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									Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010                                                        133



        The Modern Approach to Industrial Maintenance Management

          Vasile DEAC, Gheorghe CÂRSTEA, Constantin BÂGU, Florea PÂRVU
                   Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania
     deac_vasile@yahoo.com, gheorghe.carstea@man.ase.ro, cbagumaster@yahoo.com,
                              parvu.florea@yahoo.com

The maintenance activity isn’t a purpose in itself, it’s a necessity of which “the production
suffers” and the financial agent “considers too expensive”. It often exists a conflict between
the production units and the maintenance department, not only for a short term, but,
sometimes, for a long term, imposing a rigorous definition of each person’s responsibilities.
Considering the mutations in the industrial equipments’ technical complexity and the
accidental failures’ catastrophic consequences from the economic and/or social point of view,
it should be assigned a new dimension to the maintenance activity. One of the imperatives
imposed to this action is represented by modern means of informing through the
maintenance’s operational computerization.
Keywords: Maintenance’s Progress, Total Productive Maintenance, Cooperation In
Maintenance, The Maintenance’s Costs Minimization, Maintenance’s Operational
Computerization

                                                      circle from which it will be able to come out
1   The maintenance’s place in an
    industrial company’s management
system
                                                      really hard.
                                                      In order to reconcile these points of view that
The activity of maintenance isn’t a purpose           contradict each other just on the surface, the
in itself, it’s a necessity of which “the             activity of maintenance must be put in its
production suffers” and the financial                 proper place inside the company and each
“considers being too expensive”. It often             person’s responsibilities should be properly
exists a conflict between the production units        defined (this is an issue of policy and
and the maintenance department, which is              structure). In the same time, the maintenance
responsible with the equipments’ status and           activity should be organized in such a
conservation, not only for a short term, but          manner, that it should allow solving all the
also for a long term. In many cases, the              problems specific to maintenance, in the
industrial companies, wanting to reduce the           most efficient possible way (the economic
current total costs, considering the above            criteria should become a priority, in the most
mentioned conception, the uncertainty about           of the cases). [5]
the company’s future, orient towards                  The Romanian industry, of course, even if
reducing the budget allotted to the activities        it’s mostly private, falls in a period of
of preventive maintenance.                            profound crisis and difficult times (financial
In the reality, this policy’s effect isn’t the        blockages, a lack of markets both for the
wanted one, the costs with the corrective             “inputs” and the “outputs”, price rises, etc.),
maintenance increasing as a result of an              a context in which the production capacities’
increase of the accidental failures’ frequency,       usage is an extremely reduced one (30-40%
at which are added the greater and greater            of the capacity, and in some cases even less),
failures in case of impairment or of                  the equipments’ maintenance isn’t a priority
functioning parameters’ degradation. In the           in the top managers’ concerns.
same time, the maintenance works’ increase            The present uncertainties involving many
in number and in value will bring about in            industrial companies’ future, considering the
the future a decrease in the preventive               current economic and financial crisis, the
maintenance’s available resources, the                state of confusion that still prevails in the
industrial company entering into a vicious            economy generates, in fact, the same

                                                   

 
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situation, meaning the maintenance works’           malfunctions that may affect the production’s
limitation to the basics in order to reduce the     quality [9].
production costs. On the other side, the            What’s industrial maintenance?
current economic conjecture put the majority        Trying to define the industrial maintenance,
of the industrial commercial societies in a         this represents a set of measures and actions
context of “economic war”. Considering that         that ensure an equipment’s prevention,
conjecture, the issue is that of not being          preservation or restoring in an anticipated
fatalist, passive, having in mind that we’re        state or capable to guarantee a certain
crossing a period of economic recession and         service, altogether with the minimizing of the
the solutions to this crisis don’t depend of the    maintenance’s costs [4] [5].
company.                                            Out of this definition, the following essential
Out of this difficult, but stimulating situation,   conclusions can be drawn:
the societies who are going to win the day are      “to restore” involves the concept of
the ones whose management will prove                “correction”, as a result of losing the
imagination and creativity in order to find         functioning parameters’ initial values;
progress solutions which are better adapted         “the anticipated state” or the “certain
and with an increased economic efficiency,          service” involves a predetermination of the
solutions of increasing the company’s               functioning parameters or the service to be
competitive spirit. Inside these solutions, the     attained, with the characteristic levels’
ones that increase the production quality           quantification;
should be central.                                  “to minimize” presupposes to consider the
The industrial equipments’ maintenance is           maintenance activity’s economic aspect,
compulsory for guaranteeing the quality in          respectively guaranteeing that all the
all the production process’ stages, its             operations will have an optimal cost;
assignment, in an attempt of warranting             “the prevention” and the “preservation”
quality in all the production stages process        consists in applying some methods,
being the one of identifying the equipments         procedures, measures and actions that
that have a direct effect on quality and            contribute to the maintenance’s progress in
ensuring that through the performed                 four major directions, as schematized in fig.
maintenance works is ensured the failure            1.
prevention and the prevention of some




