A Guide to Project Management

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					A Guide to Project
Management
6 Basic Principles to
Project Management
• Define the job in detail
• Get the right people involved
• Estimate the time and costs
• Break the job down using the
  40-hour rule
• Establish a change procedure
• Agree on acceptance criteria
Project Management
Framework



• Introduction
• Project Management Context
• Project Management Process
Introduction

• What is a Project?
• What is Project Management?
• Relationship to Other
  Management Disciplines
• Related Endeavors
What is a Project?



• Performed by people
• Constrained by limited
  resources
• Planned, executed and
  controlled
What is Project
Management?
• Competing demands for:
  •   Scope
  •   Time
  •   Cost
  •   Risk
  •   Quality
• Stakeholders with differing needs
  and expectations
• Identified requirements
Relationship to Other
Management Disciplines


• Functional departments and
  supporting disciplines
• Technical elements
• Management specializations
• Industry groups
Related Endeavors




• Programs
• Project portfolio management
• Subprojects
Project Management
Context
• Project Phases and the Project
  Life Cycle
• Project Stakeholders
• Organizational Influences
• Key General Management Skills
• Social-Economic-Environmental
  Influences
Project Management
Processes
• Project Processes
• Process Groups
• Process Interaction
• Customizing Process
  Interactions
• Mapping of Project Management
  Processes
      Mapping of Project
      Management Process
Process Group          Initiating            Planning                      Executing                 Controlling              Closing
Knowledge Area

Project Scope                       •Project Plan Development       •Project Plan Execution     •Integrated Change
Management                                                                                      Control


Project Scope         •Initiation   •Scope Planning                                             •Scope Verification
Management                          •Scope Definition                                           •Scope Change
                                                                                                Control

Project Time                        •Activity Definition                                        •Schedule Control
Management                          •Activity Sequencing
                                    •Activity Duration Estimating
                                    •Schedule Development

Project Cost                        •Resource Planning                                          •Cost Control
Management                          •Cost Estimating
                                    •Cost Budgeting

Project Quality                     •Quality Planning               •Quality Assurance          •Quality Control
Management


Project Human                       •Organizational Planning        •Team Development
Resource Management                 •Staff Acquisition

Project                             •Communications Planning        •Information Distribution   •Performance           •Administrative
Communications                                                                                  Reporting              Closure
Management

Risk Project                        •Risk Management Planning                                   •Risk Monitoring and
Management                          •Risk Identification                                        Control
                                    •Qualitative Risk Analysis
                                    •Quantitative Risk Analysis
                                    •Risk Response Planning

Project Procurement                 •Procurement Planning           •Solicitation                                      •Contract Closeout
Management                          •Solicitation Planning          •Source Selection
                                                                    •Contract Administration
Project Management
Knowledge Areas
•   Project   Integration Management
•   Project   Scope Management
•   Project   Time Management
•   Project   Cost Management
•   Project   Quality Management
•   Project   Human Resource Management
•   Project   Communications Management
•   Project   Risk Management
•   Project   Procurement Management
Project Integration
Management



• Project Plan Development
• Project Plan Execution
• Integrated Change Control
Project Plan
Development
• Inputs                         • Tools and Techniques
   •   Other planning outputs      • Project planning
   •   Historical information        methodology
   •   Organizational policies     • Stakeholders skills
   •   Constraints                   and knowledge
   •   Assumptions                 • Project management
                                     information systems
                                     (PMIS)
                                   • Earned value
                                     management (EVM)
                                 • Outputs
                                   • Project plan(s)
                                   • Supporting detail
Project Plan Execution
•   Inputs                        •   Tools and Techniques
    •   Project plan                  • General management
    •   Supporting detail               skills
    •   Organizational policies       • Product skills and
    •   Preventive action               knowledge
    •   Corrective action             • Work authorization
                                        system
                                      • Status review meetings
                                      • Project management
                                        information system
                                      • Organizational
                                        procedures
                                  •   Outputs
                                      • Work results
                                      • Change requests
Integrated Change
Control
• Inputs                   • Tools and Techniques
   • Project plan            • Change control system
   • Performance reports     • Configuration
   • Change requests           management
                             • Performance
                               measurement
                             • Additional planning
                             • Project management
                               information system
                           • Output
                             • Project plan updates
                             • Corrective action
                             • Lessons learned
Project Scope
Management


