1_attitude_instrument_flying by xiangpeng

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									                             Teaching and Learning Flying - Airplane Instrument Rating

                                          Attitude Instrument Flying


DEFINITION

Attitude instrument flying (AIF) may be defined as the control of an aircraft's spatial position by using the flight instruments
rather than outside visual references.


SAFETY FACTORS

Proper interpretation of flight instruments yields essentially the same information about the aircraft's spatial orientation as outside
visual references. Safe, precise, proficient performance of any instrument flight maneuver depends fundamentally on mastery of
basic AIF. Competence in AIF flying not only makes possible safe, precise flight in IMC, but also enhances the safety and
accuracy of VFR flight. Thorough understanding of the operation and use of all the flight instruments plus regular practice leads
to prompt recognition of instrument failure and transition to safe partial panel attitude instrument flight.


TOLERANCES

Instrument Rating PTS (FAA-S-8081-4D)
IV. A. To determine that the applicant can perform basic flight maneuvers
        1. Exhibits adequate knowledge of the elements related to attitude instrument flying during straight-and-level, climbs,
        turns and descents while conducting various instrument procedures.
        2. Maintains altitude within +/- 100 feet during level flight, headings within +/- 10°, airspeed within +/- 10 knots,
        and bank angles within +/- 5° during turns.
        3. Uses proper instrument crosscheck and interpretation, and applies the appropriate pitch, bank and trim corrections
        when applicable.


OBJECTIVES

To encourage mastery of AIF to increase pilot proficiency and enhance the safety of flight
To develop the student's knowledge and skill in AIF to meet instrument pilot PTS


PROCEDURES

Preflight

       Instruments more precise than visual references
       Two basic methods

                 Control and performance

                 Primary and
supporting
Pitch instruments

        attitude indicator (AI)
        altimeter (ALT)
        airspeed indicator (ASI)
        vertical speed indicator (VSI)

Bank instruments

        attitude indicator (AI)
        heading indicator (HI)
        magnetic compass (MC)
        turn coordinator (TC)

Power instruments

        airspeed indicator (ASI)
        engine instruments

                manifold pressure gauge (MP)
                tachometer (RPM)

For any maneuver or flight condition

        Primary instruments

                One in each group (pitch, bank, power)
                Provide most pertinent and essential information
                Indication stable with correct flight (shows greatest change with improper aircraft control)
                  Secondary instruments

                           Back up and supplement primary instruments

   Fundamental skills
       o Cross-check

                  Continuous, logical observation of instruments for attitude and performance information




                  Proficient pilot adjusts scan rate and sequence to specific flight situation
                  Common errors

                           Fixation
                           Omission
                           Emphasis

                           o         Interpretation

                  Applied knowledge of

                           instrument construction and operating principles
                           aircraft performance capabilities (POH)

                  Learn what performance to expect and combination of instruments to interpret for each flight condition

                  o        Control

                  Four components

                           Pitch
                           Bank
                           Power
                           Trim

                  Common error - Tension - use relaxed touch

   The Three Step Scan (Rod Machado)
o           Select attitude and power. Trim and confirm.

                    Know and use predetermined attitudes and power settings for basic flight conditions
                    Confirm proper attitude indicator response to control input

                             Turn triangle of agreement

                                  1. attitude indicator
                                  2. turn coordinator
                                  3. magnetic compass

                             Pitch triangle of agreement

                                 4. attitude indicator
                                 5. vertical speed indicator
                                 6. alternate static system (activate to resolve disagreement)
       o    Radial scan the primary instruments.

                    Start at and alternate back to the attitude indicator

                    o        Trim using the VSI and monitor scan the Big 6

                    Trim rudder
                    Trim elevator for constant VSI in SLF or constant rate climb or descent
                    Scan the six flight instruments and repeat


   SLF

                                SLF
                         Pitch      Bank Power
            Primary ALT HI           ASI
            Secondary AI, VSI AI, TC MP, RPM

       
o   Turns

            Turn, constant airspeed - Full panel
                          Pitch      Bank Power
            Primary       ALT        TC      ASI
            Secondary AI, VSI AI             MP, RPM

       o
o   Change of airpseed

                 Airspeed change in SLF - Full panel
                                Pitch      Bank Power
                    Primary ALT            HI        MP(RPM) -> ASI
                    Secondary AI, VSI AI, TC ASI -> MP(RPM)

               o


                        Airspeed change in turn - Full panel
                                Pitch      Bank Power
                    Primary ALT            TC       MP(RPM) -> ASI
                    Secondary AI, VSI AI            ASI -> MP(RPM)

               o
    o      Constant airspeed climbs and descents

                    Climb (or descent), straight, constant airspeed
                                     Full panel
                                   Pitch            Bank      Power
                    Primary        AI -> ASI        HI     MP(RPM)
                    Secondary      AI, VSI          AI, TC -> ASI

               o
    o      Constant rate climbs and descents

                    Climb (or descent), straight, constant rate
                                   Full panel
                                   Pitch Bank           Power
                    Primary        VSI         HI       ASI
                    Secondary      AI          AI, TC   MP(RPM)

               o

Inflight

          Demonstrate while desribing instrument scan
          Coach student practice (actual or simulated IMC)
              o SLF
              o Turns
              o Change of airpseed
              o Constant airspeed climbs and descents
              o Constant rate climbs and descents

Postflight
        Critique student performance
COMMON ERRORS

       Fixation, omission, emphasis during cross-check
       Overcontrolling

                Smooth, gently control pressures
                Use two step corrections

                   1. Just enough control pressure to stop needle movement
                   2. A bit more to start smooth correction
       Uncoordinated use of controls

                Keep the ball centered

       Improper trim control

                Trim to relieve control pressures
                Small, frequent adjustments


References
       14 CFR parts 61, 91
       AIM
       Instrument Flying Handbook, FAA-H-8083-15, 1999
       Instrument Rating PTS, FAA-S-8081-4D, April 2004
       Instrument Instructor PTS, FAA-S-8081-9B, June 2001
       The Instrument Flight Manual, Sixth Edition William K. Kershner
       Mastering Instrument Flying, Third Edition Henry Sollman and Sherwood Harris
       Intrument Flight Maneuvers and Practical Test Prep, 4th Edition Irvin N. Gleim
       Rod Machado's Instrument Pilot's Survival Manual, 2nd Edition Rod Machado

								
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