                                Fig. 1. Maintenance’s progress [4]
Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010                                                          135


Internationally, the activity of maintenance           totality of the costs of the research, design,
evolved in the industrial companies                    construction, exploit and maintenance
considering the compromise that should be              processes for an equipment’s entire life. The
done between the needs and exigencies, from            objective aimed is its minimization.
the technical, economic and human point of             The second philosophy is the Japanese one,
view.                                                  “Total productive maintenance" (TPM). If
Until the 60’s, the activity of maintenance            the LCC approaches the maintenance from
was synonym with the one of repairing, the             the economic point of view, TPM approaches
equipments being improved each time it was             it from a human point of view. Its objective
possible. It could be noticed the fact that            is the maximization of the production
improving the equipments, the human                    equipment’s global efficiency and it
security is guaranteed, they being stopped             presupposes the participation of all the
just to examine the wearing level, it being            “actors” that contribute to its efficiency: the
completely abandoned when the persons’                 designers, the users (the production staff), the
security wasn’t in stake.                              maintenance       stuff,    from     all     the
The period 1960-1970 generated three                   management’s hierarchical levels, starting
fundamental mutations in the industrial’s              with the worker to the general manager [7].
maintenance’s approach:                                Concluding, we can prove that the function
 creating the diagnostic maintenance, that            of industrial equipments’ maintenance is a
    led lately to the conditioned maintenance.         partner in the system of ensuring the quality,
    It’s about applying the techniques of              and, if the company’s top management wants
    nondestructive control, the vibrations’            to guarantee the production stage’s quality,
    control, fluids’ analysis, etc.                    the product of the maintenance activity is a
 taking into consideration the economic               must to warrant this quality.
    aspects in defining the maintenance’s              In order to be a competitive partner inside
    attempt. Any equipment at which an                 this system of quality warranty it’s imposed
    accidental failure or a decline of the             an important change inside the maintenance
    functioning parameters determines in a             function, which is characterized through
    significant manner a decrease in the               three major transitions:
    production’s quantity or quality is                      a. The transition from the oral
    considered a “critical” one. The concept                    communication to the written
    of “failure cost” appears and the indirect                  communication
    financial incidence of the activity of             The transition from the oral communication
    maintenance is considered. But it isn’t            to the written communication, considering
    enough just to consider the economical             the fact that the process of oral instructions’
    aspects when the maintenance actions are           transmitting is frequently met in the
    decided (the cost of the equipments’ non-          maintenance      activity,    constitutes     an
    efficiency, the non-maintenance’ cost).            especially delicate mutation. The existence of
    It’s also necessary to evaluate the risk and       some written procedures related to the
    the      probabilities    of    equipments’        industrial     equipments’      exploit     and
    malfunctions.                                      maintenance constitutes a fundamental
 The appeal to the reliability theory. The            requirement in warranting the production’s
    reliability models of study, which were            quality. These procedures related to the
    initially hard to apply in the industrial          equipments’ maintenance must allow:
    units, were, subsequently, used more and           knowing the coverage of the activity of
    more. After the 1970, two philosophies             maintenance; the tasks and responsibilities of
    related to the industrial maintenance were         each employee covered in the activity of
    developed.                                         maintenance; the detailing of all maintenance
    In USA, it was applied the concept of              works that are about to be performed.
Life Cycle Cost (LCC), which covers the

                                                    

