# 3d shape

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```					Properties of 3D shapes
Key Resources
Year Target         Group Target                        / Models and  Outcomes
Images
2 D shapes                Understand use in a practical context: shape, solid, hollow, edge, face, straight, curved, point, corner
Name solid shapes such     Feely bag
Yr 1                Must     as cube, cone and          Crayons/pencils/p         Recognise and name the following shapes:
sphere.                    aper/ Sand
Cube, Cuboid, Sphere, Cylinder, Cone
Understanding
3d shape                     Use everyday language      Plasticine / Biscuit      Identify shapes in the classroom: for example,
Shape and                    to describe the features   Dough and shape                 -find a cuboid (box)
Should                              cutters
space                        of 3-D shapes.                                             -find a cylinder (baked beans tin).
activities                                              Geo boards
booklet                                                 Objects with              Sort 3-D shapes in different ways according to properties like:
different shaped                -whether they have any corners;
faces                           -whether all their edges are straight;
Shape tools                  Use mathematical
Digital camera                  -whether they are solid or hollow.
vocabulary to describe
Further                      3-D shapes; sort shapes    Shapes Songs.             Using a collection of solid shapes, choose an example, and describe it. For example:
examples of                  and describe some of       For example                    -This shape has six faces, and each face is a rectangle.
pitch and                    their features.            Dave Godfrey                   -This shape has five faces – four are triangles and one is square.
expectations:                                           “Number Fun”                   -This cube has 12 edges…
songs.
Foundation to                                           Shape fan                 Recognise a solid shape placed in hands behind back and be able to name it by feeling.
year 1
3d shape
properties                Make 3-D shapes using constructions kits, straws, clay, plasticine, everyday materials etc.
Year 1                                                  Shape and space
   Begin to relate 3-D shapes to pictures of them e.g. match solids to pictures of them, use bricks to build
activities booklet
models from pictures.
Information
Shape tools               Describe the model or pattern and say which shapes have been used to make it. For example:
- teaching          Could                                                              -The top of this tree is a sphere and its trunk is a cylinder.
mental                                                  ICT files                      -This house is made from a cube and its roof is a pyramid…
calculation
strategies
Problem solving           Look at this collection of objects or shapes. Shut your eyes while I pick one up and hide it. Open your
- teaching                                              materials                  eyes. Tell me which object or shape I have hidden.
written
strategies                                              Number lines              Sort and classify shapes using Venn and Carroll diagrams, e.g. all the 3-D solids with a rectangular
Odd one out                face
- exemplification                                       5rectangles
of standards

1b-1a

   1
3-D shapes              Recognise and name the following shapes:
Use everyday language      Pictures of 3-D
Yr 2                Must     to describe the features   shapes                                            Cube, Cuboid, Sphere, Cylinder, Cone, Pyramid
of 3-D shapes.             Labels of shape
   Describe some of the features of 3D shapes including the shapes of faces, the number of faces, edges
names/key                and corners.
Understanding                Use mathematical           vocabulary
3d shape                     vocabulary to describe     Every day objects       Using a set of solid shapes, choose an example to match properties described by others, e.g. Show me
Shape and                    3-D shapes; sort shapes    e.g. boxes, balls,       the shapes that have: at least one rectangular face, one curved face, eight corners,
space                        and describe some of       tins etc.
activities                   their features.            Yes/No cards            Answer „Yes‟ or „No‟ questions about a hidden shape in order to identify it
booklet                                                 Construction kits       Describe the shape or solid in the cloth bag as you feel it. What might it be? Why? How do you know
Straws, clay,            this shape is a …? How do you know this shape isn't a …?
Plasticine,              Imagine a cube. Four faces are yellow; the rest are blue. How many faces are blue?
Shape tools
Describe this shape/solid to a friend. Can they guess what it is?
Further                                                 Hoops for sorting       Use their knowledge of shape names and properties, for example to predict which 3-D shapes will roll
examples of                                                                      and which will slide when placed on a slope
pitch and                                               ICT files
expectations:                                                                   Sort 3-D shapes in different ways according to their properties of their faces such as whether they:
Problem solving         have six faces; have a triangular face, a rectangular face ….
year 2
materials
Should                                                      They recognise and name shapes in different positions and orientations, including in pictures,
Information
Line of symmetry
   Make and describe shape patterns using solid shapes.
- teaching                                              Spot the shapes
mental                                                  Making shapes           Relate solid shapes to pictures of them.
calculation                                             Creating shapes
strategies                                              Number lines            Match familiar solids to their pictures and use a construction kit to make a model of a 3-D solid that I
Odd one out              know
- teaching                                                                      Build models out of 3-D shapes and record the shapes used. For example:
Jack and the
written
strategies                                              beanstalk
Coloured shape          My model was made with 7 cuboids, 10 cubes,
Triangles and           6 cylinders and 1 cone.
- exemplification
of standards                                            pentagons                                           Make a skeleton shape from a construction kit or straws, and count the
Bucket and spade                                     number of edges or corners.
6triangles

