitary products with a cooling capacity greater than 65,000
BTU/h, including single- and multi-stage units, has replaced the previous IPLV rating. The Integrated
Energy Efficiency Ratio (IEER), like its predecessor IPLV, is based on a weighted average of part-load
performance at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% capacity, and is expected to be a better indicator than IPLV
for measuring the “true” part-load performance of commercial unitary equipment. Minimum IEER
values are now available for products with a cooling capacity between 65 and 240 thousand BTU/h
(19 to 70 kW). In previous standards, no minimum IPLV were specified for these product classes.
(Note, in SI units, IEER is replaced by the Integrated Coefficient of Performance, ICOP.)

Addendum “u”

Provision would encourage the use of axial fans for applications to open-circuit cooling towers, which
are 50% more energy efficient than centrifugal fans used for the same purpose.

Addendum “ad”

This addendum provides a procedure for validating (certifying) manufacturer’s performance efficiency
claims for liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers.



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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 133 . Minimum efficiency requirements,Water chilling packages, corrected values, Table 6.8.1C,
“Addendum m ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007




Note, Ratings for Path A are intended for units operating most of the time at full-load, whereas Path B
values are for chiller applications expected to run mostly at part-load (see also table footnote “c”). The
energy efficiency rating (EER) and integrated part-load value (IPLV) are reported in units of BTU/Wh.
1 ton of cooling is equivalent to 12,000 BTU/h. COP = [kW/ton × 0.2844] -1.



                                                                                                      230
                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 134 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Unitary air conditioners and condensing units, corrected
values, Table 6.8.1A, “Addendum s ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007




Note, minimum IEER efficiencies are available for all product classes, whereas before no minimum
values for IPLV were provided for equipment with a cooling capacity between 65 and 240 thousand
BTU/h (19 to 70 kW). Minimum efficiencies for air-cooled and condensing units remained unchanged
from Table 7. EER, IEER and IPLV are reported in units of BTU/Wh.




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010



Table 1 - 135 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Unitary and applied Heat Pumps, corrected values, Table
6.8.1B, “Addendum s ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007




Note, minimum IEER efficiencies are available for all product classes, whereas before no minimum
values for IPLV were provided for equipment with a cooling capacity between 65 and 240 thousand
BTU/h (19 to 70 kW). Minimum efficiencies for other products not listed above remain the same as
indicated in Table 8. EER, IEER and IPLV are reported in units of BTU/Wh. COP (e.g., W/W) is
dimensionless.




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                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010




Additional resources on HVAC standards

[1.] Consumer information on light commercial HVAC can be found on the Energy Star Website at
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lchvac.pr_lchvac. Energy Star is an international standard for
rating energy efficient consumer products. Although it was created by and for the United States in
1992, many other countries worldwide have adopted the program (e.g., the European Union). Energy
Star products are typically 20 to 30% more efficient than US Federal minimum energy efficiency
standards.


[2.] Information regarding upcoming US federal minimums for unitary equipment can be found on the
US Department of Energy's (USDOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network at
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/commercial/ac_hp.html.

Table 1 - 136 . As of January 1, 2010, the USDOE recommends the following minimum Energy Efficiency
Ratios (EER) and Coefficients Of Performance (COP) for certain commercial unitary air conditioners and
heat pumps, including both split and packaged systems.


      Air-cooled products                     Efficiency standard
                                                           Air-conditioners (AC) with no heat
                                              11.2 EER
                                                           or electric resistance heating
                                              11.0 EER     All other AC
      Greater than 65,000 BTU/h, but less
                                                           Heat pumps (HP) with no heat or
      than 135,000 BTU/h [19 to 39 kW]        11.0 EER
                                                           electric resistance heating
                                              10.8 EER     All other HP
                                              3.3 COP      Heat pumps (@ 47F)
                                                           Air-conditioners (AC) with no heat
                                              11.0 EER
                                                           or electric resistance heating
                                              10.8 EER     All other AC
      Greater than 135,000 BTU/h, but less
                                                           Heat pumps (HP) with no heat or
      than 240,000 BTU/h [39 to 70 kW]        10.6 EER
                                                           electric resistance heating
                                              10.4 EER     All other HP
                                              3.2 COP      Heat pumps (@ 47F)
      Note, EER has units of BTU per Wh.




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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010




[3.] The US Department of Energy (USDOE) manages the Federal Energy Management Program
(FEMP), which was setup to produce purchasing specifications for large, water-cooled chillers,
commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pump and commercial boilers to help federal buyers to
comply with the requirement that they purchase products that fall in the upper 25% of energy and
water efficiency products. The Federal government owns more than half a million buildings across the
US; and therefore, the potential for energy savings and avoided pollution is enormous. Additional
details are available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/technologies/eep_purchasingspecs.html.

Table 1 - 137 . FEMP air conditioner efficiency recommendations for air-cooled, single-packaged and split
system units for use in commercial applications
                                                                Efficiency standard
         Air-cooled products
                                                        Recommended            Best available
         Less than 65,000 BTU/h (3-phase)
                                                      12.0 SEER or more          14.5 SEER
         [< 19 kW]
                                                       11.0 EER or more          11.8 EER
         65,000 to 135,000 BTU/h [19 to 39 kW]
                                                       11.4 IPLV or more         13.0 IPLV
                                                       10.8 EER or more          11.5 EER
         135,000 to 240,000 BTU/h [39 to 70 kW]
                                                       11.2 IPLV or more         13.3 IPLV
       Note, EER, SEER and IPLV have units of BTU per Wh.


Table 1 - 138 . FEMP recommendations for air-cooled, packaged chillers for commercial applications
                                                               Efficiency standard
                                                           Part load optimized chillers
         Compressor type and capacity
                                                        Recommended            Best available
                                                        IPLV (kW/ton)          IPLV (kW/ton)
         Scroll (30 to 60 tons)                           0.86 or less              0.83
         Reciprocating (30 to 150 tons)                   0.90 or less              0.80
         Screw (70 to 200 tons)                           0.98 or less              0.83

         Compressor type and capacity                 Full load optimized chillers (kW/ton)
                                                        Recommended            Best available
         Scroll (30 to 60 tons)                           1.23 or less              1.10
         Reciprocating (30 to 150 tons)                   1.23 or less              1.00
         Screw (70 to 200 tons)                           1.23 or less              0.94
       Note, IPLV is a weighted average of efficiency measurements at various part-load
       conditions (ARI 550/590-98). 1 ton = 3.517 kW.




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                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010




      [3.] cont.
Table 1 - 139 . FEMP recommendations for water-cooled, packaged chillers for commercial applications
                                                              Efficiency standard
                                                          Part load optimized chillers
         Compressor type and capacity
                                                       Recommended           Best available
                                                       IPLV (kW/ton)         IPLV (kW/ton)
         Centrifugal (150 to 299 tons)                   0.52 or less             0.47
         Centrifugal (300 to 2000 tons)                  0.45 or less             0.38
         Rotary screw (150 tons and greater)             0.49 or less             0.46

         Compressor type and capacity                Full load optimized chillers (kW/ton)
                                                       Recommended           Best available
         Centrifugal (150 to 299 tons)                   0.59 or less             0.50
         Centrifugal (300 to 2000 tons)                  0.56 or less             0.47
         Rotary screw (150 tons and greater)             0.64 or less             0.58
       Note, IPLV is a weighted average of efficiency measurements at various part-load
       conditions (ARI 550/590-98). Full-load ratings at peak conditions (ARI 550/590-98).


