Herbal medicine in aquaculture by Perendale

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With the continued expansion of cultured fish and shellfish species, aquaculture has become a key component of the animal health industry. Aquaculture is the fastest growing industry around the world with around 80 million tones produced annually.

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									                                           March | April 2011
         Feature title: Herbal medicine in aquaculture

          International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
          All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
          the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of
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          ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form
          or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058




The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
 F: Herbal medicine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         F: Herbal medicine
                                                                                                                                                     shrimp industry suffered major outbreaks in               world’s tools for combating it decrease in       naturopathy and herbal medicine are more
                                                                                                                                                     South East Asia and South America due to                  power and number.”                               and more acknowledged.


 Herbal medicine in aquaculture
                                                                                                                                                     poor management, as well as, uncontrolled                     Diseases and pathogens are part of              Different medicinal plants and herbs and/
                                                                                                                                                     use of antibiotics resulting in resistance                every intensive culture.                         or combinations of them known to have
                                                                                                                                                     developed by pathogens.                                       In aquaculture ‘natural mortality’ of        properties such as anti-bactria, anti-fungal,
                                                                                                                                                          Recently, the Chilean salmon industry                10-25 percent is considered to be normal         physiological systems (immune system,
                                                                                                                                                     suffered (and still does) a devastated out-               in grow-out systems.                             digestive system,) supporting, hormonal
                                                                                                                                                     break of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA)                      Marine finfish larvae (such as sea bream,    balancing and many other properties.
                                                                                                                                                     virus that cause loss of hundred of mil-                  sea bass, yellowtail kingfish, etc) survival        Strategies for prophylaxis and control
                                                                                                                                                     lions of dollars. This outbreak followed                  in intensive hatcheries is 5-15 percent          of WSSV include improvement of envi-
                                                                                                                                                     another outbreak during 2008-09 of sea                    (Kolkovski, personal comment). These low         ronmental conditions, stocking of specific
                                                                                                                                                     lice that again resulted in major losses to               survival rates are usually the result of         pathogen free (SPF) shrimp post-larvae and




