BIO 733: FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

Digestive System
   1.     What are the other names for the alimentary canal? What structures are included in the
          alimentary canal?
   2.     What are the 4 layers of the canal? What are the digestive system functions and what does
          each function mean?
   3.     What are the boundaries of the oral cavity? What types of digestion occur there? What are
          papilla? What are found in the papilla? Which tonsils are found here? What is the opening
          between the oral cavity and oropharynx called? What is the function of the uvula?
   4.     Where do the salivary glands empty their secretions? What is the main component of saliva?
          What is a bolus? What is the function of saliva?
   5.     Be familiar with both deciduous and permanent teeth. How many teeth in each? What are
          wisdom teeth? What are the crown and root? What is the outer part of a crown composed of?
   6.     Be familiar with where the pharynx is located, what portions are air only and which are both air
          and food passageways. Know what structure closes off the nasopharynx from having food
          enter it. Know what part of the pharynx the adenoids and auditory tube are located in.
   7.     Where is the esophagus located (compared to trachea)? What structure does it have to pierce
          to get to the stomach? What is a hiatal hernia? What is acid reflux/GERD and what causes it?
   8.     Where is the stomach located? How large is it when empty? What structure allows it to
          stretch? Where are the four parts of the stomach located? What is unique about the
          muscularis of the stomach? What is chyme and how quickly is it emptied into the small
   9.     What is the peritoneum? Know the different subdivisions of the peritoneum. What is peritonitis
          and what can cause it?
   10.    How long are the regions of the small intestine? What is the main digestive activity that occurs
          here? What are villi, plica circularis, and microvilli & what do they do? What is a lacteal?
   11.    Be familiar with the parts of the large intestine & its functions. Why is it “large” compared to
          the small intestine? What part of the colon contains the appendix?
   12.    What is significant about the fact that there is an internal and external sphincter of the anal
          canal? What are teniae coli, haustra? Be able to identify them in a picture. What is
          appendicitis and what can cause it? What are symptoms? Why is this potentially a serious
   13.    What is the structure and location of the liver. What is bile? What are the cells of the liver and
          what are their functions?
   14.    Where is the gallbladder located? What is the function of the gallbladder?
   15.    Be familiar with location and digestive function of pancreas. Where do the accessory organs
          empty their chemicals into?

Respiratory System
   1.     Be familiar with the definitions of inspiration and expiration and what happens to air during
          each process. What do we mean by upper and lower respiratory tract?
   2.     What four bones contain the paranasal sinuses? Where do the sinuses drain into?
   3.     What is the pharynx? What part of the pharynx is an air only passageway? What parts are
          common passageways for air and food? Be familiar with the boundaries of each of the three
          regions and what structures are found in each region (tonsils, openings, etc.)
   4.     What is the larynx made of? What is the opening of the larynx called and what closes this
          opening when we swallow food? What is the difference between the true and false vocal
   5.     What structures does the trachea connect? Where is its location compared to the esophagus?
          Why are the cartilage rings found on the trachea incomplete?
   6.     What is the bronchial tree? What are the branches? What structures are found at the end of
          the branches? What is asthma and what lung structures are affected by asthma?
   7.     How many lobes in each lung? How does the structure of the lungs get smaller to the point of
          the alveoli?
   8.     What are alveoli? How many are found in the lungs? What is their function?
   9.     Be familiar with the gross anatomy of the lungs. Be familiar with the serous membranes called
          pleura – both structurally and functionally. What are the boundaries of the thoracic cavity?
Urinary System
   1.     What structure produces urine? What structures make up the urinary tract? Be familiar with
          the parts of the kidneys listed on your handout.
   2.     Be familiar with the structure of a nephron, knowing that it is a system of tubules associated
          with three capillary beds. What is the renal corpuscle? How many nephrons are found in the
          kidney? Can nephrons be repaired or replaced?
   3.     What is unique about the glomerulus as a capillary bed? What other capillary beds surround a
   4.     Be familiar with the location of the ureters and where they exit the kidney. Where do they
          enter the bladder?
   5.     What is the muscle found in the wall of the bladder? How much urine can be stored in the
          bladder? What is the trigone?
   6.     Know the definition of micturition. What is the structural and functional difference between the
          internal and external urethral sphincter? Why is the difference between the male and female
          urethra significant when discussing urinary tract infections? Be familiar with the three regions
          of the male urethra.
   7.     Know how much kidney damage can be sustained before noticing changes in urination habits.
          What happens to the remaining kidney if the other becomes damaged or donated?
   8.     What are the changes associated with aging and the urinary system?

Reproductive System
   1.     What is meant by the term “homologue?” What are the gonads in males and females? What
          are the gametes? What hormones are associated with the reproductive system in each sex?
   2.     What are the changes that happen at puberty? How many gametes are produced comparing
          females to males?
   3.     Be familiar with the reproductive anatomy of the female and male, including both primary and
          accessory sex organs. When is a female’s supply of eggs determined? What are follicles?
          How many are present in females: at birth, at puberty. How many oocytes are typically
          released during a female’s reproductive life cycle? What is atresia? What is menopause?
   4.     Be familiar with the location and function of the uterine tubes. What are the functions of the
          uterus and vagina? Be familiar with the external genitalia of females, including male
          homologues. What are the components of breast milk?
   5.     What is the function(s) of the scrotum? Why is temperature of the testes important? What
          muscles are associated with the scrotum.
   6.     Where are sperm produced? What do Leydig cells produce? What is the spermatic cord?
   7.     Be familiar with the anatomy of the epididymis and ductus deferens. Review urethra anatomy.
          What are the functions of the accessory glands? What are the components of semen? What
          is an average volume and how many sperm are found in each ejaculation?
   8.     What aging changes are associated with the reproductive system?

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