 
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      b. The      transition       from    the    of maintenance can appeal to new techniques
         improvisation to the scientific          of detecting the flaws (the vibration analysis,
         rigor                                    the sonic analysis etc.) which prove to be
No matter which is the chosen maintenance         extremely efficient pointing to the blind spots
policy, respectively:                             and preventing the failures.
   the policy of increasing the equipments’      Nowadays, there is a new entry in the
    reliability (their modifications for          equipments’ surveillance trend (and, in the
    eliminating the “blind spots”);               same time, the tele-surveillance trend): the
   the preventive policy (the anticipating of    conditioned maintenance, in which:
    the equipments’ malfunctions through a         the inspection of the equipments which
    rigorous surveillance);                           are more and more complex must be
    the anti-malfunctioning policy, that aims        rigorous and, as a consequence, must be
    to all the malfunctions’ elimination              organized in a formal and detailed
    through the detailed analysis of each             manner;
    malfunction or abnormal functionality).        the permanent diagnostic of the
   the competence and the technical value of         equipment’s technical status must be
    the people that execute the maintenance           rigorous and precise.
    works is crucial, and quality warranty            b. The economic factors
    presupposes the execution of all the          In order to be competitive, the company must
    corrective or preventive interventions        reduce to the minimum its production
    with the greatest scientific rigor.           expenses, both the direct and the indirect
      c. The transition from intuition to         production ones and implicitly the ones
         professionalism                          related to the maintenance. Worldwide, the
With a properly trained maintenance staff,        general trend of late years is to diminish the
with a great technical competence, talented,      maintenance costs.
the maintenance compartment can execute           Another worldwide aspect, with major
efficient interventions.                          implication to maintenance, is the fact that, in
                                                  the euphoria of the strategies of development
2 The activity of maintenance’s evolution         through expansion and diversification that
and objectives                                    was specific to the 70’s, we assist at a
In the current stage, the evolutions that are     maintenance       companies’     development,
necessary in approaching the activity of          companies that are capable to execute
maintenance inside the industrial companies       numerous maintenance activities instead of
are determined by three groups of factors,        the traditional compartments inside the
which are [2]:                                    industrial companies.
    a. Technological factors                      This trend can be noticed in our country’s
Worldwide, electronic and informatics spread      economy, assisting to an increase of the
in the workshops and the production               small and average sized companies in the
departments: the machines are endowed with        maintenance domain. It’s true that they are
numerical command, the industrial robots          specialized, for the moment, in some
extended, the flexible fabrication workshops      domains (maintenance in informatics,
are in full development, everything is being      conditioned air, the buildings’ maintenance,
automatic.                                        etc.), but, quite inevitable, they will regard
The electronic circuits are reliable because of   some traditional maintenance activities, as a
the progresses in the components’                 result of the restructuring measures from the
technology; the power organs, the                 great industrial companies.
mechanical and hydraulic tools, the               Executing the maintenance works by
electromechanical subassemblies are more          specialized companies represents one of the
and more reliable and less and less               fundamental mutations in the industrial
maintenance consuming. Instead, the activity      maintenance’s activity. More flexible,
Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010                                                        137


