2008 GUIDE TO CHILD CAR SEATS by jim.i.am

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									     2008 GUIDE TO CHILD CAR SEATS




      A REPORT BY THE ECOLOGY CENTER

                       AUTHORS
Jeff Gearhart, Hans Posselt, Monica Patel & Charles Griffith

                        July 2008
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Ecology Center would like to extend
special thanks to our many colleagues
who provided valuable feedback on the
report. We would also like to thank
Andrea Villablanca and Hans Posselt for
their technical assistance, as well as
Andrea Liberatore, Domingo David,            CONTENTS
Rachael Shaney, Kate Brumm for their
assistance sampling car seats.
                                             3    Introduction
For communications and outreach, we
would like to thank Shayna Samuels and       3    Using the Guide
Glenn Turner of Ripple Strategies, Justin
Laby & Alex Ade of Mouko, Inc., Margie
                                             5    Chemicals of Concern
Kelly and Matthew Grocoff. Special                   5   Bromine
thanks to Rosalyn Lemieux and the
MomsRising team for assistance in                    7   Chlorine
implementing SMS texting.
                                                     8   Lead
For supporting the ongoing work of the
                                                     8   Other Chemicals, Allergens and
Ecology Center and publication of this
report, we would like to thank the John                  Heavy Metals
Merck Fund and the New York Community
Trust.                                               12 Alternatives
The Ecology Center is solely responsible     14   Model Car Seat Guide – Rankings By
for the content of this report. The views         Seat Type
and ideas expressed in this report do not
necessarily reflect the views and policies           15 2008 Model Rankings
of our funders.
                                                     17 2007 Model Rankings
ECOLOGY CENTER
                                                     18 2008 Models Test Results
The Ecology Center is a Michigan-based
nonprofit environmental organization that            26 2007 Model Test Results
works for a safe and healthy environment
where people live, work and play. The
Center’s Clean Car Campaign works to
address environmental and health impacts     APPENDIX
of the production, use and disposal of       33   Understanding the Car Seat Ratings
vehicles in the U.S.
                                                     33 Selecting the Chemicals of
                                                         Concern
                                                     36 Car Seat Sampling
                                                     41 Establishing the Relative Levels of
                                                         Concern



117 North Division Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
734.761.3186 (phone)
734.663.2414 (fax)
info@EcoCenter.org

