The Mollusks of Kamoroland
by Kal Muller
additions and corrections by Kent Hortle; new study (list only) by Woro Kastoro
Note: sometimes the same name is given for different animals in the local language; (K) = Kamoro language,
of most of this group; N = Nawaripi dialect of Kamoro; (M)= Manasari, the language of area of the west Sempan
ethnic group where, for a period during the late 1990s, the tailings have effected the mollusks (but the animals are
back to normal now: 2003.
Ever since Linnaeus first devised the modern system of taxonomic classification, it has been an a state of constant
revision. While classification tends to remain relatively constant at the higher levels, changes occur at the lower
levels with a frequency disheartening to the interested layman. Recent techniques, such as DNA-based studies, have
led to some drastic re-classifications in the taxonomic world. Even such a basic division as the plant and animal
kingdoms are no longer accepted as valid. Since the late 1980s, scientists increasingly are accepting five kingdoms
instead of the two 'classical' ones. (see Margulis, Five Kingdoms). What changes go on at the highest level has been
multiplied in the lower ones, the family, genus and species. Of course, not all of the previous taxa undergo change,
but many do so. (this paragraph will probably go somewhere else in the overall text....)
I am no expert on mollusk taxonomy, especially as to its changes in the past decade. Also, being old and
conservative, I tend to trust generally accepted reference books, in this case, the Compendium (see below), which
dates back to 1990. Any mollusk expert is more than welcome to update and/or correct the taxonomic classifications
use in my text.
In March 2003, some three years after my field work and this text had been completed, I was given a list of 64
mollusks identified in the vicinity of Amamapare, Freeport's port area and the location the company's coastal
environmental monitoring station. The list had been compiled over a year earlier by Woro Kastoro, a researcher from
LIPI under temporary contract with Freeport.
This new list has 14 bivalves (the previous number was 13) and 50 gastropods (previously we had only 16). The
earlier work listed the more common species, especially those eaten by the Kamoro. The must used species were the
focus of my study. The new list by Woro Kastoro, a mollusk specialist, attempted to include all the animals of this
phylum found in the area. To my knowledge, there is nothing comparable in scope from anywhere else in New
Guinea. Indeed, mollusks are among the least-studied animals on the island. Aside from Freeport's research, I have
seen no other studies of mollusks from anywhere else in New Guinea. This does not necessarily mean that there are
none. But I have seen nothing in the reference books available to me (listed in the bibliography).
While the Kastoro list is much more complete than the previous Freeport work, I find several problems with it. First
and foremost, the bivalve which is the most important to the Kamoro (along with the tambelo), had been identified a
Polymesoda coaxans in all the earlier Freeport studies. The Kastoro list does not have this animal, but two other
species: P. erosa and P. expansa. Earlier Freeport mollusk have also listed P. papuansis, not found in Kastoro.
There eight mollusks in the Kastoro list with no species name given: Barbatia sp., Neretina sp., Neritodryas sp.,
Lophiotoma (Lophioturris) sp., Turridrupa sp., Amoria sp1, Amoria sp2 and Cymbiola sp. I assume that these had no
been identified at the time the list was compiled and could be candidates for new species. There are also four
mollusks listed without the sp. designation: Botula, Dosinia, Polinices (Manila) and Nerita. I have no idea as to wha
this means. Another problem is the gastropod Pugilina. This list places it in two different families: Buccinidae, wher
it is listed as Pugilina cf. cochlidium and Neritidae, listed as P. cochlidium. Then the Compendium shows this
mollusk as part of the Melongenidae family. Confusing, to say the least. Let us hope that Freeport will soon make all
this material available to the scientific community in a more complete form.
Mollusks, gathered almost daily on the shopping expeditions by the ladies to the mangroves, fit into the Kamoro diet
as an important adjunct source of protein. As man can’t live by sago and fish alone, variety from the mollusks
presents a healthy relief from meal monotony. One of the mollusks also has an important ritual function in coastal
Mollusks are either spiral, snail-like gastropods and symmetrical, two-shelled bivalves. The Kamoro eat several
species of each group. Included in the bivalve category, we have the local gastronomic specialty, the tambelo (an
eastern Indonesian word). If you are ever so lucky as to visit a Kamoro village, try the long, slimy tambelo ‘worms’,
pulled out of rotting logs. Not nearly as bad as it looks: it is really a bivalve mollusk, tasting (to me) like a sweet,
delicious oyster. There are several species of tambelo, all belonging to the Teredinidae Family. This family includes
close relative, the dreadfully destructive shipworms, which is not good to eat as far as we know. The longest, slimies
and best of the tambelo is called ko (N=o) and scientifically Bactronophorus thoracites. The larger, mature
specimens average some 30 cm in length. This top-of-the-line tambelo especially farors two species of mangrove
trees, Rhizophora stylosa (pako in Kamoro) and R. apiculata (pae).
