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Ready or Not Preparing for Pandemic Flu

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Ready or Not Preparing for Pandemic Flu Powered By Docstoc
					Ready or Not:
Preparing for
Pandemic Flu
A flu pandemic
 will happen –
we can’t predict
when or where
Objectives

•   Understand what avian flu and pandemic flu
    are
•   Describe three things you can do at home to
    prepare and/or protect yourself and your
    family
•   Describe three things you can do at work to
    protect yourself and others
•   Identify where to get accurate information
    about pandemic flu
                Definitions

•   Seasonal Influenza

•   Avian Influenza

•   Pandemic Influenza
Seasonal Influenza

• Caused by a virus
• Infects humans
• Usually occurs during the winter
• Easily spreads from person to person
• Vaccine is available
Seasonal Influenza
 •Incubation period is usually 1-3 days
 •Symptoms
   -Fever (often sudden), chills,
   headache, muscle aches, dry cough,
   sore throat, weakness, runny nose,
   may last three to five days or more
   -People can shed the virus without
   showing symptoms of infection
Seasonal Influenza

• The virus can be
  spread:
  -Cough/Sneeze                   Droplet

    • Most important    Contact
      (within 3 feet)
  -Contact
    • Contaminated
      articles
The Burden of Seasonal Influenza

•   250,000 to 500,000 deaths globally/yr

•   36,000 deaths and > 200,000
    hospitalizations/yr in U.S.

•   $37.5 billion in economic costs/yr in
    U.S. related to influenza and
    pneumonia
Influenza and Other Species

   Influenza viruses can infect a number of
    different species, including humans
   Other species include:
     – Birds (Avian)
     – Pigs
     – Horses
     – Seals
     – Whales
Avian Influenza (―Bird Flu‖)


•   Readily infectious between birds


•   Only rarely infects humans
How do humans get the bird ―bird
flu‖?




 Through close direct
 contact with poultry
 Not easily passed from
 bird to human
How a new human influenza virus is
            created
          Situation Report:
      H5N1 Avian Flu in Humans
   Human infections associated with close
    direct contact with infected poultry

   High mortality (above 50%)

   Does not transmit from human to
    human efficiently so far
What is a pandemic?

•   Outbreak is higher than usual number
    of cases occurring locally

•   Pandemic is a worldwide outbreak
     Flu Pandemics in the 20th Century




                                        H3
                            H2
H1
1915       1925   1935   1945    1955        1965   1975   1985   1995   2005


1918                        1957         1968
Spanish                     Asian  Hong Kong
Flu H1N1                  Flu H2N2 Flu H3N2
Requirements for a pandemic

 •A new virus must emerge (people
 have not been exposed to it before)
 •Infection usually causes serious
 disease
 •The virus must spread as easily as
 seasonal influenza—by coughing
 and sneezing
           Current Pandemic Status

Interpandemic                 Pandemic Alert              Pandemic
Phase 1    Phase 2      Phase 3     Phase 4 Phase 5       Phase 6
No new     No new       New         Small     Larger      Increased
virus in   virus in     virus in    clusters, clusters,   and
humans     humans       humans      localized localized   sustained
                                                          spread in
Animal     Animal       Little/no   Limited   Limited     general
viruses    viruses      spread      spread    spread      human
low risk   high risk    among       among     among       population
to          to          humans      humans    humans
humans     humans


                       Current Level
    Planning Assumptions
•   Time from infection to symptoms:
     – 1-4 days (average 2 days)
•   Infectiousness:
     – Greatest during the first 2 days of illness
       may be infectious 1 day BEFORE
       symptoms
     – Infectious for about 5 or more days,
       children will shed the most virus
     – On average, each person will transmit
       influenza to two others
Planning Assumptions

•   In an affected community an outbreak
    may last 6-8 weeks

•   Absenteeism may be as high as 40% in
    a severe pandemic

•   High rates of illness may occur among
    school aged children
    Things to think about during a
    pandemic:
•   Need to create as safe a work place as
    possible
•   Need healthy workers on the job to keep
    community functioning
•   Need workers to remain home when ill
•   Healthcare may look different during a
    pandemic
     Health Protection Preparedness
                 System
                                             Local-state-federal
                                             Domestic-international
              Local /State /                 Multisector integration
Healthcare   Federal Public
 Delivery        Health        Federal
                                             Public-private
 System         System         Partners      Non-partisan
       Business                              Animal-human
       & Workers
                       Education             Health protection-
                        System                homeland security-
                                              economic protection

 It Takes a NETWORK!
             National Response

•   Development of a national response plan and
    checklists to help local communities plan

•   Investment of resources into vaccine
    development and medication reserves

•   Control of disease coming from outside the
    U.S. through isolation/quarantine
Local Response
Quarantine:        Isolation:


Well persons       Ill persons are
exposed to an      kept separate from
Illness are kept   others to reduce
separate from
others to reduce   disease spread
disease spread     with the illness
    Community Control of Pandemic
             Influenza
                                            less
•   Isolation of the ill
•   Management of patient contacts
•   Quarantine of small groups
•   Cancellation of specific events
•   Closure of specific facilities
•   Snow days and self-shielding
•   Closure of facilities and transportation
•   Widespread community quarantine          more
As an individual what can you do to
 protect yourself and your family?
Individual Activities


 •   Social Distancing

 •   Annual flu vaccine

 •   Hand hygiene

 •   Respiratory etiquette
     ―Cover your cough‖
Social Distancing


 •   Three feet from other
     people

 •   Limit face-to-face
     contact
    Prepare for an extended stay at
                 home:
   Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, vegetables, and
    soups
   Protein or fruit bars
   Dry cereal or granola
   Peanut butter or nuts
   Dried fruit
   Crackers
   Canned juices
   Bottled water
   Canned or jarred baby food and formula
   Pet food
   Examples of medical, health, and
        emergency supplies
Soap and water                      Medicines for fever



                                               Fluids with
Garbage                                        electrolytes
bags                Thermometer



       Batteries

Portable                    Prescribed medical supplies
radio              alcohol-       Tissues, toilet paper,
                   based hand     disposable diapers
                   wash
Hygiene: Wash Your Hands
•   Before, during, and after you prepare food
•   Before you eat, and after you use the
    bathroom
•   After handling animals or animal waste
•   When your hands are dirty, and
•   More frequently when someone in your
    home is sick
•   Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth
Wash Your Hands
Use soap and warm
running water for
At least 20 seconds
         OR
Use an alcohol based
hand sanitizer for at
least 15 seconds.
If you become ill…
Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes

   Use a tissue or
    inside of your elbow
    when sneezing or
    coughing.
Stay home when you are sick
 • Stay home if you have…
 A fever of 101 degrees


 If needed seek
 medical care
More information is available
 Resources
• National Planning:    www.pandemicflu.gov


• Bird and Animal Issues:      www.usda.gov


• State Planning:
 http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/acd/flu/influenza.shtml


• Marion County Communicable Disease Info
 (503) 588-5621
―Pandemics are global in nature, but their
impact is local. When the next pandemic
strikes, as it surely will, it is likely to touch
 the lives of every individual, family, and
  community. Our task is to make sure
   that when this happens, we will be a
              Nation prepared.‖
                                -Mike Leavitt,
                                  Secretary
                                 US Department of
                                  Health and
                                  Human Services

				
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posted:3/3/2011
language:English
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