W
                                                                                                                                                     the industry. These outbreaks drove the                   combined factors such as, environmental          enhancement of disease resistance by using
                ith    the    contin-                growing rapidly, disease prevention           resistant bacterial pieces of DNA from            authorities to review and revise the use of               conditions, non-specific pathogens, larvae       immuno-stimulants.
                ued expansion of                     and treatment practices are far from          fish hatcheries into E. coli and Aeromonas        chamotherapeutics in this industry.                       susceptibility and low immune system                Immuno stimulants are substances,
                cultured fish and                    standardized or regulated                     species isolated from patients in hospitals            In India, Marine Product Export                      development.                                     which enhance the non-specific defense
                shellfish    species,              • When antibiotics are used in aquac-           (Rhodes et al. 2000). They concluded that,        Development Authority (MPEDA) has                             In fact, this situation is true to most      mechanism and provide resistance against
aquaculture has become a key com-                    ulture, the drugs typically remain in         “Collectively, these findings provide evi-        instructed the hatcheries operators and farm-             marine and fresh water organisms reared in       pathogenic organisms (Citarasu et al., 2006).
ponent of the animal health industry.                the open environment and may flow             dence to support the hypothesis that the          ers not to use antibiotics such as chloram-               intensive systems.                                  There are many scientific publications
Aquaculture is the fastest growing                   out of production facilities into open        aquaculture and human compartments of             phenicol, nitrofurans and all their derivatives,              In many cases, and although banned in        looking at different mechanisms and ways to
industry around the world with                       waterways or sewage systems, where            the environment behave as a single interac-       as well as many other antibiotic groups.                  most countries, to combat this problem,          enhance the specific and non-specific immune
around 80 million tones produced                     they may also interact with other             tive compartment.” (Rhodes et al. 2000)                However, sulfadimethoxine, sulfabro-                 antibiotics are used as growth promoters         systems in fish and crustaceans. Many plant-
annually.                                            environmental contaminants                        The FAO estimated that nearly 170kg           momethazine and sulfaethoxyrpyiadine,                     and/or specifically against bacteria infection   derived compounds have been found to have
                                                   • The antibiotics typically used are also       of antibiotics are applied per hectare of         floroquinolones and glycopeptides, which                  (Hernández Serrano, 2005). For example, in       non-specific immuno-stimulating effects in
    “In the decade to 2015, world aquac-             important in treating human disease           salmon harvested in the USA and since             are presently used in hatcheries and farms,               many hatcheries, fish juveniles are supple-      animals, of which more than a dozen have
ulture production will at least double, an           and infection                                 cages are placed in natural seawaters, antibi-    are still approved for use in aquaculture                 mented with antibiotics several days prior       been evaluated in fish and shrimp (Citarasu
average annual growth rate of not less             Impacts of all these factors on the             otics and the resultant resistant bacteria are    (Sanandakumar, 2002).                                     and few days after transferred to sea cages.     et al. 2002, 2006, Sakai, 1999).
than 7.0 percent per annum, and poten-               emergence of antibiotic resistance are        in contact with the environment.                       Considering the overall misuse of                                                                        Many herbs and plants have been used
tially much more.” (as quoted by State One           unknown, however, we do know the                  Some countries, such as Norway, utilise       antibiotics in all areas - human medicine,                Alternative therapy                              for millennia as home remedies in many
Stockbroking Ltd in June 2007).                      following:                                    natural structures like fjords for salmon         veterinary medicine, animal production and                    Low immune system and responses may          cultures around the world for both human
                                                   • Studies demonstrate an increase in            farming and for this reason there are con-        plant protection – FAO, in 2005, pub-                     result in very high mortalities due to spe-      and animals. Some of these remedies have
Antibiotics in aquaculture                           resistant bacteria in the intestines of       cerns about the wastes that collect in fjord      lished ‘The responsible use of antibiotics                cific pathogens that antibiotics are helpless    potent anti-viral as well as anti-bacterial and
    Due to the intensification of rearing            fish receiving antibiotic drugs (ASM,         bottoms (FAO/NACA/WHO, 1997).                     in aquaculture’ to raise awareness of the                 against. For example, White Spot Syndrome        anti-fungal properties.
methods and systems, diseases and patho-             1994 citing Ervik, 1994; Frost and                All drugs legally used in aquaculture must    antibiotic resistance problem in fish farming             Virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastat-           These natural plant products have been
gens have been an integral part and formi-           Thwaites, 1998; Threlfall et al., 2000;       be approved by the designated authorities         and related sectors.                                      ing viruses in the shrimp industry. It has       reported to have various properties such
dable obstacle to the aquaculture industry           Tollefson, L. 2000)                           (FDA’s Centre for Veterinary Medicine in               The document focuses on antibiotics                  caused the collapse of the shrimp industry       as anti-stress, growth promoters, appetisers,
worldwide.                                         • Studies indicate the level of resistant       the US, APMVA in Australia).                      misuse and the concomitant threat of                      in many countries both in South America          tonic and immuno-stimulants.
    Moreover, antibiotic resistance has              bacteria in the gut of wild fish is               The most common route of delivery of          resistance development, which is a seen as                and South East Asia (FAO, 2006).                    Moreover, these substances also possess
