florence by xiangpeng


									Hybridization studies at Fermilab
• Prototype detectors
   – Readout chip mated to sensor
   – Experiences with both single dies and 4” and 6” wafers using
   – 2 5-chip modules mated at AIT
• Dummies
   – Large scale studies using daisy-chained patterns
   – Process characterization, yield determination, working with
     industry to find out the problems and establish quality control
   – Indium, Eutectic Pb/Sn solder treated with flux or PADS(Plasma
     assisted fluxless soldering)
                 Vendor search
• A lot of enquiries/contacts but most companies are
  not interested or consider the job too challenging
• Prototyping – BOEING, AIT (both used indium
  and could do wafer or single dies)
• Dummies
   – AIT (indium at 30 mm pitch)
   – AIT also tested wafer bumping with 200 mm thick
   – MCNC/Unitive (solder both flux and fluxless); only 6”
     wafers (needs modification for 4”).
  Bump Bonding Technologies
• Indium Bumps
  –   Fabrication process (evaporation)
  –   Minimum achievable bump size and pitch
  –   Properties (electrical and mechanical)
  –   Bumping and flip-chip bonding yields
• Solder Bumps
  – Fabrication process (electroplating)
  – Minimum achievable bump size and pitch
  – Properties (electrical and mechanical)
                         Indium Bumps
• Fabricated by thermal evaporation (using a lift-off process) for small bumps,
  finer pitch, better uniformity and control, single die bumping possible
• Requires sputter deposited 2-metal layer barrier diffusion UBM
• Soft compliant bump with a melting point of 156°C
• Form a non-conducting oxide layer (which has to be penetrated)
• Both sides have to be indium bumped
• Minimum bump sizes of 12 µm with a height of 8-10 µm on a 18 µm pitch
• Large arrays with 500K+ bumps on a single die possible
• Flip-chip bonding using compression only (room temperature process)
  requiring ~1-2 grams/bump
• Bump resistance of ~1-2 Ohms for a 15 µm x 15 µm square bump
• Requires a flip-chip bonder with 1-2 micron alignment accuracy and
• Expensive to fabricate!
Indium bumps on ROC done at
Results on Indium-bumped (AIT)
       prototype detectors
Hit-map for three FPIX1-implemented detectors using
  radioactive source
        Indium Bumps Summary
• Indium bump/bonding is proven, able to fabricate
  small bumps on fine pitch (by evaporation) with good
  mechanical strength and high-yields for both bumping
  and bonding
• Indium bonding requires bumps on both sides and a
  highly accurate flip-chip aligner/bonder with
  planarization capability
• Indium bumps are expensive to fabricate!
• Current achievable minimum bump dimensions of 12
  µm diameter, height of 8-10 µm, 18 µm pitch
    Electroplated Lead-Tin Solder Bumps
• Versatile in selection of solder alloy composition and MP
• Self-aligning and self-planarizing bumps (upon reflow)
• Requires fabrication of solder bump on one side only with an
  opposing "wettable" pad
• Excellent electrical and mechanical characteristics:
   – low resistance electrical path (2-3 µOhms)
   – low inductance (~0.1 nH)
   – shear values in excess of 30 grams for 50 micron bump
• Alpha particle emission from bumps
• Potential for low-cost in high volume
• Minimum size of 15 µm diameter bumps on a 20 µm pitch!
Eutectic Lead-Tin (37 :63) Bumps
      After Reflow @ 215°C

        25 micron diameter, 50 micron pitch
          Tests on dummies from
• Structures with 50 mm pitch (BTeV) and 150 mm
  pitch(CMS) on same wafer
• 80 PADS single-chip assemblies and 38 fluxed single-chip
  assemblies (BTeV)
• US-CMS also tested 5 double-chip assemblies and 1 5-chip
  assembly (using flux-less solder)
• Check connectivity between matched pair of pads using a
  semi-automatic probe station
• Sometimes, need to apply a low voltage to break through
• Also look for shorts between neighbors
Wafer layout
Solder bumps from MCNC
             Results on connectivity

• Much better results in the PADS assemblies than the ones
  using flux. The latter ones have a lot of visible residues
• Concentrate only on PADS assemblies
• 6 out of 71 assemblies have a lot of opens due to operator
  error. Assembly yield is 65/71 or 91.5%
• 190 traces per assembly. 52 opens. Trace yield =99.58%
• 26 bonds per trace. Bump yield =99.98%
• Preliminary results from CMS module assemblies are

• Operator error – gross misalignment by one column
• Channels need voltage to break through –thought to be due
  to incomplete removal of oxide on Al before UBM was put
• Bridges (see X ray picture)
• Irregular reflow
• Lab vs cleanroom condition
• Module assembly –PADS process needs modification
Defect joint
        Solder Bumps Summary
• Solder bumps may provide an alternative to indium
• Versatile in choice of alloy with MP between 150-
• Current minimum achievable bump sizes of 15 µm
  diameter on a 20 µm pitch!
• Excellent electrical and mechanical characteristics
• Self-aligning and self-planarizing bonding process
• Lower fabrication cost than indium requiring bumping
  on one side only and a wettable layer on the other

• Satisfactory results on real detectors using Indium
• Dummy tests on 30mm ongoing
• Fluxless solder by MCNC has good bond yield
• Whole chip losses need to be better understood and
• Module assembly – non-industrial standard (closely
  abutted to one another); MCNC needs to learn how to do
• Next round – real detectors will be bumped and bonded at

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