capable to adapt to the new exigencies, the              Ascribing new tasks to the maintenance
maintenance companies have the vocation of                compartment. The tasks transfer towards
specialists and they will offer more often                the production and the resort to
their specialized, periodic services, which               cooperation mustn’t lead to the
proves the fact that developing (or                       liquidation     of      the     maintenance
maintaining) the traditional maintenance                  compartment inside the industrial units.
departments inside the companies or creating          The maintenance’s tasks will focus in three
new maintenance capacities [11] isn’t                 main directions:
justified from the economic point of view.            -   the maintenance activity’s execution by
    c. Human factors                                      the production staff (or for the start,
The efficiency of the maintenance activities              mixed teams of production-maintenance),
is conditioned by the involved staff, and not             according to the established programs
only the maintenance staff but the exploit                and with the help of the defined
staff, too. What might prevent a progress are             measures. This involves not only a role of
the difficulties related to the persons                   prediction, but also that of counseling and
involved and the relations between these                  assistance in difficult situations.
persons. The fact that, even if the employed          -   contracting         other        companies’
operates a machine eight hours a day, he                  interventions and activities;
doesn’t feel more responsible about its               -   exploiting all the information referring to
maintenance it’s regrettable, even if his                 the functioning equipments’ behavior for
activity is, on one side, related to achieving            improving the maintenance programs, for
its own objectives and, on the other side, it             consumptions’ optimization and the
ensures the proper functioning of its work                optimization of the replacements, for
tool.                                                     improving the equipments’ reliability, for
We think that all these factors of influence              optimizing the maintenance methods, for
are found or will be found (in the case of the            renewing the equipments in due time.
technological factors) in the industrial                  For carrying out these tasks, the
companies from our country, too, and, in              maintenance department should contain a
consequence, the maintenance activity should          staff, a not too numerous one, but one of a
develop a new dimension characterized                 great professional competence, made of:
through:                                              “experts”: engineers and technicians with a
 A transfer of tasks towards the                     polyvalent technical training, capable to
    production      and     the     companies         supervise the activities made by the external
    specialized in maintenance. This will             partners and to provide special technical
    lead to the progressive disappearance of          assistance to the production teams;
    the execution staff specific to the               “method agents”, charged with establishing
    maintenance compartments. The current             and surveillance of the maintenance
    maintenance activities (visits, greasing,         programs, making out the maintenance’s
    cleaning, small repairs, etc) should be           specifications, information analysis from the
    gradually transferred to the production           equipments’ history, etc.
    staff, through task diversification and the       Considering the things that were previously
    proper stimulations and the complex               presented, the industrial maintenance’s
    maintenance activities will be ordered to         evolution is systematically presented in fig.
    some specialized companies selected               2.
    because of their competence and
    seriousness.




                                                   

 
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                            Fig. 2. The maintenance activities’ evolution [1]

The maintenance’s objectives result out of          The maintenance activity’s management,
the general objectives, which, in an industrial     which figures through the other decisional
company’s case, focus on profitability,             centers inside an industrial unit can be
growth, security, etc. However, the                 defined through (figure 3):
profitability appears as a priority for the great   a. the general objectives it aims at;
majority of the industrial companies (in the        b. the respect restrictions and, in particular,
current stage of recession, the surviving is           regulations related to security;
the most important), being in the same way          c. action variables that are available for
an imperative condition, allowing, for a long          achieving the objectives: methods and
term, achieving some other objectives. The             means of maintenance;
maintenance activity must, like the other           d. estimation and control variables.
activities, contribute to achieving an essential
objective.
Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010                                                         139




               Fig. 3. The systematic analysis of the maintenance management [4]

The maintenance’s general objectives are:             maintenance costs and non-efficacy costs
 The objectives related to security, which           (having in mind that the failures’ coefficient
    can be expressed through an increased             increases in time); the equipment’s
    reliability coefficient of the equipments         modernization, the equipment’s replace with
    that are prone to “critical” failures;            an improved one; the equipment’s replace
 The availability objectives for the whole           with one with a new technology.
    company or for its key equipments;                A more profound analysis of the place and
 Objectives that are related to a certain            the role of the maintenance activities inside
    maintenance budget, respectively those            the industrial companies reveals the fact that
    objectives that involve a diminishing to          this activity is directly or indirectly involved
    the minimum of the maintenance or                 in achieving the five operational management
    objective costs, that aim at long term            objectives, which are called the “five
    management’s optimization of the                  Olympic zeros”, objectives that present a
    equipments, substituting, if necessary, the       certain improving degree that seem capable
    equipment, aiming at optimizing the               to evoke an inaccessible ideal:
    global cost in its life span.                        Zero breakdown;
There are also some long term objectives               Zero failures;
related to the equipment’s management and              Zero stock;
maintenance. In reality, there are more                Zero delays
possibilities for each industrial equipment            Zero paper.
and these possibilities are: maintaining the          The objective “Zero breakdown” is essential
equipment functional by executing some                for the maintenance. Is it a utopia or an
maintenance activities, but with increasing           inaccessible-ideal? It’s in fact an imperative

                                                   