become a major issue affecting the aquac-            affected during antibiotic treatment of       these legal antibiotics to fish occurs through    a public health concern affecting the popula-                 Phytotherapy such as the use of              other valuable properties; they are non-
ulture industry.                                     farmed fish (ASM, 1994 citing Ervik,          mixing with specially formulated feed.            tion worldwide.                                           herbal extracts in herbal medicine for           toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. No
    As early as 1994 it was being reported           1994)                                             However, fish do not effectively metabo-           In its opening statement the authors                 humans is known for thousands of years.          herbal-resistance immunity has been found
by the American Society of Microbiology            • A total of 74-100 percent of wild             lise antibiotics and will pass them largely       stated that, “Antibiotic resistance as a phe-             In some countries such as China, India,          by any pathogen to date.
Task Force on Antibiotic Resistance (ASM)            fish in close proximity to treated            unused back into the environment in the           nomenon is, in itself, not surprising. Nor is it          SEA and some countries in South and                 Although the properties of herbs and
that, “the increasing problems associated            ponds contained quinolone resi-               faeces. It has been estimated that 75 per-        new. It is however, newly worrying because                Central America phytotherapy considered          plants are well known, documented, and in
with infectious diseases in fish, the limited        dues – a group of antibiotics (for            cent of the antibiotics fed to fish are           it is accumulating and accelerating, while the            mainstream while in Western medicine,            use in human herbal medicine around the
number of drugs available for treatment and          example, CIPRO) important in human            then put into the water through excretion                                                                                                                    world, currently very few commercial remedy
prevention of these diseases, and the rapid          health (ASM, 1994 citing Ervik, 1994;         (Goldburg and Triplett 1997).
                                                     Hernández Serrano, 2005)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 N
increase in resistance to these antibiotics                                                            Since 2006, the EU has banned com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aq Me
represent major challenges for this source         • Prior to medication 0.6-1 percent of          pletely the use of antibiotics as growth                                                                                                                                                         ua et
of food production worldwide.”                       the fecal bacteria in wild fish were          promoters in aquaculture (as well as             Better Performance                                                                                                                                cu us
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ltr a
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                                                                                                                                                                     Nutrattract - natural feed attractant                                                                                                   Na o
    Currently, almost every section in the           resistant to oxacillin and oxytetracy-        any other domestic animal). Banning and                                                                                                                                                                     ta rld
aquaculture industry from fish, crustaceans          cline, respectively (ASM, 1994 citing         rejection of seafood imported to US and               Better Fecundity                                                                                                                                        lB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ra
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             T
                                                                                                                                                                         Nutrafeed - Crustacean semi-moist maturation diet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Nutra-Kol Pty Ltd                o
and shellfish is using some sort of chemo-           Ervik, 1994)                                  EU countries due to antibiotic and other
therapeotic agents including antibiotics and                                                       chemotherapeutics residues are almost a                      Better stress resistance                                                                                         Western Australia, Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             co
many other chemicals.                             Significant progress                             daily occurrence and yet, currently, there                                    Nutragreen - natural herbal remedies                                                                  Tel: +61 8 9403 2287
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fax: +61 8 9403 2287
    The ASM antibiotic resistance task force
report targets aquaculture as representing
                                                     European researchers have made signifi-
                                                  cant progress in understanding the mecha-
                                                                                                   is no alternative solution to antibiotics and
                                                                                                   other chemotherapeutics.                                                                       Naturally...                                                                    Email: info@nutrakol.com
“one of the biggest concerns.”                    nisms through which antibiotic resistant
    Both the task force and the FAO (2005)        bacteria that emerge on fish farms can           Diseases and aquaculture                                  ‘Tailor--made’ Nutrition and natural health solutions for broodstock and larvae
made several points regarding the use of          move to humans.                                     During the past decade, several out-
antibiotics:                                         A team of British and Irish scientists        breaks of diseases devastated the aquacul-
  • Although aquaculture production is            documented the distinct movement of              ture industry around the world. The global
                                                                                                                                                    NutroKol_190x58mm.indd 1                                                                                                                      16/02/2011 11:38

