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With the continued expansion of cultured fish and shellfish species, aquaculture has become a key component of the animal health industry. Aquaculture is the fastest growing industry around the world with around 80 million tones produced annually.
March | April 2011 Feature title: Herbal medicine in aquaculture International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry F: Herbal medicine F: Herbal medicine shrimp industry suffered major outbreaks in world’s tools for combating it decrease in naturopathy and herbal medicine are more South East Asia and South America due to power and number.” and more acknowledged. Herbal medicine in aquaculture poor management, as well as, uncontrolled Diseases and pathogens are part of Different medicinal plants and herbs and/ use of antibiotics resulting in resistance every intensive culture. or combinations of them known to have developed by pathogens. In aquaculture ‘natural mortality’ of properties such as anti-bactria, anti-fungal, Recently, the Chilean salmon industry 10-25 percent is considered to be normal physiological systems (immune system, suffered (and still does) a devastated out- in grow-out systems. digestive system,) supporting, hormonal break of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) Marine finfish larvae (such as sea bream, balancing and many other properties. virus that cause loss of hundred of mil- sea bass, yellowtail kingfish, etc) survival Strategies for prophylaxis and control lions of dollars. This outbreak followed in intensive hatcheries is 5-15 percent of WSSV include improvement of envi- another outbreak during 2008-09 of sea (Kolkovski, personal comment). These low ronmental conditions, stocking of specific lice that again resulted in major losses to survival rates are usually the result of pathogen free (SPF) shrimp post-larvae and W the industry. These outbreaks drove the combined factors such as, environmental enhancement of disease resistance by using ith the contin- growing rapidly, disease prevention resistant bacterial pieces of DNA from authorities to review and revise the use of conditions, non-specific pathogens, larvae immuno-stimulants. ued expansion of and treatment practices are far from fish hatcheries into E. coli and Aeromonas chamotherapeutics in this industry. susceptibility and low immune system Immuno stimulants are substances, cultured fish and standardized or regulated species isolated from patients in hospitals In India, Marine Product Export development. which enhance the non-specific defense shellfish species, • When antibiotics are used in aquac- (Rhodes et al. 2000). They concluded that, Development Authority (MPEDA) has In fact, this situation is true to most mechanism and provide resistance against aquaculture has become a key com- ulture, the drugs typically remain in “Collectively, these findings provide evi- instructed the hatcheries operators and farm- marine and fresh water organisms reared in pathogenic organisms (Citarasu et al., 2006). ponent of the animal health industry. the open environment and may flow dence to support the hypothesis that the ers not to use antibiotics such as chloram- intensive systems. There are many scientific publications Aquaculture is the fastest growing out of production facilities into open aquaculture and human compartments of phenicol, nitrofurans and all their derivatives, In many cases, and although banned in looking at different mechanisms and ways to industry around the world with waterways or sewage systems, where the environment behave as a single interac- as well as many other antibiotic groups. most countries, to combat this problem, enhance the specific and non-specific immune around 80 million tones produced they may also interact with other tive compartment.” (Rhodes et al. 2000) However, sulfadimethoxine, sulfabro- antibiotics are used as growth promoters systems in fish and crustaceans. Many plant- annually. environmental contaminants The FAO estimated that nearly 170kg momethazine and sulfaethoxyrpyiadine, and/or specifically against bacteria infection derived compounds have been found to have • The antibiotics typically used are also of antibiotics are applied per hectare of floroquinolones and glycopeptides, which (Hernández Serrano, 2005). For example, in non-specific immuno-stimulating effects in “In the decade to 2015, world aquac- important in treating human disease salmon harvested in the USA and since are presently used in hatcheries and farms, many hatcheries, fish juveniles are supple- animals, of which more than a dozen have ulture production will at least double, an and infection cages are placed in natural seawaters, antibi- are still approved for use in aquaculture mented with antibiotics several days prior been evaluated in fish and shrimp (Citarasu average annual growth