•   Scope   Initiation
•   Scope   Planning
•   Scope   Definition
•   Scope   Verification
•   Scope   Change Control
Scope Initiation
• Inputs                  • Tools and
  • Product description     Techniques
  • Strategic plan          • Project selection
  • Project selection         methods
    criteria                • Expert judgement
                          • Outputs
                            • Project charter
                            • Project manager
                              identified/assigned
                            • Constraints
                            • Assumptions
Scope Planning
• Inputs                    • Tools and
  •   Product description     Techniques
  •   Project charter         • Product analysis
  •   Constraints             • Benefit/cost
  •   Assumptions               analysis
                              • Alternatives
                                identification
                              • Expert judgement
                            • Outputs
                              • Scope statement
                              • Supporting detail
                              • Scope management
                                plan
Scope Definition
• Inputs              • Tools and
  • Scope statement     Techniques
  • Constraints         • Work breakdown
  • Assumptions           structure
  • Other planning      • Decomposition
    outputs           • Outputs
  • Historical          • Work breakdown
    information           structure
                        • Scope statement
                          updates
Scope Verification

• Inputs              • Tools and
  • Work results        Techniques
  • Product             • Inspection
    documentation     • Outputs
  • Work breakdown      • Formal
    structure             acceptance
  • Scope statement
  • Project plan
Scope Change Control
• Inputs                  • Tools and
  • Work breakdown          Techniques
    structure               • Scope change
  • Performance reports       control system
  • Change requests         • Performance
  • Scope management          measurement
    plan                    • Additional planning
                          • Outputs
                            •   Scope changes
                            •   Corrective action
                            •   Lessons learned
                            •   Adjusted baseline
Project Time
Management


•   Activity Definition
•   Activity Sequencing
•   Activity Duration Estimating
•   Schedule Development
•   Schedule Control
Activity Definition
• Inputs              • Tools and
  • Work breakdown      Techniques
    structure           • Decomposition
  • Scope statement     • Templates
  • Historical        • Outputs
    information
                        • Activity list
  • Constraints
                        • Supporting detail
  • Assumptions
                        • Work breakdown
  • Expert                structure
    judgement             updates
Activity Sequencing
• Inputs                     • Tools and Techniques
   • Activity list             • Precedence
   • Product description         diagramming methods
   • Mandatory                   (PDM)
     dependencies              • Arrow diagramming
   • Discretionary               method (ADM)
     dependencies              • Conditional
   • External dependencies       diagramming methods
   • Milestones                • Network templates
                             • Outputs
                               • Project network
                                 diagram
                               • Activity list updates
Activity Duration
Estimating
• Inputs                      • Tools and Techniques
   • Activity list              • Expert judgement
   • Constraints                • Analogous estimating
   • Assumptions                • Quantitatively based
   • Resource                     durations
     requirements               • Reserve time
   • Resource capabilities        (contingency)
   • Historical information   • Outputs
   • Identified risks           • Activity duration
                                  estimates
                                • Basis of estimates
                                • Activity list updates
Schedule Development
•   Inputs                       •   Tools and Techniques
    • Project network diagrams       • Mathematical analysis
    • Activity duration              • Duration compression
      estimates                      • Simulation
    • Resource requirements          • Resource leveling
    • Resource pool                    heuristics
      description                    • Project management
    • Calendars                        software
    • Constraints                    • Coding structure
    • Assumptions                •   Outputs
    • Leads and lags                 • Project schedule
    • Risk management plan           • Supporting detail
    • Activity attributes            • Schedule management
                                       plan
                                     • Resource requirements
                                       updates
Schedule Control
• Inputs                     • Tools and Techniques
   •   Project schedule        • Schedule change
   •   Performance reports       control system
   •   Change requests         • Performance
   •   Schedule management       measurement
       plan                    • Additional planning
                               • Project management
                                 software
                               • Variance Analysis
                             • Outputs
                               • Schedule updates
                               • Corrective action
                               • Lessons learned
Project Cost
Management



•   Resource Planning
•   Cost Estimating
•   Cost Budgeting
•   Cost Control
Resource Planning
• Inputs                • Tools and
  • Work breakdown        Techniques
    structure             • Expert judgement
  • Historical            • Alternatives
    information             identification
  • Scope statement       • Project
  • Resource pool           management
    description             software
  • Organization        • Outputs
    policies              • Resource
  • Activity duration       requirements
    estimates
Cost Estimating
• Inputs                      • Tools and Techniques
   • Work breakdown             •   Analogous estimating
     structure                  •   Parametric modeling
   • Resource                   •   Bottom-up estimating
     requirements               •   Computerized tools
   • Resource rates             •   Other cost estimating
   • Activity duration              methods
     estimates
                              • Outputs
   • Estimating
     publications               • Cost estimates
   • Historical information     • Supporting detail
   • Chart of accounts          • Cost management plan
   • Risks
Cost Budgeting

