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					                           European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation
                           Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes
                                                                                                                                                                   06-12953
                           Guidelines on Pest Risk Analysis                                                                                                   P IAS Point 7.2
                           Lignes directrices pour l'analyse du risque phytosanitaire

                           Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests


         PEST RISK ANALYSIS FOR SICYOS ANGULATUS
                                                                               The terms are used according to the IPPC Glossary of phytosanitary terms (ISPM n° 5)

Pest risk analyst:
EPPO Secretariat
   Acknowledgments to
     JF Larché (FR), jf-
    larche@enitab.fr; S
        Kurokawa (JP),
   shunji@affrc.go.jp; A
         Taberner (ES),
 ataberner@gencat.net
    and JM Tison (FR),
      jmt6@wanadoo.fr

Draft 25 July 2006

  Stage 1: Initiation

1 What is the reason for performing the PRA?          Identification of a Sicyos angulatus is recognized as an invasive plant in Spain and in other countries of the world.
                                                      single pest         The “Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya” (DOGC nùm. 4315 – 03/02/2005) declares that
                                                                          S. angulatus is officially recognized to be present in the region of Catalunya (ES) and establishes
                                                                          obligatory control measures.
2 Enter the name of the pest                                             Sicyos angulatus L.
2A Indicate the type of the pest                      plant
2B Indicate the taxonomic position                                       Plantae - Cucurbitaceae
3 Clearly define the PRA area                                            The EPPO Region



                                                                                                                                                               1
4 Does a relevant earlier PRA exist?                no


      Stage 2A: Pest Risk Assessment - Pest categorization

5A If you are sure that the pest clearly presents   Go to main Pest
a risk, or that in any case a full Pest Risk        Risk
Assessment is required, you can omit this           Assessment
section and proceed directly to the main Pest
Risk Assessment section.



                        Section 2B: Pest Risk Assessment - Probability of introduction/spread and of potential economic consequences

 Note: If the most important pathway is             Continue with questions of entry
intentional import, do not consider entry, but go
directly to establishment. Spread from the
intended habitat to the unintended habitat,
which is an important judgement for
intentionally imported organisms, is covered by
questions 1.33 and 1.35.
1.2 Note down the relevant pathways, then           few               Intentional introduction for ornamental or agricultural purposes as a climber vine.
                                                                                                                                                               th
estimate the total number of distinct pathways,                       The plant was imported into many European countries as a decorative plant in the 19 century, but
by multiplying the number of relevant pathways                        it is no longer recorded as being sold (PPP index, RHS Plant Index).
by the number of relevant origins and the                             It has been used as a rootstock for cucumbers grown under glass in Europe, but it is not
number of relevant end uses.                                          clear how important this is now in practice.
                                                                      Seed is not produced anymore and the plant not used as a rootstock in the regular production.
                                                                      M. Steeghs (Dutch NPPO, pers. com.) reports that seed is not produced anymore and the plant is
                                                                      not used as a rootstock in the regular production. Seed is still used for the Biologically grown
                                                                      cucumber. In the Netherlands there might be 2 producers of biological grown plants.
                                                                      At the moment there is research work going on to find a more suitable Sicyos angulatus selection
                                                                      reducing the increase of the population of Melodogyne spp. during production.
                                                                      This pathway is unlikely.

                                                                      Unintentional introduction with consignments of grains of Zea mays, Sorghum spp. and Glycine
                                                                      max. It has once been recorded in Spain in a sunflower abandoned field, but this data seems
                                                                      anecdotic and is not taken into account.


                                                                                                                                                        2
                                                              In Norway, it entered as a contaminant of consignments of soybean grain imported from the USA in
                                                              the 1970s and 1980s (Ouren, 1987), whereas in Japan it probably entered via consignments of feed
                                                              grain imported from the USA (Kurokawa, 2001).

                                                              Unintentional introduction as a contaminant on footwear and clothes.
                                                              The fruits can easily hang on people’s clothes and shoes.

                                                              Soil/growing medium (with organic matters) as a commodity.

                                                              Soil as a contaminant on used machinery
                                                              Infestation by movements of agricultural machineries have been observed in the south-west of
                                                              France (pers. com. JF Larché, 2006).

                                                              In France, farmers suspect the plant to have entered by seeds coming from North America (pers.
                                                              com. JF Larché, 2006), but in Japan, a study has shown that the weed has never been found in
                                                              consignments of seeds (Kurokawa, 2001). Furthermore, the seed is 1 cm long and considering the
                                                              processes of production of seeds, it is quite improbable that the seed would be a contaminant.

                                                              It is quoted as being an oil-seed and bird seed (Clement & Foster, 1994) contaminant. These uses
                                                              could therefore facilitate the spread of the species in a country. No more information was found on
                                                              this pathway.

                                                              The plant can be introduced and spread by farmers’ seeds and hay but it only ensures local and
                                                              national movements.
                                                              The plant can be spread naturally by mammals and birds and also by water, but this pathway is not
                                                              analysed.

                                                              There are about 4 pathways, the plant is occurring in USA (many states), Canada, China, Japan,
                                                              Republic of Korea and some EPPO countries. The number of pathways is inferior to 100, but trade
                                                              with USA concerns huge volumes.

1.3 Describe this pathway                                     Unintentional introduction with grain of Zea mays, Sorghum spp. and Glycine max.
1.4 Is the prevalence of the pest on the pathway     likely   S. angulatus is characteristically a weed of maize (mainly), soybean and sorghum crops.
at origin likely to be high, taking into account              Fructification of S. angulatus occurs from August to October in the US, and from September to
factors like the prevalence of the pest at origin,            October in Spain (A. Taberner, pers. com.).
the life stages of the pest, the period of the                Zea mays for grain is harvested from October to November, seeds of the weed could be present in
year?                                                         the harvest. In south-western France, irrigated maize is the only crop in which S. angulatus is
                                                              recorded as a weed.
                                                              Sorghum spp. is a spring crop harvested in summer. Fruits of the weed are therefore not likely to be


                                                                                                                                                   3
                                                                     mature while the crop is harvested.
                                                                     Glycine max is harvested from July to October, seeds of the weed could therefore occur in the crop.
                                                                     Kurokawa found that one seed of S. angulatus was found in a consignment of soybean from the
                                                                     USA (pers. com., 2006). It is also suspected that the first introduction of the species into the Tama-
                                                                     river (in Tokyo) isderived from the contaminants of soybean (imported) dumped by tofu factory into
                                                                     the riverside (S Kurokawa, pers. com., 2006).

1.5 Is the prevalence of the pest on the pathway     likely          Herbicide treatments in the field could affect the weed, but the plant is known to be difficult to
at origin likely to be high, taking into account                     control.
factors like cultivation practices, treatment of                     There are no requirements on grain.
consignments?
1.6 How large is the volume of the movement          major           Maize: According to FAOSTAT, as an example, in 2004, European Union (25) imported 12.925.879
along the pathway?                                                   Mt of maize (from unknown sources, but a great part is supposed to be from North-America where
                                                                     the weed is native).

