Arguments for Net Neutrality by wulinqing

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									Network Neutrality
     November 7, 2007
    Comm 12/Burkhardt



            Marisella Prada
            Nicole Harris
            Tanja Reed
Broadband, Network Neutrality and
Relevant Supreme Court Decision




                By Marisella Prada
What is Broadband?

   The term "broadband" refers to internet connections that are
    more than two times faster than the traditional telephone
    modem
     –   High speed internet access

   Broadband systems are capable of carrying a large number of
    moving images or a vast quantity of data simultaneously

   Broadband comes from the words "broad bandwidth" and is
    used to describe a high-capacity, two-way link between an end
    user and access network suppliers capable of supporting full-
    motion, interactive video applications.
Example of Broadband

   Cable television uses broadband techniques
    to deliver dozens of channels over one cable.
   Internet
    –   Wireless
    –   DSL
    –   Cable Modem
What is Network Neutrality

   The concept that broadband carriers will neither
    interfere with nor inhibit the free flow of information
    over the Internet
   Prevents internet providers from speeding up or
    slowing down Web content based on its source
   Protects the consumers right to any service on the
    internet without any interference from the network
    provider
   Simple principle that preserves the free and open
    internet and useful public information network
    aspires to treat all content, sites, and platforms
    equally
Example of Neutrality

   Electric grid
    –   Built on a neutrality theory
    –   Does not care whether you are plugging in a
        toaster or computer
    –   Grid worked for radios in the ‟30s and for a flat
        screen today
   model of a neutral, innovation-driving
    network
How is it threatened today?
   The Communications Opportunity, Promotion, and Efficiency
    Act of 2006
     –   Could empower commercial broadband carriers like Sprint and
         AT&T to manipulate Internet transactions by prohibiting or slowing
         access to and transmission of specific site
     –   Will also give the cable and companies control over the internet
   Broadband carriers can restrict competitor access to their lines
   Can also harm search engine companies
     –   Carriers can charge Google, Yahoo, etc. feed to transmit their
         materials
   It would go against a fundamental part of the Internet's nature
     –   That no one owns it and it is open to all comers
ISP Brand X vs. Federal
Communications Commission

   Case hinged on the definition of cable service
   FCC defined cable broadband as
    –    An "information service"
    –   Frees cable companies of regulations that would require
        operators to share their networks with competitors, including
        ISPs such as Brand X.
   Brand X – cable networks should be regulated like
    telephone lines
    –   A telecommunication service
    –   Should require carriers to allow competing services to ride
        over their networks
ISP Brand X vs. Federal
Communications Commission

   Court‟s focus
    –   Does a cable company provide
            Telecommunication services
            Information services
   Should cable broadband providers share
    their lines with rivals or be protected of this?
Brand X’s argument

   Cable companies are considered „common
    carriers‟
   If cable companies are not required to share
    their networks
    –   Consumers will pay higher prices
    –   Will have fewer choices
FCC’s Argument

   Rules applied to telephone companies have led to
    higher rates and slow broadband growth
   Keeping cable companies exempt from telephone
    regulations will
    –   Spur investment
    –   Benefit consumers in the long run
    –   They will invest more in their networks and will be more
        likely to deploy new services quickly
Decision

   Federal court rule was to classify as a
    telecommunication service, siding with Brand
    X
   Then supreme court overturned decision with
    a 6 – 3 ruling
   Cable companies would not be forced to
    share their infrastructure with Internet service
    providers
DSL

   DSL is classified as a telecommunication service
    –   Bell companies who have built majority of DSL networks
        have to share infrastructure with ISPs
    –   Phone companies did not invest heavily in building DSL
        networks,
            They were afraid of the economic consequences of sharing
             such an expensive asset with competitors
   In 2002, FCC launched to reclassify that DSL is an
    information service
    –   Claimed that is equal to cable modem service
Conclusion

