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SCORM for Software Developers

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SCORM for Software Developers Powered By Docstoc
					    SCORM® for
Software Developers
              Lori Morealli
              Angelo Panar
  Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC)
           ADL Technology Center
             February 22, 2005
            Tutorial Purpose

Provide software developers with
information about Sharable Content Object
Reference Model (SCORM) 2004 and
considerations to help build
• Content development tools
• Learning Management Systems (LMSs)




                                        2
                 Agenda

•   SCORM Conformance
•   An Overview of SCORM
•   Information for Building Tools
•   Tool Question and Answer Session
•   Break
•   Information for Building LMSs
•   LMS Question and Answer Session


                                       3
SCORM Conformance
          SCORM Conformant

A SCORM conformant product
• Has passed the SCORM Conformance
  Test Suite (Self Test)
• Conforms to the latest version of SCORM
  as outlined in the SCORM Conformance
  Requirements




                                        5
         Conformance Test Suite

The purpose of the SCORM 2004
Conformance Test Suite (Self Test) is to
provide organizations with the ability to
perform self testing on LMSs, Sharable
Content Objects (SCOs), Metadata XML
instances and Content Packages




                                            6
SCORM Adopters




                 Captured on 2/7/05
                                      7
            ADL Certification

• Is independent testing
• Provides consumers of learning content
  and LMSs with the assurance that
  certified products have successfully
  implemented SCORM




                                           8
             Testing Centers

• Wisconsin Testing Organization
  – Madison, Wisconsin
  – www.witesting.org
• Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC)
  Division Keyport
  – Keyport, Washington
  – www.keyport.kpt.nuwc.navy.mil




                                     9
Certified Products




                     Captured on 2/7/05
                                          10
Questions and Answers




 Questions related to
SCORM Conformance?




                        11
An Overview of SCORM
                    SCORM 2004


   SCORM                                 SCORM
   Overview                      Sequencing and Navigation




 SCORM Content                          SCORM
Aggregation Model                Run-Time Environment




                                                             13
           SCORM Overview

• Summarizes the history and background
  of ADL and SCORM
• Describes the complete set of SCORM
  books and how they interrelate




                                          14
Standards & Specifications




                    ®




                             15
       Content Aggregation Model (CAM)

                                Content
                            Aggregation Model




                                        Metadata (IEEE LOM 1484.12)
Key SCORM® Technologies
• Sharable Content Object            Content Packaging (IMS)
• Asset
• Content Packaging             Sequencing Information (IMS)
• Meta-data
• Sequencing Information

                                                                      16
       Standards & Specifications for the CAM

Core SCORM Standards/Specifications
• IMS Content Packaging Specification
• IEEE Standard for Learning Object
  Metadata (LOM)
• IEEE Standard for Learning Technology -
  Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  Schema Binding for LOM
• IMS Simple Sequencing Specification


                                                17
          Standards & Specifications for the CAM

Core (Internet)/Web-based Standards
• W3C Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1
• Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request For
  Comment (RFC) 2396:1998, Universal Resource
  Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax
• IETF RFC 2426:1998: vCard MIME Directory Profile
• ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000, Information technology –
  Universal multiple-octet coded character set – Part 1:
  Architecture and basic multilingual plane
• IETF RFC 1951 DEFLATE Compressed Data Format
  Specification Version 1.3
• XML Schema Part 1: Structures
• XML Schema Part 1: Datatypes

                                                           18
    Run-Time Environment (RTE)

                          Run-Time Environment




Key SCORM® Technologies
• API
• API Instance
                                 Communications API (IEEE 1484.11.2)
• Launch
• Session Methods
                                Data Model (IEEE 1484.11.1)
• Data Transfer Methods
• Support Methods
• Temporal Model
• Data Model



                                                                 19
       Standards & Specifications for the RTE

Core SCORM Standards/Specifications
• IEEE Standard for Learning Technology –
  Data Model for Content Object
  Communication
• IEEE Standard for Learning Technology –
  ECMAScript Application Programming
  Interface for Content to Run-time
  Services Communication


                                                20
              Standards & Specifications for the RTE
Core Internet/Web-based Standards
• IETF RFC 2141: URN Syntax
• ISO/IEC 646:1991: Information technology – ISO 7-bit coded character set
   for information exchange
• ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000, Information technology – Universal multiple-octet
   coded character set – Part 1: Architecture and basic multilingual plane
• W3C Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification, Version
   1.0
• ISO/IEC 16262:1998: Information technology – ECMAScript Language
   specification
• ISO/IEC 11404:1996, Information technology – Programming languages,
   their environments and system software interfaces – Language-
   independent datatypes
• Unicode Standard
• ISO 639-1, Codes for representation of names of languages – Part 1:
   Alpha-2 code
• ISO 639-2, Codes for representation of names of languages – Part 2:
   Alpha-3 code
• ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their
   subdivisions – Part 1: Country codes