                                                                     Soybean: According to FAOSTAT, the total world area of soybean harvested in 2003 was 83.6
                                                                     million ha and production of soybeans was 189 million t. The USA has 35% of the total area
                                                                     harvested and of total world production (CABI Crop Compendium).
1.7 How frequent is the movement along the           frequent        /
pathway?
1.8 How likely is the pest to survive during         very likely     The seeds can survive for long periods in the soil and seed dormancy is likely to be a factor in their
transport /storage?                                                  persistence (Penn State Weed management Website). Consignments of maize and soybean are
                                                                     transported in favourable conditions for the grain and therefore for the seeds of contaminants such
                                                                     as S. angulatus.
1.9 How likely is the pest to multiply/increase in   very unlikely   Seeds do not multiply.
prevalence during transport /storage?

1.10 How likely is the pest to survive or remain     likely          There are no specific requirements for maize or soybean grain. In Spain, destruction of the plant is
undetected during existing phytosanitary                             mandatory when found but there are no inspections of imported consignments of maize or soybean
measures?                                                            for S. angulatus.
1.10A Is the pathway being considered a              commodity
commodity pathway, or natural spread?                pathway
1.11 How widely is the commodity to be               very widely     Maize: According to FAOSTAT, importations of Zea mays occur in almost all the countries of the
distributed throughout the PRA area?                                 European Union and of the North African countries.

                                                                     Soybean: According to FAOSTAT, many countries import “soybean cakes”. For example, Germany
                                                                     imports 2,782,000 tones, Austria 483,489 tones, Ireland 305,384 tones, Croatia 132,982 tones, Italy



                                                                                                                                                              4
                                                                      2,702,949 tones, Finland 80,334 tones, Morocco 31,284 tones, the Netherlands 4,505,524 tones,
                                                                      France 4,244,622 tones, Ukraine 85,482 tones, etc.
1.12 Do consignments arrive at a suitable time of yes                 The seeds can germinate throughout the entire growing season (Pheloung et al., 1999). The seeds
year for pest establishment?                                          can survive for long periods in the soil and seed dormancy is likely to be a factor in their
                                                                      persistence.
1.13 How likely is the pest to be able to transfer   Moderately       Seeds of the pest may escape during storage and transport of the consignement.
from the pathway to a suitable host or habitat?      likely

1.14 How likely is the intended use of the           likely           In a study made in Japan on maize (Kurokawa, 2004), route of exotic weed seeds from the port to
commodity (e.g. processing, consumption,                              the field have been analysed:
planting, disposal of waste, by-products) to aid                      - At the feed factory, imported grains used as feedstock are processed in many ways: mechanical
transfer to a suitable host or habitat?                               crushing (>2 mm, pelletized steaming at 70-80°C after crushing, heated under pressure to 130°C, 3
                                                                      atm). Most grains receive only the first treatment, which does not affect seed viability. It is not
                                                                      known whether the same processes are used in the EPPO region.
                                                                      - Passing the digestive system of animals showed to be promoting the germination of the weed
                                                                      seeds studied, comprising S. angulatus.
                                                                      - Sometimes animal manure is composted by farmers. If fermentation is not complete or the manure
                                                                      is applied directly onto fields, no weed seeds are killed.

1.15 Do other pathways need to be considered?        yes (return to
                                                     question 1.3
                                                     for next
                                                     pathway)
1.3 Describe this pathway                                             Unintentional introduction as a contaminant on people’s footwear and clothes
1.4 Is the prevalence of the pest on the pathway     Moderatly        The fruit has hard spines that very easily hang on footwear and clothes.
at origin likely to be high, taking into account     likely
factors like the prevalence of the pest at origin,
the life stages of the pest, the period of the
year?
1.5 Is the prevalence of the pest on the pathway     Not relevant
at origin likely to be high, taking into account
factors like cultivation practices, treatment of
consignments?
1.6 How large is the volume of the movement          moderate         People may travel over short distances and even over long distances and therefore locally or
along the pathway?                                                    internationally spread the plant. International movements of people travelling (ex. for tourism) are
                                                                      high. They may travel by cars, train, and plane (ex: from Spain to France).



                                                                                                                                                             5
1.7 How frequent is the movement along the           frequent         Movement of people in the European Union are frequent.
pathway?
1.8 How likely is the pest to survive during         likely           The seeds can survive for long periods. The seeds are likely to be protected by the fruit.
transport /storage?
1.9 How likely is the pest to multiply/increase in   very unlikely    Seeds do not multiply.
prevalence during transport /storage?

1.10 How likely is the pest to survive or remain     Very likely      There are no specific requirements for movement of people.
undetected during existing phytosanitary
measures?
1.10A Is the pathway being considered a              Natural spread
commodity pathway, or natural spread?
1.13 How likely is the pest to be able to transfer   Moderatly        The probability for the fruit to be able to transfer from clothes is unlikely but is moderately likely for
from the pathway to a suitable host or habitat?      likely           shoes. According to Jean-Marc Tison, the spines of the fruits could fall at maturity, allowing the fruit
                                                                      to stand out.
1.15 Do other pathways need to be considered?        yes (return to
                                                     question 1.3
                                                     for next
                                                     pathway)
1.3 Describe this pathway                                             Soil/growing medium (with organic matters) as a commodity.

1.4 Is the prevalence of the pest on the pathway     Moderatly        S. angulatus mostly grows as a weed of field crops (maize, soybean), or along roads and railways
at origin likely to be high, taking into account     likely           and in waste lands, i.e. in man-managed environments, but it is also found in semi-natural habitats
factors like the prevalence of the pest at origin,                    (banks of inland waterways and water bodies, swamps, thickets, openings in floodplain forests,
the life stages of the pest, the period of the                        moist meadows in floodplain areas, etc.).
year?                                                                 If the growing medium is taken from one of these places, it could be contaminated with seeds of S.
                                                                      angulatus. Such pathway has not been recorded before.

1.5 Is the prevalence of the pest on the pathway     very unlikely    Soil sterilization could kill the seeds and roots, but it is not a common practice.
at origin likely to be high, taking into account
factors like cultivation practices, treatment of
consignments?
1.6 How large is the volume of the movement          minimal          The trade of soil is considered limited.
along the pathway?
1.7 How frequent is the movement along the           Infrequent       The trade of soil is considered limited.
pathway?



                                                                                                                                                                 6
1.8 How likely is the pest to survive during          very likely     The seeds can survive for long periods in the soil and seed dormancy is likely to be a factor in their
transport /storage?                                                   persistence (Penn State Weed management Website).
1.9 How likely is the pest to multiply/increase in    very unlikely   Seeds do not multiply.
prevalence during transport /storage?

1.10 How likely is the pest to survive or remain      Likely          EPPO EU Countries:
undetected during existing phytosanitary                              Turkey, Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and third countries not belonging to continental Europe,
measures?                                                             other than Egypt, Israel, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia are prohibited from importing soil into the EU.
                                                                      However, there are no specific requirements for soil or growing media coming from authorised
                                                                      countries (Spain, France,…)
                                                                      Seeds can easily remain undetected as no attention is paid to this species.

                                                                      In other EPPO countries, it is prohibited to import soil.