 
140                                                         Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010


that must be achieved when people’s life is in    The industrial maintenance’s necessity
stake [3].                                        results from the equipment’s tendency of
The objective „zero failures” involves the        failing in time. This failure risk depends in an
quality management, but the maintenance is        essential way on the equipment’s reliability,
rigorously related to it, because a product’s     but the failure’s consequences depend on the
quality is highly dependent of the tool’s and     period in which they appear, related to the
the industrial equipments’ condition,             possibility of their being recovered, in other
especially in the case of the automatic and       words by the maintenance. The conditions in
robotized ones.                                   which the equipments are used represent an
The objective “zero stock” also involves the      important aspect of these failures. The
process of maintenance, especially in the         equipments’ terms of usage are important for
case of “just in time” organization, where the    these kinds of failures. Therefore, the means
intermediary stocks are significantly reduced.    through which the maintenance’s general
This kind of result can be obtained just with a   objectives are achieved depend on more
corresponding reliability of the upstream         partners that intervene in the equipments’
equipments [10].                                  conception and design stage, usage and
The objective “zero delays” is relevant for       maintenance.
the maintenance activity related to the           S. Nakajima [7] [8] highlights five categories
interventions’ duration, in case of some          of measures taken for preventing the
accidental blockage, in order to reduce at the    equipments’ accidental failures, measures in
maximum the immobilization period.                which there are involved the factors
The objective “zero paper” is indirectly          mentioned above and of which the
related to the maintenance, but the               maintenance objectives depend, as it results
informatics’ applications in the maintenance      from fig. 4.
activity contributes to its achievement.




                     Fig. 4. Measures of preventing the accidental failures

3 The equipment’s evolution and its effect        catastrophic   consequences   from    the
over maintenance                                  economic and/or the social point of view
The industrial equipments’ technical              impose the following measures for the
complexity,  the    accidental   failures’        maintenance activity:
Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010                                                          141


    a. The improvement of the staff’s                      predicting and applying an operational
         qualification,      instruction    and             technical documentation (the technical
         informing.                                         files categorized on types of equipments,
For assimilating the new technologies, the                  technical files categorized on devices,
maintenance staff must be highly qualified.                 logical repair schemes etc.).
The staff’s competence must be certified at              methods of predictive maintenance;
the employment and through some qualifying               work’s planning;
actions. Therefore, the maintenance manager              replacements’ predictive management
must dedicate a part of his time informing                  On the other hand, we must develop the
himself with the achievements abroad, in                means of control in order to analyze the
what concerns the technical skills and                  obtained results, to correct and improve the
maintenance methods.                                    correspondent previsions:
    b. Associating the specialization with               equipment’s history in order to supervise
         the polyvalence.                                   and control the operation of equipment;
When confronted with new and complex                     the analysis of the costs and failures
techniques, the company is tempted to draw a                through the operations of selection,
conclusion: the maintenance staff must be                   efforts’ focusing, previsions and acting on
specialized. But in the same time,                          the “blind spots or the most expensive
considering the fact that there are multiple                parts” (meaning, on the equipment’s
problems, the company will draw the                         weaknesses);
conclusion that it needs some polyvalent                 the dashboard to control different aspects
people.      Two       apparent    contradictory            of maintenance etc.
exigencies can be satisfied: creating teams of              d. Increasing the rapidity of the
specialists, who must work together under a                      intervention.
common coordination and total polyvalence,              Irrespective of the prediction’s quality, there
that can’t be achieved by only one individual,          will always be unpredictable situations in the
but by a team. In general, we’ll find in a              maintenance’s domain. It can be said that a
maintenance department a staff with a certain           maintenance activity without unforeseen
technical polyvalence. The proportion                   situations is, by definition, a highly
between the two categories depends on the               expensive maintenance. The intervention’s
company’s size and on how technical the                 rapidity can be measured acting on:
equipment is. There is a tendency of placing             the means of communication and
in the first lines, in the production sectors, of           informing;
either “generalists”, or an polyvalent team,             the staff’s quality;
formed from various specialists and led by a             the coordination of various specialists (a
generalist or the other way around, in the                  structural problem);
central maintenance departments, when they               the technical documentation, in order to
exist, teams made of technical specialists or               be operational;
people specialized on a certain type of                  material stock’s management, like:
equipment.                                                  transport means, maintenance tools etc.
    c. To predict and control.                          An important issue that must be held in mind
In order to control the maintenance’s costs,            is the issue of the couple “maintenance-
the prediction must be developed in all the             security”, from the initial stage of
domains:                                                equipment’s design, in order to facilitate the
 predicting the staff’s management (career             access and guarantee a greater security of the
    evolution, permutations, leaves, necessary          staff and of the equipment.
    instructions etc.);                                     e. The developing and the facilitation
 predicting the expenses for establishing                       of the relationship production-
    predicting budgets;                                          maintenance and transferring some


