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Industrial Maintenance Management document sample
Industrial Maintenance Management document sample
Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 133 The Modern Approach to Industrial Maintenance Management Vasile DEAC, Gheorghe CÂRSTEA, Constantin BÂGU, Florea PÂRVU Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org The maintenance activity isn’t a purpose in itself, it’s a necessity of which “the production suffers” and the financial agent “considers too expensive”. It often exists a conflict between the production units and the maintenance department, not only for a short term, but, sometimes, for a long term, imposing a rigorous definition of each person’s responsibilities. Considering the mutations in the industrial equipments’ technical complexity and the accidental failures’ catastrophic consequences from the economic and/or social point of view, it should be assigned a new dimension to the maintenance activity. One of the imperatives imposed to this action is represented by modern means of informing through the maintenance’s operational computerization. Keywords: Maintenance’s Progress, Total Productive Maintenance, Cooperation In Maintenance, The Maintenance’s Costs Minimization, Maintenance’s Operational Computerization circle from which it will be able to come out 1 The maintenance’s place in an industrial company’s management system really hard. In order to reconcile these points of view that The activity of maintenance isn’t a purpose contradict each other just on the surface, the in itself, it’s a necessity of which “the activity of maintenance must be put in its production suffers” and the financial proper place inside the company and each “considers being too expensive”. It often person’s responsibilities should be properly exists a conflict between the production units defined (this is an issue of policy and and the maintenance department, which is structure). In the same time, the maintenance responsible with the equipments’ status and activity should be organized in such a conservation, not only for a short term, but manner, that it should allow solving all the also for a long term. In many cases, the problems specific to maintenance, in the industrial companies, wanting to reduce the most efficient possible way (the economic current total costs, considering the above criteria should become a priority, in the most mentioned conception, the uncertainty about of the cases).  the company’s future, orient towards The Romanian industry, of course, even if reducing the budget allotted to the activities it’s mostly private, falls in a period of of preventive maintenance. profound crisis and difficult times (financial In the reality, this policy’s effect isn’t the blockages, a lack of markets both for the wanted one, the costs with the corrective “inputs” and the “outputs”, price rises, etc.), maintenance increasing as a result of an a context in which the production capacities’ increase of the accidental failures’ frequency, usage is an extremely reduced one (30-40% at which are added the greater and greater of the capacity, and in some cases even less), failures in case of impairment or of the equipments’ maintenance isn’t a priority functioning parameters’ degradation. In the in the top managers’ concerns. same time, the maintenance works’ increase The present uncertainties involving many in number and in value will bring about in industrial companies’ future, considering the the future a decrease in the preventive current economic and financial crisis, the maintenance’s available resources, the state of confusion that still prevails in the industrial company entering into a vicious economy generates, in fact, the same 134 Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 situation, meaning the maintenance works’ malfunctions that may affect the production’s limitation to the basics in order to reduce the quality . production costs. On the other side, the What’s industrial maintenance? current economic conjecture put the majority Trying to define the industrial maintenance, of the industrial commercial societies in a this represents a set of measures and actions context of “economic war”. Considering that that ensure an equipment’s prevention, conjecture, the issue is that of not being preservation or restoring in an anticipated fatalist, passive, having in mind that we’re state or capable to guarantee a certain crossing a period of economic recession and service, altogether with the minimizing of the the solutions to this crisis don’t depend of the maintenance’s costs  . company. Out of this definition, the following essential Out of this difficult, but stimulating situation, conclusions can be drawn: the societies who are going to win the day are “to restore” involves the concept of the ones whose management will prove “correction”, as a result of losing the imagination and creativity in order to find functioning parameters’ initial values; progress solutions which are better adapted “the anticipated state” or the “certain and with an increased economic efficiency, service” involves a predetermination of the solutions of increasing the company’s functioning parameters or the service to be competitive spirit. Inside these solutions, the attained, with the characteristic levels’ ones that increase the production quality quantification; should be central. “to minimize” presupposes to consider the The industrial equipments’ maintenance is maintenance activity’s economic aspect, compulsory for guaranteeing the quality in respectively guaranteeing that all the all the production process’ stages, its operations will have an optimal cost; assignment, in an attempt of warranting “the prevention” and the “preservation” quality in all the production stages process consists in applying some methods, being the one of identifying the equipments procedures, measures