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					                                       GWERS 65


CYFLWYNYDD:           BASIL DAVIES


NOD:       Edrych yn ™l ac edrych ar y negyddol (Looking back at the negative
forms)


  Geirfa


           gweld              -         to see         chwarae        -    to play
           yfed               -         to drink       gweithio       -    to work
           gwisgo             -         to wear        nofio          -    to swim
           hedfan             -         to fly         stopio         -    to stop
           bwyta              -         to eat         coginio        -    to cook
           llwyddo            -         to succeed     rhoi           -    to give
           talu               -         to pay         digwydd        -    to happen
           edrych (ar)        -         to look (at)   golchi         -    to wash
           smwddio            -         to iron

           i mewn i           -         into           trwy           -    through
           gyda               -         with

           am dro             -         for a walk         (d)dim byd -    nothing, anything
           neb                -         no-one,
           anyone

           glan yr afon       -    river bank          traeth         -   beach
           ceffyl(au)         -    horse(s)            sudd oren      -   orange juice
           gwaith cartref -   homework     m™r         -              sea
           malwod             -    snails              hufen iâ       -   ice cream

           yn yr ysgol        -         in school      yr ardd        -    the garden
           amser da           -         good time      i ffwrdd       -    away
           caled              -         hard

           Daearyddiaeth          -     Geography          Hanes (Cymru)    -   (Welsh) History
           Mathemateg             -     Mathematics        Gwyddoniaeth     -   Science
           Ffrangeg               -     French             Almaeneg         -   German
           Sbaeneg                -     Spanish            Eidaleg          -   Italian

           ar fy ngwyliau -           on (my) holiday
           ar ein gwyliau -           on (our) holiday
           ar eu gwyliau -            on (their) holiday


RHAN 1




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1. You are familiar with the Past Tense forms of regular verbs.

    Let's take 'gweld' as an example


             Fe / Mi welais i                  Fe / Mi welon ni
             Fe / Mi welaist ti                Fe / Mi weloch chi
             Fe / Mi welodd Mair               Fe / Mi welon nhw
             Fe / Mi welodd e(o) / hi
             Fe / Mi welodd y plant


2. To form the negative, drop the positive indicator 'Fe / Mi' and add 'ddim'.
   In English this tense is easily recognized by the use of 'didn't'


             Fe/Mi welais i      -      I saw
             Welais i ddim       -      I didn't see

             Fe/Mi welon nhw     -      They saw
             Welon nhw ddim      -      They didn't see


3. Let's think of the bliss of schooldays and refer to things we didn't do! (Some of the
   comments might apply to Nigel and some to me!)


         Ddysgais i ddim Cymraeg yn yr ysgol.
         - I didn't learn Welsh in school.

         Chwaraeais i ddim hoci yn yr ysgol.
         - I didn't play hockey in school.

         Yfais i ddim llaeth yn yr ysgol.
         - I didn't drink milk in school.

         Weithiais i ddim yn galed yn yr ysgol.
         - I didn't work hard in school.

         Wisgais i ddim cap ysgol yn yr ysgol.
         - I didn't wear a school cap in school.




4. A challenge! Change all the verbs in the above sentences to other persons


         e.g. Ddysgodd Mair ddim Cymraeg yn yr ysgol.
              - Mair didn't learn Welsh in school.

               Yfon ni ddim llaeth yn yr ysgol.


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                - We didn’t drink milk in school.


 5. Do you remember the past tense forms of the irregular verb 'mynd' (to go)?


              Fe / Mi es i                Fe / Mi aethon ni
              Fe / Mi est ti              Fe / Mi aethoch chi
              Fe / Mi aeth Mair           Fe / Mi aethon nhw
              Fe / Mi aeth e (o) / hi
              Fe / Mi aeth y plant


 6. Let's form negative sentences in the past by recalling last year's holiday and
    things that didn't occur


          Aeth Mr a Mrs Jones ddim i Ffrainc.
          - Mr and Mrs Jones didn't go to France.

          Hedfanon ni ddim i Sbaen ond fe aethon ni yn y car.
          - We didn't fly to Spain but we went in the car.

          Stopais i ddim ym Mharis.
          - I didn't stop in Paris.

          Fwyton ni ddim malwod.
          - We didn't eat (any) snails.

          Yfodd y plant ddim sangria.
          - The children didn't drink (any) sangria.

          Nofion nhw ddim yn y m™r.
          - They didn't swim in the sea.

          Es i ddim i mewn i'r m™r.
          - I didn't go into the sea.

     Notice - there is no need to translate the word 'any' into Welsh.

