Puritans and Pilgrims by wulinqing

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									Settlement & Religion
Puritans and Pilgrims
  Aliyah, Carolyn, Denise, and Lauren
 ELIT 48A, Professor Pesano, Fall 2009
History      In 1608 when King James Stuart
              succeeded Queen Elizabeth, the
              Puritans fled to the Netherlands
              and then asked for the right to
              settle in the vast holdings the
              British held in America.
             The Pilgrims (1620) and the
              Puritans (1630) came and settled
              in Massachusetts. The Puritans
              wanted to build the “New
              Jerusalem” or Boston as it came to
              be known.
             The Quakers (bad name for
              pacifists) came and settled in the
              Pennsylvania area.
             The Catholics came and settled in
              Mary’s Land to escape
              persecution (later became
              Maryland)

              **Map of the first colonies settled
               during the time of the puritans
               and pilgrims.
    History
   Important Events:
       The most famous, or infamous, event of this time was the Salem
        witch hunt and trials. The Salem witch trials were a series of
        hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to
        prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and
        Middlesex counties of colony Massachusetts, between February 1692
        and May 1693.
   Back to the book…
       As the Norton Anthology mentions, the Pilgrims who came to
        Plymouth Plantation wished to purify their Christian beliefs and
        practices. However, the Puritans initially were willing to work
        within the confines of the established Church of England, the
        Pilgrims thought it so corrupt that they wished to separate
        themselves from it completely.
   Pilgrims vs. Puritans…
       The "Pilgrim Fathers" who fled to the Netherlands, and then to New
        England on the Mayflower, were Puritans. "Pilgrims" is the name
        that has stuck for this particular group of English Separatists. Their
        beliefs, however, were not materially different from those of the
        Puritans settlers who followed them to New England in the 1630s.
Religious views of the Pilgrims
   The pilgrims shared the views of the Separatist: they
    believed that the reforms of the Anglican Church had
    gone far enough.
   To establish themselves as rightful interpreters of the
    Bible, they removed from the Anglican Church in
    order to re-establish it as they believed it should be.
   The first of their reasons for sailing to America is fairly
    passive – they wanted to “draw” others by the
    example of their prosperity, not necessarily go and
    conquer and actively convert.
     Such an idea reflects the one that would be
      expressed by the Puritan John Winthrop, where the
      New World would become a beacon of religious
      light, a model of spiritual promise, and a “citty upon
      a hill”
Religious views of the Puritans
   The most obvious difference between the Pilgrims and the Puritans
    is that the Puritans had no intention of breaking with the Anglican
    Church.
   The Puritans had suffered repeatedly under a society which had
    seemed to demonstrate the potentially ominous side of the relation
    of church and state.
     The king was the leader of the church, and the state decided how
        the church was to function
     In 1629 when Charles I dissolved parliament, the people found
        that they no longer had any political representation
     Their secular agency had then become a measure of their
        religious agency
     The removal to Massachusetts was a way to gain a political voice,
        to create a state that would develop according to their own
        beliefs and fashion itself harmoniously with the church
Religious views (continued)
   Puritans and Pilgrims were nonconformists; both of which refused
    to accept an authority beyond that of the revealed word (the Bible).
   The Puritans were ardent reformers, seeking to bring the Church to
    a state of “purity” (as NAAL states)
     This reform involved varying degrees of stripping away practices
       seen as residual “popery” – vestments, ceremony, etc.
   However, where the Pilgrims had translated this in something of an
    egalitarian mode, the Puritans considered religion a very complex
    and highly intellectual affair.
     Its leaders were highly trained scholars whose education tended
       to lead to authoritarian positions.
   While these views fostered such class distinction, it nevertheless
    encouraged education among the whole of its group, and in fact
    demanded a level of learning and understanding in terms of
    salvation.
     Knowledge of Scripture and divinity, for the Puritans, was
       essential.
Philosophy



   Religious beliefs were the basis of their outlook
    on life
   Legal documents influenced by the Bible and
    English common law
   Puritans held education in high esteem
Misconceptions

                    Women were treated as
                     property
                        Religious perspectives
                        Social and legal
                         perspectives
                        (“The Prologue”)
                        Roles of women in the
                         home
                        Plymouth Colony
                         advantages
Misconceptions (continued)
   Salem witch trials
   Public humiliation
   The First Thanksgiving
    Authors