1.10A Is the pathway being considered a               commodity
commodity pathway, or natural spread?                 pathway
1.11 How widely is the commodity to be                widely          Soil could be traded in the whole EPPO area.
distributed throughout the PRA area?
1.12 Do consignments arrive at a suitable time of     yes             The seeds can germinate throughout the entire growing season (Pheloung et al., 1999).
year for pest establishment?
1.13 How likely is the pest to be able to transfer    likely          Contaminated soil can be used in all the suitable habitats of the plant. Then, the plant can spread
from the pathway to a suitable host or habitat?                       by natural spread to extend its range and reach other habitats.

1.14 How likely is the intended use of the            Not relevant.   /
commodity (e.g. processing, consumption,
planting, disposal of waste, by-products) to aid
transfer to a suitable host or habitat?
1.15 Do other pathways need to be considered?         yes

1.3 Describe this pathway                                             Soil as a contaminant on used machinery
1.4 Is the prevalence of the pest on the             likely           Infestation by movements of agricultural machineries have been observed in the south-west of
pathway at origin likely to be high, taking into                      France (pers. com. JF Larché, 2006).
account factors like the prevalence of the pest                       The spines of the fruits could greatly help the plant is hanging on machinery, maybe even without
at origin, the life stages of the pest, the period                    soil.
of the year?




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1.5 Is the prevalence of the pest on the             likely          It is assumed that there are rarely requirements for cleaning of agricultural used machinery nor tools
pathway at origin likely to be high, taking into                     and vehicles.
account factors like cultivation practices,
treatment of consignments?                                           If soil is removed from a contaminated place, the seeds may be present.
1.6 How large is the volume of the movement          no judgement    No data available.
along the pathway?
1.7 How frequent is the movement along the           no judgement    No data available.
pathway?
1.8 How likely is the pest to survive during         very likely     The seeds can germinate throughout the entire growing season (Pheloung et al., 1999), beginning
transport /storage?                                                  in March.
1.9 How likely is the pest to multiply/increase in   very unlikely   Seeds do not multiply.
prevalence during transport /storage?

1.10 How likely is the pest to survive or remain     very likely     Few measures are in place for soil as a contaminant.
undetected during existing phytosanitary
measures?

1.10A Is the pathway being considered a              commodity
commodity pathway, or natural spread?                pathway
1.11 How widely is the commodity to be               widely          Machinery could be sent everywhere in the PRA area.
distributed throughout the PRA area?
1.12 Do consignments arrive at a suitable time       yes             Whenever the arrival occurs, seeds can remain viable for several months.
of year for pest establishment?
1.13 How likely is the pest to be able to transfer   very likely     Used machinery is intended to be used in fields and is driven on roads. Fields and road sides are
from the pathway to a suitable host or habitat?                      very suitable habitats for the plant. It can be introduced there and then spread very easily to other
                                                                     suitable habitats.
1.14 How likely is the intended use of the       very likely         See previous question.
commodity (e.g. processing, consumption,
planting, disposal of waste, by-products) to aid
transfer to a suitable host or habitat?
1.15 Do other pathways need to be considered? no




                                                                                                                                                             8
The overall probability of entry should be                          The overall probability of entry of the plant is likely. The plant has already been introduced in many
described and risks presented by different                          EPPO countries (Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France (southwest), Germany, Hungary,
pathways should be identified.                                      Italy (northern, possibly also Sicilia), Moldova, Norway, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro,
                                                                    Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom).

                                                                        -   Intentional introduction for ornamental or agricultural purposes: unlikely

                                                                        -   Unintentional introduction with grain of Zea mays: likely

                                                                        -   Unintentional introduction with grain of Glycine max.: moderately likely

                                                                        -   Unintentional introduction with grain of Sorghum spp. : very unlikely

                                                                        -   Unintentional introduction as a contaminant on people’s footwear and clothes: moderately
                                                                            likely

                                                                        -   Unintentional introduction with soil/growing medium (with organic matters) as a commodity:
                                                                            unlikely

                                                                        -   Unintentional introduction with soil as a contaminant on used machinery: moderately likely


1.16 Specify the host plant species (for pests                      - Intensive and irrigated field crops (mainly maize in Europe, but also recorded in soybean and
directly affecting plants) or suitable habitats (for                sorgho in the US)
non parasitic plants) present in the PRA area.                      - Along roads and railways and in waste lands, i.e. in man-managed environments,
                                                                    - In semi-natural habitats (banks of inland waterways and water bodies, swamps, thickets, openings
                                                                    in floodplain forests, moist meadows in floodplain areas, etc.).
1.17 How widely distributed are the host plants        widely       These habitats are very common.
or suitable habitats in the PRA area? (specify)

1.18 If an alternate host is needed to complete        irrelevant   No alternate host needed.
the life cycle, how widespread are alternate host
plants in the PRA area?




                                                                                                                                                            9
1.19 Does the pest require other species for           no
critical stages in its life cycle such as
transmission, (e.g. vectors), growth (e.g. root
symbionts), reproduction (e.g. pollinators) or
spread (e.g. seed dispersers) ?

1.19A Specify the area where host plants (for                        Suitable habitats previously described are widespread in the whole EPPO area (man-managed
pests directly affecting plants) or suitable                         environments, unmanaged habitats).
habitats (for non parasitic plants) are present (cf.                 Intensive and irrigated field crops of maize, soybean and sorgho occur in the whole EPPO region,
QQ 1.16-1.19). This is the area for which the                        mainly in the south northern part of the European continent. It is not known whether the plant could
environment is to be assessed in this section. If                    colonize in Europe other crop than maize.
this area is much smaller than the PRA area, this
fact will be used in defining the endangered
area.
1.20 How similar are the climatic conditions that very similar       The plant is already present in Mediterranean climate (Spain, Croatia, Italy, Turkey), Atlantic (south-
would affect pest establishment, in the PRA area                     West of France) and temperate climates (United Kingdom, Hungary, Moldova, etc.).
and in the area of current distribution?                             Moreover, the preference of S. angulatus is full or partial sun, and moist conditions. It cannot grow
                                                                     in shade. Its hardiness zone is 9, i.e. it is frost-tender.

                                                                     The plant is considered a weed in almost all the EPPO countries where it is recorded.

1.21 How similar are other abiotic factors that  largely similar     S. angulatus has a preference for loamy or silty fertile soils, but will grow equally on acid, neutral or
would affect pest establishment, in the PRA area                     basic soils. It requires adequate soil moisture. These soils are largely distributed in the PRA area.
and in the current area of distribution?

1.22 If protected cultivation is important in the      No judgment   No record of infested protected cultivation has been reported.
PRA area, how often has the pest been recorded
on crops in protected cultivation elsewhere?

1.23 How likely is establishment to be prevented       unlikely      S. angulatus can smother native vegetation as it does for crops, but there is little direct information
by competition from existing species in the PRA                      on this. The plant has already showed its invasiveness in the PRA area.
area?
1.24 How likely is establishment to be prevented       moderately    In its area of native distribution, S. angulatus is a food plant for insects which feed on its foliage,
by natural enemies already present in the PRA          likely        stems or flowers. In the EPPO region nothing particular has been reported on natural enemies.
area?




                                                                                                                                                               10
1.25 To what extent is the managed environment Slightly             The entire PRA area is slightly favourable. Outbreaks have already been found in many EPPO
in the PRA area favourable for establishment?  favourable           countries.

