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					ATTACHMENT


History and discussion
Attachment:
• ―A highly individualized relationship that forms
  between parents and their child. It is based on
  a biological bond between child and parent
  that is as basic a need as is food or warmth. It
  is affected by many factors, such as parental
  emotional and physical health, an infant’s
  temperament, and family’s social support
  network.‖ (Shafer, 2004, p. 17)
Aspects of attachment
• INTERNAL
  WORKING
  MODELS
• Inner sense-making
  mechanisms
• Based on parental
  response
• Basis of future
  behavioral and
  emotional interactions
Aspects of Attachment
             • SECURE BASE
             • Parents are the secure
               base from which an
               infant or child feels the
               safety necessary to
               explore their world
             • Coined by Mary
               Ainsworth
The following slides show:
• Several studies or experiences that suggest
  the importance of early socialization and
  attachment for children, especially with their
  parents and families.
King Frederick II of Germany
• 1200s—king
  removed newborns
  from mothers to
  determine instinctive
  language
• No touching or
  caressing, only
  feeding and dressing
• RESULT???
EUGENICS MOVEMENT
          • First 6 decades of the
            20th century – cleansing
            of the human race.
          • Human race should have
            Scandinavian features
          • Those who were
            considered inferior were
            sterilized
          • Children who were
            disabled were considered
            inferior
   Arnold Gesell, 1880—1961
• A proponent of the Eugenics
  movement
• Let children grow to at least
  age 2 before adoptable
• Match characteristics with
  adoptive parents
• Until, change caregivers
  every 6 months
• No attachment bonds able to
  continue and grow
Dr. Rene Spitz and his film
              • 1945 study involving human
                infants who were separated
                from mothers early in life for
                one reason or another . . .
              • Some raised in foster care;
                others in orphanage
              • Made film called ―Grief: A
                Peril in Infancy‖
              • Children shown hauntingly
                depressed, forlorn wails,
                sunken eyes
              • ―Give mother back to baby.‖
Dr. Loretta Bender
           • Child psychiatrist at Bellevue in the
             30s and 40s.
           • Wrote of Angel Guardian Home:
             ―They have no play pattern, cannot
             enter into group play but abuse
             other children, and cling to adults
             and exhibit a temper tantrum when
             cooperation is expected. They are
             hyperkinetic and distractible, they
             are completely confused about
             human relationships, and lose
             themselves in a destructive
             fantasy life directed both against
             the world and themselves.‖
    John Watson, 1878--1958
• Belief that affection spoils children:
• ―Treat them as though they were
  young adults. Dress them, bathe
  them with care and circumspection.
  Let your behavior always be
  objective and kindly firm. Never hug
  or kiss them, never let them sit on
  your lap. If you must, kiss them
  once on the forehead when they
  say goodnight. Shake hands with
  them in the morning. Give them a
  pat on the head if they have made
  an extraordinarily good job of a
  difficult task . . . ―
Sigmund Freud’s take on
    Attachment ….
            • A baby’s love for his
              mother is based on
              being fed: he loves
              her because she has
              breasts. After the
              child is weaned, he
              becomes narcissistic
              and then Oedipal.
Howard Skeels, 1920s & 30s
            • Took 13 orphans and
              placed them with 13 girls in
              a mental institution.
            • The girls were all mentally
              retarded.
            • Skeels left 12 children in
              the orphanage.
            • IQ testing done at 18
              months and 3 years
            • Children who were adopted
              increased IQ scores
    Louis Pasteur, 1822--1895
• The germ genius
• Pasteurization
• Smallpox vaccine
• Also vaccines for chicken
  pox, cholera, diphtheria,
  anthrax, and rabies
• Boiling surgical instruments
• (Doctors didn’t buy the
  boiling of surgical
  instruments thing)
Antisepsis—1920s or so . . .