July 22, 2008



2 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
INTRODUCTION                                                      the 2008 model year seats. In each car seat,
Smog checks are required in some states to                        2 – 6 different components were sampled
limit pollution coming out of cars. But what                      using a portable, hand-held X-Ray
                                                                                2
about a car’s indoor air pollution?                               Flouresence (XRF) spectrometry device.
Consumers are increasingly concerned                              The components sampled include: seat
about toxic chemicals that off-gas and leach                      cushion, seat base, seat belt clip, fabric trim
from interior auto parts such as steering                         EPS foam and sun shade. The XRF device
wheels, dashboards and seats. This report                         identified the elemental composition of each
shows that the same toxic chemicals that are                      of these components. XRF tests are limited
used to make interior auto components are                         to analysis of elements and do not reveal
also used to make child car seats. Many of                        the compounds containing a particular
these chemicals can be harmful when                               element. For example, the presence of
inhaled or ingested and may lead to severe                        chlorine indicates a chlorine-containing
health impacts such as birth defects,                             compound, such as PVC. Based on our
learning disabilities and cancer.                                 findings, each car seat was given an overall
                                                                  car seat rating, as well as chemical ratings for
Since the average American spends more                            bromine, chlorine, lead and a group of
                                                                                                                   3
than 1.5 hours in a car every day1, toxic                         substances referred to as “other chemicals”.
chemical exposure inside vehicles is                              A detailed description of the rating system
becoming a major source of potential indoor                       is provided in the Appendix.
air pollution. Additionally, since children
are most vulnerable to the health effects                         The overall car seat rating indicates the
associated with these chemicals, their use in                     relative level of health and environmental
child car seats is especially worrisome. The                      concern associated with the materials in
rating system also considers potential                            the car seat, in comparison to all other car
health and environmental impacts during                           seats tested. The ratings range from 0 to 5,
the production of materials and the end of                        with 0 representing car seats with the
the products useful life.                                         relative lowest concern and 5 the relative
                                                                  highest.
The good news is that some car seats are
better than others. Toxic chemicals are not                       Each car seat is also assigned a relative level
required to make car seats or indoor auto                         of concern of low, medium or high. Car seats
parts, and some manufacturers have begun                          with a low rating are indicated in green. Car
to phase them out. Scientists and                                 seats with a high rating are indicated in red.
researchers at the Ecology Center have                            All others received an average or medium
created www.HealthyCar.org so that                                rating and are indicated in yellow.
consumers can access information about the
chemicals used in their child’s car seat or
the car seat they are thinking of purchasing.
In addition to crash test ratings, car-buyers
can now learn if the materials in their car
seat are safe for their child.
                                                                  The chemical ratings for bromine,
USING THE GUIDE                                                   chlorine, lead and other chemicals indicate
In the last two years, HealthyCar.org has                         the relative concern associated with levels
tested over 130 popular 2007-2008 child car
seats. This report updates our findings for                       2
                                                                    More information about X-Ray Flouresence (XRF)
                                                                  spectrometry can be found in the Appendix. More
1
  Dong, L.; Block, G.; Mandel, S. 2004. Activities contributing   information about the XRF device used by HealthyCar.org
to total energy expenditure in the United States: Results         can be found at: http://www.innov-x-sys.com/home.php
                                                                  3
from the NHAPS study. Int. J. Behavioral Nutrition Phys.           Other chemicals include: antimony, arsenic, chromium,
Activity 2004, 1, 4.                                              cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel and tin.


                       WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 3
of those elements detected in the car seat,               HealthyCar.org ratings do not provide any
compared to all other car seats tested.                   absolute measure of health risk or chemical
These ratings also range from 0 to 5, with 0              exposure associated with any individual car
representing car seats with the relative                  seat, or any individual element or related
lowest concern and 5 the relative highest.                chemical. HealthyCar.org ratings only
                                                          provide a relative measure of "level of
Table 1 below is a sample of the car seat                 concern" for a car seat in comparison to all
ratings for the infant type of car seats.                 car seats sampled.

In addition, the online guide provides the                It is important to always use a child car seat
detection information for bromine, chlorine,              no matter what rating it received. In
lead, antimony, arsenic, chromium, cobalt,                addition to toxic chemicals, consumers
                                                          should also consider other issues, such as
copper, nickel, mercury and tin in parts per              safety, and ease-of-use, when considering a
million in each individual car seat                       car seat purchase. Visit HealthyCar.org to
component that was tested. A sample of this               find links to other helpful car seat shopping
data is shown in Table 2. It also indicates               tools.
the percent rank of any individual sample, as
compared to the same component in other                   For answers to frequently asked questions
car seats.                                                about the guide and full 2008 car seat
                                                          rankings, go to www.HealthyCar.org.




                                                                                                              Other Chemicals
                                                                Overall Rating

 Table 1: Car Seat Ratings for 2007 Infant Car Seats                              Bromine

