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					Principles of Marketing

       Marketing Research
Purpose of Marketing Research
 Marketing Concept

 Objective is to reduce uncertainty relating
Marketing Information System
   Assess information needs
   Develop and store information
   Evaluate and analyze
   Distribute
The Marketing Information
System (Fig. 4.1)
Marketing Information System
   Assess information needs
   Develop and store information
   Evaluate and analyze
   Distribute
Research Process
   Define the problem and the objectives
   Develop the research plan
   Implement the plan
   Interpret and report
   Develop the Research Plan
   Gathering Secondary Information
                              Both Must
                                 Be:
 Information That
Already Exists                     Relevant                   Information
Somewhere.                                                    Collected for the
                                   Accurate                   Specific Purpose
+ Obtained More                                               at Hand.
Quickly, Lower Cost.                    Current
   - Might Not be                 Impartial
      Usable Data.            Online Databases
                              Offer a wealth of information
                              to marketing decision makers.



                              Examples:


                                exis Nexis

                               ompuserve


      For ad, click object:     ialog
Research Designs
   Exploratory

   Descriptive

   Causal
 Develop the Research Plan
 Planning Primary Data Collection
Observational      Research Approaches
 Research
                    Survey
Gathering data     Research
 by observing
    people,           Asking
                                    Experimental
  actions and       individuals      Research
   situations    about attitudes,
 (Exploratory)    preferences or    Using groups of
                      buying            people to
                     behaviors         determine
                   (Descriptive)    cause-and-effect
                                      relationships
                                        (Causal)
Exploratory Research
   Literature reviews—secondary data
   Interviews
   Observations
Descriptive Research
   Literature review
   Observations
   Surveys
   Scanner data
   Panel data
       Develop the Research Plan
       Planning Primary Data Collection
              Contact Methods (Table 4.3)
                 Mail      Telephone   Personal    Online
Flexibility      Poor      Good        Excellent   Good
Quantity of      Good      Fair        Excellent   Good
Data Collected
Control of       Excellent Fair        Poor        Fair
Interviewer
Control of       Fair      Excellent   Fair        Poor
Sample
Speed of Data    Poor      Excellent   Good        Excellent
Collection
Response Rate    Fair      Good        Good        Good
Cost             Good      Fair        Poor        Excellent
Causal research methods
   Criteria for inferring causality



   Experiments
Experiment—Role of Pictures
   Question: Does the use situation “fit” of pictured people in print
    ads affect brand attitudes?
   Design: 2 (“fit”) X 2 (product) factorial design
    Electro-Lite Energy Bars at   Electro-Lite Energy Bars at Party
    Running Track                 Scene
    Sonoma Corn Chips at          Sonoma Corn Chips at Running
    Party Scene                   Track




•Random assignment—statistical control for “uncontrolled”
variables
•Manipulated—situation fit and product
•Measured—brand attitude and intention to buy
Sampling Issues
   Populations vs. Samples
   Probability samples

   Non-probability samples
Questions
   Kellogg’s wants to know how much influence
    small children have on cereal choices.
   Gillette wants to determine whether a new
    line of deodorant for children will be
    profitable.
   McDonald’s is considering where to locate a
    new outlet in a fast-growing suburban area.
   Microsoft wants to know the relative
    effectiveness of engineers vs. non-engineers
    as industrial salespeople