Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology

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Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology Powered By Docstoc
					Introduction to
Environmental and Agricultural Science

Lesson Title:        Biotechnology


NE Career Field/     Environmental and Agricultural SystemsAgriculture, Food, and Natural ResourcesWhat
Career Cluster/      is Environmental and Agricultural Systems
Career Pathway:

Overview             This lesson presents an overview of the Food Science Industry. Learners will learn about
                     proper nutrition, create informational flyers on food-borne pathogenic organisms, and create
                     their very own food product label.


Student Learning     Objective 1: Learners will discuss historic applications of biotechnology in agriculture.
Objectives:
                     Objective 2: Learners will model the process of fermentation through the making of sauerkraut.

                     Objective 3: Learners will extract DNA from an onion.


Course Outcomes      Technical Content, Experiential Learning, Agricultural Awareness, Agriculture Literacy


Content Standards
(NE L.E.A.R.N.S.)    AE 12.5.8 Plant Systems, AE 12.3.5 Animal Systems

                     A1: Work independently and in group settings to get things done; A8: Evaluate and reflect on action
Leadership
                     taken; B2: Interact and work with others; B5: Participate effectively as a team member; J1: Think
Standards
                     critically; N2: Demonstrate Problem-solving Skills
(LifeKnowledge)
                     Bio, Improvement by Selection, Selective Breeding, Genetics, Heredity, Recessive,
Key Terms            Dominant, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, base, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, Gene, Gene
                     Mapping, Gene Splicing, Clone, Ice-minus, X-Gal, Bovine Somatotropin, Porcine
                     Somatotropin, Insulin

Time:                Five 45-minute lessons. Additional time needed for Jeopardy Game, review, and
                     assessment.

                                                                                   th
Resource(s):         Delmar Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications Text, 4 addition.


Tools, Equipment,    Activity Sheets 1 (Make-Your-Own-Sauerkraut PDF) and 2 (1 each per student), Assessment,
and Supplies:        Assessment Key, Biotechnology PowerPoint, Jeopardy Game PowerPoint

                     See Activity Sheets 1 and 2 for supplies needed.


Early Work           Who invented the steel moldboard plow?

                     Pass out samples of bread, cheese, and yogurt to students. As they are snacking on the food
Interest Approach:   products, ask them:


                                                                                                                    Page 1 of 11
                          What do these three food products have in common?

                         Solicit learner responses and write them on the board. Initiate a discussion that food scientists
                         need different living organisms to make the food that you eat (i.e., yeast to make bread rise,
                         bacteria in the production of cheese and yogurt, etc.).

                          Bread, cheese, and yogurt all require living organisms in order to magically turn into a food
                           product that you like to eat! Today, we are going to learn more about the application of
                           living organisms to make products or processes happen. Basically, we’ll be learning about
                           biotechnology!

                     Objective 1: Learners will discuss historic applications of biotechnology in agriculture.
Summary of Content
for Objective 1      The following information can be found in the corresponding PowerPoint. Go through PowerPoint.

                         Introduction

                            Biotechnology is a tool of agriscience

                            Promises unprecedented advancements

                            Has real dangers

                            Definition of Biotechnology

                         Historic Applications

                            Living organisms have been used for centuries to alter and improve the quality and types
                             of food for humans and animals

                                 Yeast to make bread rise

                                 Bacteria to ferment sauerkraut

                                 Bacteria to produce cheese and other dairy products

                                 Microorganisms to make alcoholic beverages

                                 Bacteria in silage production

                         Improving Plant and Animal Performance

                            Improvement by Selection

                            Improvement by Genetics

                            Improvement by Biotechnology

                         Improvement by Selection

                            Soon followed domestication of the dog, horse, sheep, goat, ox and other animals
                             thousands of years ago

                            Purchasing, selling, bartering and trading got people animals with desirable traits