and actions that that have a direct effect on quality and contribute to the maintenance’s progress in ensuring that through the performed four major directions, as schematized in fig. maintenance works is ensured the failure 1. prevention and the prevention of some Fig. 1. Maintenance’s progress  Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 135 Internationally, the activity of maintenance totality of the costs of the research, design, evolved in the industrial companies construction, exploit and maintenance considering the compromise that should be processes for an equipment’s entire life. The done between the needs and exigencies, from objective aimed is its minimization. the technical, economic and human point of The second philosophy is the Japanese one, view. “Total productive maintenance" (TPM). If Until the 60’s, the activity of maintenance the LCC approaches the maintenance from was synonym with the one of repairing, the the economic point of view, TPM approaches equipments being improved each time it was it from a human point of view. Its objective possible. It could be noticed the fact that is the maximization of the production improving the equipments, the human equipment’s global efficiency and it security is guaranteed, they being stopped presupposes the participation of all the just to examine the wearing level, it being “actors” that contribute to its efficiency: the completely abandoned when the persons’ designers, the users (the production staff), the security wasn’t in stake. maintenance stuff, from all the The period 1960-1970 generated three management’s hierarchical levels, starting fundamental mutations in the industrial’s with the worker to the general manager . maintenance’s approach: Concluding, we can prove that the function creating the diagnostic maintenance, that of industrial equipments’ maintenance is a led lately to the conditioned maintenance. partner in the system of ensuring the quality, It’s about applying the techniques of and, if the company’s top management wants nondestructive control, the vibrations’ to guarantee the production stage’s quality, control, fluids’ analysis, etc. the product of the maintenance activity is a taking into consideration the economic must to warrant this quality. aspects in defining the maintenance’s In order to be a competitive partner inside attempt. Any equipment at which an this system of quality warranty it’s imposed accidental failure or a decline of the an important change inside the maintenance functioning parameters determines in a function, which is characterized through significant manner a decrease in the three major transitions: production’s quantity or quality is a. The transition from the oral considered a “critical” one. The concept communication to the written of “failure cost” appears and the indirect communication financial incidence of the activity of The transition from the oral communication maintenance is considered. But it isn’t to the written communication, considering enough just to consider the economical the fact that the process of oral instructions’ aspects when the maintenance actions are transmitting is frequently met in the decided (the cost of the equipments’ non- maintenance activity, constitutes an efficiency, the non-maintenance’ cost). especially delicate mutation. The existence of It’s also necessary to evaluate the risk and some written procedures related to the the probabilities of equipments’ industrial equipments’ exploit and malfunctions. maintenance constitutes a fundamental The appeal to the reliability theory. The requirement in warranting the production’s reliability models of study, which were quality. These procedures related to the initially hard to apply in the industrial equipments’ maintenance must allow: units, were, subsequently, used more and knowing the coverage of the activity of more. After the 1970, two philosophies maintenance; the tasks and responsibilities of related to the industrial maintenance were each employee covered in the activity of developed. maintenance; the detailing of all maintenance In USA, it was applied the concept of works that are about to be performed. Life Cycle Cost (LCC), which covers the 136 Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 b. The transition from the of maintenance can appeal to new techniques improvisation to the scientific of detecting the flaws (the vibration analysis, rigor the sonic analysis etc.) which prove to be No matter which is the chosen maintenance extremely efficient pointing to the blind spots policy, respectively: and preventing the failures. the policy of increasing the equipments’ Nowadays, there is a new entry in the reliability (their modifications for equipments’ surveillance trend (and, in the eliminating the “blind spots”); same time, the tele-surveillance trend): the the preventive policy (the anticipating of conditioned maintenance, in which: the equipments’ malfunctions through a the inspection of the equipments which rigorous surveillance); are more and more complex must be the anti-malfunctioning policy, that aims rigorous and, as a consequence, must be to all the malfunctions’ elimination organized in a formal and detailed through the detailed analysis of each manner; malfunction or abnormal functionality). the permanent diagnostic of the the competence and the technical value of equipment’s technical status must be the people that execute the maintenance rigorous and precise. works is crucial, and quality warranty b. The economic factors presupposes the execution of all the In order to be competitive, the company must corrective or preventive interventions reduce to the minimum its production with the greatest scientific rigor. expenses, both the direct and the indirect c. The transition from intuition to production ones and implicitly the ones professionalism related to the maintenance. Worldwide, the With