Table 1 - 140 . FEMP packaged heat pump efficiency recommendations for commercial applications
                                                              Efficiency standard
         Air-cooled products
                                                       Recommended           Best available
         Air-source (3-phase)                        12.0 SEER or more         13.2 SEER
         Less than 65,000 BTU/h [< 19 kW]             7.7 HSPF or more          8.5 HSPF
                                                      10.1 EER or more          11.5 EER
         Air-source
                                                      10.4 IPLV or more         13.4 IPLV
         65,000 to 135,000 BTU/h [19 to 39 kW]
                                                      3.2 COP or more           4.0 COP
                                                      9.3 EER or more           10.5 EER
         Air-source
                                                      9.5 IPLV or more          12.4 IPLV
         135,000 to 240,000 BTU/h [39 to 70 kW]
                                                      3.1 COP or more           3.3 COP
         Water-source                                 12.8 EER or more          14.5 EER
         65,000 to 135,000 BTU/h [19 to 39 kW]        4.5 COP or more           5.0 COP
       Note, EER, SEER and IPLV have units of BTU per Wh. Water source heat pumps use
       closed-loop cooling towers and boilers as the heat transfer sink or source.




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                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010



[4.] The Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) is a non-profit public benefits corporation whose
aim is to promote manufacture and purchase of energy efficient unitary equipment and services. Its
members include utilities, statewide and regional market transformation administrators, environmental
groups, research organizations and state energy offices throughout the US and Canada. Contributing
members also include the USDOE and the USEPA. CEE has established peak efficiency tiers for
packaged (unitary) air conditioners and heat pumps. Additional information is available at
http://www.cee1.org/cee/about.php3.


                                               Table 22.




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             DRAFT 11.6.2010



[4.] cont.




                               237
                                          DRAFT 11.6.2010



[5.] High-efficiency unitary equipment specifications
BACKGROUND: On January 1, 2010, a new part load cooling efficiency metric, Integrated Energy
Efficiency Ratio (IEER), will replace the previous metric, Integrated Partial Load Value (IPLV) for
unitary HVAC equipment >=65k Btu/h in the ASHRAE standard 90.1 2007. After January 1, HVAC
equipment manufacturers will test their products to meet IEER, not IPLV, and AHRI will only report
IEER values in the AHRI equipment directory.

IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IPLV AND IEER? HOW ABOUT IEER AND EER?
There is no direct correlation between IEER and IPLV or between IEER and EER. The Committee will
be exploring these relationships further as it considers updates to the specification. In the ENERGY
STAR specification EPA uses a 0.1 difference between IEER and EER while ASHRAE uses a 0.2
difference in 90.1 2007 for equipment <240k Btu/h.

For additional information, go to   http://www.cee1.org/com/hecac/Prog_Guidance_IEER.pdf

Table 1 - 141 . IEER and EER requirements for Unitary AC >=65kBtu/hr




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                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010




3.3.2.   Japan

Japan is rather a country of air conditioning by direct expansion systems. The common heating system
in dwellings in Japan is the split system with VRF and commercial packages being well developed in
the tertiary sector, there in competition with gas.

There are minimum performance requirements for residential and light commercial air to air
conditioners including seasonal performances.

To be completed




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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.3.3.   Australia

Australia set ambitious targets on air conditioners of all sizes and for chillers.

To be completed




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                                     DRAFT 11.6.2010



3.3.4. China
China also adopted ambitious targets for air conditioners EERs of small and commercial air
conditioners and is also adopting minimum performance requirements for chiller performances.

To be completed




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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010




4.      SCOPE AND SAVING POTENTIAL (FIRST ESTIMATE)


4.1.    SCOPE AND SAVING POTENTIAL FOR COLLECTIVE & NON-RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION
        SYSTEMS

The scope of the Ventilation in this study is the non-residential & collective residential sector.
The total building-volume in the European Union is around 250 billion m³. An estimated 140 billion m³
of this volume --sheds, stables, garages, some warehouses, etc. -- is permanently unheated. The
remaining 110 billion m³ has a heating system of some sorts. Taking into account the heating
characteristics of each subsector, it is estimated that the average (24/7) indoor temperature of this
building volume is 18 °C during the heating season.
The average European heating season is around 7 months (ca. 5000 hours), during which time the
average outdoor temperature is on average 6,5 °C. In other words, there is a temperature difference
between indoor and outdoor temperature of 11,5 °C. Around 2,5 °C out of this temperature difference
is supplied by solar gains (sun coming through windows) and internal heat production of appliances
and people. This leaves 9 °C to be supplied by an active heating system.
The infiltration and ventilation characteristic of a building is often expressed as the ratio between the
hourly air exchange in m³/h and the building volume in m³. For instance, assuming this ratio is 0,8
m³/m³.h it means that for every m³ of building volume 0,8 m³ of fresh air is needed per hour. For the
110 billion m³ of heated building-volume, during 5000 hours per heating season ca. 440.000 billion m³
(0,44 x 1015 m³) of fresh air will penetrate the buildings and will have to be heated.
The specific heat, i.e. the energy needed to heat 1 m³ of air by 1 degree Celsius (°C ) or Kelvin (K),
amounts to around 0,33 Wh/m³.K. Given the net indoor-outdoor temperature difference of 9 °C (9 K),
it can now be calculated how much energy the heating system has to deliver, i.e.
0,44 x 1015 m³         x 9 K x 0,33 Wh/m³.K = 1,3 x 1015 Wh = ca. 1300 TWh (TWh=tera-watt
          12
hour=10 Wh)
In Europe most of space heating is done by a central heating boiler and the total systems efficiency,
including all losses, is not more than 60%.
This means that around 2166 TWh (in Gross Calorific Value GCV of the fuel) is needed to compensate
for the infiltration and ventilation losses of all heated European buildings. Expressed in peta-joules (1
PJ= 1015 Joules= 0,277 TWh) this amounts to ca. 8000 PJ.
In order to know how much carbon emissions are involved in producing this 8000 PJ of heat the fuel
mix has to be known. In Europe, for space heating the dominant fuel is natural gas, some oil, district
heat and electricity. On average the emissions per PJ are 0,0577 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (“Mt
CO2 eq.”). Thus the 8000 PJ of heating energy causes some 460 Mt CO2 eq..
This is a huge figure, equivalent to one-third of all space heating energy and 11 % of all EU-27 carbon
emissions. Although at this stage it is only a rough estimate, it certainly shows the importance of
being able to recover a part of the waste heat involved and to ventilate only when and as much as
needed.
But the amount of energy mentioned is certainly not fully within the scope of the underlying study, for a
number of reasons:
     1. It includes at least 25% (0,2 m³/m³.h) infiltration losses, i.e. air that is penetrating through
         openings in window frames, doors, etc., without a willful intervention of the user. These 115 Mt
         CO2 may be tackled through building regulations (Energy Performance of Buildings
         measures), but they are not part of Ecodesign measures relating to ventilation systems. On
         the other hand, if infiltration diminishes beyond a certain threshold the ventilation requirements
         will have to increase in order to guarantee a minimum Indoor Air Quality and in that sense
         some projection of the development of infiltration losses may be relevant for the outcome of
         the study;
     2. Of the remaining 345 Mt CO2 related to strict ventilation losses, already now –especially in
         Northern Europe—around 8% (28 Mt CO2 eq.) is recovered by the use of heat recovery
         systems;
     3. This study relates to collective residential ventilation (flats, apartment blocks) and ventilation in
         non-residential buildings. Residential ventilation of individual dwellings, accounting for almost
         30% of the total ( 93 Mt CO2), is excluded (part of DG ENER Lot 10). Also agricultural