                            Mating plants and animals with desirable traits resulted in selective breeding

                            Historical evidence in the development of the horse

                         Improvement by Genetics


                                                                                                                   Page 2 of 11
   Gregor Johann Mendel

   Austrian Monk who is credited with discovering the effect of genetics on plant
    characteristics

   Experimented with garden peas

   Published findings in 1866

   People didn’t pay much attention

Improvement by Genetics

   Mendel’s work would have been lost if not recorded

   1900 other scientist reviewed, built upon his observations, and conclusions

   Today Gregor Johann Mendel is credited for discovering the principles of heredity

Improvement by Biotechnology

   Improvement by manipulating the genetic content of cells

   Permits more choices for the researcher, more rapid observation of results

   New capability with amazing implications

DNA—Genetic Code of Life

   Over 300,000 kinds of plants

   Over 1 million kinds of animals

   All are different in some ways

   All plants and animals are alike in some ways

   All contain DNA

DNA—Genetic Code of Life

   Cloning is common scientific knowledge

   Early 1980’s Genetic Engineering developed

   Discovery credited to James Watson and Francis Crick.

   Rosalind Franklin actually deserves most of the credit.

       function

       composition

       transmitter of hereditary information

DNA—Genetic Code of Life

   DNA occurs in pairs of strands intertwined

   Connected by chemicals called bases

                                                                                        Page 3 of 11
   Likened to the two sides of a wire ladder

   Bases likened to the rungs and include:

       Adenine      (A)

       Guanine      (G)

       Cytosine     (C)

       Thymine      (T)

DNA—Genetic Code of Life

   Examples of traits:

       hair color

       tendency for baldness

       height of plants at maturity

       tendency of females to have twins

   Gene Splicing

   Gene Mapping

Solving Problems with Microbes

   Microscopic plants and animals lend themselves to genetic engineering

   Produce quickly and can be genetically engineered to produce products need by other
    plants, animals, and humans

   One of first commercial products was insulin

       Used by people with diabetes to control their blood sugar levels

Improving Plants and Animals

   1988- first use of ice-minus

   1988 use of genetically altered bacteria for Dutch Elm Disease

   BST and PST

   Roundup and Liberty Ready corn and soybeans

   BT Corn

Improving Plants and Animals

   Genetic engineering and other forms of biotechnology hold great promise in controlling:

       Diseases

       Insects

       Weeds

                                                                                      Page 4 of 11
                                  Other pests

                             Environment will be enhanced

                          Waste Management

                             Environmental Pollution is a major problem

                             Landfills are becoming full

                             Old dump sites are creating problems

                             Waste is piling up

                             Sewage and chemical disposal is a constant problem

                          Waste Management

                             Genetically altered bacteria are used to feed on oil slicks and spills

                             Bacteria are being developed to decompose or deactivate dioxin, PCBs, insecticides,
                              herbicides, and other chemicals

                             Bacteria are under development to convert solid wastes into sugars and fuel

                          Safety in Biotechnology

                             Federal and state governments monitor biotechnology closely

                             Fear of genetically modified organisms

                             Policies, procedures and laws have been developed

                             Gaining in public confidence

                      Objective 2: Learners will model the process of fermentation through the making of sauerkraut.
Summary of Content
for Objective 2            One historic application of Biotechnology is the fermentation of Sauerkraut! Today, we
                            are going to start this age-old application of Biotechnology as we make sauerkraut!

                      Pass out Activity Sheet 1 (Make-Your-Own-Sauerkraut PDF). Go through activity with students. It
                      may be helpful to split students into teams so that teams can monitor their own cabbage
                      fermentation. A plastic, clean, ice-cream bucket may serve as a great container for fermentation.


Summary of Content    Objective 3: Learners will extract DNA from an onion.
for Objective 3
                           To review, what does DNA stand for? Yes, that’s it! Deoxyribonucleic Acid! We are
                            actually going to “see” DNA as we extract it from an onion!

                      Pass out DNA Extraction Activity Sheet 2. Go through the activity with students. Make sure
                      students wear appropriate safety goggles. For additional experiments, students can try to extract
                      DNA from other fruits or vegetables. For example, it is easy to extract DNA from strawberries and
                      kiwi fruit.


