Tramp Oil Guide to Good Bunkering Practice

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					  Tramp Oil Guide to
Good Bunkering Practice
                                   PRODUCT TRANSFER PROCEDURE
Name of vessel:                                         Place of Supply:                       Date:
Before any transfer of product is undertaken, the barge master or other person in charge of delivery, will review the
following items with the receiving vessel's Chief Engineer. Each will sign both copies of this form to acknowledge that
all matters listed below are fully understood.
Oncoming personnel will also check and review the listed matters at change of watch and sign in acknowledgement.

1. Pumping Data:
   a.    Type of stock to be transferred
   b.    Quantity
   c.    Initial transfer rate
   d.    Maximum transfer rate
   e.    Maximum transfer pressure
   f.    Anticipated stoppages
2. The method of communication between barge or terminal and vessel will be:

                                                                   Checked by     Checked by               Comment
                                                                    Receiving      Supplier's
                                                                     Vessel's    Representative
3. An English Speaking member of the crew will be on                   Yes/No           Yes/No
   duty at all times.
4. It is understood that, except in an emergency, a 15                 Yes/No           Yes/No
   minute standby for shutting down of transfer is required.
5. Are hoses in good condition?                                        Yes/No           Yes/No
6. Are connections between barge and vessel/terminal                  Yes/No            Yes/No
   properly bolted and secured?
7. Are scupper plugs in place?                                         Yes/No           Yes/No
8. Are sea suctions and overboard discharge valves                     Yes/No           Yes/No
   closed and sealed?
9. A continuous deck watch will be kept by barge or                    Yes/No           Yes/No
   terminal and vessel/crews.
10. All unused manifold connections are blanked off.                   Yes/No           Yes/No
11. Both parties will maintain constant surveillance of               Yes/No            Yes/No
    adjacent waters to detect any leakage/spillage of oil.
12. It is understood that the ship will not shut down against         Yes/No            Yes/No
    the flow of oil.
13. In the event of an oil spill the following steps will be taken (containment, clean up, reports, etc)

For Supplier                                                 For Vessel
Signed                              Time                     Signed                            Time
Shift Change                        Time                     Shift Change                      Time
Shift Change                        Time                     Shift Change                      Time
                      VALUE FOR MONEY
The quality and composition of marine      This leaflet is designed to help owners
fuels vary from port to port worldwide.    and operators achieve the goal of good
This poses real problems for vessels       ships' housekeeping and to suggest
engaged in international trade.            steps that should be taken when
This quality question is NOT just a        loading bunkers.
problem for suppliers, it is yet another
area where a further burden of             If the golden rules of good bunker
responsibility falls on the owner or       purchasing and best practice on-board
operator, a responsibility which is, in    are followed, areas of contention
fact, just as great as that of the         between owner and supplier must
supplier.                                  inevitably decrease.
                         GOLDEN RULES
Before accepting bunkers, the Chief
Engineer should always check the
supplier's documents to ensure that
the product to be supplied is, in terms
of quantity, grade and specification,
what has been ordered. In addition he
should insist on witnessing the taking
and sealing of representative samples,
of which he will retain one per grade.

The Chief Engineer or his
representative must always check that
bunkers to be stemmed do not contain
unacceptable amounts of water.
International specifications permit a
trace in Gas Oil, 0.3% in Diesel Oils
and 0.5% to 1.0% in blended fuels.
                                          Water finding paste, smeared on the
                                          dipstick, changes colour in the
                                          presence of water and is easily read for
                                          distillate fuels. The water depth can
                                          then be read off and its volume and
                                          weight calculated from the barge or
                                          storage tank calibration tables. Water
                                          paste is less accurate in blended fuels
                                          and a sample tested in a water test kit
                                          is more reliable.

                                          GOLDEN RULE 3
                                          In addition to checking the security (oil
                                          tightness) of the hose coupling, it is
                                          most important to agree delivery
                                          details. Pumping rate, pumping pres-
                                          sure and stop/start signals between
                                          barge and vessel are critical to prevent
                                          spillage and possible pollution.
                                          Excess pressure can cause hoses to
                                          burst leading to immediate pollution of
                                          the surrounding water. This is highly
                                          likely to result in expensive clean-up
                                          costs, fines and arrest.
Short delivery claims are the cause of
many disputes between owners or
operators and bunker suppliers. In the
majority of cases these can be avoided
by ship's staff actively ensuring that
they actually receive the quantity that
has been ordered.
The Chief Engineer or his
representative must always check the
supplier's barge, shore tanks, trucks or
meters, before and after pumping.

All tanks should be checked by using
steel dips and tank calibration tables,
both before and after pumping, to
ensure that the correct quantity has
been discharged.