Classify and describe
3D shapes and                                      Relate 3-D shapes to pictures of them.
Could    understand the terms                               For example:
vertex and prism.                                  match familiar solids to their pictures; use cubes to make „single-layered‟ solids from pictures.

2c-2b
Key Resources
Year Target         Group Target                       / Models and         Outcomes
Images
Use mathematical                                Recognise and name the following shapes:
vocabulary to describe    3-D shapes
Yr 3                Must     3D shapes; sort shapes    Pictures of 3-D           Cube, Cuboid (Rectangular Prism), Sphere, Cylinder, Cone, Pyramid, Triangular Prism
and describe some of      shapes
 Read and use the terms „vertex‟ and „vertices‟
their features.           Labels of shape       Recognise 3-D shapes and make collections, for example, of shapes that are prisms.
Understanding                                          names/key             Know that a prism has the same cross-section along its length, and that its two end-faces are
3d shape                                               vocabulary             identical.
Shape and                    Classify and describe     Every day objects     Name and describe solids, using the correct language: 'A triangular prism has two identical
space                        3D shapes and             e.g. boxes, balls,     triangular faces at opposite ends and the other three faces are rectangles'; 'A hemisphere is a
Should                                                    sphere cut in half. It has one flat face and a curved surface.'
activities                   understand the terms      tins etc.
booklet                      vertex and prism.         Yes/No cards          Sort 3-D shapes using criteria such as the number of vertices, edges or faces . They find the
Construction           number of edges of assorted prisms to investigate the general statement : The number of
kits/polydron          edges of a prism is always a multiple of 3.
Shape tools
Straws, pipe          Sort 3-D shapes in different ways according to properties such as:
Further                      Classify and describe     cleaners, clay,             -Whether or not they are prisms
examples of                  3D shapes and visualise   Plasticine                  -The number of faces, edges, vertices
pitch and                    3D shapes from 2D         Hoops for sorting
expectations:                                                                To draw a picture of a cube, would you use straight or curved lines? What about a cylinder?
drawings (including
being able to identify                          Select from this set a shape that has:
year 3                                                                        no right angles;
simple nets of solid      ICT files
shapes).                  Names and              all sides equal;
Information                                                                   five vertices.
properties of 2D
- teaching                                             and 3D shapes                                                 Relate 3D shapes to pictures of them, for example match
mental                                                 Shape sort                                                  familiar 3-D shapes to pictures of them
calculation                                            3d shape facts                                              Use cubes to build double-layered solids from pictures.
triangle Venn
- teaching                                             diagram sorter
written             Could                                                    Recognise that two or more shapes can be put together
strategies                                                                      in different ways to make new shapes. For example, find
different shapes that can be made by fitting four cubes
- exemplification                                      Problem solving          together face to face.
of standards                                           materials