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                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


          buildings (greenhouses, some stables) as well as specialized industrial & mining ventilation
          applications –together perhaps accounting for 5% of the total (17 Mt CO2)—are excluded.
All in all, the scope of the study is limited to around 3600 PJ of heating energy, resulting in 207 Mt CO2
equivalent.
The main saving potential will come from better controls (ventilation when and where needed) and
from waste heat recovery. Recovery will never be 100%, but even when taking into account efficiency
degradation in time, a long-term saving potential on heating energy of around 3000 PJ (170 Mt CO2
equivalent) should be possible29. For saving on electricity and heating it is important that probably
around 40-50% or more can be saved through better controls.
On the downside, the saving on heating energy will come at a price in terms of an increase of electric
energy for the extra fans (and controls) that will be needed for the waste heat recovery. When
assuming a total pressure drop of 900 Pa 30, a volume of 45 billion m³/h 31 and two fans (one supply-
and one exhaust fan) the additional net power for mechanical ventilation –at the best available
technology-- will amount to
900 Pa x 12,5 mln. m³/s x 2= 22.500 x 106 W = 22,5 GW
Given an average fan+motor+drive efficiency of about 70%32 and ideally the equivalent of 2200 full-
load operating hours per year33 this results in around 2200 x 22,5/70% = 49.500 GWh= ca. 50 TWh of
electric energy consumption per year. At 0,43 Mt CO2 equivalent per TWh electric energy this means
carbon emissions of around 22 Mt CO2 eq.. Of course, these would not all be additional energy
consumers, because in many instances they could be replacing existing extraction fans. Still, with the
realization of full waste heat recovery an extra 14 Mt CO2 emissions from fans and controls could be
the penalty to expect at full ventilation waste heat recovery in the EU. The net carbon saving potential
in the scope would thus be around 150 Mt CO2 equivalent.
The possible credit for achieving such a long term target should be shared with other measures. As
regards the extra fan energy, the measures on motors (>750W) and fans (>125W) in Lot 11 should
make it possible that the penalty of the extra fans is not 12 Mt CO2, but probably more like 10 Mt CO2.
This would increase the saving potential to 160 Mt CO2 eq., but not fully due to measures that can be
expected from the scope of this study. Of course, the underlying study would implicitly cover the
electricity consumption of fans <125 W when they are an integrated part of the ventilation system.
On the heating side, 40% of the saving on heating energy, some 70 out of 170 Mt CO2 eq., is due to
efficiency losses in the heating system. With a fully efficient heating system, the ventilation would
require 1800 PJ and cause ‘only’ 100 Mt CO2 eq. emissions per year. Efficiency improvement of
heating systems is the subject of DG ENER Lot 1, 10, 15, 20 and 21 and if all goes according to plan
a 20-25% efficiency improvement should be achieved on heating systems in 2020. This means that
some 17 Mt CO2 eq. should be partitioned to heating measures.
All in all, the truly unique share of the long-term saving potential that is in the scope of this study will
be around 130-135 Mt CO2 eq..
Finally, in particular for this new product group of well-controlled waste heat recovery ventilation that is
aiming at the building industry, the significance of “long term” should be stressed. Although there are
good products for the existing building stock, it is still a product that will take several decades to reach
an 80-90% of its saving potential and realistically a market penetration of 30-40% of the building stock
by 2020 would be an enormous achievement. Thus, for EU energy and carbon policy targets aiming at


29
    Kaup, Dr., Study on energy-efficiency of air-handling units (AHU) at Birkenfeld Environmental
Campus, Trier University of Applied Sciences, paper, 2010. Dr. Kaup mentions a heat transfer
efficiency of
30
   Kaup (see Annex ) mentions an average AHU at 1050 Pa (at 14.000 m³/h) pressure drop. This
includes the pressure drop of heating/cooling coil (assumed to be around 200-250 Pa), which is
excluded from the pure ventilation scope, but only partially (40%) includes the ca. 170 Pa for the waste
heat recovery. In total, a pressure drop of 900 Pa is assumed for the pure ventilation (and coarse filter)
function.
31
   0,45 m³/m³.h for full load ventilation x 110 billion m³
32
   Kaup mentions 54% average AHU system efficiency with best values close to 70%. Compare:
Average rooftop fan system efficiency is at 30%.
33
   12h/day at 80%, night at 20%. 6 days/week in heating season of 30 weeks. Total 2160 full-load
hours/year. Note that this a relatively ideal case, which assumes a good control regime and natural
ventilation outside the heating season. Currently, it is not unusual –especially when heating/cooling is
part of the AHU-- to have systems running 12h/day at full load, 12h/night at half load, all year around
(6570 full-load hours).


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                                             DRAFT 11.6.2010


2020 a savings contribution of no more than 40-50 Mt CO2 eq. and 700-900 PJ/year is what can be
expected.




Figure 1 - 38 . Split-up of 110 bln. m³ heated volume equivalent at 18°C indoor temperature in the EU.



4.2.    SCOPE AND SAVING POTENTIAL OF AIR CONDITIONING

The scope of this study are air-conditioning products (as defined page 34) used in the tertiary and
industrial sector.

This scope definition does not exclude the same air-conditioning products used in other sectors
because any ecodesign measure would establish ecodesign requirements for the placing on the
market of tertiary and industrial air-conditioning products, including when they are marketed for
residential or other use. The study will therefore assess technical parameters (e.g. > 12 kW for air-to-
air air-conditioner) suitable for discerning "tertiary and industrial air-conditioning products" by
manufacturers, importers, end-users and market surveillance authorities. On the other hand, a CE-
marked air-conditioning product could be de-facto a "system" or "extended product", that means,
consisting of different components/parts.

For the tertiary sector, it is estimated that currently 40 % of offices, large retail, hotels and restaurants,
health care institutions, public buildings and cultural buildings would use air conditioning >12 kW in
the summer. This amounts to 10% of the building volume, i.e. around 11 bln. m³.