The Kamoro claim that this mollusk improves general health as well as enhancing sexual performance. Be that as it
may, tambelo is often eaten, some on the spot (in the mangroves, during gathering trips) with the rest brought back to
the village to be shared among family and friends. This is one of the few gathered items which usually involves male
female cooperation, with the men using axis to split the fallen logs and the women pulling out the tambelo from the
split wood. (Women are perfectly capable of splitting a log by themselves, but it is faster and more efficient with the
men doing this part of the job.)
There are several other kinds of wood-boring terenids, but only one other species is eaten, and infrequently at that,
because it does not taste nearly as good as the ko. In most dialects, this species is called titiri (N=tiiri). It is thinnner
that the ko, less sweet and 'mealy' tasting. This long and thin animal, up to 20 cm, fragements easily, thus hard to pul
out as its body breaks in the process. It is sometimes ‘grown’ by fastening a piece of wood in a stream or river. The
people of Paopao say that this tambelo ‘came back’ after the completion of the East Levee, and they were able to
harvest some in 1999; but for some mysterious reason, this bivalve disappeared again at the beginning of the year
2000. It is said to have re-appeared again in 2002. This species of terenid bores holes in canoes, unless the outer
surface of the wood is continuously treated with lime.
Other tree species with boring terenid mollusks include what the Kamoro name uu (Bruguiera parviflora for the
Bankia orcuttia species, some 10 cm. long) and umu (Xylocarpus granatum); the terenids from both of these two tree
species are taken for as a remedy for coughing; other tree species with boring ternenids are amako (Lumnitzera sp)
and mawaka (Ceriops sp.). The last of these is only found in the western region of Mimika. Middle-aged informants
say this is no longer much practiced.
The terenid (N=otafi, from the trees umu and mawaka) is very bitter but said to be good for general health. If ‘sakit
tulang’ (bones hurting), tambelo is eaten and one sleeps on the beach, using the sand as a mattress. Some Kamoro
claim that tambelo is essential in funerary rituals which are called wataniko; it is given with cigarettes to helpers
during three nights. Other Kamoro state that tambelo is in no way required in funerary rituals. A Freeport lab report
states that the species Dicyathifera manni, some 20 cm. long and not so good tasting, is found in Rhizophora
mucronata, but we have not been able to confirm this with our informants.
A bivalve species from another family, the Carbiculidae, is also often eaten by the Kamoro and holds a ritual functio
as well. This animal, generally called omapoko (M=siini) goes under the scientific designation of Polymesoda
(Geloina) coaxans. (For the Nawaripi people, the animal itself is called wautia, while the empty shell is referred to a
ufia.) It is the largest of the locally gathered bivalves, up to 13 cm. in diameter.
The omapoko has several functions in some karapao rituals, including its ceremonial breaking before the start of the
pig hunt. Most important, it serves as part of a ritual dish. Before the karapao begins, it is wrapped in leaves and
cooked with sago. The name for the dish is onaki. In legends, it is a symbol for the female sexual organ (lambang
kemaluan wanita; the symbol for the male sexual organ is the sago grub, ulat sagu, called ko’o in the Kamoro
The same bivalve is also used for making bupuri (kapur or lime). This product is mixed with water to make white
paint which serves to render canoes water-proof. With less water, it is used for body decorations as well as on
While this white paint is usually made from the species listed above, the Kamoro recongize that a 'better' white paint
can be made from the burn shells of another bivalve which they call poro (Anadara granosa). However, there are tw
disadvantages in using poro: they are few of them to be found and when applying lime to the face from this shell, it i
'tajam' or biting in the sense of being irritating. A shell related to the amopoko, called yaka/yake (Polymesoda G.
papuensis ?) found in freshwater, is also occasionally used for making white paint. But another closely related shell,
the tawe/kawe (P. expansa) is not used for unknown reasons.