• Inputs               • Tools and
  • Cost estimates       Techniques
  • Work breakdown       • Cost budgeting
    structure              tools and
  • Project schedule       techniques
  • Risk               • Outputs
    management           • Cost baseline
    plan
Cost Control
•   Inputs                     •   Tools and Techniques
    •   Cost baseline              • Cost change control
    •   Performance reports          system
    •   Change requests            • Performance
    •   Cost management plan         measurement
                                   • Earned value
                                     management (EVM)
                                   • Additional planning
                                   • Computerized tools
                               •   Outputs
                                   •   Revised cost estimates
                                   •   Budget updates
                                   •   Corrective action
                                   •   Estimate at completion
                                   •   Project closeout
                                   •   Lessons learned
Project Quality
Management



• Quality Planning
• Quality Assurance
• Quality Control
Quality Planning
• Inputs                     • Tools and Techniques
   • Quality policy            •   Benefit/cost analysis
   • Scope statement           •   Benchmarking
   • Product description       •   Flow-charting
   • Standards and             •   Design of experiments
     regulations               •   Cost of quality
   • Other process outputs   • Outputs
                               • Quality management
                                 plan
                               • Operational definitions
                               • Checklists
                               • Inputs to other
                                 processes
Quality Assurance

• Inputs              • Tools and
  • Quality             Techniques
    management          • Quality planning
    plan                  tools and
  • Results of            techniques
    quality control     • Quality audits
    measurements
                      • Outputs
  • Operations
                        • Quality
    definitions
                          improvement
Quality Control
• In puts                      • Tools and Techniques
   • Work results                •   Inspection
   • Quality management          •   Control charts
     plan                        •   Pareto Diagrams
   • Operational definitions     •   Statistical sampling
   • Checklists                  •   Flow-charting
                                 •   Trend analysis
                               • Outputs
                                 •   Quality improvements
                                 •   Acceptance decisions
                                 •   Rework
                                 •   Completed checklists
                                 •   Process adjustments
Project Human
Resource Management




• Organizational Planning
• Staff Acquisition
• Team Development
Organizational Planning
• Inputs                     • Tools and Techniques
   • Project interfaces        • Templates
   • Staffing requirements     • Human resource
   • Constraints                 practices
                               • Organizational theory
                               • Stakeholder analysis
                             • Outputs
                               • Role and
                                 responsibilities
                                 assignments
                               • Staffing management
                                 plan
                               • Organization chart
                               • Supporting detail
Staff Acquisition
• Inputs            • Tools and
  • Staffing          Techniques
    management        • Negotiations
    plan              • Pre-assignment
  • Staffing pool     • Procurement
    description
  • Recruitment     • Outputs
    practices         • Project staff
                        assigned
                      • Project team
                        directory
Team Development
• Inputs                   • Tools and Techniques
   • Project staff           • Team-building
   • Project plan              activities
   • Staffing management     • General management
     plan                      skills
   • Performance reports     • Reward and
   • External feedback         recognition systems
                             • Collocation
                             • Training
                           • Outputs
                             • Performance
                               improvements
                             • Input to performance
                               appraisals
Project Communications
Management


•   Communications Planning
•   Information Distribution
•   Performance Reporting
•   Administrative Closure
Communications
Planning
• Inputs             • Tools and
  • Communications     Techniques
    requirements       • Stakeholder
  • Communications       analysis
    technology       • Outputs
  • Constraints        • Communications
  • Assumptions          management
                         plan
Information Distribution
• Inputs              • Tools and
  • Work results        Techniques
  • Communications      • Communications
    management plan       skills
  • Project plan        • Information retrieval
                          systems
                        • Information
                          distribution methods
                      • Outputs
                        • Project records
                        • Project reports
                        • Project
                          presentations
Performance Reporting
• Inputs                     • Tools and Techniques
   • Project plan              •   Performance reviews
   • Work results              •   Variance analysis
   • Other project records     •   Trend analysis
                               •   Earned value analysis
                               •   Information
                                   distribution tools and
                                   techniques
                             • Outputs
                               • Performance reports
                               • Change requests
Administrative Closure
• Inputs            • Tools and
  • Performance       Techniques
    measurement       • Performance
    documentation       reporting tools and
  • Product             techniques
    documentation     • Project reports
  • Other project     • Project
    records             presentations
                    • Outputs
                      • Project archives
                      • Project closure
                      • Lessons learned
Project Risk
Management

