Information Technology Usage by xds14834

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 8

More Info
									                                                                              INLS 782, Fall 2006


                     SYSTEM ADOPTION/IMPLEMENTATION/USE



How can use be equated with effectiveness?

       Assumption: system use is discretionary
       Assumption: more use is better

Self-reported measures of use

Direct observation of use

**Meredith: actual system usage
Devaraj, S., & Kohli, R. (2003). Performance impacts of information technology: Is actual usage
   the missing link? Management Science, 49(3), 273-289.


Alternative measures based on adoption/diffusion processes

       Adoption of a system
             When did an organization/user decide to acquire a particular system
             When did an organization/user actually acquire a particular system




              Rogers (1983), Figure 7-2 (from www.flickr.com/photos/coutorture/page139/)
                                                                            INLS 782, Fall 2006
                                           Adoption/use, individual/organizational impact, page 2

Diffusion of a system
       The "community" version of adoption
       The spread of adoption throughout a potential set of adopters




Implementation of a system
      Concerned with the process of implementing a system, i.e., its progression from
         development to routinization




       Rogers (1983), Figure 5-1, individual model: knowledge, persuasion, decision,
          implementation, confirmation
                                                                                                  INLS 782, Fall 2006
                                                                 Adoption/use, individual/organizational impact, page 3




                                             Decision to adopt

                          Initiation                                          Implementation




            Agenda-                                       Redefining/
                                       Matching                                 Clarifying       Routinizing
             Setting                                     Restructuring



        Rogers, 1983, Table 10-1

       Organizational model: agenda-setting, matching, redefining/restructuring,
          clarifying, routinizing


An alternative model: Technology Acceptance Model (discussed last week)


One of these adoption-focused alternatives might be more appropriate than level of use,
   in some situations
                                                                                               INLS 782, Fall 2006
                                                              Adoption/use, individual/organizational impact, page 4

                          IMPACTS ON THE INDIVIDUAL WORKER


Two general areas of interest: productivity and quality of work life

Productivity concerns: Is the worker more productive because s/he is using the system?

       Productivity (i.e., performance impact) is dependent on task-technology fit, per Goodhue
          & Thompson, 1995

                Goodhue & Thompson, 1995:
                Task-technology fit


                     Task
                 Characteristics
                                            Task-Technology                     Performance
                                                  Fit                             Impacts

                  Technology
                 Characteristics


                                                  Precursors of
                                                                             Utilization
                                                   Utilization




       Measurement of productivity of knowledge workers

               Generally based on their own perceptions of their productivity


       **Mark: decision making quality
       Leidner, D.E., & Elam, J.J. (1995). The impact of executive information systems on
          organizational design, intelligence, and decision making. Organization Science, 6(6),
          645-664.
                                                                                       INLS 782, Fall 2006
                                                      Adoption/use, individual/organizational impact, page 5

Quality of work life, including overall job satisfaction, etc.

       This outcome of system use is not always a goal for the system
       At other times, it is a very explicit goal, e.g., in sociotechnical systems design


**Gershom: job satisfaction
Ryker, R., & Nath, R. (1995). An empirical examination of the impact of computer information
   systems on users. Information & Management, 19, 207-214.


**Susan: financial distress
O'Neill, B., Sorhaindo, B., Prawitz, A., Kim, J., & Garman, E.T. (2006). Financial distress:
   Definition, effects and measurement. Consumer Interests Annual: Proceedings of the 52nd
   Annual Conference of the American Council on Consumer Interests, 52, 476-483.
                                                                                     INLS 782, Fall 2006
                                                    Adoption/use, individual/organizational impact, page 6

            ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS


What organizational impacts can a particular system be expected to have?