Should be checked by gauge readings        ship's staff, to be the basis of invoiced
or, if gauges do not exist, by dipping.    quantity. In many countries these
                                           measurements are checked and
                                           certified by customs authorities. The
METERS:                                    reason for this rigid adherence to
                                           suppliers' figures is that suppliers'
Should be read both before and after
                                           barges and trucks are in regular use
bunker delivery.
                                           and have established, known
Suppliers' terms worldwide provide for     performance factors whilst ships may
their measurements, witnessed by           have tanks of uncertain cross section,
                                           void spaces and long pipe runs, as
                                           acknowledged by international survey
                                           All measurements record volume (not
                                           weight) and these volumes are
                                           converted into tonnes using density
                                           and temperature correction factors.
REPRESENTATIVE SEALED SAMPLES               Sample bottles should be sealed, dated
MUST BE TAKEN….                             and signed by both the Chief Engineer
A responsible member of the receiving       and on behalf of the local supplier.
vessel's staff must witness the sampling    At least two identical samples should
process and the sealing of the samples      be taken. One should be retained by
in suitable containers with proper          the ship's staff, for a minimum of three
sealing arrangements.                       months and at least until the bunkers
The sample must be representative of        loaded have been burnt without
the total delivery and, ideally, taken by   problem. If a quality problem does
drip feed at the discharge side of the      then arise, the sealed sample, retained
barge manifold during the course of         by the Chief Engineer, is readily avail-
the pumping process.                        able for independent analysis.
Sample bottles should not be filled at      The second sealed sample should be
either the start or the finish of           retained by the local bunker supplier.
pumping because they would then not         A quantity of the new bunkers can be
be representative of the total tonnage      used soon after sailing in order to
loaded; similarly they should not be        ensure that they are of good quality. If
filled from just one tank on the barge.     a genuine problem arises, the supplier
                                            can be notified promptly; late advice
                                            can lead to a supplier declining liability.
                                            (Notification periods are clearly stated
                                            in suppliers' terms and conditions).

                                            USE TEST KITS FOR CHECKING
                                            The only way bunker quality can really
                                            be checked on board is for the vessel
                                            to have her own fuel oil test kit and,
                                            just as important, be manned by
                                            personnel trained to use it.
                                            By carrying out a few simple tests on
                                            samples from the bunker barge or
                                            shore tank, the Chief Engineer can
                                            satisfy himself that the product is to
                                            specification and compatible with
                                            existing bunkers.
THE PROBLEM OF FUEL                        results of the test are to hand and the
COMPATIBILITY                              bunkers are cleared for mixing and
Compatibility is one of the most           burning.
serious problems facing owners and
operators today. It is capable of
causing severe damage to a ship's            SERVICEABILITY
main engine or auxiliary machinery but
can be easily avoided by the simple        MAKE SURE FUEL HANDLING
expedients of (a) carrying out a           EQUIPMENT IS SERVICEABLE
compatibility test and, (b) best of all,
segregating the bunkers in                 Many claims that start off as alleged
separate tanks. Checking for com-          quality claims frequently turn out to be
patibility with existing fuel on board     nothing of the sort when investigated
can only be undertaken by ship's staff.    by independent marine consultants.
Suppliers will not accept responsibility   Often, the problem is proved to be one
for incompatibility, a matter outside of   of inadequate or unserviceable fuel
their control.                             handling equipment.
                                           Owners and operators should ensure
IF IN DOUBT, ALWAYS CHECK                  that all fuel handling equipment is
                                           serviceable at all times and that
Bunkers are products from refineries of    periodic checks are made to ensure
simple or complex nature, using crudes     that it remains so.
sourced world wide.
While the delivered product may
conform to the relevant specification in   PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE
every way, when mixed in the tank          This guide is no more than a brief
with product refined from a different      outline of best practice in purchasing
crude, incompatibility can occur.          and receiving bunkers but if the
Incompatible products will layer and       guidelines are followed, many of the
can form an unpumpable sludge. They        disputes that currently occur between
can also cause poor main engine            the owner or operator and suppliers,
combustion. In extreme cases the           and indeed between owners and
product can become completely              charterers, will be avoided.
unpumpable and unburnable.                 REMEMBER. Always insist on
Ideally a sample of each new delivery      witnessing the taking of sealed
of fuel should be sent to one of the       representative samples of each
various bunker testing laboratories        grade delivered and retaining a
around the world for example Lloyd's       sample on board.
Register of Shipping's Fuel Oil Bunker
Analysis and Advisory Service (FOBAS)         The basic message?
or Den Norske Veritas, for analysis
before the bunkers are burnt.                    PREVENTION
This entails holding bunkers in the tank      Is better than cure.
on board for five or six days before the

                     TRAMP OIL & MARINE LIMITED
                     London (Head Office)
                     Tel: +44 (0)20 8315 7777
                     Fax: +44 (0)20 8315 7788

Bremen                                    Kaliningrad
Tel: +49 421 165610                       Tel: +70112 551036
Fax: +49 421 1656161                      Fax: +70112 555150
Email:       Email:

Cyprus                                    Rio de Janeiro
Tel: +357 2588 9000                       Tel: +55 21 3231 2080
Fax: +357 2574 5466                       Fax: +55 21 3231 2070
Email:               Email:

Immingham                                 Seoul
Tel: +44 (0)1482 629 669                  Tel: +82 2 720 1255
Fax: +44 (0)1482 629 691                  Fax: +82 2 737 0420
Email:         Email:

Istanbul                                  Singapore
Tel: +90 216 4114127/28                   Tel: +656 221 1255
Fax: +90 216 4114160                      Fax: +656 227 0420
Email:     Email:

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