 In average size non-residential buildings, air conditioning systems are running in cooling mode 3 to 4
months per year and will very commonly try to keep the indoor temperature at around 22-23 °C for the
average climate. The outdoor temperature during the daytime for average (Strasbourg), warmer
(Athens) and colder (Helsinki) climate is shown in the table. To these values around 6 °C can be
added for solar and internal gains (3 °C for winter period but solar gain in summer is much higher),
which means that on average the temperature will be 4 °C above 22 °C in the average climate during
the mid-May to Mid-September. This results in 120 days and, taking into account night- and weekend
setback, in 1200 hours of potential (part load) activity. In the warmer climate, the indoor-outdoor


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                                           DRAFT 11.6.2010


temperature difference will be on average 11°C and the air conditioner will be active (in part load)
during ca. 2000 hours.

 Daytime outdoor temperature (7-21h) in average and warm climate
                    jan feb     mar apr       may jun     jul    aug          sep    oct    nov    dec
   Average
   climate          2,8 2,6      7,4 12,2 16,3 19,8 21,0 22,0                 17,0   11,9   5,6      3,2
   Warm climate     9,5 10,1 11,6 15,3 21,4 26,5 28,8 27,9                    23,6   19,0   14,5     10,4
                      -
   Colder climate   3,8 -4,1 -0,6 5,2 11,0 16,5 19,3 18,4                     12,8   6,7    1,2      -3,5


Assuming
•     65 % of air conditioning systems are installed in a warm climate and 35 % in an average
       climate, the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference is of 8 K during 1500 hours
•     a standard infiltration and ventilation air change rate of 1 m³/m³.h during airco operation –
       infiltration increases in buildings open to public as often doors remain open,
•     an aggregate U-value of 1,5 W/m².K (insulation for walls and windows and cold bridges)
•     an AV ratio of 0,4 m²/m³ (A=envelope surface in m² / V=building volume in m³ ),
•     specific heat of air 0,33 Wh/m³.K
•     20 % latent load

the average annual European sensible cooling load in the tertiary sector can be estimated at:
         transmission-losses (incl. cold bridges)
         (11 x 109)m³ · 1500 h · 8 K · 1,5 W/m².K · 0,4 m²/m³ · 1,2 = 95 TWh/a
         plus ventilation & infiltration losses
         (11 x 109)m³ · 1500 h · 8 K · 0,33 Wh/m³.K · 1 m³/m³.h · 1,2 = 52 TWh/a
resulting in 147 TWh/a cooling load.

For the electricity consumption to meet this cooling load, it is assumed that
•        System losses (auxiliary heat supplementary load, distribution losses, suboptimal control, etc.)
         are 25% of the load,
•        the aggregate Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio SEER for cooling is 2 ,
•        additional electricity consumption of air-handling units, pumps and other auxiliaries not taken
         into account in the SEER value is 25% of the electric consumption
resulting in
         1,25 · 1,25 · 147/2,5 = 92 TWh/a electricity consumption.

At 0,43 Mt CO2 equivalent per TWh electric energy this means carbon emissions of approximately 40
Mt CO2 eq.

For the industrial sector, representing 10,2% of the total building volume, it is assumed that a quarter
of the industrial building volume (ca. 2.5%) will be equipped with air conditioning. Assuming the same
conditions as for the tertiary sector, this results in ca. 23 TWh/a electricity consumption and emissions
of close to 10 Mt CO2 eq..

In total, the scope of the air conditioning part of the underlying study concerns around 115 TWh/a of
electricity consumption and energy-related carbon emissions of 50 Mt CO2 equivalent/a.
There are currently installations on the market with a SEER higher than 6, indicating that a 60% saving
is achievable for new systems as compared to existing ones. Also in the field of energy consumption
for auxiliary functions, similar reductions in energy consumption are deemed realistic.

However, with respect of 2010 the air-conditioner stock in the EU is expected to double in 2030 (factor
1,5 between 2010 and 2020). With current technology this would imply an electricity use of 230 TWh/a
and related emissions of 100 Mt CO2 equivalent in 2030.

Applying this saving potential now can thus save 60 TWh on the existing stock and avoid 60 TWh by
2030 for the next generation of systems. All in all, the long-term (2030) saving potential is estimated at
120 TWh , which currently equals close to 52 Mt CO2 equivalent.


                                                                                                      245
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010



Given the relatively long replacement cycle of existing air conditioner stock it is estimated that
realistically no more than 30-40% of this potential, a maximum of 24 TWh and 10 Mt CO2 equivalent,
can be realized by 2020 for the existing stock. This is to be added to the 30 TWh for new systems
installed from now on to 2020. Thus the 2020 saving potential is estimated at 54 TWh or about 23
MtCO2.

Narrowing down the scope for air-conditioning

The underlying study explicitly includes air-conditioning in cooling mode of all types of energy sources
(electric, fossil-fuel fired, solar), all relevant principles (Carnot cycle, absorption, adsorption) of all
source-sink types.
The products in scope typically consist of multiple packages (chillers, air handling units, ducts, etc.)
that are placed on the market with various degrees of integration of functions, sometimes placed on
the market as a whole by a single manufacturer and sometimes by several suppliers for the different
packages. It will be explicit part of the scope of the study to propose practical and legally admissible
solutions on how the legislator can deal with this complex supply situation.
Air-to-air room air-conditioners and local air coolers with a standard rated cooling capacity <= 12 kW
are not included in the scope, but are the subject of a separate measure (DG ENER Lot 10).
As regards the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the refrigerants, this will be part of the scope of
this study to investigate whether additional measures, on top of the already existing F-gas regulation
(EC) 842/2006 are required.

The cooling of perishable foodstuffs or drinks, at any level in the supply chain (industrial, wholesale or
retail) is not included in the scope of the underlying study, but is part of the preparatory studies on
refrigeration and freezing equipment DG ENTR Lot 1 and DG ENER Lot 12.

The heating function of (reversible) air-to-water, brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps,
including those referred to as ‘air conditioning’, is not included in the scope but subject to separate
measures developed under DG ENER Lot 1. In as much as the heating function is fulfilled by the same
products as the ones in the scope of the underlying study, the efforts shall be co-ordinated at the level
of the ecodesign measures and preparatory studies.

The heating function of (reversible) air-to-air, brine-to-air and water-to-air heat pumps, including those
referred to as ‘air conditioning’, is not included in the scope but subject to separate measures
developed under DG ENER Lot 21 on air heating appliances. In as much as the heating function is
fulfilled by the same products as the ones in the scope of the underlying study, the efforts shall be co-
ordinated at the level of the ecodesign measures and preparatory studies. In particular, the
preparatory studies of ENER lot 21 and ENTR lot 6 should ensure that the same approach as in the
draft air-conditioner <= 12 kW measure is followed, in which the cooling and heating functions of
reversible air-conditioner are addressed (SEER/SCOP).

The scope of DG ENER Lot 20 is not known yet. Nevertheless, it will complement the scope of DG
ENER Lot 21 in order that the heating function of all air-to-air products is covered either in DG ENER
Lot 10, DG ENER Lot 20 and DG ENER Lot 21.