                                                                        21
Sequencing and Navigation (SN)


                 Sequencing and Navigation




                        Sequencing Information & Behavior (IMS)


  Key SCORM® Technologies
  • Activity Tree
  • Learning Activities
  • Sequencing Rules
  • Navigation
  • Navigation Data Model

                                                             22
      Standards & Specifications for SN

Core SCORM Standard/Specification
• IMS Simple Sequencing Specification




                                          23
       Conformance Requirements

The SCORM Conformance Requirements
document provides a summary of the test
subjects that can be certified for
conformance and the detailed conformance
requirements outlined in SCORM




                                       24
Questions and Answers




Questions related to the
Overview of SCORM?




                           25
Tools Development
           Tools Development

• Various development tools exist
• This section discusses the following types
  of tools:
  – SCORM Content Package
  – Content
  – Metadata




                                           27
        SCORM Content Package

The purpose of a SCORM Content
Package is to provide a standardized way
to identify and exchange digital resources
between different systems or tools




                                             28
       SCORM Content Package

• Manifest Conformance Requirements
• Content Conformance Requirements
• Content Package Structural Conformance
  Requirements




                                       29
        SCORM Content Package

Manifest Conformance Requirements
• Basic XML Requirements
• IMS CP XML Binding Requirements
• IMS SS XML Binding Requirements
• ADL SCORM Application Profile Binding
  Requirements
• Metadata – Not required, but
  recommended
• Content Manifest CP Extensions – Not
  required
                                          30
       SCORM Content Package

Content Conformance Requirements
• SCOs




                                   31
        SCORM Content Package

Content Packaging Structural Conformance
Requirements
• imsmanifest.xml
• All controlling documents (XSDs, DTDs)
• Structural integrity




                                       32
            Applying Sequencing

Predictable,                                 Course



consistent ordering and
delivery of learning      Module 1           Module 2               Module 3




activities, in an                Lesson 01              Lesson 01              Lesson 01



instructionally                  Lesson 02              Lesson 02              Lesson 02



meaningful manner,                                      Lesson 03                      Chapter 1


regardless of delivery                                  Lesson 04                      Chapter 2


environment




                                                                                            33
The Three Views of Sequencing


     1. Design Time

     2. Package Import

     3. Run-time




                                34
         Describing an Activity Tree

• The IMS SS XML Binding defines how to
  represent (in XML) Sequencing Definition Model
  elements for a given activity
• Each <organization> element in the content
  package represents the root of an activity tree
• Each <item> element in the <organization>
  element represents an activity
• Only leaf activities (leaf <item> elements) are
  permitted to have associated learning resources
  that may be delivered as a result of sequencing


                                               35
SCORM Content Package




                        36
                Deriving an Activity Tree
                                       Per Learner — The Content
                                    Organization (<organization>) is
                                 transformed into an Activity Tree which
                                     manages a learning experience

Content Package Importer
- Parses imsmanifest.xml files

     imsmanifest.xml
                                                    Sequencing Implementation -
 <organization> <resources>                             Manages Activity Trees
                                                    Activity Tree
                                                                           Sequencing
                                                                            Tracking
                                                                              Data




                                                                                        37
        SCORM Content Package

Considerations
• Use of <dependency> element to group
  resources that are in common
• Validation of XML against XSDs
• Integration of metadata
• Integration of sequencing and navigation
  information
• (sub)manifests
• Use of namespace extensions
• Application of Sequencing
                                             38
          Content

• Asset
• SCO




                    39
Assets




         40
              Assets

Conformance Requirements
• There are none




                           41
               Assets

Considerations
• Assets could be launched
• Assets do not communicate with the LMS




                                       42
                 SCO

• A SCO is a collection of one or more
 assets that represents a single launchable
 learning resource that can communicate
 with an LMS using the SCORM RTE
• A SCO represents the lowest level of
 granularity of learning resources that can
 communicate with an LMS using the
 SCORM RTE


                                          43
                 SCO

• Application Program Interface (API)
  Usage Conformance Requirements
• Data Model Usage Conformance
  Requirements




                                        44
                   SCO

API Usage Conformance Requirements
• ECMAScript Requirements
  – Finding the LMS provided API
  – Initializing/Terminating the Communication
    Session
  – Data Storage
  – Error Handling




                                                 45
                 SCO

Data Model Usage Conformance
Requirements
• Dot-notation binding Requirements
• Data Types Requirements
• Application Profile Requirements




