Connectors

Document Sample
Connectors Powered By Docstoc
					Connectors
                       Connectors


     host! /p intoxicat! or dr*nk! or alcohol! /s guest


•   After you have decided on the terms that you will use in your
    search, the next step is to connect each key term and its
    alternatives with the other key terms and their alternatives.

•   A connector specifies the relationship between the terms on
    either side of the connector.
  The Most Commonly Used Connectors
                         Space = Or

         host! /p intoxicat! dr*nk! alcohol! /s guest
                               or
       host! /p intoxicat! or dr*nk! or alcohol! /s guest

• A space between two terms means “or”.

• You could type in the word “or” if that is easier to remember.

• In the query above, host! and guest are required terms along
  with the expansion of any one, two, or three of the terms
  intoxicat! or dr*nk! or alcohol!.
   The Most Commonly Used Connectors

                     /p = Same Paragraph

           host! /p intoxicat! dr*nk! alcohol! /s guest

• The /p connector requires that the terms on one side of the /p
  connector be in the same paragraph as the terms on the other
  side of the connector. No particular order is required.

• In the above search any expansion of host! must be in the same
  paragraph as any expansion of intoxicat! or dr*nk! or alcohol!
  (or any expansions of the any two or all three of the alternative
  terms).
  The Most Commonly Used Connectors
                    /s = Same Sentence

         host! /p intoxicat! dr*nk! alcohol! /s guest

• The /s connector requires that the terms on one side of the /s
  connector be in the same sentence as the terms on the other
  side of the connector. No particular order is required.

• In the query above, guest must be in the same sentence of the
  expansion of any one intoxicat! or dr*nk! or alcohol! (or any
  expansions of the any two or all three of the alternative terms).
                 More Connectors:
                  & = Same Document

 host! /p intoxicat! dr*nk! alcohol! /s guest & insurance

• The & connector requires that the terms on one side of the
  & connector be in the same document as the terms on the
  other side, whether two terms or 200 pages apart.

• A document with good on page two and faith on page 50
  most likely won’t be discussing a good-faith issue.

   The & connector is valuable only in limited situations.
                More Connectors:

                 & = Same Document
   The & connector is valuable in the following situations.

• If you think one term in your query may not appear near
  your other query terms in the documents you want to
  retrieve, use the & connector.

      host! /p intoxicat! dr*nk! alcohol! & insurance

• Use the & connector when you are searching for terms in
  several sections of the document. (More about this type of
  search later).
                  More Connectors
             Quotation Marks (“ ”) = Phrase
• Quotation marks around a phrase or term of art, such as
  “limited liability”, are used only when the concept is
  invariably stated the same way each time it is used.

• Consider whether the phrase could appear another way,
  such as “liability was limited”.

• A safer search would be to require limited and liability to
  be within the same sentence or within a specified number
  or words of each other.
                  More Connectors

                  /n = Number of Terms
• /n requires that the terms on one side of the /n connector
  be within a certain number of terms of those on the other
  side. No particular order is required and grammatical
  structure is ignored.
                      liability /3 limited
• N represents any number between 1 and 250, for
  example, /3 or /150.

•    /n is most often used when the words on either side should
    be fairly close together but are not invariably in the same
    order. liability /3 limited would retrieve both limited
    liability and liability was limited.
                  More Connectors
       The Plus Connectors (+) Order the Terms
• +s, +p/, +n connectors require that the terms on the left of
  the connector precede the terms on the right within the
  specified relationship.
                   under-ground +4 tank

• This query requires that underground precedes tank by no
  more than four words. Any word(s) can appear between
  storage and tank.

• This connector is often used when a word must appear
  twice within the specified relationship. jones +5 jones
  could be used to find references to Jones v. Jones.
       Connectors and Expanders Reference List


               Connectors/Expanders




A full list of all connectors
and expanders with brief
explanations of their
use can be accessed
from the Search page in
westlaw.com.®
              Reordering Connectors
                     Use of Parentheses

• Words within parentheses are processed first and then
  treated as a unit.

• (defect! /s design!) “product liability” retrieves either
  any expansion of defect within the same sentence as any
  extension of design or “product liability”.

• Parentheses are useful when you are searching for citations
  to multiple statutes: (42 +3 1981) (15 +3 311) will retrieve
  mention of 42 USCA 1981 or 15 USCA 311.
                       Your Turn

All the passengers getting off a flight from Miami are taken to
    a small room at the airport by the Miami police. They are
     questioned and their clothing and luggage are searched.

• What is the legal issue?

      Can police detain passengers search and seize their
        clothing and luggage without probable cause.

• What are your key terms?
  search! seiz! /s clothing luggage back-pack /p airport air-
  plane plane & “probable cause”

  “search and seizure” /p airport air-plane plane /p clothing
  luggage back-pack /p “probable cause”

• Above are two possible searches. There are many other
  possible searches.

• Neither search is right or wrong. Usually it takes a few
  tries before you retrieve the number of documents you
  need to feel confident that you have found enough relevant
  documents to continue your research, but not so many as to
  be overwhelming.
                  Your Turn Again

Senator Jones has been insisting that the right to contribute
  any amount to to a political candidate is constitutionally
  protected and any limitation would be a violation of the
     First Amendment right of free speech. Is he right?

• What is the legal issue? Pick out the key terms, add
  reasonable alternatives, and decide on the connectors that
  will join each term and its alternative with the other
  terms and their alternatives.

        You probably won’t have a problem at all!

				
DOCUMENT INFO