a properly trained maintenance staff, general trend of late years is to diminish the with a great technical competence, talented, maintenance costs. the maintenance compartment can execute Another worldwide aspect, with major efficient interventions. implication to maintenance, is the fact that, in the euphoria of the strategies of development 2 The activity of maintenance’s evolution through expansion and diversification that and objectives was specific to the 70’s, we assist at a In the current stage, the evolutions that are maintenance companies’ development, necessary in approaching the activity of companies that are capable to execute maintenance inside the industrial companies numerous maintenance activities instead of are determined by three groups of factors, the traditional compartments inside the which are : industrial companies. a. Technological factors This trend can be noticed in our country’s Worldwide, electronic and informatics spread economy, assisting to an increase of the in the workshops and the production small and average sized companies in the departments: the machines are endowed with maintenance domain. It’s true that they are numerical command, the industrial robots specialized, for the moment, in some extended, the flexible fabrication workshops domains (maintenance in informatics, are in full development, everything is being conditioned air, the buildings’ maintenance, automatic. etc.), but, quite inevitable, they will regard The electronic circuits are reliable because of some traditional maintenance activities, as a the progresses in the components’ result of the restructuring measures from the technology; the power organs, the great industrial companies. mechanical and hydraulic tools, the Executing the maintenance works by electromechanical subassemblies are more specialized companies represents one of the and more reliable and less and less fundamental mutations in the industrial maintenance consuming. Instead, the activity maintenance’s activity. More flexible, Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 137 capable to adapt to the new exigencies, the Ascribing new tasks to the maintenance maintenance companies have the vocation of compartment. The tasks transfer towards specialists and they will offer more often the production and the resort to their specialized, periodic services, which cooperation mustn’t lead to the proves the fact that developing (or liquidation of the maintenance maintaining) the traditional maintenance compartment inside the industrial units. departments inside the companies or creating The maintenance’s tasks will focus in three new maintenance capacities  isn’t main directions: justified from the economic point of view. - the maintenance activity’s execution by c. Human factors the production staff (or for the start, The efficiency of the maintenance activities mixed teams of production-maintenance), is conditioned by the involved staff, and not according to the established programs only the maintenance staff but the exploit and with the help of the defined staff, too. What might prevent a progress are measures. This involves not only a role of the difficulties related to the persons prediction, but also that of counseling and involved and the relations between these assistance in difficult situations. persons. The fact that, even if the employed - contracting other companies’ operates a machine eight hours a day, he interventions and activities; doesn’t feel more responsible about its - exploiting all the information referring to maintenance it’s regrettable, even if his the functioning equipments’ behavior for activity is, on one side, related to achieving improving the maintenance programs, for its own objectives and, on the other side, it consumptions’ optimization and the ensures the proper functioning of its work optimization of the replacements, for tool. improving the equipments’ reliability, for We think that all these factors of influence optimizing the maintenance methods, for are found or will be found (in the case of the renewing the equipments in due time. technological factors) in the industrial For carrying out these tasks, the companies from our country, too, and, in maintenance department should contain a consequence, the maintenance activity should staff, a not too numerous one, but one of a develop a new dimension characterized great professional competence, made of: through: “experts”: engineers and technicians with a A transfer of tasks towards the polyvalent technical training, capable to production and the companies supervise the activities made by the external specialized in maintenance. This will partners and to provide special technical lead to the progressive disappearance of assistance to the production teams; the execution staff specific to the “method agents”, charged with establishing maintenance compartments. The current and surveillance of the maintenance maintenance activities (visits, greasing, programs, making out the maintenance’s cleaning, small repairs, etc) should be specifications, information analysis from the gradually transferred to the production equipments’ history, etc. staff, through task diversification and the Considering the things that were previously proper stimulations and the complex presented, the industrial maintenance’s maintenance activities will be ordered to evolution is systematically presented in fig. some specialized companies selected 2. because of their competence and seriousness. 