                                                                                            Chlorine

                                                                                                       Lead

                                             Infant
   Graco–SnugRide Emerson (8465EME3)                           0.2               0.2        0.0        0.0    0.7
   Evenflo–Discovery Infant Churchill (3911698)                0.4               0.3        0.0        0.0    1.4
   Graco–SnugRide Lindsey (8465LRD3)                           1.1               0.2        5.0        0.0    0.0
   Graco–SnugRide Family Tree (8645FMT2)                       1.1               0.2        5.0        0.0    0.0
   Graco–SnugRide Windsor (8465EME)                            1.3               0.3        5.0        0.0    0.0
   Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Pierson (8A00PSN)                   1.4               1.9        0.0        0.0    0.7
   Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) French Roast (8A10FNR)              1.4               0.3        5.0        0.0    0.7
   Evenflo–Embrace DLX Infant (3961613)                        1.5               1.8        0.0        0.0    2.1
   Graco–SnugRide Park Meadows (8646RRY3)                      1.5               1.8        0.0        0.0    2.1
   Graco–SnugRide Josephine (8643JOS2)                         2.3               1.8        5.0        0.0    0.7
   Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Roxy (8A05RXY)                      2.4               1.9        5.0        0.0    0.7
   Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Heirloom (8A08HLR)                  2.4               1.9        5.0        0.0    0.7
   Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Fusi on (8A03QST)                   2.5               3.4        0.0        0.0    2.1
   Britax–Companion Monza (E9L8OC9)                            2.5               3.4        0.0        0.0    2.1
   Peg Perego–Primo Viaggio Toffee (P73RU46)                   3.8               3.5        5.0        0.0    2.9
   Combi–Centre EX Mango (808660)                              5.0               5.0        5.0        0.0    5.0

Table 2: Concentrations found in the 2007 Britax Companion Monza

                                      BROMINE             CHLORINE                                                              LEAD
     COMPONENT                    PPM           Rank %   PPM                     Rank %                              PPM           Rank %
 Base                               0             0%      0                        0%                                 0              0%
 Clip                              146           63%      0                        0%                                 0              0%
 Seat                             5,078          80%      0                        0%                                 0              0%
 Shade                           64,444          87%      0                        0%                                 0              0%


4 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
CHEMICALS OF                                    tendency to build up in people and the
                                                environment.
CONCERN
Car seats and other indoor auto parts           These substances were also chosen because
contain chemicals that are added during the     they could be easily and quickly identified
production processes to impart specific         using non-destructive methods. This was
properties such as rigidity, durability or      essential since sampling for HealthyCar.org
flame resistance. Many of these chemicals       was limited to new car seats. In addition,
are not chemically bound to the parts and       these substances, or their elemental
are consequently released into the              building blocks, have been subject to either
environment during the life of the product.     regulatory restrictions or voluntary limits
One of the common ways chemicals are            set by industry associations or third party
released is referred to as “off-gassing,” and   environmental certification organizations.
evidence of this is sometimes present as a
window film or “fogging” that develops on       HealthyCar.org ratings do not provide any
the inside of the windshield. Heat and UV-      absolute measure of health risk or chemical
ray exposure can accelerate this process and    exposure associated with any individual car
may also cause chemicals to break down          seat or vehicle, or any individual element or
into more toxic compounds. These                related chemical. HealthyCar.org ratings
chemicals are inhaled or ingested by drivers    only provide a relative measure of "level of
and passengers through dust and air,            concern" for the car seats and vehicles
potentially causing allergic or other acute     sampled. The ratings allow comparison
reactions, or even long-term health impacts     between car seats based on the presence and
such as birth defects, impaired learning,       levels of chemicals of concern detected in
liver toxicity and cancer. Children are often   the car seats.
more vulnerable to these health effects than
adults, since their systems are still
developing.                                     BROMINE
                                                Detection of bromine in a car seat
                                                component indicates the likely presence of a
The same chemicals that may cause human
                                                brominated flame retardant (BFR). A
health issues can also cause problems in the
                                                number of different BFRs are commonly
environment. When car seats and vehicles
                                                used in car seats and vehicles components.
are discarded at the end of their life, the
                                                While the sampling conducted for
majority of plastic and other nonmetallic
                                                HealthyCar.org could not identify the
parts are shredded and put into landfills or
                                                chemical structure of the brominated flame
burned in incinerators. When discarded in
                                                retardant in a particular component,
landfills, harmful chemicals contained in car
                                                automakers in general use the following
seat and vehicle plastics and other materials
                                                three BFRs.
can leach out and contaminate soil and
water. When incinerated, toxic chemicals
are dispersed throughout the atmosphere.        Deca-Brominated Diphenyl Ether
                                                One of the most common BFRs used in auto
While there are numerous chemical               applications in the U.S. is deca-brominated
compounds in products like car seats and        diphenyl ether (decaBDE, or “deca”)4. Deca
vehicles that may lead to health and            is also used in many other products,
environmental problems, HealthyCar.org          including furniture, mattresses, televisions,
focuses on chemicals containing the             and computers. In 2003, over 56,000 tons
elements bromine, chlorine, and lead, as
well as other heavy metals, allergens and
carcinogens. All of these elements and their    4
                                                 Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.
related chemical compounds were chosen          Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for
because of their toxicity, persistence, and     environmental and health data. Danish EPA.
                                                http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (Accessed 03/08/07).


                WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 5
were used worldwide5. Deca is used at                          developmental toxicity in unborn babies10.
loadings of 10-15% weight in polymers and                      Other suspected health concerns for
is always used in conjunction with                             polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
antimony trioxide6. Deca is physically                         include: thyroid hormone disruption11,
mixed into the plastic during production                       permanent learning and memory
and can be released to the environment over                    impairment12, behavioral changes, hearing
the life a product. It is becoming ubiquitous                  deficits, delayed puberty onset, decreased
in homes, offices, and even the outdoor                        sperm count13, fetal malformations14,15 and
environment.                                                   possibly cancer16.

One of the major concerns with deca is that                    Alternatives to deca and BFRs in general
it may “debrominate,” or break down when                       exist and are readily available on the
exposed to UV radiation. Some of the                           market. Testing for HealthyCar.org found
breakdown products include pentaBDE and                        that for each component tested, numerous
octaBDE, which have been phased-out by                         models did not contain any bromine,
government health organizations and the                        showing that child car seat manufacturers
global automotive industry, due to their                       have met stringent fire safety codes without
toxicity. This is of particular concern to                     using decaBDE or other BFRs. For further
drivers and passengers since vehicle                           discussion of alternatives see the
components that contain deca are exposed                       alternatives section below.
to high UV levels and heat when parked in
the sun. In a recent report, Ecology Center                    Many companies are voluntarily
testing found that concentrations of penta,                    eliminating their use of deca. The use of
octa and deca were much higher in dust                         deca has been restricted in electronics and
and window film samples from new model                         electrical equipment in the European Union
vehicles than from samples obtained in                         as of 2006. Some computer companies
homes and offices7. Once released from                         began phasing out deca even before this
products, these chemicals remain in the                        restriction was put in place17.
environment for long periods and build up
in people's bodies, in breast milk, and in
fish and other animals8.                                       10
                                                                  Porterfield, S.P. 1994. “Vulnerability of the developing
                                                               brain to thyroid abnormalities: environmental insult to the
                                                               thyroid system.” Environmental Health Perspectives
Exposure to deca is linked to a number of                      102(supplement 2): 125-30.
human health effects. Deca may pass                            11
                                                                  Zhou T, Taylor MM, DeVito MJ, Crofton KM. 2002.
                                                               “Developmental exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers
through the placenta9 and cause neuro-                         results in thyroid hormone disruption.” Toxicology Science
                                                               Mar; 66(1): 105-16.
                                                               12
5
                                                                  Eriksson P, Jakobsson E, Fredriksson A. 2001. “Brominated
 Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. 2006. “Fact          flame retardants: a novel class of developmental
sheet: brominated flame retardant Deca-BDE.”                   neurotoxicants in our environment?” Environmental Health
http://www.bsef.com. (Accessed 02/21/07).                      Perspectives Sep; 109(9): 903-8.
                                                               13
                                                                  Kuriyama, S. and Chahoud, I. 2003. “Maternal exposure to
6
  Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.         low dose 2,2'4,4',5 pentabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 99)
Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for     impairs male reproductive performance in adult male
environmental and health data. Danish EPA.                     offspring.” Organohologen Compounds (61): 92- 95.
                                                               14
http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (Accessed 03/08/07).                  International Program of Chemical Safety (IPCS). 1994.
7
  Ecology Center. 2006. “Toxic at any speed: chemicals in      “Brominated Diphenyl Ethers.Environmental Health Criteria
cars and the need for safe alternatives.”                      162. World Health Organization.”
                                                               15
http://www.ecocenter.org/toxicatanyspeed.shtml.                   Norris, J.M.; Kociba, R.J.; Scwetz, B.A.; Rose, J.Q.;
(accessed 02/21/07).                                           Humiston, C.G.; Jewett, G.L.; Gehring, P.J.; Mailhes, J.B.
8
  Rayne S, Ikonomou MG, Antcliffe B. 2003. “Rapidly            1975. “Toxicology of octabromobiphenyl and
increasing polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in     decabromodiphenyl oxide.” Environmental Health
the Columbia River system from 1992 to 2000.”                  Perspectives. (11): 153-161.
                                                               16
Environmental Science and Technology. Jul 1: 37(13): 240A-        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006.
241A.                                                          “Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDPE) (CASRN 1163-19-5)”
9
  Mazdai A, Dodder NG, Abernathy MP, Hites RA, Bigsby          http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0035.htm. (Accessed
RM. 2003. “Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal          12/12/06).
                                                               17
and Fetal Blood Samples.” Environmental Health Perspectives.      Clean Production Action. 2006. “Safer Products:
111: 1249-1252.                                                Computers.” http://www.safer-