                     William Bradford (1590-1657)
   Was born in Austerfield, Yorkshire, into a family of substantial yeomen,
    March 19, 1589.
   Read the bible when he was 12 and joined a separatist group that would later
    become the Pilgrims in 1606.
   After the Mayflower anchored, his wife fell/jumped overboard and drowned
   Was elected Governor of Plymouth in April of 1621 and started to write the
    history of Plymouth Plantation.
   Was re-elected 30 times.
   Died May 9, 1657
    William Bradford (continued)
   Of Plymouth Plantation (1620-1637)
      Portrays suffering of early settlers and their trip across the sea to the New World.
      Upon landing, they had neither shelter nor knowledge of how to survive.
      Settlers set out to look for supplies
      Found corn buried by Indians
      Some went off to sail around Cape Cod and were attacked by Native Americans during
       their exploration.
      The explorers later found cornfields and fresh water during their searches through the
       wilderness.
      Half the people died in the first few months of landing.
      As life settled down, the Pilgrims began to form relations with the surrounding Native
       American tribes through men such as Samoset and Squanto who served as
       intermediaries.
      Indians helped teach them to grow and hunt for food.
      Spoke of Morton of Merrymount’s lavish lifestyle and eventual fall.
      Described his fear of the community’s increasing neglect of the Church.
          Apprehensive concerning the large amount of people who broke away from the
           Church community to life on their own.
          Saw it as the ruin of society
   Documented the first years of the Pilgrim settlements in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
      Portrayed the suffering of the Pilgrims as they attempted to survive the new landscape.
      Described the small details behind the glorious image of the first settlers in the New
       World.
      Recordings serve as a historical log of the everyday struggles the men and women faced
       as they built the foundations of a new society.
Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)
   Was born in 1612
   Received education superior to most
    women of her time
   Married Simon Bradstreet when she
    was 16
   Did not have healthy disposition, was
    frail and weak
   She had 8 children
   Both her husband and father became
    Governors of Massachusetts
   Died in 1672
Anne Bradstreet (continued)
   “The Prologue to Her Book” (1650) and “The Author to Her Book” (1678)
     Spoke humbly in introduction of her poetry
     Affectionately described her poetry as flawed creation that was not
       worth much merit besides as a tool to amuse and express herself.
   “To My Dear and Loving Husband” (1678)
     Displayed her love and devotion to her husband, Simon Bradstreet

     Simon is represented as the center of her world
   A few other works
     “Before the Birth of one of Her Children” (1678)

     “To My Dear Children” (1867)

     “Contemplations” (1678)
   Depicted the Puritan life in the home
     Spoke of the simplistic home life of a Puritan wife.

     Men and women each had duties to perform.

     Fulfilled herself by being a good wife, mother, and poet.

     Depicted the small joys in life even as everyone continued to struggle
       to survive in the colonies.
John Edward (1703-1758)
   Born at East Windsor, Connecticut
    in 1703
   Entered Yale University at the age
    of 13
   Married Sarah Pierrepont of New
    Haven, in his early 20’s
   Began preaching at one of the
    leading American Churches in
    Northampton, Massachusetts
   He was dismissed from his Church
    in 1750 for his insistence that only
    those who had experienced
    “Grace” should be allowed to be
    members of the Church.
   Became President of Princeton
    University in 1757
   Died in of smallpox inoculation in
    1758
    John Edward (continued)


   “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
     Sinners have a possibility of facing destruction at any moment and are
       already condemned to hell no matter how much they attempt to avoid it.
     God can send sinners to hell whenever he desires and does not lack the
       power to do so.
     God’s wrath is expressed in the fiery tortures of hell.
     This is a warning to everyone to avoid sin and others to convert and turn
       towards God to be saved.
     The rest shall be damned.
     God shows no mercy in exacting his justice and should be feared.
   Reveals unforgiving Puritan views of religion
       Religion is all encompassing of life and should be used as a set of guidelines.
       Every word and action is seen in black and white.
       God is depicted as a harsh and omnipotent ruler who is always present.
       There is no room for negligence. The strict religious codes are continuously
        in effect.
John Winthrop (1588-1649)
   Born in Groton, England in 1588
   Went to Cambridge University
    for 2 Years, was exposed to
    Puritan beliefs here.
   Was married when he was 17
   Was not a Separatist
   Wanted to reform the National
    Church from within getting rid
    of hierarchal clergy and
    traditional rituals.
   Became a lawyer
   Emigrated to America in order to
    avoid persecution under King
    Charles I
   In October 1629 he was chosen
    as Governor of the colony in
    Massachusetts, and remained in
    the position for 20 years
   Died in 1649
John Winthrop (continued)   
                            