1.26 How likely are existing control or husbandry moderately        Surface tillage destroys most emerged seedlings, but does not prevent further emergences of the
measures to prevent establishment of the pest? likely               seed bank in maize (Larché, 2004).
                                                                    In Japan, S. angulatus has proved difficult to control because currently registered herbicides are not
                                                                    sufficiently effective (Kurokawa, 2001).

1.27 How likely is it that the pest could be         Moderatly      Since S. angulatus is an annual, it should be possible to eliminate localized infestations by
eradicated from the PRA area ?                       likely         immediate treatment ensuring that no seeds are set. If a soil seed bank already exists, it may be
                                                                    difficult to determine that it has been completely eliminated. The plant has successfully been
                                                                    eradicated in Spain.
1.28 How likely is the reproductive strategy of      moderately     S. angulatus reproduces by seeds. In experiments, it was found that intact seeds of S. angulatus
the pest and the duration of its life cycle to aid   likely         failed to germinate and required mechanical scarification or stratification at 4C for 18 weeks to
establishment?                                                      modify the permeability of seed coat to increase germinability (Phelung et al., 1999). It is also
                                                                    recorded that the seeds can germinate throughout the entire growing season (Pheloung et al.,
                                                                    1999). S. angulatus is fast growing in early summer (up to 2 m in 3 weeks), capable of producing
                                                                    shoots up to 6 m long. Without competition, early spring (May)-established plants attained a fresh
                                                                    weight of up to 86 kg and could produce an average of more than 42 000 seeds per plant.
1.29 How likely are relatively small populations     moderately     There is no data available, but as the plant reproduces by seeds, the plant should be susceptible to
or populations of low genetic diversity to           likely         genetic diversity. However, the plant has proven to be able to establish and to become invasive in
become established?                                                 some EPPO Countries. Its high plasticity also shows that it is very adaptable.

1.30 How adaptable is the pest? Adaptability is:     high           The plant is geographically distributed in many different climates. It is also able to colonize different
                                                                    habitats and even semi-natural (unmanaged) habitats.

1.31 How often has the pest been introduced          occasionally   It is native from North-America and has been introduced in 15 countries of the EPPO region and 3
into new areas outside its original area of                         countries in Asia.
distribution? (specify the instances, if possible)

1.32 Even if permanent establishment of the pest                    Permanent establishment is possible.
is unlikely, how likely are transient populations
to occur in the PRA area through natural
migration or entry through man's activities
(including intentional release into the
environment) ?




                                                                                                                                                            11
1.33 How likely is the pest to spread rapidly in     moderately       The plant reproduces by seeds which can be produced in huge quantities (more than 42 000 seeds
the PRA area by natural means?                       likely           per plant without competition). Seeds have a dormancy.
                                                                      The plant colonizes riverbanks. Seeds of the plant are thought to be dispersed by water (S
                                                                      Kurokawa, pers. com., 2006, JF Larché, personal communication 2006). Kurokawa et al. 2006
                                                                      examined ISSR (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat) analysis on the S. angulatus populations widely
                                                                      distributed in Japan, in order to infer the genetic relationship among populations. Preliminary results
                                                                      seem to support seed dispersal by water.

1.34 How likely is the pest to spread rapidly in     likely           Dispersal can be done by agricultural practices for local movements. If the plant is used for
the PRA area by human assistance?                                     ornament, it will greatly help its spread. Contaminated consignments of maize would also help in its
                                                                      spread. People can very easily spread the plant as its spiny fruits hang on clothes and shoes.

1.35 How likely is it that the spread of the pest    likely           If the invasion is detected at an early stage, the plant could be contained.
could be contained within the PRA area?

 The overall probability of introduction and         Moderately       Probability of entry is very high as it is already present in many countries of the EPPO Region.
spread should be described. The probability of       high             Probability of spread is moderately high as the plant only reproduces by seeds and is mainly spread
introduction and spread may be expressed by                           by maize consignments. Regulation for management already exists in Spain.
comparison with PRAs on other pests.

1.36 Based on the answers to questions 1.16 to                        See question 1.19A.
1.35 identify the part of the PRA where presence                      According to a Climex matching climates with Bordeaux and Barcelona, where the plant is present
of host plants or suitable habitats and ecological                    and considered invasive, the temperate and Mediterranean area of the EPPO region are at high risk
factors favour the establishment and spread of                        (See annexe 1).
the pest to define the endangered area.

2.0 For the following questions, will you be         All
considering all hosts/habitats together or           hosts/habitats
specific case(s)?                                    together
2.1 How great a negative effect does the pest        moderate         S. angulatus is characteristically a weed of maize, soybean and sorghum crops. This is true in its
have on crop yield and/or quality to cultivated                       native range for all these crops (it is officially classified as a noxious weed in Delaware and Indiana,
plants or on control costs within its current area                    and as a weed in Kentucky and Nebraska), but mainly for maize crop in its introduced range in
of distribution?                                                      Europe. It is also recorded as a weed in Asia. It is not a strong competitor for light and nutrients,
                                                                      and so does not reduce yields by direct competition. However, as an aggressive vining plant, it pulls
                                                                      maize or soybean plants to the ground, making them unharvestable (one plant of S. angulatus can
                                                                      pull down 4 rows of maize). Studies in Japan suggest that the plant may also have allelopathic
                                                                      activity (Uraguchi et al., 2003).



                                                                                                                                                             12
                                                                S. angulatus is also a host of the polyphagous pest Heliothis virescens in North America (which
                                                                attacks field crops such as cotton, tobacco, legumes and vegetables). It has been suggested that S.
                                                                angulatus could contribute to the build-up of early season and over wintering populations of the pest
                                                                (Pheloung et al., 1999).

2.2 How great a negative effect is the pest likely   moderate   The same impacts are expected in maize.
to have on crop yield and/or quality in the PRA
area?
2.3 How great an increase in production costs        moderate   A part of the crop is impossible to harvest and therefore increases the costs of production.
(including control costs) is likely to be caused                Control costs may involve the use of additional herbicides and of surface tillage.
by the pest in the PRA area?                                    Control of associated insect pest may also increase the production costs.
2.4 How great a reduction in consumer demand         minimal    No reduction in consumer demand is expected.
is the pest likely to cause in the PRA area?

2.5 How important is environmental damage            moderate   S. angulatus smothers native vegetation as it does for crops. It colonizes semi-natural habitats such
caused by the pest within its current area of                   as riverbanks, canal sides and floodplains and have a negative environmental impact in these wet
distribution?                                                   habitats which are already vulnerable.
                                                                The plant has colonized the four major rivers of Korea (Kill et al., 2006).
2.6 How important is the environmental damage        moderate   The same environmental impacts are expected in the PRA area.
likely to be in the PRA area (see note for
question 2.5)?
2.7 How important is social damage caused by         minimal    No particular social impacts have been noted.
the pest within its current area of distribution?

2.8 How important is the social damage likely to     minimal    No particular social impacts are expected.
be in the PRA area?
2.9 How likely is the presence of the pest in the    unlikely   There is already legislation concerning this weed in Spain stating that destruction of the plant is
PRA area to cause losses in export markets?                     obligatory when found.
                                                                This intentional measure seems sufficient to contain the plant.




