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House Styles - PowerPoint Presentation

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									 Cape Cod Style
   (Cape Style)
c. 1675 - c. 1950
Traditional, Colonial era Cape Cod houses had
many of these features:
  •Steep roof (8"-12" pitch) with side gables
  - Keeps weather out
  - Allows attic as living space
  •Small roof overhang
  •1 or 1½ stories
  •Made of wood and covered in wide clapboard or
  - Winter: Wood swells against wind
  - Summer: Wood shrinks, allowing air to circulate
  •Large central chimney linked to fireplace in each
  •Symmetrical appearance with door in center
•Multi-paned, double-hung windows
•Dormers for space, light, and ventilation
•Formal, center-hall floor plan
•Hardwood floors
•Little exterior ornamentation
About the Cape Cod Style
The Cape Cod style is an example of Colonial Revival
architecture, which expresses a renewed interest in America's
colonial past. The Cape style's history goes back to English
colonists who came to the United States in the late 17th century.
They used half-timbered English houses with a hall and parlor as
a model, and adapted it to New England's stormy weather and
natural resources. Over the course of a few generations, a
modest, one- to one-and-a-half-story house with wooden
shutters emerged. Reverend Timothy Dwight, a president of Yale
University, is credited with recognizing these houses as a class
and coining the term "Cape Cod."
In the 1930s, when the trend was for small, economical, and
mass-produced houses, Cape style homes became popular
throughout the United States. In the twentieth century version
of the style, the chimneys were often placed at the side rather
than the center and the shutters were strictly decorative.
Cape Cod Floor Plan
               Georgian Colonial
                 1690s - 1830

                 A reader from Massachussetts sent this photo
                        of her classic Georgian Colonial

Spacious and comfortable, Georgian Colonial
architecture reflected the rising ambition of a young
country. It was the preferred housing style of the
prosperous, and its features were reflected in the
design of more humble dwellings.
Georgian Colonial
homes usually have these features:
  •Square, symmetrical shape
  •Paneled front door at center
  •Decorative crown over front door
  •Flattened columns on each side of door
  •Five windows across front
  •Paired chimneys
  •Medium pitched roof
  •Minimal roof overhang
Many Georgian Colonial homes also have:
   •Nine or twelve small window panes in each window sash
   •Dental molding (square, tooth-like cuts) along the eaves
Georgian Colonial became the rave in New England and the
Southern colonies during the 1700's. Stately and symmetrical,
these homes imitated the larger, more elaborate Georgian
homes which were being built in England. But the genesis of the
style goes back much farther. During the reign of King George I
in the early 1700's, and King George III later in the century,
Britons drew inspiration from the Italian Renaissance and from
ancient Greece and Rome.
Georgian ideals came to New England via pattern books, and
became a favorite of well-to-do colonists who wanted their
homes to convey a sense of dignity and prestige. But in America,
Georgian homes were less ornate than their British cousins, and
there were many variations in the style.
  •Is your home patriotic? If you live in a Federal style house, then it reflects ideas that were
                   gaining favor during the founding of the United States.
                                    American Federal
                                     (Adam Style)
                                      c. 1780 - c. 1840

•Woodlawn, near Mount Vernon, Virginia, is often called "Georgian Colonial."
However, the fanlight over the door, the arched window, and the elliptical
window in the gable are characteristic of the Neoclassical style known as
Federal. Designed by William Thornton, Woodlawn was completed in 1805.
American Federal houses have many of these features:
Low-pitched roof, or flat roof with a balustrade
Windows arranged symmetrically around a center doorway
Semicircular fanlight over the front door
Narrow side windows flanking the front door
Decorative crown or roof over front door
Tooth-like dentil moldings in the cornice
Palladian window
Circular or elliptical windows
Decorative swags and garlands
Oval rooms and arches

     •These architects are known for their Federalist
     Charles Bulfinch
     Samuel McIntyre
     Alexander Perris
     William Thorton
About the Federal Style
Like much of America's architecture, the Federal (or Federalist)
style has its roots in England. Two British brothers named Adam
adapted the pragmatic Georgian style, adding swags, garlands,
urns, and other delicate details. In the American colonies, homes
and public buildings also took on graceful airs. Inspired by the
work of the Adam brothers and also by the great temples of
ancient Greece and Rome, Americans began to build homes with
Palladian windows, circular or elliptical windows, recessed wall
arches, and oval-shaped rooms. This new Federal style became
associated with America's evolving national identity.
It's easy to confuse Federalist architecture with the earlier
Georgian Colonial style. The difference is in the details: While
Georgian homes are square and angular, a Federal style building
is more likely to have curved lines and decorative flourishes.
Federalist architecture was the favored style in the United States
from about 1780 until the 1830s. However, Federalist details are
often incorporated into modern American homes. Look past the
vinyl siding, and you may see a fanlight or the elegant arch of a
Palladian window.
•With details reminiscent of the Parthenon, stately, pillared Greek
Revival homes reflect a passion for antiquity. Here are facts and
photos for the classic style that still shapes the way we build.