       Operational systems: efficiency within the units directly using the system

              List of operational benefits from Irani, 2002, Table 2
                      Reduced raw material inventory
                      Reduced levels of WIP
                      Reduced labor costs
                      Reduced manufacturing costs
                      Increased throughput
                      Improved data availability and reporting structure
                      Improved communication through ‘on-line’ order progressing
                      Improved product tractability
                      Formalized procedures with accountability and responsibility
                      Improved schedule adherence

       Tactical systems: better decisions, etc., may lead to gains over the long term

              List of tactical benefits from Irani, 2002, Table 2
                      Improved flexibility
                      Improved response to changes
                      Improved product quality
                      Improved organizational teamwork
                      Promotes concept of open culture
                      Improved integration with other business functions
                      Increased productivity
                      Increased plant efficiency
                      Reduced delivery lead-times
                      Reduced manufacturing lead-times
                      Improved capacity planning
                      Improved stability of MPS
                      Improved data management
                      Improved manufacturing control
                      Improved accuracy of decisions
                                                                                                            INLS 782, Fall 2006
                                                                           Adoption/use, individual/organizational impact, page 7

       Strategic systems: competitive advantage

                List of strategic benefits from Irani, 2002, Table 2
                        Improved growth and success
                        Leader in new technology
                        Improved market share
                        Market leadership
                        Enhanced competitive advantage

Impacts along the value chain

                          Supplier
                                            Purchased
                                              parts
                                Orders to
                                suppliers
                                                                              Finished goods                                       THE FIRM

                                                               Actual &
                            Product
             Design         design
                                            Produce           forecasted          Sell                    Deliver            Service
                                                                orders



                                                                                                                        Service
                                                                                         Orders
                                                                                                                        request
                                                                                                       Customer            Equipment
                                                Preferences
                                                                                                                           information
        Alter, 1996, Fig. 2.3




The linkage between IT investment and organizational performance is not simple



                                                                                 IT conversion
                                                                                 effectiveness




              IT                          IT                           IT                           IT              Organizational
          governance                  investment                   deployment                     usage              performance



         McKeen, Smith, & Parent, 1999, Fig. 7
                                                                                    INLS 782, Fall 2006
                                                   Adoption/use, individual/organizational impact, page 8

**Jesse: organizational impact – perceptions of impact
Majchrzak, A., Wagner, C., & Yates, D. (2006). Corporate wiki users: Results of a survey.
   Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis, 99-104.

       Individuals’ perceptions of benefits to organization (common)
              Items in Table 1, last section
              Presumes wiki is a knowledge-sharing tool


**Meredith: organizationa impact – revenue?
Devaraj, S., & Kohli, R. (2003). Performance impacts of information technology: Is actual usage
   the missing link? Management Science, 49(3), 273-289.

       In hospital, used mortality and revenue as indicators of organizational performance
       What are the appropriate indicators for the law school?



REFERENCES
Devaraj, S., & Kohli, R. (2003). Performance impacts of information technology: Is actual usage
    the missing link? Management Science, 49(3), 273-289.
Goodhue, D. L., & Thompson, R. L. (1995). Task-technology fit and individual performance.
    MIS Quarterly, 19(2): 213-236.
Irani, Z. (2002). Information systems evaluation: navigating through the problem domain.
    Information & Management, 40(1), 11-24.
Leidner, D.E., & Elam, J.J. (1995). The imact of executive information systems on organizational
    design, intelligence, and decision making. Organization Science, 6(6), 645-664.
Majchrzak, A., Wagner, C., & Yates, D. (2006). Corporate wiki users: Results of a survey.
    Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis, 99-104.
O'Neill, B., Sorhaindo, B., Prawitz, A., Kim, J., & Garman, E.T. (2006). Financial distress:
    Definition, effects and measurement. Consumer Interests Annual: Proceedings of the 52nd
    Annual Conference of the American Council on Consumer Interests, 52, 476-483.
    [http://www.consumerinterests.org/i4a/pages/Index.cfm?pageid=4208]
Rogers, E. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. 4th ed. New York: Free Press.
Ryker, R., & Nath, R. (1995). An empirical examination of the impact of computer information
    systems on users. Information & Management, 19, 207-214.
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of
    information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.

								
To top