The study team suggests that air-conditioning and ventilation for special purposes or under special
circumstances, such as mining, clean rooms, operating theatres, hazardous and toxic process
environments, etc. will not be in the scope of measures, but the study will provide a list of exemptions
to possible measures. Stakeholder input on this suggestion is welcome.
The study team suggests that the focus of the study will be on the cooling function. Any additional
functionality of the products such as (de)humidification, air purification and/or filtering, etc. should not
be part of the rating methodology and only taken into account when influencing the cooling
performance and or its energy efficiency (e.g. through the pressure drop). Stakeholder input on this
suggestion is welcome.


Sharing the credit




                                                                                                        246
                                            DRAFT 11.6.2010


The products in the scope of the underlying study are building products and as such subject to
regulation under the 2009 recast of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, which includes
amongst others a classification of building types and an inspection paragraph on air-conditioners. In
this sense, measures to be developed should be co-ordinated with the EPBD-recast.

The products are also covered by the Construction Product Directive 89/106/EEC and measures to be
developed should be compatible with the safety, health, environment and energy requirements in this
directive requested from construction products for CE marking. .

The products in the scope of the underlying study use ambient heat and may in the future use direct
solar radiation as (renewable) energy sources. In this sense, measures to be developed should be co-
ordinated with the stipulations in the 2009 recast of the RES directive.

The air-conditioning products in the scope are typically assemblies, containing amongst others electric
motors, pump(s) and fans. These components are either already subject of Ecodesign Commission
Regulations No 640/2009 (electric motors 750 W < P < 375 kW) and 641/2009 (circulation pumps) or
may be in the scope of future measures (fans >125 W, DG ENER Lot 11). Although the underlying
study will assume as much as possible a holistic approach, i.e. rating the whole unit on the basis of its
cooling energy efficiency performance, at the very least the above mentioned regulations will
contribute in realizing the saving potential at earlier stages of the production chain, i.e. in the B2B
market.

Even though it is not expected to be a separate item in the envisaged holistic approach, another
horizontal contribution may come from Ecodesign Commission Regulation No 1275/2008 on stand-by
electricity consumption, which at the very least will drive the development of efficient electronics
forward.

All in all, the truly unique saving potential of the underlying study will relate to the (synergy effects in)
the overall system design, the compressor(s), heat exchangers, controls, auxiliary energy users (e.g.
crankcase heater) and components that are outside the scope of current regulations (motors 750 W-
375 kW, fans<125 W, circulation pumps not for drinking water). At this stage it is difficult to put an
exact number on that share, but it will be subject of the study.




                                                                                                         247
                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010




To be done



ASHRAE, 2008

Auditac, 2006, Technical guides for owner/manager of an air conditioning system. EIE Auditac
project, http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/archi/research/auditac/publications.html, October 2006.

Pascal Stabat, Dominique Marchio, Heat and mass transfer modeling in rotary desiccant
dehumidifiers, Applied Energy, Volume 86, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 762-771, ISSN 0306-2619, DOI:
10.1016/j.apenergy.2007.06.018.

Stabat, 2003, Modélisation de composants de systèmes de climatisation mettant en oeuvre
l’adsorption et l’évaporation de l’eau, P. STABAT, Thèse de doctorat en Energétique, Ecole Nationale
Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 10 mars 2003.


JRC, 2009 - Electricity consumption EE

ECCP, 2003


Directive and regulations

2002/31/EC

Commission Regulation (EC) No 640/2009 of 22 July 2009 implementing Directive 2005/32/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council with regard to ecodesign requirements for electric motors.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 641/2009 of 22 July 2009 implementing Directive 2005/32/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council with regard to ecodesign requirements for glandless
standalone circulators and glandless circulators integrated in products


Building standards


EN15243 Ventilation for Buildings – Calculation of room temperatures and of load and energy for
buildings with room conditioning systems, CEN 2007.
EN 15251: 2007, Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy
performance of buildings, addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics.
June 2007
EN 13779 : 2007, Full title: Ventilation for non-residential buildings; Performance requirements for
ventilation and room-conditioning systems. May 2007


Product standards


CEN/TR 14788:2006 and EN 15665:2009
EN 15242 : 2007 and EN 13465:2004
EN 15241 : 2007
prEN 13142 Rev V7
EN 13141-4


                                                                                                 248
                                        DRAFT 11.6.2010


EN 13141-6
EN 13141-7
EN 13141-8
EN 13141-9
EN 13141-10
EN 13141-11
prEN 15727:2010


EN 14511-1:2007        Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically
driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Part 1: Terms and definitions

EN 14511-2:2007        Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically
driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Part 2: Test conditions

EN 14511-3:2007        Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically
driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Part 3: Test methods

EN 14511-3:2007/AC:2008          Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with
electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Part 3: Test methods

EN 14511-4:2007        Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically
driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Part 4: Requirements

CEN/TS 14825:2003 Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically
driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Testing and rating at part load conditions

EN 15218:2006 Air conditioners and liquid chilling packages with evaporatively cooled condenser and
with electrically driven compressors for space cooling - Terms, definitions, test conditions, test
methods and requirements

EN 12309-1:1999         Gas-fired absorption and adsorption air-conditioning and/or heat pump
appliances with a net heat input not exceeding 70 kW - Part 1: Safety

EN 12309-2:2000         Gas-fired absorption and adsorption air-conditioning and/or heat pump
appliances with a net heat input not exceeding 70 kW - Part 2: Rational use of energy

EN 12102:2008 Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages, heat pumps and dehumidifiers with
electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling - Measurement of airbone noise -
Determination of the sound power level

EN 378-1:2008 Refrigerating systems and heat pumps - Safety and environmental requirements - Part
1: Basic requirements, definitions, classification and selection criteria

EN 378-2:2008+A1:2009           Refrigerating systems and heat pumps - Safety and environmental
requirements - Part 2: Design, construction, testing, marking and documentation

EN 378-3:2008 Refrigerating systems and heat pumps - Safety and environmental requirements - Part
3: Installation site and personal protection

EN 378-4:2008 Refrigerating systems and heat pumps - Safety and environmental requirements - Part
4: Operation, maintenance, repair and recovery

NF EN 306 : 1997 Heat exchangers. Methods of measuring the parameters necessary for establishing
the performance.

NF EN 14705 : 2005 Heat exchangers - Method of measurement and evaluation of thermal
performances of wet cooling towers

NF EN 13741 : 2004



                                                                                               249
                                         DRAFT 11.6.2010


Thermal performance acceptance testing of mechanical draught series wet cooling towers


EN 12900:2005 Refrigerant compressors - Rating conditions, tolerances and presentation of
manufacturer's performance data

EN 13215:2000 Condensing units for refrigeration - Rating conditions, tolerances and presentation of
manufacturer's performance data

EN 13771-1:2003         Compressors and condensing units for refrigeration - Performance testing and
test methods - Part 1: Refrigerant compressors

EN 13771-2:2007         Compressors and condensing units for refrigeration - Performance testing and
test methods - Part 2: Condensing units

Voluntary agreements

Eurovent-Certification, 2010, Eurovent energy efficiency of Air Handling Units, to be downloaded from
http://www.eurovent-certification.com/fic_bdd/en/1267033667_AHUeff.pdf


Member State legislation

UK regulation
“Non-domestic Building Services Compliance Guide: 2010 Edition”

