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					          Chapter 15
 Early Diagnosis, Explanation,
and Treatment of Mental Illness
       1487
       Malleus Maleficarum




        1492-1541
        Philippus Paracelsus

       1486-1535
       Cornelius Agrippa



         1515-1588                                               Sir James Frazier,
                      The Deception of Demons (1563)
                                                              The Golden Bough (1974)
         Johann Weyer
                                                                 sympathetic magic:
                                                              homeopathic & contagious




1400     1500                           1600           1700          1800
                                                 Reform and Early Psychiatry
                  1745-1826
                               1. Followed Joseph Daquin Philosophy of Madness (1793) 2. Director of Bicetre Asylum (1793) 3. A Treatise on Insanity (1801)
              Philippe Pinel

                  1745-1813 1. First U.S. psychiatrist 2. Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind (1812)
                            3. Signer of Declaration of Independence 4. Friend of Jefferson, John Adams, surgeon general of the army under Washington
             Benjamin Rush


                                                          1802-1887 1. 40 year campaign, improve plight of mentally ill (hospitalization 15% to 70% by 1890)
                                                                    2. Civil war superintendent of women nurses
                                                 Dorothea Lynde Dix



                                               Development
  1. Studied with Wundt 2. List of mental disorders in 1883 so thorough used world-wide until present 1856-1926                  Psychological vs Medical Model
  3. Categories: dementia praecox, paranoia, manic depression, neurosis, Alzheimer’s (b1864) disease
                                                                                                      Emil Kraepelin
  4. DSM4 based upon his categories.                                                                                               Thomas Szasz, The Myth of
                                                                                                                                      Mental Illness (1974)

1. Studied with Cattell, PhD under Wundt 2. U of Pennsylvania for 40 years 3. Charter member of the APA 1867-1956
4. “Practical Work in Psychology” (1896) 5. Founded first psychology clinic (1896),coined that term     Lightner Witmer
6. Psychological Clinic journal (1907) 7. Named the profession “clinical psychology”


                                                 Hypnosis
             1734-1815
                     1. MD in 1766 from University of Vienna, “On the Influence of the Planets,” “animal gravitation” 2. Dispute with Father Hell
        Franz Mesmer 3. Fame spread in France 4. 1784 commission to objectively investigate

           Others followed: 1. Marquis de Puysegur (1751-1825), artificial somnambulism, posthypnotic suggestion, posthypnotic amnesia
           2. John Elliotson (1791-1868), James Esdaile (1808-1859, British), James Braid (1795-1860, Scottish)


           The Nancy School: 1. Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault (1823-1904), founder 2. Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), major spokesman
           3. Saw hypnosis as normal

  Charcot’s Influence: 1. Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), flamboyant & brilliant, list of many impressive accomplishments
  2. Held that hypnotizability was evidence of hysteria (hereditary neuro degeneration), in conflict with Nancy School (admitted his error near end of life)
  3. Pierre Janet (1859-1947), Charcot’s student, dissociation


1700                        1750                                 1800                           1850                                 1900
1.   What is mental illness? In your answer, include the criteria that have been used throughout history to
     define mental illness. 446-447

2.   Summarize the medical, psychological, and supernatural models of mental illness and give an example
     of each. 447-448

3.   What, if anything, do all versions of psychotherapy have in common?

4.   Describe what therapy would be like if it were based on the psychological model of mental illness, on
     the supernatural model, and on the biological model. 448-451

5.   Define and give an example of homeopathic and contagious magic. 449

6.   How did Hippocrates define health and illness? What treatments did he prescribe for helping his
     patients regain health? 451

7.   When did Witch-hunting reach its peak in Europe? How did the publishing of the Malleus Maleficarium
     facilitate withc-hunting? What were some of the sings taken as proof that a person was a witch or was
     bewitched? Why was it assumed that women were more likely to be witches or bewitched than men?
     452-453

8.   In what ways did individuals such as Paracelsus, Agrippa, Weyer, Scot, and Plater improve the plight of
     the mentally ill? 454-455

9.   What significance did Pinel have in the history of the treatment of the mentally ill? Rush? Dix? 455-457

10. Why was Kraepelin’s listing of the various mental disorders seen as something both positive and
    negative? 458-459

11. Summarize the reasons Witmer is considered the founder of clinical psychology. 459-460

12. Describe and give an example exemplifying the tension between explanations of mental illness based
    on the medical model and those based on the psychological model. 461-462
13. Why does Szasz refer to mental illness as a myth? Why does he feel that labeling someone as mentally
    ill may be doing him or her a disservice? 461-462

14. According to Mesmer, what causes mental and physical illness? What procedures did Mesmer use to
    cure such illnesses? What was Mesmer’s fate? 463-464

15. In what way could Mesmer’s techniques be considered an improvement over other techniques of treating
    mental illness that existed at the time? 462-464

16. What major phenomena did Puysegur observe during his research on somnambulism? 464-465

17. Describe the debate that occurred between members of the Nancy School and Charcot and his
    colleagues over hypnotizability. Who finally won the debate? 467

18. Summarize the theory that Charcot proposed to explain hysteria and hypnotic phenomena. 467
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