138 Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 Fig. 2. The maintenance activities’ evolution  The maintenance’s objectives result out of The maintenance activity’s management, the general objectives, which, in an industrial which figures through the other decisional company’s case, focus on profitability, centers inside an industrial unit can be growth, security, etc. However, the defined through (figure 3): profitability appears as a priority for the great a. the general objectives it aims at; majority of the industrial companies (in the b. the respect restrictions and, in particular, current stage of recession, the surviving is regulations related to security; the most important), being in the same way c. action variables that are available for an imperative condition, allowing, for a long achieving the objectives: methods and term, achieving some other objectives. The means of maintenance; maintenance activity must, like the other d. estimation and control variables. activities, contribute to achieving an essential objective. Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 139 Fig. 3. The systematic analysis of the maintenance management  The maintenance’s general objectives are: maintenance costs and non-efficacy costs The objectives related to security, which (having in mind that the failures’ coefficient can be expressed through an increased increases in time); the equipment’s reliability coefficient of the equipments modernization, the equipment’s replace with that are prone to “critical” failures; an improved one; the equipment’s replace The availability objectives for the whole with one with a new technology. company or for its key equipments; A more profound analysis of the place and Objectives that are related to a certain the role of the maintenance activities inside maintenance budget, respectively those the industrial companies reveals the fact that objectives that involve a diminishing to this activity is directly or indirectly involved the minimum of the maintenance or in achieving the five operational management objective costs, that aim at long term objectives, which are called the “five management’s optimization of the Olympic zeros”, objectives that present a equipments, substituting, if necessary, the certain improving degree that seem capable equipment, aiming at optimizing the to evoke an inaccessible ideal: global cost in its life span. Zero breakdown; There are also some long term objectives Zero failures; related to the equipment’s management and Zero stock; maintenance. In reality, there are more Zero delays possibilities for each industrial equipment Zero paper. and these possibilities are: maintaining the The objective “Zero breakdown” is essential equipment functional by executing some for the maintenance. Is it a utopia or an maintenance activities, but with increasing inaccessible-ideal? It’s in fact an imperative 140 Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 that must be achieved when people’s life is in The industrial maintenance’s necessity stake . results from the equipment’s tendency of The objective „zero failures” involves the failing in time. This failure risk depends in an quality management, but the maintenance is essential way on the equipment’s reliability, rigorously related to it, because a product’s but the failure’s consequences depend on the quality is highly dependent of the tool’s and period in which they appear, related to the the industrial equipments’ condition, possibility of their being recovered, in other especially in the case of the automatic and words by the maintenance. The conditions in robotized ones. which the equipments are used represent an The objective “zero stock” also involves the important aspect of these failures. The process of maintenance, especially in the equipments’ terms of usage are important for case of “just in time” organization, where the these kinds of failures. Therefore, the means intermediary stocks are significantly reduced. through which the maintenance’s general This kind of result can be obtained just with a objectives are achieved depend on more corresponding reliability of the upstream partners that intervene in the equipments’ equipments . conception and design stage, usage and The objective “zero delays” is relevant for maintenance. the maintenance activity related to the S. Nakajima   highlights five categories interventions’ duration, in case of some of measures taken for preventing the accidental blockage, in order to reduce at the equipments’ accidental failures, measures in maximum the immobilization period. which there are involved the factors The objective “zero paper” is indirectly mentioned above and of which the related to the maintenance, but the maintenance objectives depend, as it results informatics’ applications in the maintenance from fig. 4. activity contributes to its achievement. Fig. 4. Measures of preventing the accidental failures 3 The equipment’s evolution and its effect catastrophic consequences from the over maintenance economic and/or the social point of view The industrial equipments’ technical impose the following measures for the complexity, the accidental failures’ maintenance activity: Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 141 a. The improvement of the staff’s predicting and applying an operational qualification, instruction and technical documentation (the technical informing. files categorized on types of equipments, For assimilating the new technologies, the technical files categorized on devices, maintenance staff must be highly qualified. logical repair schemes etc.). The staff’s competence must be certified at methods of predictive maintenance; the employment and through some qualifying work’s planning; actions. Therefore, the maintenance manager replacements’ predictive management must dedicate a part of his time informing On the other hand, we must develop the himself with the achievements abroad, in means of control in order to analyze the what concerns the technical skills and obtained results, to correct and improve the maintenance methods. correspondent previsions: b. Associating the specialization with equipment’s history in order to supervise the polyvalence. and control the operation of equipment; When confronted with new and complex the analysis of the costs