Class Bivalva: the bivalves
Aside from the tambelo, other bivalves, some eaten fairly regularly include the following:
Family Genus, species and Kamoro names
A. Family Pteriidae (Winged or Pearl Oysters):
1. Isognomon ephippium, metafao (N) Found in muddy estuaries, common on intertidal rocks. This species is
found on the roots of mangroves where the water is quite salty. The common English name is the Saddle-tree Oyster
it is found in muddy estuaries and common on rocks intertidally. It is sometimes called the leaf oyster. The animal is
encased in flat, purplish-brown shells found in clusters attached by their abyssal threads to rocks, mangrove tree root
and walls of monsoon drains. They differ from other bivalves by having multiple ligamental grooves, a unique featur
in this family. The people of Pigapu say that this bivalve is eaten for major illnesses and especially if the patient has
B. Arcidae - commonly called Arc Calms or Arc Shells; their shells are quite thick.
1. Anadara sp. Karang Bia (Ina), Siini (M) and poro (K); Porofo (N) 6cm.
Probably A. granosa (so identified by David Pickell), abundant in shallow mud/sand. It has radial grooves, on a thick
white shell. This shell is used to making kapur (lime) and for painting the large carvings called mbitoro; it is
considered the best, as it produces the whitest paint. (see also below)
2. Barbatia sp. = ametekare (K) no word in (M); metao tiripia (N) 3 to 4 cm. With many found on top of
C. Corbiculidae - sometimes called Corbicula Clams
1. Batissa violacea, a mangrove clam, rare in our area, common elsewhere in Indonesia (and the Philippines)
kawe (K); kae (M)
2. Polymesoda (Geloina) papuensis, K: yake, N: yae; Inauga: kerang bia; Manasari: Siini; K: Omapoko,
3. Polymesoda (Geloina) coaxans; Kerang Bia (Ina); siini (M) and omapo or omapoko (K) 13 cm. The peopl
of Pigapu say that there is brown version, kawaro and a white version, kawe.
4. Polymesoda (Geloina) expansa: K: kawe or tawe
D. Ostreidae - True Oysters
1. Crassotrea sp. the Common Oyster; tiram in Indonesian; 5 cm. The edible oyster known in most parts of
the world and a major source of seafood. The shell is porcelaneous, not nacreous, in all species of this family.
2. Crassostrea iradelae = ba'tao/matao (K); mefao (N)
E. Anomiidae - commonly called Jingle Shells or Saddle Oysters or Window-pane shells. They are rounded and
very compressed, thin, rounded, translucent with flesh a very distasteful alumlike flavor.
1. Placuna sp. yaraora (K) waramuru (N) 10 cm; seldom found. Small windowpanes are sometimes made
from Placuna sp. I have occasionally seen this type of shell strung together horizontally and used as decoration by th
F. Lucinidae - Lucina clams. With no long siphons, these hard-shelled animals make a tube to the surface with their
1. Eamesiella corrugata, the Corrugate Lucina, 5 cm. The species' range from Japan to Indonesia.
Class Gastropoda: the single, spiral-shelled gastropods
Some 18 species of gastropods are also gathered by the Kamoro. Most are small, less than 10 centimeters, with the
five species of the Neretiidae Family even tinier, in the 15 mm. range. Only one species surpasses 10 cm., growing to
16 cm. (unless eaten beforehand).
Family Genus, species and Kamoro name
A. Melongenidae: Crown Conchs, whelks, False Trumpets, Swamp Conchs, Melon Conch. The members of this
family are found in brackish or muddy waters near mangroves. All are carnivorous, eating their cousin oysters and
1. Pugilina cochlidium = Soto (Manasari) and Tono (K&N) 9-15 cm.
This animal goes under the common name of Spiral Melongena. It is found in the shallow waters of the Indo-Pacific
B. Muricidae: Murex shells
1. Chicoreus (Naquuetia) capucinus = Kunaparu (M); Mamomane (N) Koname/kone/upura/upuri/upuru (K)
cm. Commonly called the Mangrove Murex, often found on mangrove roots. (ketem: Malay name in Singapore).
Along with others of Muricidae family, it is a common predator or barnacles and bivalves, drilling a hole through the
shell and sucking out contents with narrow with its' eversible proboscis. With an accessory organ under their foot,
produces carbolic acid which softens shell of prey, then the weakened area is excavated by using the rasping organ,
the radula, at the end of the proboscis. Drilling the hole may take several hours, after which the proboscis is inserted
to digest the body of the prey.