rate of not less Impacts of all these factors on the otics and the resultant resistant bacteria are (Sanandakumar, 2002). and few days after transferred to sea cages. et al. 2002, 2006, Sakai, 1999). than 7.0 percent per annum, and poten- emergence of antibiotic resistance are in contact with the environment. Considering the overall misuse of Many herbs and plants have been used tially much more.” (as quoted by State One unknown, however, we do know the Some countries, such as Norway, utilise antibiotics in all areas - human medicine, Alternative therapy for millennia as home remedies in many Stockbroking Ltd in June 2007). following: natural structures like fjords for salmon veterinary medicine, animal production and Low immune system and responses may cultures around the world for both human • Studies demonstrate an increase in farming and for this reason there are con- plant protection – FAO, in 2005, pub- result in very high mortalities due to spe- and animals. Some of these remedies have Antibiotics in aquaculture resistant bacteria in the intestines of cerns about the wastes that collect in fjord lished ‘The responsible use of antibiotics cific pathogens that antibiotics are helpless potent anti-viral as well as anti-bacterial and Due to the intensification of rearing fish receiving antibiotic drugs (ASM, bottoms (FAO/NACA/WHO, 1997). in aquaculture’ to raise awareness of the against. For example, White Spot Syndrome anti-fungal properties. methods and systems, diseases and patho- 1994 citing Ervik, 1994; Frost and All drugs legally used in aquaculture must antibiotic resistance problem in fish farming Virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastat- These natural plant products have been gens have been an integral part and formi- Thwaites, 1998; Threlfall et al., 2000; be approved by the designated authorities and related sectors. ing viruses in the shrimp industry. It has reported to have various properties such dable obstacle to the aquaculture industry Tollefson, L. 2000) (FDA’s Centre for Veterinary Medicine in The document focuses on antibiotics caused the collapse of the shrimp industry as anti-stress, growth promoters, appetisers, worldwide. • Studies indicate the level of resistant the US, APMVA in Australia). misuse and the concomitant threat of in many countries both in South America tonic and immuno-stimulants. Moreover, antibiotic resistance has bacteria in the gut of wild fish is The most common route of delivery of resistance development, which is a seen as and South East Asia (FAO, 2006). Moreover, these substances also possess become a major issue affecting the aquac- affected during antibiotic treatment of these legal antibiotics to fish occurs through a public health concern affecting the popula- Phytotherapy such as the use of other valuable properties; they are non- ulture industry. farmed fish (ASM, 1994 citing Ervik, mixing with specially formulated feed. tion worldwide. herbal extracts in herbal medicine for toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. No As early as 1994 it was being reported 1994) However, fish do not effectively metabo- In its opening statement the authors humans is known for thousands of years. herbal-resistance immunity has been found by the American Society of Microbiology • A total of 74-100 percent of wild lise antibiotics and will pass them largely stated that, “Antibiotic resistance as a phe- In some countries such as China, India, by any pathogen to date. Task Force on Antibiotic Resistance (ASM) fish in close proximity to treated unused back into the environment in the nomenon is, in itself, not surprising. Nor is it SEA and some countries in South and Although the properties of herbs and that, “the increasing problems associated ponds contained quinolone resi- faeces. It has been estimated that 75 per- new. It is however, newly worrying because Central America phytotherapy considered plants are well known, documented, and in with infectious diseases in fish, the limited dues – a group of antibiotics (for cent of the antibiotics fed to fish are it is accumulating and accelerating, while the mainstream while in Western medicine, use in human herbal medicine around the number of drugs available for treatment and example, CIPRO) important in human then put into the water through excretion world, currently very few commercial remedy prevention of these diseases, and the rapid health (ASM, 1994 citing Ervik, 1994; (Goldburg and Triplett 1997). Hernández Serrano, 2005) N increase in resistance to these antibiotics Since 2006, the EU has banned com- Aq Me represent major challenges for this source • Prior to medication 0.6-1 percent of pletely the use of antibiotics as growth ua et of food production worldwide.” the fecal bacteria in wild fish were promoters in aquaculture (as well as Better Performance cu us ltr a e, t W K Nutrattract - natural feed attractant Na o Currently, almost every section in the resistant to oxacillin and oxytetracy- any other domestic animal). Banning and ta rld aquaculture industry from fish, crustaceans cline, respectively (ASM, 1994 citing rejection of seafood imported to US and Better Fecundity lB ra zil T Nutrafeed - Crustacean semi-moist maturation diet Nutra-Kol Pty Ltd o and shellfish is using some sort of chemo- Ervik, 1994) EU countries due to antibiotic and other therapeotic agents including antibiotics and chemotherapeutics residues are almost a Better stress resistance Western Australia, Australia co many other chemicals. Significant progress daily occurrence and yet, currently, there Nutragreen - natural herbal remedies Tel: +61 8 9403 2287 Fax: +61 8 9403 2287 The ASM antibiotic resistance task force report targets aquaculture as representing European researchers have made signifi- cant progress in understanding the mecha- is no alternative solution to antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics. Naturally... Email: firstname.lastname@example.org “one of the biggest concerns.” nisms through which antibiotic resistant Both the task force and the FAO (2005) bacteria that emerge on fish farms can Diseases and aquaculture ‘Tailor--made’ Nutrition and natural health solutions for broodstock and larvae made several points regarding the use of move to humans. During the past decade, several out- antibiotics: A team of British and Irish scientists breaks of diseases devastated the aquacul- • Although aquaculture production is documented the distinct movement of ture industry around the world. The global NutroKol_190x58mm.indd 1 16/02/2011 11:38 28 InternatIonal AquAFeed March-april 2011 28 | |InternatIonal AquAFeed | |March-april 2011 March-april 2011 InternatIonal AquAFeed 29 March-april 2011 | |InternatIonal AquAFeed | |29 F: Herbal medicine F: Herbal medicine and nutritional boosters used (Kolkovski et tions. Legislation regarding the addition of now banned for use in the EU, USA and Table 1: The use of herbal extracts in shrimp boodstock diets al., 2010). herbal extracts, as feed additives need to be many other countries. Botanical Biological effect in Family Distribution Useful parts Reference reviewed and allowed. Natural plant products present a name aquaculture Issues viable alternative to antibiotics and other Although herbal remedies have been in Conclusion banned drugs being safer for the reared Cinnamonum India, Sri Endocrine system, Punitha, us for human therapy for millennia, there The development of drug-resistant organism and humans, as well as, the Lauraceae Bark zeylanicum Lanka Growth promoter 2003 has been relatively little research into the pathogens has been reported from all areas environment. use of medicinal plants in aquaculture. of aquaculture. Treating microbial infections Authorities should review the current Elettaria India, Burma, Dried ripe Endocrine system, Punitha, Scitaminaceae Standardisation is an issue when whole in fish and crustaceans involves dissolving legislation regarding the use of herbal and cardomomum Sri Lanka seeds Growth promoter 2003 plant or herb is use during the extrac- high quantities of broad-spectrum chemo- natural remedies in aquaculture taking the Fruits and tion process. Moreover, in many countries therapeutic agents in the culture medium above issues into consideration and allow- Eugenia India, Sri Endocrine system, Punitha, Myrtaceae dried flower including the EU, US and Australia, the same or supplying it in the food. ing more flexibility in the use of herbal caryophyllata Lanka Growth promoter 2003 buds herbals extracts approved for use in human Most of these antibiotics and drugs are medicine in aquaculture. India, Burma, naturopathy and herbal medicine are treated Flowe buds, Mesua Andaman, Endocrine system, Punitha, as drugs when used in aquaculture, forcing the Guttiferae seeds and ferrea Nicobar Growth promoter 2003 Islands bark registration of herbal remedies, a process that Authors Company products cost hundreds of thousands or even millions Asparagus Leaves and Dr Sagiv Kolkovski is the principal scientist, Nutrakol specialized in nutritional and Liliaceae India Endocrine system Devi, 1995 of dollars and can takes years. marine aquaculture, at the Department of health solutions for aquaculture.