Review:               To review material taught within this biotechnology unit, divide students into teams and play
                      Biotechnology Jeopardy!


Extended Classroom/   Learners can build DNA models using kit DNA Kit A # 17-1055 from Carolina Biological
                                                                                                                Page 5 of 11
Laboratory Activity:   Supply Company. Cost is $11.50/model.

                       Learners can make their own cheese through fermentation using Cheesemaking Your Whey
                       Kit # 36 V 6227 from Ward’s Natural Science Supply Company. Cost is $62.50 for a
                       classroom kit.


Extended
                       Learners may wish to become involved in the Agriscience CDE.
FFA/Leadership
Activity:

Extended               Learners may wish to gain employment at a genetics laboratory on the campus of a
SAE/Experiential       community college or university.
Activity:

Assessment:            Biotechnology Quiz


Assessment Answer      Attached
Key/Rubric:




                                                                                                          Page 6 of 11
Activity Sheet 2


                      ONION DNA EXTRACTION


Materials
     fresh onions
                                          coffee filters
     graduated cylinders (10ml and 100ml)
                                          non-iodized salt
     knife
                                          Adolph's natural meat tenderizer
     15-ml test tube
                                          Palmolive detergent
     blender
                                          beaker
     test tube rack or 250 ml beaker
                                          distilled water
     strainer
                                          ice cold 95% ethanol
     glass stirring rod

Solutions
  Detergent/salt solution:
        20 ml detergent
        20 g non-iodized salt
        180 ml distilled water
  5% meat tenderizer solution:
        5 g meat tenderizer
        95 ml distilled water

Protocol

   1. Cut an inch square out of the center of 3 medium onions. Chop and place
      in a blender.
   2. Add 100 ml of detergent/salt solution.
   3. Blend on high 30 sec-1 minute.
   4. Strain the mixture into a beaker using a strainer with a coffee filter.
   5. Add 20-30 ml meat tenderizer and stir to mix.
   6. Place 6 ml filtrate in a test tube.
   7. Pour 6 ml ice cold ethanol carefully down the side of the tube to form a
      layer.
   8. Let the mixture sit undisturbed 2-3 minutes until bubbling stops.
   9. The DNA will float in the alcohol. Swirl a glass stirring rod at the interface
      of the two layers to see the small threads of DNA.

Modified from: "Isolation of DNA from Onion" Ellen Averill




                                                                                 Page 7 of 11
Assessment

                                  Biotechnology Quiz

NAME________________________________________________________


  1. What is DNA? Spell it out and describe what it is.



  2. Who was the “Father of Genetics?”



  3. Circle the FOUR bases found in DNA.

     Thymine               Porcine               Proline               Methionine
     Lysine                Adenine               Guanine               Cysteine
     Cortosine             Glycine               Tyrosine              Cytosine
     Alanine               Serine                Isoleucine            Threonine


  4. List four ways BIOTECHNOLOGY is related to agriculture. They all must be specific
     and different from one another.




  5. Why are some people scared of biotechnology?



  6. What specific plants did Mendel work with in his scientific experiments?



  7. What is Ice-Minus, and how is it related to biotechnology?



  8. Please describe how biotechnology can help in waste control.



  9. What shape is a strand of DNA?


  10. List one characteristic Mendel was observing when working with these specific plants.


                                                                                    Page 8 of 11
MATCHING. Match each word with its appropriate description by writing the correct letter
on the corresponding line.


_________1.       Bio                                a. the process of removing and
                                                     inserting genes in cells

_________2.       Clone                              b. Credited with discovering that
                                                     DNA was in a double helix form

_________3.       Gene splicing                      c. chemical used to control blood
                                                     sugar levels

_________4.      Improvement by selection            d. Life

_________5.      Insulin                             e. Exact duplicate

_________6.      Mutation                            f. Finding and recording the
                                                     locations of genes in cells

_________7.      Watson and Crick                    g. Actually discovered that DNA
                                                     occurs in a double helix

_________8.      Gene mapping                        h. Deletion

_________9.      Genetics                            i. Addition

_________10.     Heredity                            j. Any change that alters the
                                                     structure of DNA or the sequence of
                                                     a gene.