2. Stramonita (Thaaisella) gradata = upu; komame (K); no word in (M) Tono (N)
1. Terebralia sulcata = Uruuku (M); Initu/inita (telinga/ear) (K); Umo’o (N)
(belitong: Malay name in Singapore): distinctive shell opening known as peristome: smooth, slightly flared opening
can be applied onto the substrate by the animal, enabling it to resist evaporation and predators; this species does not
have a pallial (mantle) eye, although there is a shallow, possibly light sensitive pit on the underside of the inhalant
siphon. 4 cm.
2. T. palustris Siput (Ina); Uruuku (M) and Initu/umuku/umukuru (K) 6cm.
3. Telescopium telescopium is Ipokoo (M) and Upii/Uwi (K); Upifi (N) 8cm.
The Compendium has the above mollusks in the Cerithiidae Family, commonly called Ceriths or mudfalt snails. The
Malay names, at least in Singapore, are rodong and berongan. They have thick, heavy, distinctive shells. The animal
feeds on organic detritus and surface algae on exposed mudflats. It has a highly extendible snout and well developed
pallial eye and a unique third eye, complete with lens and cornea on the underside of the inhalant siphon. The
multispiral operculum is characteristic of this family.
D. Volutidae: the volutes or bailer shells
1. Cymbiola cf. nivosa = Iyaoomibio or upu (K); no (M) 4cm. The Snowy Volute.
2. Melo amphora, upi (K). This a huge bailer shell, only occasionally found on the Kamoro coast. It is much
appreciated for both the quality and quantity of its flesh. I own a specimen which reaches 48 cm. sold to me by a man
who claims to have found it on a beach a short distance to the west of the Freeport's portsite.
E. Melampidae or Ellobiidae: Cassidula Shells
1. Ellobium aurisjudae = Itimito (M) and yaoombio/yaoo (K), Yafo (N) 4cm.
It is a common shell in the mangroves; called Judas Ear Cassidula
2. E. aurismidae = Itimito (M) and yaoo (K) Yafo (N) 4cm. Commonly called Midas Ear Cassidula.
3. Cassidula aurisfelis = pooepe(?) or aomupuruta (K), no name(M) yafo (N); 2.5cm. Commonly called Cat's
These species are prominent primitive pulmonate gastropods in mangroves, allied to garden snails; all are air-
breathing, hermaphroditic snails; E. aurisjudae (second only to E. aurismidae in size) found on logs and trees in bac
of the mangrove grazing on epilithic algae; the smaller and more common Cassidula aurisfelis often has blue-green
algae on shell, giving it a beautiful sheen.
F. Neritidae, the Nerites. A mostly tropical family, usually found in our area on mangrove trees.
1. Nerita balteata = Omoto (M) and Omoko/ weromoko/ biromoomoko (K); Omo’o (N); 15 mm. Lineate
2. N. planospira = Omoto (M) and kaokaomoko (K); Omo rapiao (N) 15 mm.
Flat-spired Nerite; Note: N. balteata is considered male and N. planospira as female.
3. N. variegata = Omoto (M) and Overapoko/tapoko (K); Mapo’o (N) 15 mm.
4. N. coromandeliana (Omoto) (K); Mimapo’o (N) 15 mm.
5. N. violacea = Omoto/ape (K); Omo rapiao (N) 5 mm.
This is commonly called the Violet Nerite. The animal is distinguised by a black aperture with purple/orange rim. It
gazes on algae at night during low tide and is usually inactive during the day. This nerite often stay above water at
high tide as an adaptation against fish - and perhaps crab- predation. Its' hard, calcareous operculum is another
Appendix I: Pigapu Village - the mollusk YAKE is often eaten; found upstream; Kent Hortle identified this specie
as the rare Polymesoda (Geloina) ? papuensis.
Itimuti: white on the beach, black inland; said to be the same animal....
Occasionally one sees a triton-like shell in a Kamoro village. Called TONO or TONOHO, this is a Busykon whelk,
also called false trumpet, Australian trumpet, Syrinx aruanus. Most of the time it is washed up, empty, on beaches, in
our area. But when the animals is still inside, it is eaten. The shell is perforated and sometimes used as a trumpet.
References call this animals the largest gastropod in the world.
