Document Sample

  America: Past and Present
         Chapter 8
    Republican Identities in a
         New Republic
   An age of rapid population growth
    – 7.2 million in 1810; two million more than
    – 20% black slaves
    – children under 16 the largest single group
   Strong regional identities
   Early secession movements threaten
    national unity
North America in 1800
        Westward the Course of
   Intense migration to West after 1790
   New States
    –   Kentucky--1792
    –   Tennessee--1796
    –   Ohio--1803
   Western regional culture rootless,
Native American Resistance

   Western settlers compete for Indian land
   Indians resist
    –   Tecumseh leads Shawnees, defeated
    –   Creeks defeated
   Settlers reject Indian-White coexistence
Commercial Life in the Cities

   Economy based on agriculture and trade
   American shipping prospers 1793-1805
   Cities associated with international trade,
    otherwise marginal role in national life
   Industrialization and mechanization just
    beginning to frighten skilled craftsmen
    Jefferson as President

   Jefferson personifies Republicanism’s
   Despises ceremonies and formality
   Dedicated to intellectual pursuits
   A politician to the core
   Success depends on cooperation with
       Jeffersonian Reforms

   Priority to cutting federal debt, taxes
   Federal expenses trimmed by cutting
   Reduction of the army removes threat to
    Republican government
   Competent bureaucrats retained
    regardless of party
   Federalists retire from public life
   Ambitious Federalists become Republicans
      The Louisiana Purchase

   1801--France buys Louisiana from Spain
   1803--Jefferson sends a mission to France
    to buy New Orleans
   Napoleon offers to sell all of Louisiana for
    $15 million
   Constitution vague on Congressional
    authority to purchase
   Purchase departs from Republican
    principle of strict separation
The Louisiana Purchase (2)

   Louisiana inhabitants French & Spanish
   Jefferson denies them self-rule
   Louisiana governed from Washington
   Another Jeffersonian departure from
        The Lewis and Clark
   Lewis and Clark Expedition commissioned
    prior to purchase of Louisiana
   Expedition left St. Louis May 1804 and
    reached the Pacific Ocean November 1805
   Report on Louisiana’s economic promise
    confirms Jefferson's desire to purchase
 The Louisiana Purchase and
the Route of Lewis and Clark
    Conflict With the Barbary
   North African states demand tribute from
    ships sailing in Mediterranean
   Jefferson dispatches U.S. fleet to
    “negotiate through the mouth of a
   U.S. cannot defeat the Barbary States
   Action induces respect for U.S. rights
The Barbary States
          Jefferson’s Critics

   Dispute over federal court system
   Conflicts between Republicans
   Sectional dispute over the slave trade
       Attack on the Judges:
           Judiciary Act
   Judiciary Act of 1801 creates new circuit
    courts filled with loyal Federalists
   1802--Jeffersonians repeal Judiciary Act of
    1801 to abolish courts
   Federalists charge violation of judges’
    Constitutional right of tenure
       Attack on the Judges:
         Marbury v. Madison
   Marbury v. Madison (1803) rules Judiciary
    Act of 1789 unconstitutional
   Federalist Marbury denied his judgeship
   Republicans claim victory
   Chief Justice John Marshall ensures
    Federalist influence through judicial review
       Attack on the Judges:
   1803--Federalist John Pickering
    impeached, removed for alcoholism,
   Republicans begin fearing the destruction
    of an independent judiciary
   Jefferson exacerbates fears by seeking to
    impeach Federalist Samuel Chase
   Republican Senate refuses to convict
      Politics of Desperation:
          “Tertium Quids”
   "Tertium Quids" claim pure Republicanism
   Attack Jefferson as sacrificing virtue for
        Politics of Desperation:
        The Yazoo Controversy
   Yazoo controversy
    –   fraudulent land case in Georgia
    –   Jefferson attempts to settle by providing land
        to innocent parties
    –   Quids complain settlement condones fraud
   Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
    –   Marshall court upholds Jefferson’s settlement
    –   court may nullify unconstitutional state laws
Murder and Conspiracy: The
Curious Career of Aaron Burr
   Vice-President Aaron Burr breaks with
   1804--Burr seeks Federalist support in
    1804 New York governor’s race
   Alexander Hamilton blocks Burr’s efforts
   Burr kills Hamilton in a duel
        The Burr Conspiracy

   Burr flees West after Hamilton duel
   Schemes to invade Spanish territory
   Burr arrested, tried for treason
   John Marshall acquits on Constitutional
    grounds of insufficient evidence
   Precedent makes it difficult for presidents
    to use charge of treason as a political tool
           The Slave Trade

   Congress prohibits slave trade after 1808
   Northern Republicans call for
    emancipation of any black smuggled into
    the U.S.
   Southern Republicans win passage of law
    to hand such persons over to state
    Embarrassments Overseas

   1803--England and France resume war
   American ships subject to seizure
    –   by England through “Orders in Council"
    –   by Napoleon through Berlin, Milan Decrees
   Jefferson refuses war to preserve financial
   Embargo--Jefferson’s alternative to war
Embargo Divides the Nation

   1807--Congress prohibits U.S. ships from
    leaving port
   Purpose: to win English, French respect
    for American rights
   Embargo unpopular at home
    –   detailed government oversight of commerce
    –   army suppresses smuggling
    –   New England economy damaged
        A New Administration Goes
                to War
   1808--James Madison elected President
   1809--Embargo repealed in favor of Non-
    Intercourse Act
    –   U.S. will resume trade with England and
        France on promise to cease seizure of U.S.
A New Administration Goes
       to War (2)
   Madison reopens English trade on
    unconfirmed promise of British minister
   English reject agreement, seize U.S. ships
    that opened trade with England
A New Administration Goes
       to War (2)
   Macon’s Bill Number Two replaces the
    Non-Intercourse Act
   Trade with both England and France
   First nation to respect American rights
    wins halt of U.S. trade with the other
   Napoleon promises to observe U.S. rights
    but reneges when trade reopened
    Fumbling Toward Conflict

   Tecumseh’s Western campaign seen as
    supported by British
   Congressional War Hawks demand war on
    England to preserve American honor
   June 1, 1812, Madison sends Congress a
    declaration of war
   War aims vague
    The Strange War of 1812:
          Early Course
   Americans unprepared for war
    –   Congress refuses to raise wartime taxes
    –   New England refuses to support war effort
    –   United States Army small
    –   state militias inadequate
   1813--U.S. wins control of Great Lakes in
    Battle of Put-In Bay
       Strange War of 1812:
       The War’s Conclusion
   1814--three-pronged English attack
    – campaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley
      stopped at Lake Champlain
    – campaign in the Chesapeake results in
      burning of Washington, siege of Baltimore
    – campaign for New Orleans thwarted by
      Andrew Jackson, January, 1815
   Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814
The War of 1812
    Hartford Convention: The
    Demise of the Federalists
   Federalists convene December, 1814
   Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen
    power of South and West
   Treaty of Ghent, victory of New Orleans
    makes Convention appear disloyal
   Federalist party never recovers
     Treaty of Ghent Ends the
   Most problems left unaddressed
   Senate unanimously ratifies Treaty of
   Americans claim success in a "second war
    of independence"
            Republican Legacy

   Founders begin to pass away in 1820s
   Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both
    die July 4, 1826
   James Madison dies in 1836
    –   despairs that Declaration’s principles not yet
        extended to African Americans