                                                                                                                                                     13
2.9A As noted in the introduction to section 2,     no
the evaluation of the following questions may
not be necessary if any of the responses to
questions 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6 or 2.8 is “major or
massive” or “likely or very likely”. In view of
these responses, is a detailed study of impacts
required?
2.15A Do you wish to consider the questions 2.1     No
to 2.15 again for further hosts/habitats?

2.16 Referring back to the conclusion on                          The countries are : Albania, Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
endangered area (1.36), identify the parts of the                 Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Morocco, Northern Ireland,
PRA area where the pest can establish and                         Republic of Macedonia, Jordan, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia,
which are economically most at risk.                              Spain, Switzerland, The Netherlands, The United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey.
2.16A Estimation of the probability of                            The following uncertainties have been identified :
introduction of a pest and of its economic                           - the precise longevity, germinability of the seeds and the effect of ingestion by animals,
consequences involves many uncertainties. In                         - The ability of the plant to colonize other fields than maize fields in the EPPO region or
particular, this estimation is an extrapolation                            elsewhere.
from the situation where the pest occurs to the                      - The ability to usually used herbicides to limit the establishment and spread of the weed.
hypothetical situation in the PRA area. It is
important to document the areas of uncertainty
and the degree of uncertainty in the assessment,
and to indicate where expert judgement has
been used. This is necessary for transparency
and may also be useful for identifying and
prioritizing research needs. It should be noted
that the assessment of the probability and
consequences of environmental hazards of
pests of uncultivated plants often involves
greater uncertainty than for pests of cultivated
plants. This is due to the lack of information,
additional complexity associated with
ecosystems, and variability associated with
pests, hosts or habitats.
 Evaluate the probability of entry and indicate     Very likely      -    Unintentional introduction with grain of Zea mays: likely / the risk is medium
the elements which make entry most likely or
those that make it least likely. Identify the                         -   Unintentional introduction with grain of Glycine max: moderately likely / the risk is low


                                                                                                                                                           14
pathways in order of risk and compare their
importance in practice.                                      -   Unintentional introduction as a contaminant on people’s footwear: moderately likely / the
                                                                 risk is low to medium

                                                             -   Unintentional introduction with soil as a contaminant on used machinery: moderately likely /
                                                                 the risk is low

                                                             -   Intentional introduction for ornamental purposes as a climber vine: moderately likely /
                                                                 unlikely / the risk is low

                                                             -   Soil/growing medium (with organic matters) as a commodity: unlikely / the risk is very low

                                                             -   Unintentional introduction with grain of Sorghum spp.: very unlikely / the risk is improbable

 Evaluate the probability of establishment, and likely   The presence of maize crops in the area where the plant is susceptible to enter would greatly
indicate the elements which make establishment           facilitate its establishment.
most likely or those that make it least likely.          Cultural practices such as tillage and the use of herbicides may limit the establishment of the weed.
Specify which part of the PRA area presents the
greatest risk of establishment.
 List the most important potential economic              S. angulatus is characteristically a weed of maize. It is not a strong competitor for light and
impacts, and estimate how likely they are to             nutrients, and so does not reduce yields by direct competition. However, as an aggressive vine
arise in the PRA area. Specify which part of the         plant, it pulls maize or soybean plants to the ground, making them impossible to harvest (one plant
PRA area is economically most at risk.                   of S. angulatus can pull down 4 rows of maize).

                                                         S. angulatus can smother native vegetation of semi-natural or unmanaged habitats such as
                                                         riverbanks, canal sides and floodplains and have a negative environmental impact in these wet
                                                         habitats.

                                                         The endangered area is the temperate and Mediterranean part of the EPPO Region, represented
                                                         by the following countries: Albania, Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
                                                         Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Morocco, Northern
                                                         Ireland, Republic of Macedonia, Jordan, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia,
                                                         Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, The Netherlands, The United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey.




                                                                                                                                               15
The risk assessor should give an overall           Sicyos angulatus is very likely to spread further within the endangered area and to cause moderate
conclusion on the pest risk assessment and an      economic impacts on maize crop. It would also have detrimental environmental effects.
opinion as to whether the pest or pathway
assessed is an appropriate candidate for stage 3
of the PRA: the selection of risk management
options, and an estimation of the pest risk
associated.




                                                                                                                                      16
 Stage 3: Pest risk Management
Pathway 1                                                                 Trade of the plant for ornamental and agricultural purposes
3.2 Is the pathway that is being considered a commodity of plants yes
and plant products?
3.28 Are there effective measures that could be taken in the yes          National measures are identified (see EPPO PM3 ”Guidelines for the management of
importing country (surveillance, eradication) to prevent                  invasive alien plants or potentially invasive alien plants which are intended for import or
establishment and/or economic or other impacts?                           have been intentionally imported”).
                                                                          Even if the probability of entry by trade of the plant for ornamental and agricultural
                                                                          purposes is unlikely, these general measures are helpful for all the pathways identified.
                                                                                   Prohibition of import for ornamental or agricultural uses
                                                                                   publicity
                                                                          Publicity should be produced to inform the farmers about the threats and incite them to
                                                                          report monitor/survey the area, report findings and to have good practices that will not
                                                                          allow the spread of the plant. The plant should not be confused with non invasive plants
                                                                          such as Bryonia spp. or Cucumis spp.
                                                                                   monitoring/surveillance
                                                                          Eradication and monitoring/surveillance should be organized where the plant is known to
                                                                          be present but not widespread and also where the plant is established.
                                                                          On infested sites, especially irrigated maize fields and riverbanks, it should be monitored
                                                                          regularly (every year, at the stage of easy identification and before fructification) and
                                                                          eradicated when possible or contained. Treated and adjacent areas must be carefully
                                                                          examined for new seedlings. The example of the Spanish surveillance and eradication
                                                                          could be given to other countries (see Taberner et al., 2005).
                                                                                   emergency plan: quick eradication response when the plant is found
                                                                                   Management and containment where the plant is established
                                                                          In the countries where it is widespread such as France, the plant should be managed
                                                                          (identification of potential biological agents and experiments, mechanical control, etc.)
                                                                                   declaration that S. angulatus is a quickly spreading alien invasive plant,
                                                                                   obligations to report findings
                                                                                   prohibition of planting
                                                                                   prohibition of movement
                                                                                   prohibition of sale
                                                                                   prohibition of holding
3.29. Have any measures been identified during the present          yes   see measures cited in 3.28
analysis that will reduce the risk of introduction of the pest?
3.30. Taking each of the measures identified individually, does any no    Taking measures individually is not sufficient.
measure on its own reduce the risk to an acceptable level?



                                                                                                                                                       17
3.31. For those measures that do not reduce the risk to an            yes   Prohibition of import, trade, planting, holding and movement of the plant in the EPPO
acceptable level, can two or more measures be combined to                   countries has to be combined with monitoring and management actions, and possibly
reduce the risk to an acceptable level?                                     with information to farmers.
3.33. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of               Precise information on the trade of this plant is lacking. However, it does only seem to be
measures) being considered interfere with trade.                            traded extremely marginally.
3.34. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of               The plant has detrimental effects on agriculture and environment. The marginal trade of
measures) being considered are cost-effective, or have                      this plant would neither justify nor balance these costs.
undesirable social or environmental consequences.                           Monitoring, information and management are cost-effective as the plant has economical
                                                                            effects on maize. This is already done in Spain.