Another large marine gastropod, found a bit more frequently but still uncommon: UPU. There may well be more tha
one species of the Melo genus covered by this name. One is the Heavy bailer shell, found in the relatively restricted
zone of Australia to New Guinea, the Melo umbiliculatus and the Melo aethiopica, the Crowned baler. There could
also be a third species. Be that as it may, the Kamoro are unaware its value for collectors. They were used before the
Age of Plastic as children’s drinking ups and also to pour water onto the broken up sago before kneading it, to wash
out the starch.
The Kamoro gather many colorful shell found on the beach are temporarily used for personal adornment. These
include representatives from the following families: Columbellidae, Olividae, Marginellidae, Conidae, Pectinidae an
Formerly, shells from the Family Terebridae were used in black magic: after burning them, they were buried in the
footsteps of the victim: Terebra spp.
The people of Paopao hamlet said that many of the mollusks listed in my study disappeared at the beginning of the
year 2000, after having made a come-back the previous year, thanks to the completion of the East Levee. They began
to reappear again later.
Appendix II: Atuka mollusks
(gastropods: ITIMUETE: on beach, small; UMUKU: on beach, long; we still need ids on these two, plus the barnacl
EMATAU, the bivalves KAE and KAMARARO and one photo id...)
UPI: Telescopium telescopium
INTIA: Terbralia sulcata
TONO: Pugilinia cochlidium
KONOME: Chicoreus capuchinus
KONOME or TAKARITA: Stramonita gradata (not eaten...)
AMPURATA: Cassidula aurifelis
YAOMEAO: Ellobium aurisjudae
YAO: E. aurismidae
(WER)OMOKO: Nerita balteata
KAOKAOMOKO: N. planospira
BITAPOKO: Neritina variegata
BETE: N. violacea
In Atuka only: *BETE: not eaten; said to get inside legs, feet when walking...
we have no idea as to what this could mean...worth following up????
AOTA: Littoria sp. (lives on trees)
UPU: Melo amphora
TONO/TAKARA: Triton-like, Syrinx aruanus.
BATAO: Crassostrea iradelae
YARAORA: Placuna sp.
PORO: Anadara granosa
UPURU: Isognomon epivipium
YAKA: Polymesoda (Geloina?) papuensis
OMAPOKO: Polymesoda/Geloina coaxans
PARI??? AS ABOVE???
TIKAE or TIKAEKO: probably Mesodesmatidae (wedge shells)
No photos: KAIMIUPORO, TONO, KOMONE and BITAPOKO
YANIMA and PAUTA both words used for all gastropods and bivalves which are good for health; this word does no
include the tambelo
In Atuka, we were given the information that aside from the tambelo, whose mollusk status is clear enough, there
were other edible species of dead-tree dwelling, similar-looking beasts. We did not have the opportunity to see these
let alone eat them or to collect samples for identification. That will be the lucky fate of some future researcher. The
usual tambelo, aside from healing 'tulang sakit' (sick bones) is also said to built muscle.
Here are others worm or grub-like animals eaten in Atuka:
various ulat or grubs? (larvae?) from dead trees; all are white
WIRUKU (Hopea nodosa): ulat BAMAKO, 13 cm, panjang
KIMOKO, Pimeleodon pinnatum: ulat BAMAKO
AMETA: Metroxylon sagu, ulat KAURI; the usual sago grub eaten from this tree, the
most delicious KO’O is present when the tree is fallen at its maximum starch yield; if the tree is allowed
to flower, its pitch turns sweet and it is at this stage that this particular worm/grub appears.... if I understood
is said to be some 10 to 12 cm, long and curved shaped like this: ((
OPAKO: Artocarpus altilis, the grub from his tree is called MAKAMO; it is said to be toe-sized, 10 to 12 cm.
long. KO’O the best, ulat sagu
OTAI is said to be a kind of worm (cacat) which breaks apart when pulled; it is bitter tasting and found in the tree
UMU, Xylocarpus moluccensis.
all these crawlies are usually eaten usually grilled (bakar) but sometime raw....
Teredinidae: shipworms- chiefly burrowers in wood and commonly found in floating logs or wharf pilings, this
family comprises 66 species; they are unusual, filter-feeding, infaunal animals which form a calcareously lined
burrow or tube that varies greatly in thickness and may be septate distally. Three sub-families:
1. Teredinidae with unsegmented pallets, the following genera: Teredo, Neoteredo, Dicyathifera, Teredothyra,
Bactronophorus, Zachsia, Teredora, Uperotus, Psiloteredo, and Lyrodus.