Create new
   I dip a triangular prism in paint and make a print of each face. What shapes will I print?
shapes
Sorting shapes        use appropriate mathematical vocabulary to describe the features of common 2-D and 3-D
Describing             shapes including semicircles, hemispheres and prisms
position
2a-3c
Rows of coins
Odds and evens
Straw squares
Circle sums
3-D shapes             Recognise, name and describe the following shapes:
Classify and describe      Pictures of 3-D
3D shapes and              shapes                cube, cuboid (rectangular prism), sphere, cylinder, cone, pyramid, prism, triangular prism, hemi-
Yr 4                Must                                                      sphere, tetrahedron, polyhedron
understand the terms       Labels of shape
vertex and prism.          names/key              Know that a prism has the same cross section along its length and that the two end faces are
vocabulary              identical
Every day objects      Identify simple nets of 3D shapes e.g. unfolded packets which are cubes or cuboids.
Understanding                Describe 3D shapes and     e.g. boxes, balls,                               Draw in lines where you would fold this shape to make a cube.
3d shape                     visualise from 2D          tins etc.                                          Use a ruler to measure where they would go.
Shape and                    drawings (including        Construction
Should                                                                               I am thinking of a 3-D shape. It has a square base. It has four other
space                        being able to identify     kits/polydron
activities                   simple nets of solid       Straws, pipe                                      faces, which are triangles. What is the name of the 3-D shape?
booklet                      shapes).                   cleaners, clay,
 Know that in a polyhedron:
Plasticine, multi-    Each face is a flat surface and a polygon
Shape tools                                             link                  An edge is the straight line where two faces meet
Classify and describe      Hoops for sorting     A vertex is the point where two or more faces meet
Further                      3D shapes and visualise
examples of                  from 2D drawings                                  Visualise 3D shapes from 2D drawings, e.g. work out how many cubes will be needed to make a
pitch and                                               ICT files               given picture.
(including being able to
expectations:                                           Names and              identify the shapes of faces of common 3-D shapes, and count the number of faces, edges and
identify the nets of an
properties of 2D        vertices (corners) of cubes, cuboids, pyramids and prisms.
year 4                       open cube).
and 3D shapes          From their experience of handling 3-D shapes and describing their properties, they visualise mental
Properties of 3D        images of the shapes.
Information                                             shapes                 They can name a 3-D shape which has been secretly hidden in a drawstring bag. They look at
3D shape properties     drawings of 3-D shapes and relate them to real shapes.
- teaching
Shape quiz
mental                                                                           Name three different 3-D shapes that can have at least one square face.
calculation                                             3d shape facts
   Here is a cereal packet. Describe what you think its net might look like.
strategies                                              Carroll diagrams
for sorting shapes                                  Anna makes a cube using straws. First she joins four straws to make a
- teaching                                              Quadrilateral-                                       square. Then she joins more straws to make a cube. Altogether, how
written             Could                               triangle Venn                                        many straws has she used?
strategies                                              diagram sorter
 There are three shapes in a row. What order are they in and what colour
- exemplification                                       Problem solving                are they? Clues: The cube is in the middle.; The pink shape is not on the right. ; The red shape
of standards                                                                           is next to the pyramid; The cone is not blue.
materials
Reflecting shapes
Rows of coins            Look at a picture of a model made from                                        interlocking cubes and
Odds and evens            predict the least number of cubes                                             needed to build it.
Straw squares             They then build the shape to check                                            whether they are
Circle sums               correct.
Tangram
3 by 3 grid              Use their knowledge of the faces of 3-D shapes to begin to construct their own net of a cuboid
   construct the net of an open cube using a set-square and ruler to draw the five squares
   construct the net of an open cuboid.