and failures techniques, the company is tempted to draw a through the operations of selection, conclusion: the maintenance staff must be efforts’ focusing, previsions and acting on specialized. But in the same time, the “blind spots or the most expensive considering the fact that there are multiple parts” (meaning, on the equipment’s problems, the company will draw the weaknesses); conclusion that it needs some polyvalent the dashboard to control different aspects people. Two apparent contradictory of maintenance etc. exigencies can be satisfied: creating teams of d. Increasing the rapidity of the specialists, who must work together under a intervention. common coordination and total polyvalence, Irrespective of the prediction’s quality, there that can’t be achieved by only one individual, will always be unpredictable situations in the but by a team. In general, we’ll find in a maintenance’s domain. It can be said that a maintenance department a staff with a certain maintenance activity without unforeseen technical polyvalence. The proportion situations is, by definition, a highly between the two categories depends on the expensive maintenance. The intervention’s company’s size and on how technical the rapidity can be measured acting on: equipment is. There is a tendency of placing the means of communication and in the first lines, in the production sectors, of informing; either “generalists”, or an polyvalent team, the staff’s quality; formed from various specialists and led by a the coordination of various specialists (a generalist or the other way around, in the structural problem); central maintenance departments, when they the technical documentation, in order to exist, teams made of technical specialists or be operational; people specialized on a certain type of material stock’s management, like: equipment. transport means, maintenance tools etc. c. To predict and control. An important issue that must be held in mind In order to control the maintenance’s costs, is the issue of the couple “maintenance- the prediction must be developed in all the security”, from the initial stage of domains: equipment’s design, in order to facilitate the predicting the staff’s management (career access and guarantee a greater security of the evolution, permutations, leaves, necessary staff and of the equipment. instructions etc.); e. The developing and the facilitation predicting the expenses for establishing of the relationship production- predicting budgets; maintenance and transferring some 142 Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 maintenance operations towards facilitated, at modern equipments, by the production. presence of: The manner in which the maintenance systems of maintenance’s tele- activity is organized must allow an surveillance, which allow the supervising improvement of these connections, which are and control of an equipment’s key points primordial. The urgent matters will be the at a centralized location; object of direct relationships between the diagnostic systems that allow the failures’ executors, and the issues of improvements visualization and determining the and modifications will be the object of failures’ causes; profitability studies and of relationship the “expert informatics” system that between the persons who are responsible and allows for the person who is interested an the management. The maintenance automatic technical assistance through compartment must participate at writing the detecting the flaw and studying the orders of equipment’s introduction, causes. supervising and liquidation, it should be f. The developing and facilitation of informed over the production programs and the relationships between the consulted on these programs’ modifications research and design department in order to give the okay and to take the and the maintenance department. eventual necessary measures in the The best manner of reducing a cost element maintenance’s domain. is the one of eliminating the elements that A mixed team will establish the “production- determine this cost. From this point of view, maintenance”, the list of banal maintenance it must be considered, from the early stage of operations that are the exclusive task of the conception and investments’ achievements, production or exploit operators and the ones the problems raised by the equipments’ who need the services of a maintenance maintenance. Important progresses are made, person. This process of operation transfer in this aspect, improving the relationships towards the production has as objective the between the research and design departments costs’ reduction and determines the and the maintenance ones. production staff to closely supervise the These improvements are made through the equipment. following methods: In the same time, through the fact that in the industries in which the maintenance production offers the necessary assistance, costs are superior to the processing when a maintenance agent must be operations’ costs, will be assigned a accompanied (out of security reasons, or out person responsible with the equipment, of reasons that are inherent to the which will have the responsibility of intervention executed), his being providing the production some accompanied by another person must be equipments whose global costs avoided. In the same time, it’s noticed that (acquisition plus maintenance) are the for the handling and supervising of the smallest possible; automatic equipments, which are provided the participation of the maintenance with tele-surveillance and functioning department at the design and achievement systems, it’s necessary to hire in production of the investments and at the research- some high trained operators. They can be design department for improving and properly instructed, even from the time in modernizing the existent equipment; which they are hired, in order to be given all a common team will establish: the “first degree” (or level one) maintenance o the documentation that must be operations, including emergency repairs and given by the equipments’ small maintenance operations. This builders, suppliers and installers; maintenance transfer, named “level one” o the list of necessary items of transfer, towards the production, is information regarding the nature, Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010 143 the importance, the costs and the A better development of a maintenance frequency of the failures and activity can’t be imagined without possessing malfunctions, the costs of the detailed information covering the knowledge, maintenance’s operation, the analyze and management of: the equipment number of functioning hours, the that must be conserved; the materials stocks necessary replacements, etc, the and the replacements; cooperation activity; necessary elements for a better equipment maintenance’s costs. Only a choice of equipments from the “maintenance’s operational reliability, endurance and global computerization”, with means that are cost’s points of view; adapted to its needs can be able to offer the o a policy of standardizing the necessary and sufficient information to the equipment; maintenance department and to the other o general specification conditions departments involved in maintenance with a related to the maintenance satisfying rapidity, accessibility and cooperation; it’s desirable that selectivity. This computerization’s cost, even some specification conditions of if it may seem high first, it may prove “maintenance” and “reliability” extremely low compared to the ulterior should be established. services it brings to the company. g. The maintenance cooperation’s development. References Nowadays, diversifying the equipments and  F. Boucly, Le management de la techniques at play and the necessity of costs’ Maintenance. Evolution et mutation, minimizing doesn’t allow a company to be Edition Afnor, Paris, 2007. endowed with all the maintenance means in  A. Boulenger, Vers le zero panne avec la order to face all the needs. In consequence, it maintenance conditionnelle, Edition must be appealed to cooperation in all the Afnor, Paris, 1988. cases which are justified from the economic  J. Bufferne, “Guide de la T.P.M.,” Les point of view. This cooperation’s Editions d’Organisation, Paris, 2007. development needs  :  V. Deac, F. Badea and C. Dobrin, The defining everything that must be executed organization, flexibility and maintenance through cooperation and the means in of production systems, ASE Publishing which this cooperation is executed, House, Bucharest, 2010. meaning defining a cooperation policy;  V. Deac and F. Pârvu, „Importanţa establishing some specifications or mentenanţei în demersul asigurării specification conditions, general and calităţii,” Revista Calitatea acces la specific to each activity achieved through succes, No. 4, 2010. cooperation;  J. C. Francastel, Extrenalisation de la achieving a central coordination and a maintenance: strategies, methodes, cooperation control, the assistance in contrats, Dunod, Paris, 2008. informatics proving itself very useful in  S. Nakajima, „La maintenance productive this domain; totale (TPM), nouvelle vogue de la creating a department capable to be given production industriale,” Afnor Gestion, the task of maintenance cooperation or to Paris, 1988. assist the persons who are responsible  S. Nakajima, „La maintenance productive with the maintenance in choosing and totale. Mise en oeuvre,” Afnor Gestion, estimating their partners, in the Paris, 1989. commercial negotiations and in  Y. Lavina and E. Perruche, „Maintenance controlling the cooperation operations. et assurance de la qualite,” Les Editions h. The usage of modern means of d’Organisation, Paris, 1998. information 144 Informatica Economică vol. 14, no. 2/2010  Y. Pimor, T.P.M. La maintenance  D. Veret, L’ Extrenalisation de la productive pour produire juste a temps, maintenance, Edition Afnor, Paris, 2003. Edition Economica, Paris, 1991. Vasile DEAC, Management Department of the Management Faculty, Academy of Economic studies, Bucharest, author and coauthor of over 17 specialty books and university courses and over 40 specialty articles and studies published in the journals of international scientific conferences or in professional journals, rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in international databases, among them 11 articles are ISI rated. Gheorghe CÂRSTEA, Dean of the Management Faculty, Academy of Economic studies, Bucharest, supervisor of doctorate theses in management, director of the master’s program in management, author and coauthor of over 20 specialty books and university courses and over 50 specialty articles and studies published in the journals of international scientific conferences or professional journals, rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in international databases, among them 5 articles are ISI rated. Constantin BÂGU, chief of Management Department of the Management Faculty, Academy of Economic studies, Bucharest, supervisor of doctorate theses in management, author and coauthor of over 25 specialty books and university courses and over 45 specialty articles and studies published in the journals of international scientific conferences or in professional journals, rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in international databases, among them 3 articles are ISI rated. Florea PÂRVU, Management Department of the Management Faculty, Economic Studies Academy, author and coauthor of over 20 specialty books and university courses and over 35 specialty articles and studies published in the journals of international scientific conferences or in professional journals, rated by CNCSIS in the category B+, indexed in international databases, among them 4 articles are ISI rated.
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