3.35. Have measures (or combination of measures) been                 yes   Prohibition of import, trade, planting, holding and movement of the plant in all the EPPO
identified that reduce the risk for this pathway, and do not unduly         countries at risk.
interfere with trade, are cost-effective and have no undesirable
social or environmental consequences?                                       Eradication and monitoring/surveillance in the countries where it is present but not very
                                                                            widespread.

                                                                            Management, monitoring/surveillance, publicity, obligation of reporting findings in the
                                                                            countries where it is invasive and widespread.

3.36. Envisage prohibiting the pathway                                yes   Prohibition of import, trade, planting, holding and movement of the plant.
3.37. Have all major pathways been analyzed (for a pest-initiated     no
analysis)?

Pathway 2                                                                   Unintentional introduction on people’s footwear
3.2. Is the pathway that is being considered a commodity of           no
plants and plant products?




                                                                                                                                                         18
3.3 Is the pathway that is being considered the natural spread of no
the pest (see answer to question 1.33?
3.8. Is the pathway that is being considered the entry with human yes       Possible measures: inspection of human travellers, their luggage, publicity to enhance
travellers?                                                                 public awareness on pest risks, fines or incentives. Treatments may also be possible.

                                                                      yes   Publicity to enhance public awareness on pest risks. This measure would also prevent
3.29. Have any measures been identified during the present
                                                                            the introduction of other pests (plants, fungi, etc.).
analysis that will reduce the risk of introduction of the pest?
                                                                      yes   Publicity to enhance public awareness on pest risks.
3.30. Taking each of the measures identified individually , does
any measure on its own reduce the risk to an acceptable level?
                                                                            There is no interference with trade.
3.33. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of
measures) being considered interfere with trade.
                                                                            This measure will help prevent the introduction of many other pests (plants, fungi, etc.)
3.34. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of
                                                                            that could be carried with travellers.
measures) being considered are cost-effective, or have
undesirable social or environmental consequences.
                                                                      no    Publicity to enhance public awareness on pest risks.
3.35. Have measures (or combination of measures) been
identified that reduce the risk for this pathway, and do not unduly
interfere with trade, are cost-effective and have no undesirable
social or environmental consequences?
                                                                      no
3.36.   Envisage prohibiting the pathway
                                                                      no
3.37. Have all major pathways been analyzed (for a pest-initiated
analysis)?


Pathway 3                                                                   Unintentional introduction with grain of Zea mays
3.2. Is the pathway that is being considered a commodity of           yes
plants and plant products?
3.10. Are there any existing phytosanitary measures applied on        no    The EU Council Directive 2000-29 only deal with seeds of Zea mais.
the pathway that could prevent the introduction of the pest

3.11. Can the pest be reliably detected by a visual inspection of a   no    The seed is about 1 cm and may be visible in consignement but is nevertheless difficult
consignment at the time of export during transport/storage or at            to detect.
import?



                                                                                                                                                         19
3.12. Can the pest be reliably detected by testing (e.g. for pest      no
plant, seeds in a consignment)?
3.13. Can the pest be reliably detected during post-entry              no    Not realistic
quarantine?
3.14. Can the pest be effectively destroyed in the consignment by      no    Any treatment could also have an effect on the grain imported.
treatment (chemical, thermal, irradiation, physical)?
3.15. Does the pest occur only on certain parts of the plant or        no    Not relevant
plant products (e.g. bark, flowers), which can be removed without
reducing the value of the consignment? (This question is not
relevant for pest plants)
3.16. Can infestation of the consignment be reliably prevented by      no    Sorting and cleaning of grain to eliminate S. angulatus seeds may not be efficient as the
handling and packing methods?                                                size of Sicyos angulatus seeds is alsmost as the size of maize.
3.17. Could consignments that may be infested be accepted              no    The risk of escape is also during transport and storage.
without risk for certain end uses, limited distribution in the PRA
area, or limited periods of entry, and can such limitations be
applied in practice?
3.18. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        yes   Treatments (chemical and mechanical) exist for Zea mays, but it should be ensured that
treatment of the crop?                                                       the field is free from S. angulatus.

3.19. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no    Not relevant.
growing resistant cultivars? (This question is not relevant for pest
plants)
3.20. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no
growing the crop in specified conditions (e.g. protected
conditions, sterilized growing medium...)?
3.21. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no    The fructification period is long and allows the pest to be present in consignments.
harvesting only at certain times of the year, at specific crop ages
or growth stages?
3.22. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no    There is no certification scheme for grain of maize.
production in a certification scheme (i.e. official scheme for the
production of healthy plants for planting)?
3.23. Is the pest of very low capacity for natural spread?             no
3.24. Is the pest of low to medium capacity for natural spread?        yes   Pest-free place of production,
                                                                             Or pest-free area.

                                                                             Although the scheme does not allow for it pest freedom of the crop could be a valid
                                                                             option for this pest.
3.25. Is the pest of medium capacity for natural spread?               no



                                                                                                                                                          20
3.26. The pest is of medium to high capacity for natural spread
3.27. Can pest freedom of the crop, place of production or an area   yes
be reliably guaranteed?
3.28. Are there effective measures that could be taken in the        yes   In Spain, destruction of the plant when found is mandatory.
importing country (surveillance, eradication) to prevent
establishment and/or economic or other impacts?                            Internal surveillance of crops could detect the plant with identifiable characters but
                                                                           eradication would be difficult if not detected immediately. The plant is nevertheless
                                                                           difficult to detect in its first life stage (germination – vegetative growth) in maize fields.
                                                                           Moreover, surveillance and eradication have to be done before the plant escape to
                                                                           unmanaged habitats.
3.29. Have any measures been identified during the present           yes   Visual inspection of the consignment
analysis that will reduce the risk of introduction of the pest?            Treatment of the crop,
                                                                           Pest freedom of the crop,
                                                                           Pest-free place of production,
                                                                           Pest-free area.
                                                                           Monitoring and management of the plant in the importing country.

3.30. Taking each of the measures identified individually, does any yes    Pest freedom of the crop,
measure on its own reduce the risk to an acceptable level?                 Or pest-free place of production,
                                                                           Or pest-free area.
                                                                           Monitoring and management of the plant in the importing country.

3.31. For those measures that do not reduce the risk to an           no    - Treatment of the crop should be complemented by a visual inspection to ensure that the
acceptable level, can two or more measures be combined to                  consignement is free from S. angulatus.
reduce the risk to an acceptable level?
3.33. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of              Measures on the traded commodity interfere with trade.
measures) being considered interfere with trade.                           Monitoring and management of the plant in the importing country does not interfere with
                                                                           trade.


3.34. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of              Measures on the traded commodity are imply high costs in controls both in importing and
measures) being considered are cost-effective, or have                     exporting countries.
undesirable social or environmental consequences.




                                                                                                                                                              21
3.35. Have measures (or combination of measures) been                 yes   Pest freedom of the crop,
identified that reduce the risk for this pathway, and do not unduly         Or pest-free place of production,
interfere with trade, are cost-effective and have no undesirable            Or pest-free area.
social or environmental consequences?                                       Treatment of the crop be complemented by a visual inspection of the consignement.