 construct a model using cubes, take a digital photograph of it, then challenge others to recreate it.
3c-3b
Key Resources
Year Target         Group Target                        / Models and          Outcomes
Images
3-D shapes               Recognise, name and describe the following shapes:
Describe 3-D shapes        Pictures of 3-D
and visualise from 2-D     shapes                         cube, cuboid (rectangular prism), sphere, cylinder, cone, pyramid, prism, triangular
prism, hemi-sphere, tetrahedron, octahedron, polyhedron
drawings (including        Labels of shape
Yr 5                Must     being able to identify     names/key                I am thinking of a 3-D shape. It has a square base. It has four other faces which are triangles. What
simple nets of solid       vocabulary                is the name of the 3-D shape?
shapes).                   Every day objects
e.g. boxes, balls,                                                                    Look at these diagrams. Which of them
are nets of a square-based pyramid?
tins etc.
Explain how you know.
Construction
Understanding                                           kits/polydron
3d shape                     Classify and describe 3-   Straws, pipe
Shape and                    D shapes and visualise     cleaners, clay,                                      Is this a net for an open cube? Explain why not.
space                        from 2-D drawings          Plasticine, multi-
activities          Should   (including being able to   link
booklet                      identify the nets of an    Hoops for sorting        visualise and describe 3-D shapes according to a range of properties including:
open cube).                                               the shapes of faces,
Shape tools                                                                            the number of faces, edges and vertices,
ICT files                      and whether the number of edges meeting at each vertex is the same (as in a cube) or
Further                                                                                different (as in a square-based pyramid).
examples of                                             Shape quiz               solve problems involving 3-D shapes, for example finding all of the possible nets for an open cube
pitch and                                               3D shape properties       or sorting a set of 3-D shapes using an ICT 'binary tree' program
expectations:                                           Carroll diagrams
Classify, describe and
identify the nets of 3-D   for sorting shapes
shapes (including closed                                                 Work out the least number of unit cubes needed to turn this shape into a
cubes).                    triangle Venn                                  cuboid.
Information
diagram sorter

- teaching                                              Problem solving
mental                                                  materials              extend their knowledge of the properties of 3-D and 2-D shapes, including the tetrahedron and
Could                                                         octahedron
calculation
strategies                                                                     identify shapes that have pairs of parallel or perpendicular sides or edges.
Polyhedra chain          explore how many different shapes they can make from five squares touching edge to edge. They
- teaching                                              Planet Zargon             understand that if rotations and reflections of the shapes are not counted as different there are 12
written                                                 Cube face colour;         shapes to be found. They investigate which of these shapes can be folded up to make an open
strategies                                              Five squares              cube
   investigate the number of different shapes that can be made by placing four cubes face to face.
- exemplification                                                                They draw accurate nets for a range of 3-D shapes, including the nets of prisms
of standards
3a-4c
3-D shapes              Recognise, name and describe the following shapes:
Classify and describe      Pictures of 3-D         cube, cuboid (rectangular prism), sphere, cylinder, cone, pyramid, prism, triangular prism,
3D shapes and visualise    shapes                   hemi-sphere, tetrahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, polyhedron.
from 2D drawings           Labels of shape
   Describe the properties of 3-D shapes, such as parallel or perpendicular, faces or
Yr 6                Must     (including being able to   names/key                              edges e.g. Look at this cube. How many edges are parallel to this one? How many
identify the nets of an    vocabulary                             edges are perpendicular to this one?
open cube).                Construction
kits/polydron           make and draw shapes and apply their knowledge of the properties; for example, they use art
Straws, pipe                                        straws to create 'skeleton' shapes
Understanding                                           cleaners, clay,
3d shape                                                Plasticine, multi-                                     Name and describe the properties of a dodecahedron
Shape and                    Classify, describe and     link
Hoops for sorting                                      Identify the nets of 3D shapes
space                        identify the nets of 3D
activities                   shapes (including closed   Unit plans:                                               Imagine a triangular prism. How many faces does it have? Are any
booklet                      cubes).                    Autumn unit 8                                              of the faces parallel to each other?
Autumn unit 10                                          How many pairs of parallel edges has a square-based pyramid?
Shape tools                                             Spring unit 8                                              How many perpendicular edges?
Summer unit 3                                           Look at these 3-D shapes (e.g. a cuboid, tetrahedron, square-
Further                                                 Summer unit 7                                              based pyramid and octahedron). Show me a face that is parallel to
examples of                                             Summer unit 11                                             this one. Which face is perpendicular to this one?
pitch and                                               Springboard             What can you tell me about the faces of a cuboid? Why are so many packing boxes made in the
expectations:                                           Lesson 11                shape of a cuboid?
   Use your ruler and protractor. Draw the net of a regular tetrahedron with edges of 6 cm.
Lesson 14               describe the shape generated by cutting through a tetrahedron or a triangular right prism in a
year 6
Lesson 17                plane parallel to a base.
Information         Should                              Lesson 28               classify 3-D shapes using criteria such as 'has at least one pair of parallel faces'.
   investigate the number of edges, faces and vertices in polyhedra, record these in a table and
- teaching                                              ICT files                explore the relationship: the number of vertices plus the number of faces equals the number of
mental                                                  Rotations and            edges.
calculation                                             coordinates             Here are four diagrams.
strategies                                              Quadrilateral           On each one put a tick ( ) if it is a net of a cube.
rummy                   Put a cross ( ) if it is not.
- teaching
Problem solving
written                                                                         Add a square to complete the net to make a closed cube.
strategies                                              materials