                                                 28 InternatIonal AquAFeed March-april 2011
                                                28 | |InternatIonal AquAFeed | |March-april 2011                                                                                                             March-april 2011 InternatIonal AquAFeed 29
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F: Herbal medicine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            F: Herbal medicine
                                                                                                                                                        and nutritional boosters used (Kolkovski et        tions. Legislation regarding the addition of         now banned for use in the EU, USA and
                                               Table 1: The use of herbal extracts in shrimp boodstock diets
                                                                                                                                                        al., 2010).                                        herbal extracts, as feed additives need to be        many other countries.
                                                 Botanical                                                          Biological effect in
                                                                    Family         Distribution     Useful parts                         Reference                                                         reviewed and allowed.                                    Natural plant products present a
                                                  name                                                                 aquaculture
                                                                                                                                                        Issues                                                                                                  viable alternative to antibiotics and other
                                                                                                                                                            Although herbal remedies have been in          Conclusion                                           banned drugs being safer for the reared
                                               Cinnamonum                            India, Sri                     Endocrine system,      Punitha,     us for human therapy for millennia, there             The development of drug-resistant                 organism and humans, as well as, the
                                                                  Lauraceae                              Bark
                                                zeylanicum                             Lanka                        Growth promoter         2003
                                                                                                                                                        has been relatively little research into the       pathogens has been reported from all areas           environment.
                                                                                                                                                        use of medicinal plants in aquaculture.            of aquaculture. Treating microbial infections            Authorities should review the current
                                                 Elettaria                        India, Burma,       Dried ripe    Endocrine system,      Punitha,
                                                                Scitaminaceae                                                                               Standardisation is an issue when whole         in fish and crustaceans involves dissolving          legislation regarding the use of herbal and
                                               cardomomum                           Sri Lanka           seeds       Growth promoter         2003
                                                                                                                                                        plant or herb is use during the extrac-            high quantities of broad-spectrum chemo-             natural remedies in aquaculture taking the
                                                                                                      Fruits and                                        tion process. Moreover, in many countries          therapeutic agents in the culture medium             above issues into consideration and allow-
                                                 Eugenia                             India, Sri                     Endocrine system,      Punitha,
                                                                  Myrtaceae                          dried flower                                       including the EU, US and Australia, the same       or supplying it in the food.                         ing more flexibility in the use of herbal
                                               caryophyllata                           Lanka                        Growth promoter         2003
                                                                                                         buds                                           herbals extracts approved for use in human            Most of these antibiotics and drugs are           medicine in aquaculture.
                                                                                  India, Burma,                                                         naturopathy and herbal medicine are treated
                                                                                                     Flowe buds,
                                                   Mesua                            Andaman,                        Endocrine system,      Punitha,     as drugs when used in aquaculture, forcing the
                                                                  Guttiferae                          seeds and
                                                   ferrea                            Nicobar                        Growth promoter         2003
                                                                                      Islands
                                                                                                         bark                                           registration of herbal remedies, a process that      Authors                                              Company products
                                                                                                                                                        cost hundreds of thousands or even millions
                                                 Asparagus                                           Leaves and                                                                                              Dr Sagiv Kolkovski is the principal scientist,       Nutrakol specialized in nutritional and
                                                                   Liliaceae           India                         Endocrine system    Devi, 1995     of dollars and can takes years.                      marine aquaculture, at the Department of             health solutions for aquaculture.‘Tailor-made’
                                                 racemous                                               Root
                                                                                                                                                            A review of this legislation should be           Fisheries, western Australia. He is also the         diets and additives for broodstock and
                                                                                                                                          Babu and
                                                  Mucuna                                            Seeds, roots                                        carried out taking into account the benefits         R&D director at Nutrakol Pty Ltd.                    enrichments for larvae. These products can
                                                                Papilionaceae         Tropics                        Endocrine system      Marian,
                                                  pruriens                                          and legumes                                         of herbal remedies over currently used                                                                    be manufacture to specific requirements or
                                                                                                                                            2001                                                             Judith Kolkovski, ND is a nutritionist and
                                                                                                                                                        chemotherapeutic agents.                                                                                  species. Crustacean broodstock semi-moist
                                                                                                                                            Babu,                                                            herbalist and the general manager of
                                                                                                                                                            Herbals can be used not only as                                                                       diets for complete replacement of fresh/
                                                  Witania                                             Root and                             1999;                                                             Nutrakol Pty Ltd.
                                                                 Solanaceae            India                         Endocrine system                   remedies but even more so, as growth                                                                      frozen food. NutraGreen natural health
                                                 somnifera                                             leaves                              Citrasu,
                                                                                                                                            2008        promoters, stress resistance boosters and            Nutrakol Pty Ltd is specialized in developing        solutions solely based on herbal extracts
                                                                                                                                                                                                             and manufacturing nutritional and natural            and specifically design to support gonadal
                                                                                                                                                        preventatives of infections.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             health solutions for aquaculture.                    development, immune system and digestive
                                                                                  Adiguzel et al.        somnifera, Mucuna pruita, Ferula asafoetida        Therefore, the use of herbal extract as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  system.
                                                                               (2005)     control-       and Piper longum extracts.                     feed additives can significantly benefit any
                                                                               led infection of              Recently, commercial maturation semi-      organism cultured under intensive condi-
                                                                               Aspergillus flavus        moist diet (NutraFeed, Nutrakol) that
                                                                               and       Fusarium        included herbal extracts fed to p. vanamei
                                                                               oxyspoum      with        resulted in over 40percent increase in total
exists for use in large-scale aquaculture in     extract of O. basilicum. Other herbal                   nauplii produced with 44percent reduce in
the world.                                       extracts are very effective against gills               mortality compared to the normal fresh feed                   Naturally ahead
                                                 and skin flukes such as Benedenia seri-
Medicinal plants                                 olae (Kolkovski, personal comment,
in aquaculture                                   Nutrakol Pty Ltd).                             Table 2: Herbs, plants and algae incorporated into
    It is well known and documented that             Herbal compounds have the                  diets
medicinal plants have strong antibacterial       ability to inhibit the generation of                                             Parts used for the
                                                                                                       Plant’s Name
effects. Phenolics, polysaccharides, prote-      oxygen anions and scavenge free                                                      extraction