2. Bankiinae have segmented pallets and contain the genera Bankia, Nausitora, Spathoteredo, and Nototerdo.
3. Kuphinae: genus Kuphus
Mollusk Production Project (Pak Putro and Paulos Boli)
Tailings-affected mollusks: different taste and color and hard to find; the most affected: Chicoreus capucinus,
Telescopium telescopium, mangrove clams: Polymesoda (Geloina) coaxans and terenid, Bactronophorus thoracites.
The highest consumption of terenids and mangrove clams at Atuka (1132g/wk and 535g/week. The highest
consumption of gastropods at Keraka 356g/week.
For the project, two land-based sites Jaramaya River at Navy base, LANAL, near the Cargo Dock.
mangrove bivalves clams: Polymesoda sp. (KAWE) Slack-Smith 1999, questionable
and Polymesoda (Geloina) coaxans (OMAPOKO); both 10 cm+
These two species are know to live half or completely submerged in the sediment; although the sediment is exposed
to air during low tides, the clam can continue to pump water through the pedal gap, which is in contact with water. It
is believed that during this period the clams extract their food from the sediment.
Bactronophorus thoracites feed on wood and phytoplankton; the animal lives in the following species of mangroves:
PAKO (Rhizophora stylosa), AMAWI or AMAKO (Lumnitzera sp.) and WOU or UU (Bruguiera parviflora).
This mollusk is dioecious, male and female gonads develop in separate individuals. Fertilization takes place
externally between eggs and sperms in the water column.
Woro Kastoro list of mollusks:
Arcidae: Barbatia obliquata, Barbatia sp.
Corbiculidae: Polymesoda erosa, P. expansa
Isognomidae: Isognomon aenigmatica, I. eppiphium, I. isognomum
Mytilidae: Botula, Musculista glaberrima
Pectinidae: Chalmys australis
Teredinidae: Bactronophorus thoracies, Bankia orcutti, Dicyathifer manni
Architectonidae: Architectonica maxima
Buccinidae: Nassarius (Telasco) melanoides, N. (Zeuxis) clarus, N. (Z.) dorsatus, Pugilina cf. cochlidium
Bullidae: Archimediella fastigara, Hydatina (Hydatoria) cf. alboncincta
Cerithidae: Cerithium corallium
Columbellidae: Pseudoanarchis duclosiana
Cypraeidae: Cypraea (Erosaria) miliaris
Littorinidae: Littoria pallescens, L. lueola (lutea?)
Melanpidae: Aurisculastra cf. subula, Cassidula aurisfelis, C. verpertilionis, Ellobium ausrisjudae, Melanpus
Muricidae: Chicoreus capucinus, Cronia (Ergalatax) cf. concrata, Naquetia capucina, Stramonita (Thaisiella)
Naticidae: Polinices (Glossaulax) didyma, P. (Manilla).....
Neritidae: Nerita, N. blateata, N. cf. costata, N. planospira, Neritina cf. variegata, N. coromandeliana, N.
oualaniensis, Nerita sp, N. violacea, Neritodryas sp., Pugilina cochlidium
Olivadae: Oliva (Viduoliva) vidua
Potamididae: Cerithidea cf. charbonnieri, C. quadrata, Telescopium mauritsi, T. telescopium, Terebralia palustris,
Turridae: Lophiotoma (Lophioturris) sp., Ptychoblea cf. flavidula, Turridrupa sp., T. terebra
Volutidae: Amoria sp.1, A. sp.2, Cybiola sp., C. cf. novosa, Melo amphora.
>>N.B. Nair and M. Saraswathy, The biology of woodboring teredinid mollusks, Advan. Mar. Biol,. 9: 335-509,
>>R.D. Turner, A Survey and Illustrated Catalogue of the Teredinidae (Mollusca; Bivalva), Museum of Comparativ
Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, 1966.
Much of the habitat, some of the physical information as well as most of the common names comes from the
Compendium of Seashells by R. Tucker Abbott and S. Peter Dance, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia, 1990
Additional information was gleaned from the two volume Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore, Peter Ng and N
Sivasothi eds. Singapore 1999.
The scientific information comes from the Freeport Environmental Department. The names of the mollusks from the
Manasari area also come from this department. The ethnographic information and the names of the mollusks in the
most wide-spread Kamoro dialect comes from informants (interviewed by myself) living outside the Manasari area.