                                                     

 
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        maintenance operations towards            facilitated, at modern equipments, by the
        production.                               presence of:
The manner in which the maintenance                systems         of    maintenance’s       tele-
activity is organized must allow an                   surveillance, which allow the supervising
improvement of these connections, which are           and control of an equipment’s key points
primordial. The urgent matters will be the            at a centralized location;
object of direct relationships between the         diagnostic systems that allow the failures’
executors, and the issues of improvements             visualization and determining the
and modifications will be the object of               failures’ causes;
profitability studies and of relationship          the “expert informatics” system that
between the persons who are responsible and           allows for the person who is interested an
the     management.       The     maintenance         automatic technical assistance through
compartment must participate at writing the           detecting the flaw and studying the
orders     of    equipment’s      introduction,       causes.
supervising and liquidation, it should be             f. The developing and facilitation of
informed over the production programs and                  the relationships between the
consulted on these programs’ modifications                 research and design department
in order to give the okay and to take the                  and the maintenance department.
eventual necessary measures in the                The best manner of reducing a cost element
maintenance’s domain.                             is the one of eliminating the elements that
A mixed team will establish the “production-      determine this cost. From this point of view,
maintenance”, the list of banal maintenance       it must be considered, from the early stage of
operations that are the exclusive task of the     conception and investments’ achievements,
production or exploit operators and the ones      the problems raised by the equipments’
who need the services of a maintenance            maintenance. Important progresses are made,
person. This process of operation transfer        in this aspect, improving the relationships
towards the production has as objective the       between the research and design departments
costs’ reduction and determines the               and the maintenance ones.
production staff to closely supervise the         These improvements are made through the
equipment.                                        following methods:
In the same time, through the fact that            in the industries in which the maintenance
production offers the necessary assistance,           costs are superior to the processing
when a maintenance agent must be                      operations’ costs, will be assigned a
accompanied (out of security reasons, or out          person responsible with the equipment,
of reasons that are inherent to the                   which will have the responsibility of
intervention      executed),     his     being        providing       the    production      some
accompanied by another person must be                 equipments        whose     global     costs
avoided. In the same time, it’s noticed that          (acquisition plus maintenance) are the
for the handling and supervising of the               smallest possible;
automatic equipments, which are provided           the participation of the maintenance
with tele-surveillance and functioning                department at the design and achievement
systems, it’s necessary to hire in production         of the investments and at the research-
some high trained operators. They can be              design department for improving and
properly instructed, even from the time in            modernizing the existent equipment;
which they are hired, in order to be given all     a common team will establish:
the “first degree” (or level one) maintenance               o the documentation that must be
operations, including emergency repairs and                    given by the equipments’
small      maintenance     operations.    This                 builders, suppliers and installers;
maintenance transfer, named “level one”                     o the list of necessary items of
transfer, towards the production, is                           information regarding the nature,
Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010                                                       143