              • Fear of germs after
                Pasteur
              • Hospitalized infants
              • Handling
                discouraged
              • Parents not allowed
                to visit
              • Babies’ health
                worsened
   Harry Bakwin in 1931
• Became head of
  Pediatric Ward at
  Bellevue Hospital
• Hung sign: ―Do not
  enter this nursery
  without picking up a
  baby!‖
• Infections
  DECREASED!!
Konrad Lorenz, 1903--1989
             • Greylag goslings
             • Imprinting
             • Inspired John
               Bowlby in the
               development of
               his attachment
               theory
Harry Harlow, 1906--1981
• Rhesus monkeys
• Surrogate wire
  mothers
• Surrogate terry cloth
  mothers
• Inspired John
  Bowlby’s attachment
  research
   John Bowlby, 1907--1990
• Presented his attachment theory to
  the British Psycho-Analytic Society,
  1939
• Tossed out: ―Bowlby? Give me
  Barrabas.‖
• Society embroiled in battle between
  Anna Freud and Melanie Klein
• His theory was based on ethology,
  developmental psychology, psycho-
  analysis, cybernetics, and
  information processing
• Influenced by Freud, Harlow, Lorenz
“John Bowlby . . .
 . . . revolutionized our thinking about a child’s tie
   to the mother and its disruption through
   separation, deprivation, and bereavement.‖
(Inge Bretherton, 1994)
Mary Ainsworth, 1913-1999
• Student and
  colleague of Bowlby
• Observed mothers
  and children in
  Uganda
• Strange Situation
  assessment tool
   STRANGE SITUATION

• Children aged 12 - 18           • 5. The caregiver returns
  months and their mothers          and the stranger leaves.
• 1. Caregiver and infant enter   • 6. The caregiver comforts
  the room.                         the child and then leaves for
• 2. Child plays with the toys      a second time.
  while the mother is present.    • 7. The child is left alone for
• 3. A stranger enters the          3 minutes.
  room and the caregiver          • 8. The stranger enters and
  leaves.                           interacts with the child.
• 4. The stranger tries to        • 9. The caregiver enters,
  comfort the child.                picks up the child and the
                                    stranger leaves.
SECURE ATTACHMENT
          • Infant explores the
            room with interest;
            shows signs of
            missing parent during
            separation, crying.
            Greets parent
            actively, settles, and
            returns to play.
       INSECURE AVOIDANT
          ATTACHMENT
• Doesn’t cry at
  separation; actively
  avoids and ignores
  parent on reunion. No
  distress, no anger.
  Unemotional response
  to parent; avid interest
  in toys or environment.
 INSECURE RESISTANT or
AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENT
           • Wary or distressed
             even prior to
             separation; little
             exploration; angry
             or passive; focuses
             on parent and cries;
             fails to settle
         DISORGANIZED/
    DISORIENTED ATTACHMENT
• Infant’s behavior is
  disorganized or disoriented,
  i.e., may freeze with a
  trance-like expression, may
  lay in fetal position, may
  cling and cry hard, or lean
  away with gaze averted.
  Infants in this category have
  generally had trauma.
Carry-over to adulthood
              • Research suggests that
                negative attachment
                issues in childhood have
                effects in adulthood:
                anxiety, anger, hysterical,
                affectionless,
                psychopathology,
                depression, agoraphobia,
                hypochondria, substance
                abuse . . .
      Mary Main and Adult
      Attachment Interview



• Adults are interviewed by a trained professional
• Their affect while being interviewed is rated, not the
  story that they tell
• Categories match the Ainsworth categories: Secure-
  Autonomous (Secure); Dismissing (Avoidant);
  Preoccupied (Resistant); Unresolved/Disorganized
  (Disorganized/Disoriented)/
   SECURE/AUTONOMOUS
• Adults have detailed and
  thoughtful memories of a
  loving childhood and good
  relationships with their
  parents. Autonomous adults
  speak about their parents’
  positive influence on their
  development. Their interview
  is coherent, collaborative.
DISMISSING ATTACHMENT
         • Dismissing adults minimize
           negative childhood
           experiences and dismiss the
           impact of early attachments
           on development. Dismissing
           adults may insist that they
           cannot remember childhood
           events, or their memories
           may contradict. The
           conversation is not coherent.
   PREOCCUPIED
• Preoccupied adults are still
  entangled with past family
  relationships. They remember
  childhood events, but their
  stories are not coherent nor
  succinct. Preoccupied adults
  may still be dependent on
  their parents or angry about
  past events. The interview is
  not coherent; angry, passive,
  fearful.
UNRESOLVED/DISORGANIZED
          • Unresolved/disorganized adults
            are confused or disoriented
            when speaking about the loss
            of a loved one or about past
            traumas, such as sexual or
            physical abuse. During
            discourses of loss or abuse, the
            adult shows a striking lapse in
            the monitoring of reasoning or
            discourse. This adult may lapse
            into prolonged silence or
            eulogistic speech as the
            interview progresses.
BUT DON’T FEAR!!!!
• Positive attachment
  has positive effects
  for the future! And
  besides,
  REMEMBER, there
  are no FACTS when
  dealing with human
  behavior, right?

				
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