                                A Model of Christian Charity (1630)
                                God made men different to provide a
                                variance to life and show his power through
                                his proper maintenance of all the diversity.
                                   Men should bond together and support
                                    each other.
                                   Treat each other with justice and mercy.
                                   Take care of the lives and belongings of
                                    others as though they were your own.
                                   People must help each other even beyond
                                    their abilities.
                                   Sacrifice one’s needs for the good of
                                    others.
                                   Love is the perfect bond between people.
                               Reveals another aspect of Puritanism
                                   Expresses a gentler and more
                                    compassionate view of religion.
                                   God is seen as a merciful and kind
                                    fatherly figure who desires to see His
                                    children unite.
                                   Religion is still seen as the center of life,
                                    but is less constraining.
                                   Everything is done out of personal
                                    kindness rather than mere fear of
                                    condemnation and punishment.
                                   Portrays the softer and more emotional
                                    aspect of the Puritan culture.
Related Literature
              Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
                 Was born at Salem, Massachusetts, July 4, 1804
                 Two of his ancestors served as judges during the
                  infamous Salem Witch Trials
                 Hawthorne added the “w” to his last name to
                  distance himself from his ancestors.
                 Is most famous for his novel about the Puritans
                  “The Scarlet A”
                 The Scarlet Letter (1850) Summary:
                     Hester Prynne is a woman who committed
                      adultery while her husband, Roger
                      Chillingworth, was absent from the town.
                     Hester is forced to wear the scarlet “A” on her
                      chest to represent her sin.
                     Throughout the novel, Hester refuses to
                      reveal the father of her child to be the beloved
                      town minister, Arthur Dimmesdale.
                     In the process, Dimmesdale goes through an
                      internal struggle with the truth until the end
                      where he reveals his sin and then dies.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (continued)

   Promotes the image of Puritan
    societies as being cold and merciless
     Depicts the rigid and strict culture
       of the Puritans.
     The scarlet A shows the Puritan
       belief of making an example of
       sinners.
     Reveals the restraints placed on the
       Puritan people and the religious
       expectations of each person.
     Puritans were seen as callous and
       judgmental men and women who
       were always ready to condemn any
       rebellious members of their society.
John Milton (1608-1674)      Was an English poet, author,
                              polemicist, and civil servant for the
                              Commonwealth of England.
                             He is best known for his epic poem,
                              Paradise Lost, and for his treatise
                              condemning censorship, Areopagitica.
                             Paradise Lost (1667)
                                In his anger against God for
                                 choosing his Son to be his second-
                                 in-command, Lucifer raises up a
                                 rebellion against the army of
                                 heaven.
                                In spite, Lucifer tricks Eve into
                                 eating the forbidden fruit.
                                Adam eats the fruit because he does
                                 not wish to part from Eve.
                                God condemns mankind to suffer
                                 because of Adam and Eve’s
                                 disobedience.
                                Lucifer and the other fallen angels
                                 see evil as their “good” through a
                                 twisted sense of reasoning.
                                Lucifer continues to wreak havoc
                                 and destruction in battle against
                                 God.
    John Milton (continued)
   Relations to Puritan views of life
     Humans seen as creatures who
      are weak and easily tempted by
      evil.
     Women illustrated as foolish
      creatures.
     The love, seen as a weakness,
      Adam had for Eve led him to
      rebel against God and fall from
      grace.
     Similar image of a harsh God.

     Sins are black and white without
      any middle-ground.
     Promotes obedience and strict
      adherence to religious traditions.
     Evil is always around and if
      people are not cautious, they will
      stray and be condemned to hell.
Other Prominent Writers During This Time:
   Roger Williams (1603-1649)
       A Key into the Language of America (1643)
   Mary Rowlandson (1636-1711)
       A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary
        Rowlandson (1682)
       Was captured by the Wampanoag Indians and taken into
        captivity for 11 months during the series of attacks on the
        colonial settlements starting in 1675 called “King Phillip’s War.”
       Wrote about her life as a captive
       Details the life of a minister’s wife during the rough times of
        war chaos in the colonies.
   Edward Taylor (1642-1729)
       Preparatory Meditations (1939)
       “Upon Wedlock, and Death of Children” (1939)
   Cotton Mather (1663-1728)
       The Wonders of the Invisible World (1692-1693)

								
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