          Notice also that verb nouns which end in -io or -ian keep the i in the stem


                nofio   -      nofi-      -     Fe nofiais i
                loncian -      lonci-     -     Fe lonciais i


RHAN 2


 1. Do you remember the Past Tense forms of the irregular verb 'gwneud'
    (to do/make)? (The forms echo those of 'mynd' don't they?)


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             Fe / Mi wnes i                    Fe / Mi wnaethon ni
             Fe / Mi wnest ti                  Fe / Mi wnaethoch chi
             Fe / Mi wnaeth Mair               Fe / Mi wnaethon nhw
             Fe / Mi wnaeth e (o) / hi
             Fe / Mi wnaeth y plant


2. And the Past Tense forms of 'dod' (to come) also echo those of 'mynd'


             Fe / Mi ddes i                     Fe / Mi ddaethon ni
             Fe / Mi ddest ti                   Fe / Mi ddaethoch chi
             Fe / Mi ddaeth Mair         Fe / Mi ddaethon nhw
             Fe / Mi ddaeth e(o) / hi
             Fe / Mi ddaeth y plant


3. Let's go out for a walk - mynd allan am dro - and when we return, think of things
   that didn't occur


         Wisgon ni ddim wellingtons / cot fawr.
         - We didn't wear wellingtons / an overcoat.

         Ddaeth y plant ddim gyda ni.
         - The children didn't come with us.

         Chwaraeon ni ddim p•l droed.
         - We didn't play soccer.

         Welon ni (ddim) neb.
         - We didn't see anyone.

         Ddes i ddim yn y car.
         - I didn't come in the car.

         Cherddon nhw ddim ar lan yr afon.
         - They didn't walk on the banks of the river.

         Wnaethon nhw ddim castell ar y traeth.
         - They didn't make a castle on the beach.

         Yfon ni ddim sudd oren.
         - We didn't drink orange juice.

         Welaist ti ddim ceffylau.
         - You didn't see (any) horses.


    Notice: When we use 'neb' we can omit the word 'ddim'


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4. Do you remember the Past Tense forms of 'cael' (to have)?


             Fe / Mi ges i                       Fe / Mi gawson ni
             Fe / Mi gest ti                     Fe / Mi gawsoch chi
             Fe / Mi gafodd Mair          Fe / Mi gawson nhw
             Fe / Mi gafodd e (o) / hi
             Fe / Mi gafodd y plant


5. You'll have realized by now that although the positive marker 'Fe / Mi' is omitted
   in negative sentences, the Soft Mutation is kept.

    This is true of 6 consonants B, D, G, LL, RH and M


         bwyta          Fe / Mi fwytais i         -    Fwytais i ddim
         darllen        Fe / Mi ddarllenodd hi         -     Ddarllenodd hi ddim
         gweld          Fe / Mi welon nhw         -    Welon nhw ddim
         llwyddo        Fe / Mi lwyddaist ti      -    Lwyddaist ti ddim
         rhoi           Fe / Mi roiais i          -    Roiais i ddim
         mwynhau        Fe / Mi fwynheuodd e      -    Fwynheuodd e ddim




6. With three consonants however - C, P and T - the mutation changes in the
   Negative from Soft to Aspirate


         cael           Fe / Mi ges i             -    Ches i ddim
         prynu          Fe / Mi brynodd hi        -    Phrynodd hi ddim
         talu           Fe / Mi dalon nhw         -    Thalon nhw ddim


7. Beth ddigwyddodd neithiwr? - What happened last night? Let's look at some
   negatives!


         Es i ddim ma's / allan neithiwr.
         - I didn't go out last night.

         Edrychais i ddim ar y teledu.
         - I didn't look at the television.

         Cherddais i ddim yn y parc.
         - I didn't walk in the park.


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          Phrynais i ddim papur.
          - I didn't buy a paper.

          Ches i ddim sglodion i swper.
          - I didn't have (any) chips for supper.

          Olchais i ddim neithiwr.
          - I didn't wash last night (i.e. clothes).

          Smwddiais i ddim neithiwr.
          - I didn't iron last night.

          Es i ddim i'r gwely'n gynnar / yn hwyr.
          - I didn't go to bed early / late.

          Ffoniais i (ddim) neb.
          - I didn't telephone anyone.

          Ddarllenais i ddim cyn mynd i'r gwely.
          - I didn't read before going to bed.

          Choginiais i ddim neithiwr.
          - I didn't cook last night.



     And after all that!


          Chysgais i ddim yn dda neithiwr.
          - I didn't sleep well last night.


8.    How about changing the above sentences using different persons of the
     verbs?




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