Portuguese regulation

RCCTE - Diario da Républica, Decreto-Lei n.°80/2006 de 4 de Abril de 2006
·    http://www.adene.pt/ADENE/Canais/SubPortais/SCE/Legislacao/Nacional/RCCTE.htm
RSECE – Diario da Républica, Decreto-Lei n.° 79/2006 de 4 de Abril de 2006
·    http://www.adene.pt/ADENE/Canais/SubPortais/SCE/Legislacao/Nacional/RSECE.htm

French regulation




                                                                                                 250
                                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010




Figure 1 - 1 . Exhaust ventilation units (exhaust) .................................................................................... 1
Figure 1 - 2 . Left: LHRV fancoil integrated in floor or ceiling: with central heating & cooling + local
    ventilation (‘Fassaden-belüftung’, Schüco). Right: Larger CHRV unit, 1000-4000 m³/h. (StorkAir). 7
Figure 1 - 3 . Upper left: Very large (100.000 m³/h) AHU with heat recovery (project Gemini/Kamen,
    Howatherm). Upper right: Rooftop AHU with heat recovery (Hoval). Below: heat exchangers for
    waste heat recovery. Below left: Cross-flow plate heat exchanger. Below right: Rotary wheel
    (Hoval). ............................................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 1 - 4 . Air enthalpy diagram, illustration of the 3 types of evaporative cooling (source EuP DG
    ENER Lot 10) ................................................................................................................................. 22
Figure 1 - 5 . An air cooled chiller (courtesy Climaveneta) and a water cooled chiller (Courtesy Carrier)
    ........................................................................................................................................................ 26
Figure 1 - 6 . Air to water kit for gas engine air to air air conditioner (source AISIN)............................ 26
Figure 1 - 7 . Single effect absorption chiller/heater (source NorthEast CHP Application Center) ....... 27
Figure 1 - 8 . Multi-split air conditioners (source LG) ............................................................................ 27
Figure 1 - 9 . Types of indoor units (source Mitsubishi Electric) ........................................................... 28
Figure 1 - 10 . VRF systems (left - source Daikin outdoor units, right – source Toshiba system
    overview) ........................................................................................................................................ 28
Figure 1 - 11 . Daikin VRF complete solution for heating, cooling, ventilation and air curtain
    management .................................................................................................................................. 29
Figure 1 - 12 . Daikin VRV control solutions for VRF systems.............................................................. 30
Figure 1 - 13 . Roof top air conditioner (source Carrier) ....................................................................... 30
Figure 1 - 14 . Water loop heat pump system (source AUDITAC) ........................................................ 31
Figure 1 - 15 . Typical US air-conditioning & ventilation system, supply fan only, with VAV terminals 32
Figure 1 - 16 . Heat rejection media for water cooled cooling generators ............................................ 33
Figure 1 - 17 . Examples of fan absorbed power versus airflow ........................................................... 75
Figure 1 - 18 . Outline of linkage diagram for air conditioning systems ................................................ 80
Figure 1 - 19 . Linkage diagram for ventilation and air conditioning systems, EN15241:2007 ............. 82
Figure 1 - 20 . Flow chart for general approach (all dotted steps and loops are optional) (Figure 2,
    EN15243:2007) .............................................................................................................................. 89
Figure 1 - 21 . General HVAC system structure and energy flows (EN15243:2007, Figure 3) ............ 91
Figure 1 - 22 . Illustration of the bivalent point for a on-off cycling air to water unit (prEN14825:2009,
    Annex B, p 40).............................................................................................................................. 121
Figure 1 - 23 . Typical example of measurements and results for chilled ceilings.............................. 130
Figure 1 - 24 . Typical example of measurements and results for passive chilled beams.................. 131
Figure 1 - 25 . Typical example of measurements and results for chilled ceilings.............................. 133
Figure 1 - 26 . Example of performance curve of open cooling tower (EN 13741 :2003, Annex B,
    Figure B.1).................................................................................................................................... 136
Figure 1 - 27 . Cooling energy needs as a function of outdoor air temperature, ARI 210/240 ........... 142
Figure 1 - 28 . Illustration of the procedure to compute SEER of a two steps air conditioner, ARI
    210/240......................................................................................................................................... 144
Figure 1 - 29 . Building heating and cooling load, [JRA, 4046] and [JRA, 4048] ................................ 147
Figure 1 - 30 . Eurovent Certified chillers, air cooled package AC chillers, ESEER Vs EER ............. 151
Figure 1 - 31 . Eurovent Certified chillers, water cooled package AC chillers, ESEER Vs EER ........ 152
Figure 1 - 32 . Eurovent comfort air conditioners, EER Vs capacity for air cooled split...................... 154
Figure 1 - 33 : Map of France climates (source French Thermal Regulation 2005) ........................... 168
Figure 1 - 34 . UK Example of Air Conditioning Consumption (cooling plus auxiliary energy) ........... 199
Figure 1 - 35 . US greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 (http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/) ..... 200
Figure 1 - 36 . Ventilation system diagram (Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007)......................................... 205
Figure 1 - 37 . ASHRAE 90.1-2007 compliance paths........................................................................ 214
Figure 1 - 38 . Split-up of 110 bln. m³ heated volume equivalent at 18°C indoor temperature in the EU.
    ...................................................................................................................................................... 244




