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					                               Google Android
Introduction:
“Android”, the recent release of Google. It is the latest and most recent technology which
occupies the number one position now, when we talk about the latest technology
updates.

The actual concept:
 Google Android is a new mobile handset platform based on Linux, it enables developers to
easily create great mobile applications. Initially, the deployment target for Android was the
mobile-phone arena, including smart phones and lower-cost flip-phone devices. However,
Android's full ranges of computing services and rich functional support have the potential to
extend beyond the mobile-phone market. Android can be useful for other platforms and
applications. Access to the entire platform source and enables developers to contribute.

Android overcomes the drawbacks in Blackberry and iphones:
The BlackBerry and iPhone, which have appealing and high-volume mobile platforms, are
addressing opposite ends of a spectrum. The BlackBerry is rock-solid for the enterprise business
user. For a consumer device, it's hard to compete with the iPhone for ease of use and the "cool
factor." Android, a young and yet-unproven platform, has the potential to play at both ends of the
mobile-phone spectrum and perhaps even bridge the gulf between work and play.

Overview of the Android Application Stack:

The Blue Layer (Application Frameworks)

In this layer, the application developer has access to what Android refers to as “service”
processes. These services are invisible to the user of the handset. Application developers can
communicate with these services via a message bus. For example, a contact application
might instigate a phone call at the behest of a user request by calling on the services of the
telephony manager.
                                          Figure 1

The Red Layer
The red layer from the above figure represents the services offered by the Linux kernel and
associated GNU utility packages ported to the ARM4 architecture. These components are
licensed under the GNU General Public License, the GPL, or the GNU Lesser General Public
License, the LGPL.Being subject to the GNU GPL and LGPL licenses, these components are
licensed with all source code included.


The Green Layer
The green layer consists entirely of open source libraries available under various licenses.
Some of the libraries come from the GNU project8 itself. The licenses here vary from the LGPL,
BSD, MIT and are completely in the public domain, in the case of the SQLite12 database.
However, even if the licenses of some of the components found in this layer are more
permissive and could allow a hardware vendor for customizations not found in other Android
Handsets, Google has created the Open Handset Alliance13 that owns the Android trademark.
Advantages of Google Android over Apple’s SDK:

Android is a recently-announced, open source mobile-phone operating system and development
platform from Google. Apple recently announced an SDK to allow developers to produce native
applications for iPhone, though Google's announcement is quite different from Apple's where the
hardware and software stack are fixed. The Android software stack, by comparison, could be
installed on any number of handsets, with service from various mobile carriers around the world.
While Apple has a lead hardware-wise with millions of iPhones around the world, Google aims
to offer a more flexible and feature-rich development platform, to first attract more 3rd party
developers that may have otherwise developed for iPhone, then use those applications to
convince consumers to purchase Android handsets Google has several advantages with Android
that contribute to its buzz: they've beat Apple to market with an SDK, they've provided an API
and free tools that millions of Java developers can learn quickly, and they are even allocating 10
million US dollars to pay developers for their applications as part of the Android Developer
Challenge

Critics Idea over it:
 One criticism (or challenge) leveled at Google is that Android will detract from the official Sun
Java ME mobile Java development platform.

The best thing:

 Android is a open source code and Google has provided a free download link too. We get
download it here.

The Android SDK is available at http://code.google.com/android/download.html

Required Tools:

 The easiest way to start developing Android applications is to download the Android SDK and
the Eclipse IDE .Android development can take place on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, or
Linux.

 It's possible to develop Android applications without Eclipse and the Android Developer Tools
plug-in, but you would need to know your way around the Android SDK.

 The Android SDK is distributed as a ZIP file that unpacks to a directory on your hard drive.
Since there have been several SDK updates, it is recommended that you keep your development
environment well organized so you can easily switch between SDK installations.
Contents of the package:

The SDK includes:

android.jar
       Java archive file containing all of the Android SDK classes necessary to build your
       application.
documention.html and docs directory
       The SDK documentation is provided locally and on the Web. It's largely in the form of
       JavaDocs, making it easy to navigate the many packages in the SDK. The documentation
       also includes a high-level Development Guide and links to the broader Android
       community.
Samples directory
       The samples subdirectory contains full source code for a variety of applications,
       including ApiDemo, which exercises many APIs. The sample application is a great place
       to explore when starting Android application development.
Tools directory
       Contains all of the command-line tools to build Android applications. The most
       commonly employed and useful tool is the adb utility (Android Debug Bridge).
usb_driver
       Directory containing the necessary drivers to connect the development environment to an
       Android-enabled device, such as the G1 or the Android Dev 1 unlocked development
       phone. These files are only required for developers using the Windows platform.

Android Debug Bridge

The adb utility supports several optional command-line arguments that provide powerful
features, such as copying files to and from the device. The shell command-line argument lets you
connect to the phone itself and issue rudimentary shell commands.

Summary
 In this article, we learned about Android at a very high level. Hopefully, this helps us to explore
more of the Android platform. Android promises to be a market-moving open source platform
that will be useful well beyond cell phones.
Address:

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posted:3/3/2011
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