                                                                                                                                                             Perforizer
oglycans and flavonoids known to play            radical, hence reducing stress effects.
an important role in preventing and/or           Herbal antioxident effect was dem-                   Withania somnifera           Roots and leaves                                                       TM
controlling bacterial infections.                onstrated by Citrasu et al. (2006)                       Mucuna pruriens          Seeds and roots



                                                                                                                                                                            breakthrough
    Herbs such as S. triblobatum, A. pan-        when P. kurroa (picrorhiza) was used               Myristica malabarica                Seeds
iculata and P. corylifolia were found to
reduce vibrio in P. monodon three time
when supplied in enriched Artemia (Citrasu
                                                 as antis-tress compound for black
                                                 tiger shrimp.
                                                     Other herbs such as,Astragalus mem-
                                                                                                           Mimosa pudica
                                                                                                           Ipomea digitata
                                                                                                                                   Roots and leaves
                                                                                                                                    Tuberous root
                                                                                                                                                             the
et al. 2002, 2009). Many other studies           branaceus, Portulaca oleracea, Flavescent          Asparagus racemosa Leaves, bark and juice
with different species and with different        ophora and A. paniculata and many other             Hygrophila spinosa`             Whole herb
herbal extracts and medicinal plants were        are know to have specific and none                   Phasedus roxburghii               Seeds
published.
    Several plant products found to have
                                                 specific anti stress affects.
                                                     Medicinal plants are also know to
                                                                                                          Moringa tinctoria Inflorescence and gum
                                                                                                      Hemidermus indicus                 Root
                                                                                                                                                             Biotronic® Top3                                                      •	 Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         r
potent antiviral activity against fish and       have hormonal boosting affects with                                                                         with the unique Perforizer™- effect                                 	 we eased	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ight	
shrimp viruses.                                  some herbs are been used in herbal                                                                                                                                             •	 Im         gain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       p           	
    For example, Direkbusarakom et al. 1996      medicine as natural ‘viagra’ and in                          Algae                     Parts used
                                                                                                                                                              The BIOMIN PerforizerTM damages the outer                        	 co roved	fee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      n              d	
found that shrimp fed ethanol extract of         hormonal replacement therapy for
                                                                                                    Nannochloropsis occulata            Whole cells
                                                                                                                                                              membrane of gram negative bacteria thus                         •	 Hig version
Clinacanthus nutans had 95 percent survival      menopause woman.                                                                                             boosting the synergistic effect of organic                              h	ret
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	 inv          u
rates when exposed to Yellow head virus              Babu (1999) demonstrated sig-                              Chlorella salina        Whole cells           acids and the phytochemical.                                          estm rn	on	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ent                 For more information visit:
(YHV) compared to only 25 percent survival       nificant increase in fecundity, gonadal                       Dunaliella salina        Whole cells
in control group of black tiger shrimp.          weight and reduced intermoult                            Skeletonema costatum          Whole cells                                                                                                            biotronictop3.biomin.net
    Antifungal properties were also found in     period in P. mondon when the shrimp
                                                                                                                 Spirulina salina       Whole cells
many plants.                                     fed maturation diet containing W.

