A Guide to Formative Assessment Astrid Fossum & Sharonda M. Harris, Mathematics Teaching Specialists Milwaukee Public Schools email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org In this session participants will: Explore a professional development model used to inform classroom instruction. Examine how district leaders are working with teachers to support the use of formative assessments in mathematics. Engage in writing effective descriptive feedback. Research “Improved formative assessment helps low achievers more than other students and reduces the range of achievement while raising achievement overall.” “Firm evidence shows that formative assessment is an essential component of classroom work and that its development can raise standards of achievement.” Black, P. & Wiliam, D (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 808(2), 139-148. Comprehensive Mathematics Framework References National Research Council. (2001). Adding it up. Mathematics Learning Study Committee, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2002). Helping Children Learn Mathematics. Mathematics Learning Study Committee, J. Kilpatrick & J. Swafford, Editors. Center for Education, Division of Behavioral Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (1998). Wisconsin’s model academic standards for mathematics. Madison, WI: Author. District Learning Targets D. Measurement Grade 6 MPS Learning Target #5 MPS Learning Target #6 (Grade 6) (Grade 6) Estimate and measure attributes of objects (including Estimate and determine perimeter/circumference, area, angles) and make unit conversions within and distance, and elapsed time in real-world contexts and between customary and metric systems. explain strategies. Descriptors Descriptors Measurable attributes: 1, 2 Direct measurement: 3, 4 Direct measurement: 3, 5 Indirect measurement: 6, 7, 8 State Assessment Descriptors Wisconsin Sub-skill Descriptors (Beginning of Grade 7) Sub-skill D.a: Measurable attributes 1) Select the appropriate unit of measure to estimate the length, liquid capacity, volume, weight/mass of everyday objects using U.S. customary and metric. 2) Convert units within a system e.g., feet to yards; ounces to pounds; inches to feet; pints to quarts. Approximate conversions of units between metric and U.S. customary systems using a model or in context (quart/liter; yard/meter). Sub-skill D.b: Direct measurement 3) Apply appropriate tools and techniques to measure down to the nearest 1/4-, 1/8-, or 1/16- inch or nearest centimeter or millimeter. 4) Determine and compare elapsed time in problem-solving situations. 5) Measure and/or draw angles up to 180 degrees. Sub-skill D.c: Indirect measurement 6) Estimate area given a reference. 7) Determine perimeter/circumference and area of squares, rectangles, triangles, parallelograms, and circles in real-world context. 8) Determine the distance between points using a scale. Description of Assessment: CABS Class Summary Report Date: School: Grade Level: Teacher: _______Sp.Ed _______Reg.Ed MPS Learning Target(s): Expectations: State Descriptor(s): (What do you expect to see on student’s paper to demonstrate understanding?) Students’ Successes: Students’ Challenges: Next Steps: Description of Assessment: CABS Assessment Overview After working through the assessment, reflect on what you expect students to do. Complete the following table before developing your descriptive feedback. School: Date: Teacher: Grade Level: ______Sp.Ed _______Reg.Ed Identify appropriate Key Mathematics Features students may Identify misconceptions you anticipate students will demonstrate: develop as a response to this assessment: Identify misconceptions you observed in the students’ work: Types of Feedback Motivational Evaluative Descriptive Effective Feedback is Feedback is Descriptive Feedback Feedback asks the primarily primarily evaluative primarily tells the student what to do to motivational student how to correct move their reasoning their reasoning. to the next level. Purpose: to Purpose: to measure Purpose: to improve Purpose: to improve encourage and student achievement learning by indicating learning, by moving support the learner with a score or a to the student what student reasoning to grade needs to be improved the next level More Summative More Formative Description of Assessment: Student Feedback Summary School: Date: Teacher: Grade Level: _______Sp.Ed _______Reg.Ed Student Descriptive Feedback to Student Summary of Instructional Decisions Name: (Frame with language to students that challenges them to (How much re-teaching is needed? What follow-up is needed? Do my revise, redo, relearn, or expand.) lesson plans need to be revised?) Successes Teacher Student Conversations around Increased achievement student work Ability to clear up Identify different student misconceptions on second strategies attempts, without re- Increased understanding of teaching/intervention formative assessment Self-reflection on ways to Instructional decisions improve their work based on identified Increased involvement in misconceptions and self-assessment challenges Descriptive Feedback can save on re-teaching time Challenges Teacher Student Buy-In Interpretation of the Time commitment feedback Record-keeping Looking for a grade Grading Lack of motivation Redundancy The Learning Team Continuum Past Present Future Resources Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139-148. Brookhart, S.M., (2007). Feedback That Fits. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 54-59. Stiggins, R.J., Arter, J., Chappuis, J., & Chappuis, S. (2005). Assessment FOR Learning: An Action Guide for School Leaders. Portland, OR: Assessment Training Institute. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
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