                                                                                                                                                         251
                                                                 DRAFT 11.6.2010




Table 1 - 1 . EN classification of type of air ........................................................................................... 12
Table 1 - 2 . EN classification of extract and exhaust air ...................................................................... 12
Table 1 - 3 . EN classification of outdoor air.......................................................................................... 13
Table 1 - 4 . EN classification of indoor air quality ................................................................................ 13
Table 1 - 5 . EN leakage classification according to the pressurisation test method ............................ 14
Table 1 - 6 . EN leakage classification according the tracer gas method ............................................. 14
Table 1 - 7 . EN leakage classification EN 13141-8.............................................................................. 14
Table 1 - 8 . EN filter bypass leakage classification EN 13141-8.......................................................... 15
Table 1 - 9 . EN coarse filter classification ............................................................................................ 15
Table 1 - 10 . EN fine filter classification ............................................................................................... 15
Table 1 - 11 . EN classification of SFP values ...................................................................................... 16
Table 1 - 12 . EN classification of temperature ratio for HR units ......................................................... 16
Table 1 - 13 . EN classification of humidity ratio for HR units ............................................................... 17
Table 1 - 14 . EN classification of nominal temperature ratio for HR units ........................................... 17
Table 1 - 15 . EN classification of standby power for ventilation units .................................................. 17
Table 1 - 16 . EN classification of control types for ventilation units ..................................................... 18
Table 1 - 17 . EN classification of sound power levels for ventilation units........................................... 19
Table 1 - 18 . EN classification of sound transmitting resistance for ventilation units........................... 19
Table 1 - 19 . Classification of air conditioners by source fluids, EN 14511:2007 ................................ 24
Table 1 - 20 . Terms of subsystems (EN15240, Annex A, Table A.1) .................................................. 42
Table 1 - 21 . Classification of air conditioners by source fluids, EN 14511 ......................................... 44
Table 1 - 22 . Overview of EN design - performance - and test standards on Ventilation .................... 47
Table 1 - 23 . Examples of recommended design A-weighted sound pressure levels (EN 15251, Table
    E.1, annex E).................................................................................................................................. 52
Table 1 - 24 . Key outdoor air pollutants ............................................................................................... 53
Table 1 - 25 . Recommended minimum filter classes ........................................................................... 54
Table 1 - 26 . Recommendations on removal of extract air .................................................................. 54
Table 1 - 27 . Design values for air extract rates................................................................................... 54
Table 1 - 28 . Design values for air extract rates................................................................................... 55
Table 1 - 29 . Examples for pressure drops for specific components in air handling systems (acc. table
    A.8 of EN13779)............................................................................................................................. 57
Table 1 - 30 . Rates of outdoor or transferred air per unit floor area (net area) for rooms not designed
    for human occupancy ..................................................................................................................... 57
Table 1 - 31 . CO2-levels in rooms........................................................................................................ 58
Table 1 - 32 . Rates of outdoor air per personCO2-levels in rooms...................................................... 58
Table 1 - 33 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for CO2 removal from a living room and related
    humidity /condensation risk at bedroom air temperature of 16 °C................................................. 62
Table 1 - 34 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for a bathroom; Extracted air at 100% RH and 22 °C
    ........................................................................................................................................................ 64
Table 1 - 35 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for a bathroom; Extracted air at 70% RH and 22 °C
    ........................................................................................................................................................ 64
Table 1 - 36 . Calculated ventilation air flow rates for a WC ................................................................. 64
Table 1 - 37 . Assumptions for level 2 (Table 2, page 10 of EN 15665) ............................................... 66
Table 1 - 38 . Assumptions for level 3 (Table 3, page 14 of EN 15665) ............................................... 66
Table 1 - 39 . Typical values for indoor duct leakages.......................................................................... 72
Table 1 - 40 . Typical values for indoor AHU leakages ......................................................................... 72
Table 1 - 41 . Default values for Rf;r ..................................................................................................... 74
Table 1 - 42 . Example of fan power ratio in relation to airflow ratio and airflow control principle ........ 75
Table 1 - 43 . Overview of EN design - performance - and test standards for Air Conditioning systems
    ........................................................................................................................................................ 80
Table 1 - 44 . Relationship between standards, from EN15241:2007 .................................................. 83
Table 1 - 45 . Examples of recommended design values of the indoor temperature for design of
    buildings and HVAC systems (EN 15251, Annex A, Table A.2) .................................................... 84
Table 1 - 46 . Example of recommended design criteria for the humidity in occupied spaces if
    humidification or dehumidification systems are installed (EN 15251, Annex B, Table B.6) .......... 85
Table 1 - 47 . Temperature ranges for hourly calculation of cooling and heating energy in three
    categories of indoor environment (EN 15251, Annex A, Table A.3) .............................................. 85


                                                                                                                                                         252
                                                               DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 48 . Sharing of radiative and convective heat transfer for cooing terminal devices (EN 15255,
    Annex A, Table A.1) ....................................................................................................................... 87
Table 1 - 49 . Classification of building vs system calculation methods (EN 15243, Table 3).............. 90
Table 1 - 50 . HVAC system overview (EN 15243, Table 4a) ............................................................... 91
Table 1 - 51 . HVAC system overview (EN 15243, Table 4b) ............................................................... 92
Table 1 - 52 . Important technical features that affect the energy consumption of different types of
    HVAC system (EN 15243, Table 5a) ............................................................................................. 93
Table 1 - 53 . Building energy needs (EN 15603, Table 4) ................................................................... 97
Table 1 - 54 . System thermal losses and auxiliary energy without generation (EN 15603, Table 5) .. 97
Table 1 - 55 . Energy generation systems (EN 15603, Table 6) ........................................................... 98
Table 1 - 56 . Function list and assignment to BAC efficiency classes, AC & V (EN 15232, Table 1) 100
Table 1 - 57 . Function list and assignment to BAC efficiency classes, other functions (EN 15232,
    Table 1 continued)........................................................................................................................ 101
Table 1 - 58 . Air to air, testing conditions in the cooling mode........................................................... 106
Table 1 - 59 . Air to air, testing conditions in the heating mode .......................................................... 107
Table 1 - 60 . Water to air and brine to air, testing conditions in the cooling mode ............................ 107
Table 1 - 61 . Water to air and brine to air, testing conditions in the heating mode............................ 109
Table 1 - 62 . Water to water and brine to water, testing conditions in the cooling mode .................. 109
Table 1 - 63 . Water to water and brine to water, testing conditions in the heating mode for low,
    medium and high temperature application ................................................................................... 109
Table 1 - 64 . Air to water and brine to air, testing conditions in the cooling mode............................. 110
Table 1 - 65 . Air to water, testing conditions in the heating mode for low, medium and high
    temperature application................................................................................................................ 111
Table 1 - 66 . Water to water, testing conditions in the cooling mode ................................................ 113
Table 1 - 67 . Water to water, testing conditions in the heating mode ................................................ 113
Table 1 - 68 . Liquid chilling packages with remote condenser........................................................... 114
Table 1 - 69 . Heat recovery conditions for air cooled multi-split system ............................................ 114
Table 1 - 70 . Cooling capacity conditions for water-cooled multisplit systems .................................. 114
Table 1 - 71 . Heating capacity conditions for water-cooled multisplit systems .................................. 115
Table 1 - 72 . bin number j, outdoor temperature Tj in oC and number of hours per bin hj
    corresponding to the reference cooling season ........................................................................... 118
Table 1 - 73 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : air to air units ....... 119
Table 1 - 74 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : water-to-air and brine
    to air units..................................................................................................................................... 119
Table 1 - 75 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : air-to-water units .. 119
Table 1 - 76 . Part load conditions for reference SEER and reference SEERon : water-to-water units
    and brine to water units ................................................................................................................ 119
Table 1 - 77 . bin number j, outdoor temperature Tj in °C and number of hours per bin hj
    corresponding to the reference heating seasons ―warmer, ―average, ―colder ...................... 122
Table 1 - 78 . Safety group classification system ................................................................................ 125
Table 1 - 79 . Standard conditions for cooling coil testing................................................................... 127
Table 1 - 80 . Standard conditions for capacity of fan coil units.......................................................... 128
Table 1 - 81 . Overview of third country test standards for air Conditioning systems ......................... 140
Table 1 - 82 . Distribution of fractional hours within cooling season temperature bins, ARI 210/240. 141
Table 1 - 83 . Two-Capacity compressor test conditions in cooling mode, ARI 210/240.................... 144
Table 1 - 84 . Inverter compressor test conditions in cooling mode, ARI 210/240.............................. 145
Table 1 - 86 . Eurovent chiller energy efficiency classes, cooling mode............................................. 150
Table 1 - 87 . Eurovent chiller EER repartition by energy efficiency classes for AC and CHF
    applications .................................................................................................................................. 150
Table 1 - 88 . Eurovent comfort air conditioners, EER and COP analysis for some of the categories153
Table 1 - 89 . Eurovent rooftop energy efficiency classes, cooling mode........................................... 154
Table 1 - 90 . Eurovent rooftop EER repartition by energy efficiency classes, cooling mode ............ 154
Table 1 - 91 . Eurovent classification of fan coil units ......................................................................... 156
Table 1 - 92 . Eurovent energy efficiency classes for AHU................................................................. 161
Table 1 - 93 . French RT: Map of building characteristics with energy consumption provision for
    cooling .......................................................................................................................................... 169
Table 1 - 94 . Passiv Haus Institute. Certification of of “Passive House suitable component – heat
    recovery device” ........................................................................................................................... 173
Table 1 - 95 . Existing and expected values for the EPC of new buildings......................................... 175
Table 1 - 96 . NL Rating scale Energy Labels for Residential and non residential buildings.............. 176