                                                                                                                                                         Ads_BioTop3_EN_IAF_CIL_2_2011.indd 1                                                                                                             28.02.11 09:17
                                               30 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | March-april 2011                                                                                                             March-april 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 31
          A hammer blow to your operating costs. The hammer mill Granulex™ is the new
                                                                                                          F: Feed pellets                                                                     Aqua News
                                                                                                                                                 Extruder_90x270_Kopie von 90 X 270 10.02.2011 16:18 Seite 1



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                                                                 screw
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                                                                The dried mash obtained is now called 'fish       blood meals widely
          www.buhlergroup.com.                                  meal' and contains from 8 to 10 percent           used in industry for
                                                                of water.
                                                                    However, if the moisture level is more
                                                                                                                  animal feeding.
                                                                                                                      Considerable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Escalating
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                                                                Soy protein
                                                                                                                  and       converted
                                                                                                                  into blood meal.                    Shellfish conference                                                                              in most aquaculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        operations …
                                                                                                                                                      in Stirling, Scotland
                                                                    Not all fish species have easy digestibility  Blood from differ-
                                                                                      GranulexTM
                                                                of soy protein, primarily due to increased        ent origins such                                                                                                   Environmental
                                                                carbohydrate content fraction. It is usually      as, sheep, goat, and                                                                                                  impact          and the most difficult one
                                                                used as supportive High capacityeas-
                                                                                       additive with other        poultry are usually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        to reduce when ingredient