                                                                            Lower level of protection
                                                                            Monitoring (fields, silos, unmanaged habitats) of the plant in the importing country
                                                                            combined with management may be cost effective if action is taken at an early stage.
                                                                            Information to farmers is alos recommended to complemente these measures. These
                                                                            measures may also prove helpful to deal with other invasive plants and to raise
                                                                            awareness on the topic.

3.36. Envisage prohibiting the pathway                                no
3.37. Have all major pathways been analyzed (for a pest-initiated     no
analysis)?

Pathway 4                                                                   Unintentional introduction with grain of Glycine max
3.2. Is the pathway that is being considered a commodity of           yes
plants and plant products?
3.10. Are there any existing phytosanitary measures applied on        no    There are no requirements in the 2000-29 EU Council Directive.
the pathway that could prevent the introduction of the pest

3.11. Can the pest be reliably detected by a visual inspection of a   Yes   The seed is about 1 cm and can be detected by a visual inspection as soybean seeds
consignment at the time of export during transport/storage or at            are smaller.
import?                                                                     But consignements are huge and there can be very few seeds of the plant.
3.12. Can the pest be reliably detected by testing (e.g. for pest     no
plant, seeds in a consignment)?
3.13. Can the pest be reliably detected during post-entry             no    Not realistic
quarantine?
3.14. Can the pest be effectively destroyed in the consignment by     no    Any treatment could also have an effect on the grain imported.
treatment (chemical, thermal, irradiation, physical)?
3.15. Does the pest occur only on certain parts of the plant or       no    Not relevant
plant products (e.g. bark, flowers), which can be removed without
reducing the value of the consignment? (This question is not
relevant for pest plants)
3.16. Can infestation of the consignment be reliably prevented by     Yes   Sorting and cleaning of grain to eliminate S. angulatus seeds and other contaminants
handling and packing methods?                                               may be effective. The size of Sicyos angulatus seeds is bigger than the size of
                                                                            soyabean. More infromation on sorting and cleaning is needed.



                                                                                                                                                      22
3.17. Could consignments that may be infested be accepted              no    The risk of escape is also during transport and storage and during the release of non
without risk for certain end uses, limited distribution in the PRA           used parts of the consignment (ex: tofu makers have relaeased the contaminants of
area, or limited periods of entry, and can such limitations be               impoerted soybean in rivers, and S. angulatus was introduced in that way).
applied in practice?
3.18. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        yes   Treatments (chemical and mechanical) exist for Glycine max, but it should be ensured
treatment of the crop?                                                       that the field is free from S. angulatus.

3.19. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no    Not relevant.
growing resistant cultivars? (This question is not relevant for pest
plants)
3.20. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no
growing the crop in specified conditions (e.g. protected
conditions, sterilized growing medium...)?
3.21. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no    The fructification period is long and allows the pest to be present in consignments.
harvesting only at certain times of the year, at specific crop ages
or growth stages?
3.22. Can infestation of the commodity be reliably prevented by        no    There is no certification scheme for grain of soyabean.
production in a certification scheme (i.e. official scheme for the
production of healthy plants for planting)?
3.23. Is the pest of very low capacity for natural spread?             no
3.24. Is the pest of low to medium capacity for natural spread?        yes   Pest-free place of production,
                                                                             Or pest-free area.

                                                                             Although the scheme does not allow for it pest freedom of the crop could be a valid
                                                                             option for this pest.
3.25. Is the pest of medium capacity for natural spread?               no
3.26. The pest is of medium to high capacity for natural spread
3.27. Can pest freedom of the crop, place of production or an area     yes
be reliably guaranteed?
3.28. Are there effective measures that could be taken in the          no    In Spain, destruction of the plant when found is mandatory.
importing country (surveillance, eradication) to prevent
establishment and/or economic or other impacts?                              Internal surveillance of crops could detect the plant with identifiable characters but
                                                                             eradication would be difficult if not detected immediately. The plant is nevertheless
                                                                             difficult to detect in its first life stage (germination – vegetative growth) in maize fields.
                                                                             Moreover, surveillance and eradication have to be done before the plant escape to
                                                                             unmanaged habitats.




                                                                                                                                                                23
3.29. Have any measures been identified during the present            yes   Visual inspection of the consignment
analysis that will reduce the risk of introduction of the pest?             Sorting and cleaning of the grain to eliminate S. angulatus seeds
                                                                            Treatment of the crop,
                                                                            Pest freedom of the crop,
                                                                            Pest-free place of production,
                                                                            Pest-free area.
                                                                            Monitoring and management of the plant in the importing country.

3.30. Taking each of the measures identified individually, does any yes     Pest freedom of the crop,
measure on its own reduce the risk to an acceptable level?                  Or pest-free place of production,
                                                                            Or pest-free area.
                                                                            Monitoring and management of the plant in the importing country.

3.31. For those measures that do not reduce the risk to an            no    - Treatment of the crop should be complemented by a visual inspection to ensure that the
acceptable level, can two or more measures be combined to                   field is free from S. angulatus.
reduce the risk to an acceptable level?                                     - Sorting and cleaning of the grain to eliminate S. angulatus seeds should be
                                                                            complemented by a visual inspection to ensure that the consignement is free from S.
                                                                            angulatus.

3.33. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of               Measures on the traded commodity interfere with trade.
measures) being considered interfere with trade.                            Monitoring and management of the plant in the importing country does not interfere with
                                                                            trade.

3.34. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of               Measures on the traded commodity are imply high costs in controls both in importing and
measures) being considered are cost-effective, or have                      exporting countries.
undesirable social or environmental consequences.
3.35. Have measures (or combination of measures) been                 yes   Pest freedom of the crop,
identified that reduce the risk for this pathway, and do not unduly         Or pest-free place of production,
interfere with trade, are cost-effective and have no undesirable            Or pest-free area.
social or environmental consequences?                                       Treatment of the crop be complemented by a visual inspection of the consignement.

                                                                            Lower level of protection
                                                                            Monitoring (fields, silos, unmanaged habitats) of the plant in the importing country
                                                                            combined with management may be cost effective if action is taken at an early stage.
                                                                            Information to farmers is alos recommended to complemente these measures. These
                                                                            measures may also prove helpful to deal with other invasive plants and to raise
                                                                            awareness on the topic.

3.36.   Envisage prohibiting the pathway                              no


                                                                                                                                                      24
3.37. Have all major pathways been analyzed (for a pest-initiated     no
analysis)?


Pathway 5                                                                   Soil as contaminant on used machinery coming from countries where S. angulatus
                                                                            occurs
3.2. Is the pathway that is being considered a commodity of           no
plants and plant products?
3.3. Is the pathway that is being considered the natural spread of    no
the pest?
3.8. Is the pathway that is being considered the entry with human     no
travellers?
3.9. Is the pathway being considered contaminated machinery or        yes   Possible measures: cleaning or disinfection of used machinery/vehicles.
means of transport?
3.29. Have any measures been identified during the present            yes   Cleaning or disinfection of used machinery/vehicles.
analysis that will reduce the risk of introduction of the pest?
3.30. Taking each of the measures identified individually , does      yes   Cleaning or disinfection of used machinery/vehicles.
any measure on its own reduce the risk to an acceptable level?
3.33. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of               Difficult to judge, information on traded machinery is not available.
measures) being considered interfere with trade.
3.34. Estimate to what extent the measures (or combination of               This measure will help prevent the introduction of many other pests (plants, fungi, etc.)
measures) being considered are cost-effective, or have                      that could be carried with growing medium on used machinery.
undesirable social or environmental consequences.
3.35. Have measures (or combination of measures) been                 no    Cleaning or disinfection of used machinery/vehicles.
identified that reduce the risk for this pathway, and do not unduly
interfere with trade, are cost-effective and have no undesirable
social or environmental consequences?
3.36. Envisage prohibiting the pathway                                no
3.37. Have all major pathways been analyzed (for a pest-initiated     yes
analysis)?