   Broadband is changing our daily lives, more
    of our lives are being conducted online
   Network Neutrality guarantees the equal
    access to the internet by everyone
   Brand X case set the ground rules for
    competition in the broadband market for
    years to come
References
   http://news.zdnet.com/2100-6005_22-5764187.html
   http://www.news.com/FCC,-Brand-X-near-Supreme-decision/2100-1034_3-5752017.html

   www.infocus.com/Support/Glossary/B.aspx
   www.intel.com/products/glossary/body.htm
   http://www.news.com/Cable-wins-Supreme-Court-battle/2100-1036_3-5764120.html
ISP Discrimination and
  Arguments Against
  Network Neutrality


          By Nicole Harris
How Discrimination Works

   Discrimination starts with bottleneck, which is the
    wire or fiber connecting home to ISP network

   When you try to reach a website you send packets.
    ISP‟s can discriminate against certain packets by
    blocking or slowing down, while either redirecting to
    their sponsored sites or making theirs faster
Why Discriminate?

   The goal of the ISP is to discriminate against some of the user‟s
    packets, but not bother the user so much so that they switch
    ISPs or demand lower price

   AT&T has created software that allows the company to decide
    which communications get priority over others

   Network owners think that the Internet should be used for e-
    mail and web-surfing; videos should be downloaded using
    ISPs. This idea would allow ISPs to determine what people
    see, kind of like cable television
Examples

   AT&T joined with Hollywood in attempts to stop
    illegal downloading. To do this, they used software
    by Cisco which could read and inspect packets, and
    could subsequently discriminate against those that
    were defying copyright laws.

   Comcast was caught discriminating and has recently
    admitted to creating delays for peer-to-peer file
    sharing, stimulating a sort of “busy signal”, saying it
    would eventually get there
Arguments Against Net Neutrality

   Regulations could limit the Internet's usefulness

   The slippery-slope idea- once Internet begins to be regulated,
    more regulations would follow

   Regulations would stifle investment in competitive networks,
    such as wireless broadband, and make it difficult for network
    providers to compete and “differentiate their services”

   Treat the unregulated Internet like the regulated telecom and
    cable industries.
Why this belief?

   Internet has been so successful because it
    hasn’t been regulated, unlike cable/telecom

   Regulations would make it difficult to improve
    multimedia and real time applications, which
    ISPs say still need a lot of work
Hands Off the Internet

   Who are they?
    –   Leading opposing organization to net neutrality

   What do they believe?
    –   The amazing growth in the Internet that has taken place over the
        past decade will only continue if it stays deregulated and people
        have the same freedoms they‟ve had on the internet.

   What do they support?
    –   Unregulated Internet in which consumers choose best methods,
        not government
    –   Opposition to government regulation over the Internet
Who Opposes Net Neutrality

   David Farber and Bob Kahn, Internet
    Pioneers

   Telecommunications Companies

   Free Market Advocacy Groups

   The Communications Workers of America
Sources

   http://www.google.com/help/netneutrality.htm
    l
   http://handsoff.org/blog/
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_neutrality
   http://www.freedom-to-tinker.com/?p=973
   http://www.huffingtonpost.com/timothy-
    karr/comcasts-internet-throt_b_70191.html
   Arguments For and
Examples of Net Neutrality


            By Tanja Reed
Arguments for Net Neutrality

   Bosworth from ConsumerAffairs.Com argued
    for Net Neutrality.
   SavetheInternet.com argues that the loss
    would be devastating.
   “The choice we face now is whether we can
    choose the content and services we want, or
    whether the broadband barons will choose for
    us.” <savetheinternet.com>
The Advanced Telecommunications
and Opportunities Reform Act of 2006

   On June 28, 2006, by a 15-7 vote, the
    Senate Commerce Committee approved the
    Advanced Telecommunications and
    Opportunities Reform Act.
   The Internet Freedom Preservation Act
    (S.215)
Supporters of Net Neutrality

   The supporters of Net Neutrality include
    leading high-tech companies;
   As well as many senators;
   And Prominent national figures
Sources

   Savetheinternet.com
   http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-
    215
   http://www.benton.org/node/4455#attachments
   http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2006/02/n
    et_neutrality.html
   http://www.benton.org/index.php?q=tracking_legisl
    ation
   http://www.benton.org/index.php?q=node/1882

								
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