Biological and Health Effects of RF Radiation

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Biological and Health Effects of RF Radiation Powered By Docstoc
					Effects of RF Radiation on
Human Health and Disease

      Stephen K. Frankel, MD
       Assistant Professor of Medicine
National Jewish Medical and Research Center
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
       Introductory Remarks
• Credentials
• All studies have limitations.
• Prudence and public safety should take
  priority when making public policy decisions
• An absence of data does not equal negative
 Are there potential serious health risks
    associated with locating wireless
transmission towers in residential areas?
  • Long-term, low intensity exposures
  • Biological plausibility
  • Epidemiological evidence
 Non-thermal biological effects of RF radiation
exist and occur at doses previously thought to be
   safe. Thermal effects alone should not be
 considered an acceptable readout of biological
                 effects in 2003.
           Biological Plausibility
•   DNA damage
•   Generation of reactive oxygen species (free radicals)
•   Calcium flux, membrane potential and ion channels
•   Alterations of cell proliferation and transformation
•   Heat shock proteins (markers of cell stress)
•   Alterations in immunity
•   Signal transduction effects
    Reported Health Effects
•   Adult and childhood leukemia
•   Brain cancer
•   Infertility
•   Altered immune function
•   Neurological and developmental
 Epidemiological Data Suggesting a
  Correlation between low dose RF
      Radiation and Leukemia
• Italian Study: Increased incidence of childhood
  leukemia (2.2 X) (2002)
• Australian Study: Increased incidence of
  childhood leukemia (1.58) and mortality (2.32)
• Hawaiian Honolulu Study: Increased incidence of
  leukemia (1.58 men, 1.45 women)
• British Study (Sutton-Coldfield): Increased risk of
  leukemia with increasing proximity to source
            RF and Cancer:
           Occupational Data
• Savitz et. al.: Leukemia and brain cancer in
  electrical utility workers
• Grayson et al.: Air Force personnel and
  brain cancer risk.
• Kheifets et. al.: Increased incidence of brain
  cancer in persons occupationally exposed to
  electric and magnetic fields
 CSU Lookout Mountain Study
• 1998 CDPHE study identified increased rates
  of brain cancer on Lookout Mountain
• 1999 CDPHE study reported a statistically
  significant increase in brain and CNS cancer.
• 2001 CSU awarded $713,000 NIH grant to
  study, ―Human Reponses to Residential RF
  Exposure‖ in the Lookout Mountain
  residential community
  CSU Lookout Mountain Study
• 300 persons, including children.
• Careful exposure measurements
• Blood and urine collected for melatonin and
  other biomarkers of disease and carcinogenesis
• Informed consent and institutional oversight
  for protection of human subjects
 CSU Lookout Mountain Study
       Current Status

• Study is still in the data collection phase
• Results will be released in the form of a
  peer-reviewed manuscript in late 2005 or
―While the CDPHE study cannot be interpreted
    to mean that exposures to radiofrequency
    emanating from the antennas on Lookout
Mountain necessarily caused the brain cancers in
 each of these persons, the data are sufficiently
 strong to merit further investigation and to use
   care and prudence in making decisions that
 might result in any increase in radiofrequency
      radiation exposure to the community.‖
                       John S. Reif, DVM, MSc
                      Professor of Epidemiology
            Chairman, Department of Environmental Health
                      Colorado State University
• RF radiation induces irreversible infertility
  in mice-- Magras and Xenos, 1997
• Danish military personnel study shows that
  personnel exposed to RFR emitting radar
  systems have significantly lower sperm
  counts--Hjollund et. al., 1997
     Altered Immune Function
• Altered immune function plays a critical
  role in immune (tumor) surveillance,
  autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases.
• Boscolo, et. al. 2001. San Silvestri study
  showed abnormal reductions in lymphocyte
  populations in women with residential RF
  exposure to TV Broadcast Antennas
Neurological and Developmental
• School children living in the area of the
  Skrunda radio location station had less
  developed memory and attention, slowed
  reaction time, and decreased neuromuscular
  endurance– Kolodynski and Kolodynska, 1996
• People who lived and worked near radio
  antennae and radar installations showed
  deficits in psychological and short-term
  memory tests—Chiang, 1989
• There is a real and very concerning body of
  evidence suggesting that RF radiation at doses
  within FCC guidelines have biological
  significance and serious and harmful health
• Until more definitive data can demonstrate the
  safety of locating such facilities in residential
  areas, it would be prudent to locate new such
  facilities away from residential populations