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CRITICAL THINKING

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CRITICAL THINKING Powered By Docstoc
					   UNIT 6 CRITICAL
          THINKING
At the end of this session:

 YOU WILL UNDERSTAND THE ESSENTIAL
  ELEMENTS OF CRITICAL THINKING AND
  APPLY THOSE PRINCIPLES TO DEVELOP
 CRITICAL THINKING ORIENTATION AND
 ABILITY BOTH IN THE CONTEXT OF LEARNING
 AND WORKING SITUATIONS

 UNDERSTAND THE STYLE AND PROCESS OF
 PROBLEM SOLVING AND USING A PROBLEM
 SOLVING CYCLE FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE
 PROBLEM SOLVING EFFECTIVENESS
THINKING ABOUT OUR THINKING
 MUCH OF OUR THINKING LEFT TO ITSELF
  IS BIASED, DISTORTED, UNIMFORMED, OR
  DOWNRIGHT PREJUDICED!

 THE QUALITY OF OUR LIFE AND THAT WE
  PRODUCE, MAKE OR BUILD DEPENDS ON
  THE QUALITY OF OUR THINKING

 SHODDY THINKING IS COSTLY, BOTH IN
  MONEY AND OUR QUALITY OF WORK AND
  LIFE
             DEFINITION OF CT


Critical thinking is that mode of thinking about a subject,
or problem in which the thinker improves the quality of his
or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures
inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards
upon them
   ABILITIES OF A CRITICAL THINKER

According to Ennis, a competent critical thinker will do the
following:
  Judge the credibility of sources
  Identify conclusions, reasons, and assumptions
  Judge the quality of an argument, including the
  acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence
  Develop and defend a position on an issue
  Ask appropriate clarifying questions
   Define terms in a way appropriate for the context
  Be open minded
  Try to be well informed
  Draw conclusions when warranted, but with caution
 GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING CT

The following 8points should be observed:
 Avoid making inaccurate generalisations, such as
  women are too emotional
 Avoid oversimplifying complex problem
 Accept that diversity of opinions exists
  Remain open to new or stronger ideas
 Withhold judgement until you are sure
  Evaluate for yourself the opinions of authorities
 Ask questions for clarification when speaking with
 someone who holds opposing views
 Avoid stereotyped thinking
      PROBLEM SOLVING STYLE
Your problem solving style is influence by two dimensions
namely TIMING and ANALYSIS


Arising from the TIMING dimension your style is either
  REACTIVE or ANTICIPATORY / PROACTIVE


Arising from the ANALYSIS dimension your style is either
   REFLECTIVE or IMPULSIVE
   PROBLEM SOLVING STYLE GRID
                           TIMING
              Reactive                        Anticipatory


             Extinct by Instinct     Burning Bridges
 Impulsive
                                     Ahead of You

ANALYSIS                       Creative
                              Creative
                            Procrastination
                           Procrastination
              Paralysis
              By                        Premature
Reflective    Analysis                  Panic
  Your problem solving style
The Four general extremes of problem solving styles are:

When you are overly REACTIVE, you tend to be
 PARALYSIS by ANALYSIS and EXTINCT by
INSTINCT

When you are overly ANTICIPATORY, you tend to be
PREMATURE PANIC and BURNING BRIDGES
AHEAD of YOU
CREATIVE PROCRASTINATION


THE EFFECTIVE COMBINATION AND BALANCE
OF TIMING AND ANALYSIS IS CRITICAL TO
EFFECTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING.

DECISION MAKING SHOULD BE PREMEDIATED
RATHER THAN ACCIDENTAL DECISION MAKING
                 ACTIVITY
EXAMINE THIS MODEL THAT HAS JUST BEING
PRESENTED AND ASSESS YOUR OWN PROBLEM
SOLVING STYLE.

WHERE DOES YOUR GENERAL APPROACH TO
SOLVING PROBLEM AND DECISION MAKING
FIT IN THE GRID?

HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT YOUR EFFECTIVENESS
IN THIS CRITICAL AREA OF FUNCTIONAL THINKING?

WHAT AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT DO YOU FEEL YOU NEED?
      PROBLEM SOLVING &
      THOUGHT PROCESSES
Psychologists have identified two distinctive thought
processes associated with problem solving namely:

          DIVERGENT THINKING
               and
         CONVERGENT THINKING
       DIVERGENT THINKING

STATING THE PROBLEM IN VARIOUS FORMS


    LOOKING AT IT FROM VARIOUS VIEW POINTS


       QUESTIONING & REQUESTIONING BASIC FACTS


                     IDENTIFYING KEY FACTORS


                      GATHERING MORE FACTS AND IDEAS


                        GENERATING VARIOUS OPTIONS FOR
                             SOLVING THE PROBLEM
   CONVERGENT THINKING

NARROWS DOWN THE PROBLEM


CASTS OUT VARIOUS OPTIONS, SELECT FEW



    ZEROS IN ON KEY FACTORS AND ANALYSES THEM



              EVALUATES OPTIONS TO MAKE CHOICES
PROBLEM SOLVING CYCLE

             Problem
              Stating
Problem                 Option
Finding                 Finding



Evaluating
Results                  Deciding
              Taking
              Action
                  REFLECTION
In your problem solving process, do you have a
Framework that you systematically work through
in order to reach a convince state of mind that you
have thoroughly investigated and dealt with the
problem and resolved it?

What are some of the processes and steps in the above
model that you are already practicing?

Which are the areas that you need to focus on and improve
further?
 De Bono’s SIX THINKING HATS

A powerful and effective tool used to examine decisions
from a HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE.




It forces the user to move away from ‘in the box’ habitual
thinking to the ‘out of the box’ and more rounded view
and thinking of a situation under consideration
6 THINKING HATS
FOCUS ON FACT AVAILABLE




USING FEELINGS& EMOTIONS




CONSIDER THE NEGATIVE POINTS
6 THINKING HATS

THINK POSITIVELY, SEE BENEFITS



THINK FREELY, CREATIVITY,
BRAIN STORM IDEAS


PROCESS CONTROL EXERCISE BY
THE CHAIR
          SEQUENCE?
              INITIAL


EACH OPTION


                        SEE IF THERE ARE
                        MORE OPTIONS



                               FINAL
WHICH OPTION                   ROUND UP
IS THE BEST
                   ACTIVITY
Using 6 Thinking Hats technique attempt to problem
Solved the following case:

The directors of a pharmaceutical company are
looking at whether they should withdraw from the
market a best selling drug due to a major defect in
the packaging which may have serious side effects
on the users.

				
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