‘Tailor-made’ racemous Root A review of this legislation should be Fisheries, western Australia. He is also the diets and additives for broodstock and Babu and Mucuna Seeds, roots carried out taking into account the benefits R&D director at Nutrakol Pty Ltd. enrichments for larvae. These products can Papilionaceae Tropics Endocrine system Marian, pruriens and legumes of herbal remedies over currently used be manufacture to specific requirements or 2001 Judith Kolkovski, ND is a nutritionist and chemotherapeutic agents. species. Crustacean broodstock semi-moist Babu, herbalist and the general manager of Herbals can be used not only as diets for complete replacement of fresh/ Witania Root and 1999; Nutrakol Pty Ltd. Solanaceae India Endocrine system remedies but even more so, as growth frozen food. NutraGreen natural health somnifera leaves Citrasu, 2008 promoters, stress resistance boosters and Nutrakol Pty Ltd is specialized in developing solutions solely based on herbal extracts and manufacturing nutritional and natural and specifically design to support gonadal preventatives of infections. health solutions for aquaculture. development, immune system and digestive Adiguzel et al. somnifera, Mucuna pruita, Ferula asafoetida Therefore, the use of herbal extract as system. (2005) control- and Piper longum extracts. feed additives can significantly benefit any led infection of Recently, commercial maturation semi- organism cultured under intensive condi- Aspergillus flavus moist diet (NutraFeed, Nutrakol) that and Fusarium included herbal extracts fed to p. vanamei oxyspoum with resulted in over 40percent increase in total exists for use in large-scale aquaculture in extract of O. basilicum. Other herbal nauplii produced with 44percent reduce in the world. extracts are very effective against gills mortality compared to the normal fresh feed Naturally ahead and skin flukes such as Benedenia seri- Medicinal plants olae (Kolkovski, personal comment, in aquaculture Nutrakol Pty Ltd). Table 2: Herbs, plants and algae incorporated into It is well known and documented that Herbal compounds have the diets medicinal plants have strong antibacterial ability to inhibit the generation of Parts used for the Plant’s Name effects. Phenolics, polysaccharides, prote- oxygen anions and scavenge free extraction Perforizer oglycans and flavonoids known to play radical, hence reducing stress effects. an important role in preventing and/or Herbal antioxident effect was dem- Withania somnifera Roots and leaves TM controlling bacterial infections. onstrated by Citrasu et al. (2006) Mucuna pruriens Seeds and roots breakthrough Herbs such as S. triblobatum, A. pan- when P. kurroa (picrorhiza) was used Myristica malabarica Seeds iculata and P. corylifolia were found to reduce vibrio in P. monodon three time when supplied in enriched Artemia (Citrasu as antis-tress compound for black tiger shrimp. Other herbs such as,Astragalus mem- Mimosa pudica Ipomea digitata Roots and leaves Tuberous root the et al. 2002, 2009). Many other studies branaceus, Portulaca oleracea, Flavescent Asparagus racemosa Leaves, bark and juice with different species and with different ophora and A. paniculata and many other Hygrophila spinosa` Whole herb herbal extracts and medicinal plants were are know to have specific and none Phasedus roxburghii Seeds published. Several plant products found to have specific anti stress affects. Medicinal plants are also know to Moringa tinctoria Inflorescence and gum Hemidermus indicus Root Biotronic® Top3 • Inc r potent antiviral activity against fish and have hormonal boosting affects with with the unique Perforizer™- effect we eased ight shrimp viruses. some herbs are been used in herbal • Im gain p For example, Direkbusarakom et al. 1996 medicine as natural ‘viagra’ and in Algae Parts used The BIOMIN PerforizerTM damages the outer co roved fee n d found that shrimp fed ethanol extract of hormonal replacement therapy for Nannochloropsis occulata Whole cells membrane of gram negative bacteria thus • Hig version Clinacanthus nutans had 95 percent survival menopause woman. boosting the synergistic effect of organic h ret inv u rates when exposed to Yellow head virus Babu (1999) demonstrated sig- Chlorella salina Whole cells acids and the phytochemical. estm rn on ent For more information visit: (YHV) compared to only 25 percent survival nificant increase in fecundity, gonadal Dunaliella salina Whole cells in control group of black tiger shrimp. weight and reduced intermoult Skeletonema costatum Whole cells biotronictop3.biomin.net Antifungal properties were also found in period in P. mondon when the shrimp Spirulina salina Whole cells many plants. fed maturation diet containing W. 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Abattoirs or slaughterhouses produce many important by-products, such as spray drying). This method is particu- www.brabender.com E-Mail: email@example.com • Website: www.stir.ac.uk considerable investment and www.nutriad.net AquAFeed | March-april 2011 8 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | March-april 2011 March-april 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11 March-april 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 9 LINKS This digital re-print is part of the March | April 2011 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. 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