                                                                                                                                                   T
                                                                ily digestible protein like fish meal which is    stored and proc-                          he University of Stirling, community work in shellfish res-
                                                                                      hammer mill.
                                                                rich in fish proteins.                            essed separately.                         in Scotland, is to host a toration.”                                                        prices are rising …
                                                                    Bean processing consists essentially of       However, so as to                         major international shell-         Holding the conference in              Low Shrimp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      & fish prices
                                                                extracting the oil so as to concentrate           comply with basic                fish conference ‘Shellfish - Our Stirling is appropriate, as the city
                                                                                      Powerful 400 kW motor for high
                                                                the proteins. This process provides a very        sanitary measures,               undervalued resource’ in August is on the River Forth, once the
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                                                                which is widely used as a raw material            pulsory to store
                                                                                      Largest screen area of any 400 kW
                                                                                                                                                        Laboratory Extruder
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                                                                                      hammer mill reduces wear of
                                                                ess also contributes to the elimination of
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                                                                                                                                                   Restoration, and it is being held when Dr Liz Ashton found two
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     	         and	feed	utilization	efficiency
                                                                certain anti-nutritional factors present in       to ensure that the               in the United Kingdom for the live oysters where they had been,
                                                                the raw bean.                                     level of bacteria is             first time with scientists from till then, considered extinct.
                                                                                      Screens and hammers designed for
                                                                    The first step in processing involves         kept within pre-
                                                                                      replacement by a single person in
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                                                                the removal of the shell (cellulose) from         scribed maximum                  attend.                                   University offers both com-
                                                                                      less than 30 minutes.
                                                                the grain. The ‘bare’ beans are then              limits.                            Dr Janet Brown, Head of the for table hotel-type accommo-                       	         and	appetite
                                                                heated, on the one hand to reduce the                                              Shellfish Unit at the Institute of dation plus student-style more
                                                                                      Smooth running sliding doors on
                                                                activity of certain enzymes, and on the
                                                                                      both sides for fast and easy
                                                                                                                  The                              Aquaculture at Stirling, says: “In economic choices, and also the                 SANACORE® GM
                                                                other to break the cellulose strands and
                                                                                      maintenance.
                                                                                                                  manufacture                      the UK the perception of shell- possibility for family-style chalet
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                                                                facilitate the following steps. The heated        of                               fish is that it is something we accommodation for scientists
                                                                beans are then mashed to form thin
                                                                                      Closed machine housing
                                                                                                                  bloodmeal                        eat, possibly in upmarket restau- who may take the opportunity                              by	promoting	a	healthy	gut	
                                                                paste-like slices, which further facilitates          Fresh       blood            rants.                                    to bring their families and enjoy a
                                                                                      preventing dust settlements and
                                                                the destruction of the cellulose structure        is kept cool at                    “However, shellfish reefs form Scottish holiday.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               microflora
                                                                                      easy to clean, plain surfaces.
                                                                and oil extraction.                               the factory, and                 an environment that can provide             The conference will run from
                                                                    The product, now termed ‘whole soya           sizeable particles               a myriad of ecological and the evening of Tuesday August
                                                                cake’, still contains its oil and has around 40   filtered and the                 economic benefits but they have 23 to Saturday August 27, 2011
                                                                percent protein, and as such is sold directly     blood mass stirred                        Quality control and with gala
                                                                                                                                                   been under such over fishingtesting aof ‘ceilidh’ on August 26.
                                                                for animal feeding.                               so as to separate                         raw these benefits have Please note the dates and further
                                                                                                                                                   pressure thatmaterials
                                                                    Next, the oil can be extracted from the       the fibrillar phase              largely been lost.                        details will be available shortly on
                                                                whole cake by means of a solvent (such            from the liquid                            a world development the
                                                                                                                                                     “On Product stage shellfish and University website.
                                                                as hexane). After total evaporation of the        mass. The fibrin is                       recipe optimization
                                                                                                                                                   reefs are considered among the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           applying	nature	for	a	healthy	and	sustainable	future
                                                                solvent, there remains the solvent extracted      then heated up to                most threatened habitats. This More inforMation:
                                                                soya cake, which in turn is widely used for       coagulation and the                      Small-scale production
                                                                                                                                                   conference hopes to change per- Andy Mitchell / Lesley Wilkinson
                                                                animal feeding, and contains 45 - 50 percent      coagulated mass                                                           Head of Communications & Media
                                                                                                                                                   ceptions, bringing scientists from conditions
                                                                                                                                                           Quick change of test University of Stirling
                                                                protein.                                          divided and dried                all over the world to discuss how
                                                                                                                                                                                            Stirling FK9 4LA
                                                                                                                  through a hot air                we can benefit from the experi- Scotland, UK
                                                                Bloodmeal                                         stream (that is by               ence elsewhere, particularly from Tel: +44 1786 467058
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     info.aqua@nutriad.net
                                                                                                                                                         Brabender® there has KG
                                                                                                                                                   the USA where GmbH & Co.been Email: mediarelations@stir.ac.uk
          Innovations for a better world.                           Abattoirs or slaughterhouses produce
                                                                many important by-products, such as
                                                                                                                  spray drying). This
                                                                                                                  method is particu-                                                        www.brabender.com
                                                                                                                                                         E-Mail: food-sales@brabender.com • Website: www.stir.ac.uk
                                                                                                                                                   considerable investment and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     www.nutriad.net

AquAFeed | March-april 2011                     8 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | March-april 2011                        March-april 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11                                     March-april 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 9
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