                                      46
                 SCO

Considerations
• Abnormal termination error handling
• Built in error handling
• Finding LMS-provided API
• Using Data Model elements with one
  another
• Using Data Model elements to affect
  sequencing

                                        47
               Metadata

• Metadata is information about content
  that includes descriptions of
  characteristics and relationships among
  category items
• Types of metadata
  –Content Aggregation Metadata
  –Content Organization Metadata
  –Activity Metadata
  –SCO Metadata
  –Asset Metadata
                                            48
                Metadata

Application Profile Conformance Requirements
• Different sets depending on the SCORM
  Content Component (Asset, SCO,
  Organization, etc.)
• Learning Object Metadata (LOM) XML Binding




                                           49
                Metadata

Considerations
• Metadata profiles
  – SCORM only defines a minimum required set
  – Communities of practice may define their
    own sets
• Multilingual support
• Metadata automation



                                           50
Questions and Answers




 Questions related to
 Tools Development?




                        51
Break
LMS Development
             LMS Development

•   Assumptions
•   LMS Architecture
•   Content Import Process
•   Run-Time Management




                               54
                         Overview


                    Learning Management System
                               (LMS)

                                          LMS Server

                                                                         Server Side

                                                            Launch       Client Side
Data Model:
Actual data sent
back and forth                           Web Browser
between a SCO
and LMS

Communication                                                        Asset
with backend                       SCO
                                              Asset    Asset
server is not
specified in         API
SCORM.             Instance           ECMAScript       Asset




                         API: Communications Link between a SCO
                         and LMS

                         Data Model: Data is requested to be
                         retrieved from and stored in the LMS from the
                         SCO.
                                                                                       55
             LMS Architecture

Services that a SCORM Conformant LMS must
provide
• Identify content for delivery
• Launch content
• Enable content to communicate if it chooses
• Accept a common, defined set of information
• Manage Learner Attempts & Learner Sessions
• Provide means for a learner to navigate



                                                56
             LMS Architecture

• The SCORM certification process and the
  Conformance Test Suite ensure that the
  services perform as expected
• All of these services are primarily focused
  on the per-learner experience of a single
  course
• Although these services are necessary,
  they are not sufficient for a ―real‖ LMS


                                            57
          Assumed LMS Features

•   Learner Management Service
•   Learner Authentication Service
•   Content Import Service
•   Content Management Service
•   Content Delivery Service
•   Run-Time Data Management Service
•   UI Service
•   Reporting Services
•   Others
                                       58
         Content Import Service

The purpose of the Content Import Service
is to allow the use of data from another
application




                                            59
            Content Import Service

Assumptions and considerations
• A SCORM LMS must be able to consume
  SCORM Content Packages
• A SCORM LMS must be able to extract the
  content from a SCORM Content Package, parse
  the manifest file, and interpret the intent of the
  source of the package
• The Content Import Service is not explicitly
  tested, but it is implicitly tested throughout the
  SCORM Certification Process
• Content Import does not imply a per learner
  import
                                                  60
       Content Registration Service

The purpose of the Content Registration
Service is to allow learners to access and
select content




                                             61
        Content Registration Service

Assumptions and considerations
• A LMS allows learners to access the LMS and
  select a course to experience
• Once a SCORM Content Package is imported,
  the learner must be able to access it
• SCORM does not define a way for learners to
  identify courses that are available to them or to
  sequence between courses
• LMSs must manage the state of the course as a
  whole

                                                  62
         Content Delivery Service

The purpose of the Content Delivery
Service is to deliver content to a learner




                                             63
            Content Delivery Service

Assumptions and considerations
• The LMS must be able to deliver that course to the
  learner after a learner has logged onto the LMS and
  selected a course to experience
• The LMS must provide some form of User Interface (UI)
  that displays the content, provides navigation controls,
  and enables communication to the LMS
• SCORM does not define or place any constraints on the
  type or form of UI provided by an LMS
• SCORM does not define or place any constraints on the
  mechanism that a LMS utilizes to provide the SCORM
  API Instance
• SCOs communicate through the LMS provided SCORM
  API Instance using JavaScript (this constraint on the
  SCO-to-API Instance interface needs to be considered
  due to the potential cross-domain issue)
                                                        64
             Cross-Domain


         Domain: xyz.com     Domain: abc.com

                                 Content
           LMS Server
                                  Server
Server
 Side


Client
Side                   Web Browser

               API
             Adapter       X      SCO
                                (Content)



                                               65
        Run-Time Management

Run-Time Management involves
• API Implementations
• Run-Time Data Model Management
• Sequencing




                                   66
         Run-Time Management

Run-Time Management is the learner’s
experience in terms of Learner Attempts
and Learner Sessions




                                          67
                     Temporal Model for a SCO




      Begin                                                           End
Sequencing Session                                              Sequencing Session