            the importance, the costs and the         A better development of a maintenance
            frequency of the failures and             activity can’t be imagined without possessing
            malfunctions, the costs of the            detailed information covering the knowledge,
            maintenance’s operation, the              analyze and management of: the equipment
            number of functioning hours, the          that must be conserved; the materials stocks
            necessary replacements, etc, the          and the replacements; cooperation activity;
            necessary elements for a better           equipment maintenance’s costs. Only a
            choice of equipments from the             “maintenance’s                     operational
            reliability, endurance and global         computerization”, with means that are
            cost’s points of view;                    adapted to its needs can be able to offer the
         o a policy of standardizing the              necessary and sufficient information to the
            equipment;                                maintenance department and to the other
         o general specification conditions           departments involved in maintenance with a
            related to the maintenance                satisfying     rapidity,    accessibility  and
            cooperation; it’s desirable that          selectivity. This computerization’s cost, even
            some specification conditions of          if it may seem high first, it may prove
            “maintenance” and “reliability”           extremely low compared to the ulterior
            should be established.                    services it brings to the company.
    g. The maintenance cooperation’s
        development.                                  References
Nowadays, diversifying the equipments and             [1] F. Boucly, Le management de la
techniques at play and the necessity of costs’            Maintenance. Evolution et mutation,
minimizing doesn’t allow a company to be                  Edition Afnor, Paris, 2007.
endowed with all the maintenance means in             [2] A. Boulenger, Vers le zero panne avec la
order to face all the needs. In consequence, it           maintenance conditionnelle, Edition
must be appealed to cooperation in all the                Afnor, Paris, 1988.
cases which are justified from the economic           [3] J. Bufferne, “Guide de la T.P.M.,” Les
point of view. This cooperation’s                         Editions d’Organisation, Paris, 2007.
development needs [6] [11]:                           [4] V. Deac, F. Badea and C. Dobrin, The
 defining everything that must be executed               organization, flexibility and maintenance
   through cooperation and the means in                   of production systems, ASE Publishing
   which this cooperation is executed,                    House, Bucharest, 2010.
   meaning defining a cooperation policy;             [5] V. Deac and F. Pârvu, „Importanţa
 establishing some specifications or                     mentenanţei în demersul asigurării
   specification conditions, general and                  calităţii,” Revista Calitatea acces la
   specific to each activity achieved through             succes, No. 4, 2010.
   cooperation;                                       [6] J. C. Francastel, Extrenalisation de la
 achieving a central coordination and a                  maintenance:      strategies,   methodes,
   cooperation control, the assistance in                 contrats, Dunod, Paris, 2008.
   informatics proving itself very useful in          [7] S. Nakajima, „La maintenance productive
   this domain;                                           totale (TPM), nouvelle vogue de la
 creating a department capable to be given               production industriale,” Afnor Gestion,
   the task of maintenance cooperation or to              Paris, 1988.
   assist the persons who are responsible             [8] S. Nakajima, „La maintenance productive
   with the maintenance in choosing and                   totale. Mise en oeuvre,” Afnor Gestion,
   estimating their partners, in the                      Paris, 1989.
   commercial        negotiations    and    in        [9] Y. Lavina and E. Perruche, „Maintenance
   controlling the cooperation operations.                et assurance de la qualite,” Les Editions
    h. The usage of modern means of                       d’Organisation, Paris, 1998.
        information

                                                   

 
144                                                        Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010


[10] Y. Pimor, T.P.M. La maintenance            [11] D. Veret, L’ Extrenalisation de la
   productive pour produire juste a temps,         maintenance, Edition Afnor, Paris, 2003.
   Edition Economica, Paris, 1991.

               Vasile DEAC, Management Department of the Management Faculty,
               Academy of Economic studies, Bucharest, author and coauthor of over 17
               specialty books and university courses and over 40 specialty articles and
               studies published in the journals of international scientific conferences or in
               professional journals, rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in
               international databases, among them 11 articles are ISI rated.

               Gheorghe CÂRSTEA, Dean of the Management Faculty, Academy of
               Economic studies, Bucharest, supervisor of doctorate theses in management,
               director of the master’s program in management, author and coauthor of over
               20 specialty books and university courses and over 50 specialty articles and
               studies published in the journals of international scientific conferences or
               professional journals, rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in
               international databases, among them 5 articles are ISI rated.

               Constantin BÂGU, chief of Management Department of the Management
               Faculty, Academy of Economic studies, Bucharest, supervisor of doctorate
               theses in management, author and coauthor of over 25 specialty books and
               university courses and over 45 specialty articles and studies published in the
               journals of international scientific conferences or in professional journals,
               rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in international databases,
               among them 3 articles are ISI rated.

               Florea PÂRVU, Management Department of the Management Faculty,
               Economic Studies Academy, author and coauthor of over 20 specialty books
               and university courses and over 35 specialty articles and studies published in
               the journals of international scientific conferences or in professional journals,
               rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in international databases,
               among them 4 articles are ISI rated.

								
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