                                                                                                                                                    253
                                                              DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 97 . RSECE, Annex 11, Maximal heating and heating + cooling primary energy consumption
    values for tertiary buildings (kgep = kgoe, aquecimento = heating, arrefecimento = cooling)..... 179
Table 1 - 98 . RSECE, cooling generator capacity steps as a function of total installed capacity ...... 181
Table 1 - 99 . RITE, classification of IAQ control in buildings ............................................................. 184
Table 1 - 100 . RITE, air leakage classes ........................................................................................... 184
Table 1 - 101 . RITE, aeraulic system individual components maximal pressure loss authorized ..... 185
Table 1 - 102 . RITE, filter classes to be installed as a function of the type of air and its quality ....... 185
Table 1 - 103 . RITE, heat recovery minimum efficiency and maximum pressure drop ..................... 186
Table 1 - 104 . Minimum Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) for comfort cooling...................................... 187
Table 1 - 105 . Minimum controls for comfort cooling in new and existing buildings .......................... 188
Table 1 - 106 . Operating conditions and their weighting factors to compute the ESEER.................. 189
Table 1 - 107 . Operating conditions and their weighting factors to compute a ESEER for office
    buildgins in the UK ....................................................................................................................... 189
Table 1 - 108 . UK Performance thresholds for packaged chillers...................................................... 190
Table 1 - 109 . UK Standard rating conditions for Packaged Chillers................................................. 191
Table 1 - 110 . UK Maximum specific fan powers and pressure drop in air distribution systems in new
    buildings ....................................................................................................................................... 193
Table 1 - 111 . UK Extending SFP for additional components............................................................ 194
Table 1 - 112 . UK Minimum controls for air distribution systems in new and existing buildings from BS
    EN 15232:200740 ........................................................................................................................ 194
Table 1 - 113 . UK Minimum controls for air distribution systems in new and existing buildings from BS
    EN 15232:2007147 ...................................................................................................................... 195
Table 1 - 114 . UK Maximum specific fan powers in existing buildings .............................................. 195
Table 1 - 115 . UK Minimum dry heat recovery efficiency for heat exchangers in new and existing
    buildings ....................................................................................................................................... 197
Table 1 - 116 . UK Performance requirements for air-to-air recovery products. ................................. 197
Table 1 - 117 . UK Benchmark Energy Consumptions for Office Air Conditioning (KWh/m2)............ 198
Table 1 - 118 . Example UK Calculations of Air-Conditioning Energy Use (kWh/m2 ......................... 199
Table 1 - 119 . Energy breakdown by end use in US building sector in 2006, % of total (primary).... 201
Table 1 - 120 . Characteristics of different cooling systems................................................................ 201
Table 1 - 121 . Federal Minimum Efficiency Standard for Commercial Equipment from the Energy
    Policy Act of 2005......................................................................................................................... 203
Table 1 - 122 . HVAC tax incentive of the Energy Policy Act of 2005................................................. 203
Table 1 - 123 . Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone............................................................ 209
Table 1 - 124 . Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone (cont.)................................................. 210
Table 1 - 125 . Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone (cont.)................................................. 211
Table 1 - 126 . Minimum Exhaust Rates ................................................................................................ 212
Table 1 - 127 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Electrically operated Unitary Air Conditioners and
    Condensing Units, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Table 6.8.1.A ............................................... 219
Table 1 - 128 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Electrically operated Unitary and applied Heat
    pumps, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Table 6.8.1.B ................................................................. 221
Table 1 - 129 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Water chilling packages, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-
    2007, Table 6.8.1.C...................................................................................................................... 223
Table 1 - 130 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Air conditioners, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007,
    Table 6.8.1.D................................................................................................................................ 224
Table 1 - 131 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Centrifugal chillers at non-standard conditions,
    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007...................................................................................................... 225
Table 1 - 132 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Heat rejection equipment, Table 6.8.1G, ASHRAE
    Standard 90.1-2007...................................................................................................................... 226
Table 1 - 133 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Heat rejection equipment corrected values, Table
    6.8.1G, “Addendum l ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007 (http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/132) ... 227
Table 1 - 134 . Minimum efficiency requirements,Water chilling packages, corrected values, Table
    6.8.1C, “Addendum m ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007........................................................................... 230
Table 1 - 135 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Unitary air conditioners and condensing units,
    corrected values, Table 6.8.1A, “Addendum s ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007 ..................................... 231
Table 1 - 136 . Minimum efficiency requirements, Unitary and applied Heat Pumps, corrected values,
    Table 6.8.1B, “Addendum s ” to ASHRAE 90.1-2007 .................................................................. 232
Table 1 - 137 . As of January 1, 2010, the USDOE recommends the following minimum Energy
    Efficiency Ratios (EER) and Coefficients Of Performance (COP) for certain commercial unitary air
    conditioners and heat pumps, including both split and packaged systems. ................................ 233



                                                                                                                                                   254
                                                                DRAFT 11.6.2010


Table 1 - 138 . FEMP air conditioner efficiency recommendations for air-cooled, single-packaged and
    split system units for use in commercial applications .................................................................. 234
Table 1 - 139 . FEMP recommendations for air-cooled, packaged chillers for commercial applications
    ...................................................................................................................................................... 234
Table 1 - 140 . FEMP recommendations for water-cooled, packaged chillers for commercial
    applications .................................................................................................................................. 235
Table 1 - 141 . FEMP packaged heat pump efficiency recommendations for commercial applications
    ...................................................................................................................................................... 235
Table 1 - 142 . IEER and EER requirements for Unitary AC >=65kBtu/hr.......................................... 238




                                                                                                                                                        255
                                       DRAFT 11.6.2010




HVAC   Heating Ventilation and/or Air-Conditioning
HR     Heat Recovery.
HRV    Heat Recovery Ventilation
LHRV   Local Heat Recovery Ventilation
CHRV   Central Heat Recovery Ventilation
VRF    Variable Refrigerant Flow
VAV    Variable Air Volume
CAV    Constant Air Volume
VSD    Variable Speed Drive (a.k.a. ASD, Adjustable Speed Drive)
AHU    Air Handling Unit
Pa     Pascal (SI-unit of pressure)
AC     1. Air Conditioning 2. Alternate Current
IAQ    Indoor Air Quality
SFP    Specific Fan Power (in W per m³/s)




                                                                   256

								
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