                Active /       Inactive / Active /
                                                     Inactive
             Begin Attempt    Suspended Resumed

                                                                               68
            API Implementation

The SCORM API provides eight functions that
SCOs can use to communicate

Initialize (“”)
Terminate (“”)
Commit (“”)
GetValue (parameter1)
SetValue (parameter1, parameter2)
GetLastError ()
GetErrorString (errorcode)
GetDiagnostics (errorcode)
                                              69
             API Implementation

The Conformance Requirements are
• API must implement the defined API interface
  as defined by IEEE Standard for Learning
  Technology – ECMAScript Application
  Programming Interface for Content to Run-time
  Services Communication
• API Implementations states and state transitions
• API Implementation Error Handling
• API Implementation deployment requirements
  as defined by the IEEE standard

                                                 70
         API Implementation

Considerations
• Persistence/storage of data
• Reporting capabilities
• User Management/Data Management
• State Management




                                    71
                 Run-Time Data Model Management

The following Data Model Elements are
defined in the SCORM Run-Time Data
Model
• Comments_from_learner   • Learner_id             • Score
• Comments_from_LMS       • Learner_name           • Session_time
• Completion_status       • Learner_preference     • Success_status
• Completion_threshold    • Location               • Suspend_data
• Credit                  • Max_time_allowed       • Time_limit_action
• Entry                   • Mode                   • Total_time
• Exit                    • Objectives
• Interactions            • Progress_measure
• Launch_data             • Scaled_passing_score
                                                                      72
       Run-Time Data Model Management

Conformance Requirements
• Managing Learner Attempts and Learner
  Sessions
• Differences between Run-Time
  Attempts/Sessions and Sequencing
  Attempts/Session
• Persistence of Data from the standpoint of
  Learner attempts and learner sessions


                                           73
        Run-Time Data Model Management

Considerations
• API Implementation management
  – Transferring data back on the server-side
    LMS
• Reporting




                                                74
               Sequencing

Predictable,                                 Course



consistent ordering and
delivery of learning      Module 1           Module 2               Module 3




activities, in an                Lesson 01              Lesson 01              Lesson 01



instructionally                  Lesson 02              Lesson 02              Lesson 02



meaningful manner,                                      Lesson 03                      Chapter 1


regardless of delivery                                  Lesson 04                      Chapter 2


environment




                                                                                            75
The Three Views of Sequencing


     1. Design Time

     2. Package Import

     3. Run-time




                                76
       IMS SS ―fits‖ into SCORM 2004

• The sequencing loop and its behavior is
  consistent with the SCORM 2004 Run-
  Time Environment
• The IMS SS Tracking Model is aligned
  with the SCORM 2004 Run-Time Data
  Model




                                            77
                Deriving an Activity Tree
                                       Per Learner — The Content
                                    Organization (<organization>) is
                                 transformed into an Activity Tree which
                                     manages a learning experience

Content Package Importer
- Parses imsmanifest.xml files

     imsmanifest.xml
                                                    Sequencing Implementation -
 <organization> <resources>                             Manages Activity Trees
                                                    Activity Tree
                                                                           Sequencing
                                                                            Tracking
                                                                              Data




                                                                                        78
 The Sequencing Loop

            Runtime Environment —
            External to the Sequencer
                   Content Object
                                                      Navigation
                    Identified for
                                                       Request
                      Delivery




               Content Delivery                 Navigation Request
             Environment Process                     Process




Delivery Request                                                    Termination Request
     Process                                                              Process




                                Sequencing Request
                                     Process




                                 Selection Process
Overall Rollup Process                                             Utility Processes
                              Randomization Process
                                                                             Sequencer
                                                                                          79
                Sequencing

Conformance Requirements
• 50+ Test Cases
  – Correct translation of a Content Package into
    an Activity Tree
  – Correct application of sequencing behavior
  – Management of sequencing tracking
    information




                                                80
                Sequencing

Considerations
• Scalability
• State and Data Management
  – Per learner
  – Per course
  – Shared global objectives
• Session Management



                               81
      Sample Run-Time Environment

• The purpose of the Sample Run-Time
  Environment (RTE) is to provide an
  example implementation of the SCORM
  LMS functionality
• It is not a scalable implementation, but it
  does provide a demonstration
  environment
• It is available for download from
  ADLNet.org

                                                82
Questions and Answers




  Questions related to
  LMS Development?




                         83
               Resources

• SCORM 2004
• SCORM 2004 Conformance Requirements
• SCORM 2004 Conformance Test Suite (Self
  Test)
• SCORM 2004 Sample Run-Time Environment
• Example Content
• Certification Information

        Available at www.ADLNet.org


                                            84

				
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