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									Assassinations
           Definition


   Assassination: To murder a
prominent person by surprise attack,
    often for political reasons
                    Hashshashin
• Believed that the word Assassin
  comes from the Arabic word
  Hashshashin
• Was a militant Muslim religious sect
  active from 700’s – 1300’s in the
  Middle East
• According to stories
   – Had base called Alamut high on a
     mountain
   – Grew hashish plants which they smoked
   – Supposedly would get high before
     attempting assassinations with daggers
• Did assassinate many Muslim
  Caliphs (rulers)
Alamut
             Assassins’ Motives
• Attract attention to a cause
• Personal reasons
   – Revenge
   – Jealousy
   – Money
• Political gain
   – Ideology: how you think
     government should be run
   – Often to gain throne
• Military target
• Insanity or psychological
  problems            Can be carried out by individuals or
                                   governments
                Weapon of Choice
• In ancient times:
   –   Stabbing
   –   Bludgeoning
   –   Strangulation
   –   Poison
• In modern times, technique
  is very regional (guns most
  common)
   – In India, stabbings with
     swords popular
   – Machete in Sub-Saharan
     Africa
   – Explosives in Middle East and
     Europe
   – Guns in the Americas
   Famous Assassinations in World
             History
• Julius Caesar on Roman
  Senate floor
• In Russia, 5 Tsars
  assassinated in 200 years
• Archduke Franz
  Ferdinand started WWI
• Gandhi in 1948 by Hindu
  extremist
• Attempted assassination
  of Pope John Paul II
• Thousands more…
Inejiro Asanuma – Japanese
         politician
     US Presidential Assassination
              Attempts
• 18 attempted assassinations
• 4 presidents killed
  – Abraham Lincoln (1865)
     • By John Wilkes Booth, Southern Sympathizer
  – James Garfield (1881)
     • By Charles J. Guiteau, man turned down for job
  – William McKinley (1901)
     • By Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist that hid gun in cast
  – John Kennedy (1963)
     • By Lee Harvey Oswald
         – Killed by Jack Ruby, who shortly died of cancer
Garfield died from infection 3
months later due to bad doctors
    Kennedy – The Mother of All
       Conspiracy Theories
• Shot by a rifle from a book depository
• Bullet holes in head, neck, and back
• Governor of Texas was also shot but
  survived
• Idea of the second gunman on the grassy
  knoll
• Some believe that the Cubans, FBI, CIA,
  USSR, or the Mafia were involved in the
  shooting
                    Failed attempts
•   Andrew Jackson (insane man missed shots)
•   Teddy Roosevelt (folded speech in pocket slowed bullet)
•   FDR (man next to him shot to death)
•   Harry Truman (attacked by Puerto Rican nationalists White House
    being renovated)
•   JFK (car bomber changed mind when saw family)
•   Nixon (man wanted to fly plane into white house)
•   Gerald Ford (2)
•   Jimmy Carter (snipers caught at mall)
•   Ronald Reagan (shot in lung but survived, man insane)
•   George Bush Sr. (Saddam tried to have killed with carbomb)
•   Clinton (guy shot gun at white house, another guy crashed plane onto
    white house lawn)
•   George Bush Jr. (2005 – Man in country of Georgia threw grenade)

								
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