Greek Revival
1825 - 1890
•Greek Revival houses usually have
         these features:

        •Pedimented gable

        •Symmetrical shape

          • Heavy cornice

         •Wide, plain frieze

       •Bold, simple moldings
•Many Greek Revival houses also have these
Entry porch with columns
Decorative pilasters
Narrow windows around front door

•In the mid-19th century, many prosperous Americans believed that
ancient Greece represented the spirit of democracy.

•Interest in British styles had waned during the bitter War of 1812.
Also, many Americans sympathized with Greece's own struggles for
independence in the 1820's.

•Greek Revival architecture began with public buildings in

•Many European-trained architects designed in the popular Grecian
style, and the fashion spread via carpenter's guides and pattern
•Colonnaded Greek Revival mansions -- sometimes called
Southern Colonial houses -- sprang up throughout the
American south. With its classic clapboard exterior and
bold, simple lines, Greek Revival architecture became the
most predominant housing style in the United States.

  •The fashion became known as the National Style.
  During the second half of the 19th century, Gothic
  Revival and Italianate styles captured the American
  imagination. Grecian ideas faded from popularity.
  However, front-gable design -- a trademark of the
  Greek Revival style -- continued to influence the shape
  of American houses well into the 20th century.
•Boothie's Dry Goods Store in Peninula, Ohio
occupies an 1820's Greek Revival home.
The restored building has an entry on the
side of the building, facing the old Ohio-Erie Canal.
Photo courtesy of the National Archives and Records
Examples of Greek Revival Homes:
Long Branch Estate
Belle Meade Plantation
                   •Antebellum Architecture
                   c. 1830 - 1862

The term Antebellum stirs thoughts of Tara, the palatial plantation home
featured in Gone with the Wind. From grand, pillared Greek Revival
mansions to stately Federal style estates, America's antebellum
architecture reflects the power and idealism of wealthy landowners in the
American South, prior to the Civil War.
Antebellum houses have many of these features:
  •Hipped or gabled roof
  •Symmetrical façade
  •Evenly-spaced windows
  •Greek pillars and columns
  •Elaborate friezes
  •Covered porch
  •Central entryway
  •Grand staircase
  •Formal ballroom
About Antebellum Architecture

Antebellum isn't so much an individual house style as an
architectural time and place.
Antebellum, Latin for "before war," refers to elegant
plantation homes built in the American South in the 30
years or so preceding the Civil War.
Antebellum homes are essentially in the Greek Revival,
Classical Revival, or Federal style: grand, symmetrical,
and boxy, with center entrances in the front and rear,
balconies, and columns or pillars.
The features we associate with Antebellum architecture
were introduced to the American South by Anglo-
Americans who moved into the area after the Louisiana
Purchase in 1803.
                   Gothic Revival
Medieval traditions mingled with modern methods to create
 these whimsical Victorian homes, built between 1840 and
•Sir Horace Walpole started it.
•In the mid-1700s, the English author got it into his head
to redo his country home with arched windows,
battlements and other pseudo-Gothic details.
•Walpole's house, located at Strawberry Hill near
Twickenham, became a model for Medievalism.

•The romantic new style was a welcome change from the
stately, symmetrical architecture of the day.
•By the 1800s, fashionable houses throughout England
began to resemble churches, convents and storybook
•Queen Victoria took delight in these fanciful Gothic
Revival buildings.
On the other side of the Atlantic, New York
architect Alexander Jackson Davis was
evangelical about the ecclesiastical style.

He published floor plans and three-
dimensional views in his 1837 book, Rural
Residences (compare prices).

His design for Lyndhurst, an imposing
country estate in Tarrytown, New York,
became a showplace for the Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival Features Found at Lyndhurst:

  •Steeply pitched roof
  •Pointed windows with decorative tracery
  •Grouped chimneys
  •Battlements and shaped parapets
  •Leaded glass
  •Quatrefoil and clover shaped windows
  •Oriel windows
  •Asymmetrical floor plan
Most private homes in the United States did not
follow Gothic models this faithfully.

However a series of pattern books by another
popular designer -- Andrew Jackson Downing --
captured the imagination of a country already
swept up in the romantic movement.

Houses across North America -- especially in
rural areas -- began to sport gothic garb.

Clever builders developed a frivolous, most un-
churchlike adaptation known as Carpenter Gothic.

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