•   Risk Management Planning
•   Risk Identification
•   Qualitative Risk Analysis
•   Quantitative Risk Analysis
•   Risk Response Planning
•   Risk Monitoring and Control
Risk Management
Planning
• Inputs                  • Tools and
  • Project charter         Techniques
  • Organization’s risk     • Planning meeting
    management            • Outputs
    policies
                            • Risk management
  • Defined roles and
                              plan
    responsibilities
  • Template for the
    organization’s risk
    management plan
  • Work breakdown
    structure
Risk Identification
• Tools                      • Tools and techniques
  • Risk management plan        • Documentation review
  • Project planning            • Information-gathering
    outputs                       techniques
  • Risk categories             • Checklists
  • Historical information      • Assumptions analysis
                                • Diagramming
                                  techniques
                             • Outputs
                                • Risks
                                • Triggers
                                • Inputs to other
                                  processes
Qualitative Risk
Analysis
•   Inputs                        •   Tools and Techniques
    • Risk management plan            • Risk probability and
    • Identified risks                  impact
    • Project status                  • Probability/impact risk
    • Project type                      rating matrix
    • Data precision                  • Project assumptions
                                        testing
    • Scales of probability and       • Data precision ranking
      impact
    • Assumptions                 • Outputs
                                      • Overall risk ranking for
                                        the project
                                      • List of prioritized risks
                                      • List of risk for additional
                                        analysis and
                                        management
                                      • Trends in qualitative risk
                                        analysis results
Quantitative Risk
Analysis
• Inputs                         • Tools and Techniques
   • Risk management plan          •   Interviewing
   • Identified risks              •   Sensitivity analysis
   • List of prioritized risks     •   Decision tree analysis
   • List of risks for             •   Simulation
     additional analysis and     • Outputs
     management
                                   • Prioritized list of
   • Historical information          quantified risks
   • Expert judgement              • Probabilistic analysis
   • Other planning outputs          of the project
                                   • Probability of
                                     achieving the cost and
                                     time objectives
                                   • Trends in quantitative
                                     risk analysis results
Risk Response Planning
•   Inputs                              •   Tools and Techniques
     • Risk management plan                  • Avoidance
     • List of prioritized risks             • Transference
     • Risk ranking of the project
                                             • Mitigation
     • Prioritized list of quantified
        risks                                • Acceptance
     • Probabilistic analysis of the    •   Outputs
        project                              • Risk response plan
     • Probability of achieving the
        cost and time objectives             • Residual risks
     • List of potential responses           • Secondary risks
     • Risk thresholds                       • Contractual agreements
     • Risk owners                           • Contingency reserve
     • Common risk causes                      amounts needed
     • Trends in qualitative and             • Inputs to other processes
        quantitative risk analysis
        results                              • Inputs to a revised
                                               project plan
Risk Monitoring and
Control
•   Inputs                    •   Tools and Techniques
     • Risk management plan       •   Project risk response audits
                                  •   Periodic project risk reviews
     • Risk response plan         •   Earned value analysis
     • Project                    •   Technical performance
       communication                  measurement
                                  •   Additional risk response
     • Additional risk                planning
       identification and     •   Outputs
       analysis                   •   Workaround plans
     • Scope changes              •   Corrective action
                                  •   Project change requests
                                  •   Updates to the risk response
                                      plan
                                  •   Risk Database
                                  •   Updates to risk identification
                                      checklists
Project Procurement
Management
•   Procurement Planning
•   Solicitation Planning
•   Solicitation
•   Source Selection
•   Contract Administration
•   Contract Closeout
Procurement Planning
• Inputs                  • Tools and
  • Scope statement         Techniques
  • Product description     • Make-or-buy
  • Procurement               analysis Expert
    resources                 judgement
  • Market conditions       • Contract type
                              selection
  • Other planning
    outputs               • Outputs
  • Constraints             • Procurement
  • Assumptions               management plan
                            • Statement(s) of
                              work
Solicitation Planning
• Inputs              • Tools and
  • Procurement         Techniques
    management plan     • Standard forms
  • Statement(s) of     • Expert judgement
    work
                      • Outputs
  • Other planning
    outputs             • Procurement
                          documents
                        • Evaluation criteria
                        • Statement of work
                          updates
Solicitation

• Inputs               • Tools and
  • Procurement          Techniques
    documents            • Bidder
  • Qualified seller       conferences
    lists                • Advertising
                       • Outputs
                         • Proposals
Source Selection
• Inputs                  • Tools and
  • Proposals               Techniques
  • Evaluation criteria     •   Contract negotiation
  • Organizational          •   Weighting system
    policies                •   Screening system
                            •   Independent
                                estimates
                          • Outputs
                            • Contract
Contract Administration
• Inputs                • Tools and
  •   Contract            Techniques
  •   Work results        • Contract change
  •   Change requests       control system
  •   Seller invoices     • Performance
                            reporting
                          • Payment system
                        • Outputs
                          • Correspondence
                          • Contract changes
                          • Payment requests
Contract Closeout

• Inputs            • Tools and
  • Contract          Techniques
    documentation     • Procurement
                        audits
                    • Outputs
                      • Contract file
                      • Formal
                        acceptance and
                        closure