_________11.     AAG to AAT                          k. The biology of heredity;
                                                     concerned with genes, DNA; what
                                                     you are made up of

_________12.     TTG to TTAG                         l. The transmission of characteristics
                                                     from parent to offspring

_________13.     TTG to TG                           m. Picking the best parents for the
                                                     next generation

_________14.     Rosalind Franklin                    n. Substitution


_________15.     Bovine Somatotropin                 o. Hormone used in swine
                                                     production to increase meat on the
                                                     carcass.

_________16.     Porcine Somatotropin                p. Hormone used in dairy
                                                     production to increase amount of    Page 9 of 11
                                                     milk produced
Assessment Key
                                   Biotechnology Quiz Answer Key

NAME________________________________________________________


   1. What is DNA? Spell it out and describe what it is.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is the genetic code of life.

   2. Who was the “Father of Genetics?”

Gregor Mendel

   3. Circle the FOUR bases found in DNA.

       Thymine                 Porcine                Proline                Methionine
       Lysine                  Adenine                Guanine                Cysteine
       Cortosine               Glycine                Tyrosine               Cytosine
       Alanine                 Serine                 Isoleucine             Threonine


   4. List four ways BIOTECHNOLOGY is related to agriculture. They all must be specific and different
      from one another.
Answers may vary.

   5. Why are some people scared of biotechnology?
Answers may vary.

   6. What specific plants did Mendel work with in his scientific experiments?
Garden Pea Plants

    7. What is Ice-Minus, and how is it related to biotechnology?
Ice-minus is bacteria that was genetically altered to retard frost formation on plant leaves.


    8. Please describe how biotechnology can help in waste control.
Genetically altered bacteria are used to feed on oil slicks and spills to transform this serious pollutant into
less harmful products. Similarly, bacteria have been developed to decompose or deactivate dioxin, PCBs,
insecticides, herbicides, and other chemicals in our rivers, lakes, and streams. And, bacteria strains are under
development to convert solid waste from humans and livestock into sugars and fuels.

   9. What shape is a strand of DNA?
Double Helix

   10. List one characteristic Mendel was observing when working with these specific plants.
Plant Height, Flower Color




                                                                                                Page 10 of 11
MATCHING. Match each word with its appropriate description by writing the correct letter on the
corresponding line.


_____d____1.       Bio                               a. the process of removing and inserting genes
                                                     in cells

_____e____2.       Clone                             b. Credited with discovering that DNA was in a
                                                     double helix form

_____a____3.       Gene splicing                     c. chemical used to control blood sugar levels

_____m____4.     Improvement by selection            d. Life

_____c____5.     Insulin                             e. Exact duplicate

_____J____6.      Mutation                           f. Finding and recording the locations of genes
                                                     in cells

_____b____7.       Watson and Crick                  g. Actually discovered that DNA
                                                     occurs in a double helix

_____f____8.     Gene mapping                        h. Deletion

_____k____9.     Genetics                            i. Addition

_____l____10.     Heredity                           j. Any change that alters the structure of DNA or
                                                     the sequence of a gene.

_____n____11.      AAG to AAT                        k. The biology of heredity; concerned with
                                                     genes, DNA; what you are made up of

_____i____12.     TTG to TTAG                        l. The transmission of characteristics from
                                                     parent to offspring

_____h____13.      TTG to TG                         m. Picking the best parents for the next
                                                     generation

_____g____14.      Rosalind Franklin                   n. Substitution


_____p____15.      Bovine Somatotropin               o. Hormone used in swine production to
                                                     increase meat on the carcass.

_____o____16.      Porcine Somatotropin              p. Hormone used in dairy production to
                                                     increase amount of milk produced




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