Polyhedra chain;
 Visualise 3-D shapes from 2-D
- exemplification                                                                                                drawings e.g. find and justify the least number of cubes needed
of standards                                            Triangles;
to complete a given shape.
Symmetry ;
Planet Zargon;;
Cube face colour;
Tangram; 3 by 3
grid; Cube nets         Count the number of faces and edges. Recognise properties such as:
Use 2-D representations                            all pyramids have an even number of edges;
and oral descriptions to                           the number of straight edges in a prism is a multiple of 3;
Could    visualise 3-D shapes                               the number of faces of a pyramid is one more than the number of edges of the base;
and deduce some of                                 the number of faces of a prism is two more than the number of edges of an end face…
their properties.
4b-4a
3-D shapes              A cube has shaded triangles on three of its faces.
Classify and describe      Pictures of 3-D
3D shapes and visualise    shapes                                         Here is the net of the cube.
from 2D drawings           Labels of shape                                Draw in the two missing shaded
triangles.
Yr 6               Must     (including being able to   names/key
identify the nets of an    vocabulary
open cube).                Every day objects
e.g. boxes, balls,
tins etc.
Construction
Understanding                                          kits/polydron           Imagine you have two identical cubes. Place them together, matching face to face. Name and
3d shape                    Classify, describe and     Straws, pipe             describe the new solid. How many faces, edges, vertices…?
Shape and                   identify the nets of 3D    cleaners, clay,
   Imagine cutting off a corner of a cube. Describe the new face created. Describe
space                       shapes (including closed   Plasticine, multi-                        the new solid. How many faces, edges, vertices...?
booklet            Should                              Hoops for sorting
Unit plans:                            Sit back to back with a partner. Look at the picture of the model.
Shape tools                                            Autumn unit 8            Don‟t show it to your partner. Tell your partner how to build the model.
Autumn unit 10
Further                                                Spring unit 8         Join in a „guess the shape‟ activity.
examples of                                            Summer unit 3        A solid made from centimetre cubes is placed in a bag.
pitch and                                              Summer unit 7        a. Take turns to describe one element of the shape by feeling it. Others try to make the same shape.
expectations:                                                               b. Take turns to describe the shape while others try to guess what it is.
Summer unit 11       c. Guess a hidden solid shape by asking questions about it to which only yes/no answers can be
Springboard              given.
year 6 into year
7                           Use 2-D representations    Lesson 11                              On a six-sided dice, the faces are numbered from 1 to 6, and opposite faces
and oral descriptions to   Lesson 14                                 should add up to 7. Draw a net for a cube. Choose a face and write 5 on it. Now
visualise 3-D shapes       Lesson 17                                 write numbers on the other faces so that when the cube is folded up, opposite
and deduce some of         Lesson 28                                 faces add up to 7.
their properties.
ICT files
Rotations and           Find all possible solids that can be made from four cubes. Record the solids
using isometric paper.
coordinates
Could
rummy                    Investigate the number of different ways that a 2 by 2 by 2 cube can be split
Problem solving          into two pieces:
materials            a. of the same shape and size;
b. of different shapes and sizes.
Polyhedra chain;
Triangles;
Symmetry ;
Planet Zargon;;
Cube face colour;
Tangram; 3 by 3                                                                                                      5c-5b
grid; Cube nets

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