                                                                                                                                                         25
 3.40    Consider the relative importance of the pathways               Trade of the plant for ornamental and agricultural purposes: moderately likely / unlikely /
identified in the conclusion to the entry section of the pest risk      the risk is low
assessment
                                                                        Unintentional introduction on people’s footwear: moderately likely / the risk is low
                                                                        to medium

                                                                        Unintentional introduction with grain of Zea mays: likely / the risk is high

                                                                        Unintentional introduction with grain of Glycine max: moderately likely / the risk is low

                                                                        Soil as contaminant on used machinery coming from countries where S. angulatus
                                                                        occurs: moderately likely / the risk is low
3.41 All the measures identified as being appropriate for each
pathway or for the commodity can be considered for inclusion in
phytosanitary regulations in order to offer a choice of different
measures to trading partners.

 3.42 In addition to the measure(s) selected to be applied by the
exporting country, a phytosanitary certificate (PC) may be
required for certain commodities. The PC is an attestation by the
exporting country that the requirements of the importing country
have been fulfilled. In certain circumstances, an additional
declaration on the PC may be needed (see EPPO Standard PM
1/1(2): Use of phytosanitary certificates)

 3.43 If there are no measures that reduce the risk for a pathway,
or if the only effective measures unduly interfere with international
trade (e.g. prohibition), are not cost-effective or have undesirable
social or environmental consequences, the conclusion of the pest
risk management stage may be that introduction cannot be
prevented.
 3.44




                                                                                                                                                       26
Conclusion of Pest Risk Management.                            General national measures are identified (see pathway 1, question 3.28):
Summarize the conclusions of the Pest Risk Management stage.
List all potential management options and indicate their             Prohibition of import for ornamental or agricultural uses
effectiveness. Uncertainties should be identified.                   publicity
                                                               To farmers and to the general public in case of unintentional introduction on
                                                               people’s footwear.
                                                                        monitoring/surveillance
                                                               Eradication and monitoring/surveillance on a yearly basis should be organized where the
                                                               plant is known to be present but not widespread and also where the plant is established.
                                                               (see
                                                                        emergency plan
                                                                             o quick eradication response when the plant is found
                                                                        Management and containment where the plant is established
                                                               In the countries where it is widespread such as France, the plant should be managed
                                                               (identification of potential biological agents and experiments, mechanical control, etc.)
                                                                        declaration that S. angulatus is a quickly spreading alien invasive plant,
                                                                        obligations to report findings
                                                                        prohibition of planting
                                                                        prohibition of movement
                                                                        prohibition of sale
                                                                        prohibition of holding

                                                               Unintentional introduction with grain of Zea mays: the risk is high
                                                               PC
                                                               Pest freedom of the crop,
                                                               Or pest-free place of production,
                                                               Or pest-free area.
                                                               Treatment of the crop be complemented by a visual inspection of the consignement.

                                                               Lower level of protection
                                                               Monitoring (fields, silos, unmanaged habitats) of the plant in the importing country
                                                               combined with management may be cost effective if action is taken at an early stage.
                                                               Information to farmers is also recommended to complemente these measures. These
                                                               measures may also prove helpful to deal with other invasive plants and to raise
                                                               awareness on the topic.




                                                               Unintentional introduction with grain of Glycine max:
                                                               Very high level of protection
                                                               PC                                                                         27
                                                               Pest freedom of the crop,
                                                               Or pest-free place of production,
Unintentional introduction with grain of Glycine max: the risk is low
PC
Pest freedom of the crop,
Or pest-free place of production,
Or pest-free area.
Treatment of the crop be complemented by a visual inspection of the consignement.
Sorting and cleaning of the grain to eliminate S. angulatus seeds should be
complemented by a visual inspection to ensure that the consignement is free from S.
angulatus.

Lower level of protection
Monitoring (fields, silos, unmanaged habitats) of the plant in the importing country
combined with management may be cost effective if action is taken at an early stage.
Information to farmers is also recommended to complemente these measures. These
measures may also prove helpful to deal with other invasive plants and to raise
awareness on the topic.

Soil as contaminant on used machinery coming from countries where S. angulatus
occurs: the risk is low to medium
cleaning or disinfection of used machinery/vehicles.

Unintentional introduction on people’s footwear: the risk is low to medium
Inspection of human travellers, their luggage, publicity to enhance public awareness on
pest risks, fines or incentives. Treatments may also be possible.

Lower level of protection
Publicity to enhance public awareness on pest risks.




                                                                           28
29
Annexe 1: Climatic prediction of Sicyos angulatus in the EPPO region




                                                                       30
31
References

Connecticut      Botanical    Society   –   Connecticut   wildflowers.   Bur   Cucumber,   Sicyos   angulatus   (2004)   http://www.ct-botanical-
society.org/galleries/sicyosangu.html



                                                                                                                                              32
Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya” (DOGC nùm. 4315 – 03/02/2005). Department d’Agricultura, Ramaderia i pesca. Ordre ARP/10/2005.
http://www.gencat.net/diari/4315/05017116.htm

Kil JH, Kong HY, Koh KS, Kim JM (2006) Management of Sicyos angulata spread in Korea. In: Neobiota. From Ecology to Conservation. 4th European
Conference on Biological Invasions. Vienna (Austria), 2006-09-27/29, BfN-Skripten 184: page 170.
http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/2006/Rse-0610.pdf

Kurokawa S (2001) Invasion of exotic weed seeds into Japan, mixed in imported feed grains. 6 p.
www.agnet.org/library/abstract/eb497.html

Larché JF (2004) Sicyos angulatus, nouvelle adventice du maïs dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. Phytoma – La Défense des Végétaux, no. 571, 19-22.

Ouren T (1987) Soybean adventitious weeds in Norway. Blyttia 45, 175-185.

Penn State Management. Burcucumber. http://weeds.cas.psu.edu/bcucumber.html#5

Phelloung A, Swarbrick J & Roberts B (1999) Weed risk analysis of a proposed importation of bulk maize (Zea mays) from the USA. Weed Technical Working
Group. www.affa.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/word/market_access/biosecurity/plant/TWG3.doc

Taberner A, Sans M (2005) Procedimiento de erradicación de Sicyos angulatus L. en maís. Congreso 2005 de la Sociedad Española de Malherbologia. 4pp.

Uraguchi S, Watanabe I, Kuno K, Hoshino Y & Fujii Y (2003) Allelopathy of floodplain vegetation species in the middlecourse of Tama River. Journal of Weed
Science and Technology 48, 117-129.




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