6 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
While our testing did not conclusively                          capable of meeting the same fire safety
determine the chemical form of bromine                          regulations22,23.
found is car seat components, the most
common forms of BFRs are well known.                            Hexa-Bromocyclododecane
Other BFRs other than deca that could be                        HBCD is used in extruded polystyrene for
contained in car seats or auto parts are                        thermal insulation foams and is also applied
listed below.                                                   in the back coating of textiles for furniture.
                                                                It is produced in much smaller quantities
Tetrabromobishenol A                                            than deca and TBBPA, but is still
TBBPA is another type of BFR that is                            substantial, with 16,700 tons used
commonly used in plastic applications.                          worldwide in 200124. Use of HBCD
Over 130,000 tons were used in 2002 around                      increased in recent years as it began to be
the world, predominantly in circuit boards                      used as a substitute for penta and octa after
for electronics, but also in acrylonitrile                      these chemicals were banned by the
butadiene styrene (ABS)18. TBBPA is known                       European Union. HBCD has a very strong
to off-gas to the environment, though the                       propensity to bioaccumulate and is found in
amount of off gassing varies depending                          increasing concentrations in the
how the TBBPA was combined with the                             environment. Studies suggest that HBCD
plastic19. Lab tests have suggested that it                     affects thyroid hormone levels, causes
may disrupt thyroid function20. Studies also                    learning and memory defects in neonatal
suggest that it may adversely affect                            laboratory animals, and has been detected
hormone levels and the immune system21.                         in breast milk25. In general, research is
                                                                limited and more studies are needed in
The use of TBBPA can be eliminated by                           order to understand the extent of human
replacement with available alternatives.                        health and environmental impacts caused
Many electronics companies are voluntarily                      by HBCD.
removing TBBPA from their products.
Sony Ericson has promised to eliminate it in                    CHLORINE
circuit boards by 2007, Dell by 2009.                           Detection of chlorine in a car seat
Meanwhile, Motorola and Fujitsu Siemens                         component indicates the likely use of PVC,
Computers have begun introducing                                a widely used type of plastics that is of
TBBPA-free and BFR-free products to the                         concern to the environment and public
market. They are able to do this by                             health during all phases of its life cycle.
substituting TBBPA in circuit boards with                       During the production phase, workers at
phosphorous-based alternatives that are                         PVC facilities, as well as residents and
                                                                wildlife in surrounding neighborhoods,
                                                                may be exposed to the vinyl chloride
                                                                monomer and/or dioxin, both of which are
                                                                likely carcinogens26. At the end of car seat
products.org/page.php?p=hous&s=comp. (Accessed
03/01/07).
18                                                              22
   Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. 2006. “Fact            Green Peace. 2006. “Guide to Greener Electronics.”
sheet: brominated flame retardant TBBPA.”                       http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/press/reports/guide-to-
http://www.bsef.com. (Accessed 02/21/07).                       greener-electronics. (Accessed 03/01/07)
19                                                              23
   Birnbaum L, Staskal D. 2004. “Brominated flame                  Environmental Data Services Ltd. 2006. “Search continues
retardants: cause for concern” Environmental Health             for alternatives to TBBA.” ENDS Report 384. January 2006.
                                                                24
Perspectives Vol. 112:1.                                           Bromine Science and Environmental Forum. 2006. “Fact
20
   Kitamura S, Kato T, Iida M, Jinno N, Suzuki T, Ohta S,       sheet: brominated flame retardant HBCD.”
Fujimoto N, Hanada H, Kashiwagi K, Kashiwagi A. 2005.           http://www.bsef.com. (Accessed 02/21/2007).
                                                                25
“Anti-thyroid hormonal activity of tetrabromobisphenol A, a        Birnbaum L, Staskal D. 2004. “Brominated flame
flame retardant, and related compounds: Affinity to the         retardants: cause for concern?” Environmental Health
mammalian thyroid hormone receptor, and effect on tadpole       Perspectives Vol. 112:1.
                                                                26
metamorphosis.” Life Sciences. 2005 Feb 18; 76(14); 1589-601.      The Center for Collaborative on Health and the
21
   Birnbaum L, Staskal D. 2004. “Brominated flame               Environment. 2006. “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database:
retardants: cause for concern?” Environmental Health            Vinyl chloride and dioxins.”
Perspectives. Vol. 112:1.                                       http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -


                      WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 7
and vehicle life, PVC causes a host of                       breast milk and alter the development of the
additional environmental issues. PVC is not                  young animals31.
easily recycled from auto parts and
therefore often ends up in landfills, where                  PVC-free alternatives are available
the chemicals can leach out and                              for almost every use of PVC in the
contaminate soil, water and wildlife.                        automotive sector. In recent years,
Otherwise, it is incinerated or burned, in                   automakers have begun replacing PVC with
which case highly toxic dioxins and furans                   polyurethanes and polyolefins, which
can form and be emitted into the air.                        contain fewer harmful additives and are
                                                             easier to recycle. In the event that an
Flexible PVC also contains plasticizers, or                  automaker cannot avoid using PVC, the
“softeners,” called phthalates, which off-gas                phthalates in the PVC should be replaced
during car seat and vehicle use and are                      with alternative plasticizers. Higher price is
deposited on dust particles and                              currently the biggest barrier to substitution
windshields, where they can cause                            of phthalates and PVC. Some automakers
“fogging.” One of the most common                            are getting close to eliminating PVC, but
phthalates used, DEHP (di 2-ethyl-hexyl                      others still have a long way to go. For
phthalate), has been linked to a number of                   information on automakers’ policies
serious health problems. The EPA classifies                  regarding the use of PVC and other types of
it as a probable human carcinogen27, and                     plastics, refer to the Ecology Center’s 2006
there is also evidence that it causes male                   Automotive Plastics Report Card32.
and female genital and urinary
malformations, pre-term deliveries, and                      A second common use of chlorine in
testicular atrophy28. Short-term high                        plastics is chlorinated paraffins, which are
exposure to DEHP interferes with sperm                       by far the most widely used aliphatic
formation in mice and rats as well as                        chlorine-containing flame retardants. They
delayed sexual maturity. Long-term                           have applications in plastics, including
exposure affects the liver and testes, and in                PVC, fabrics, paints and coatings. They
some cases thyroid, ovaries, kidneys, and                    may be present in the car seat components
blood29. Studies on animals suggest that                     that were found to contain chlorine.
DEHP, or some of its breakdown products,
pass across the placenta and reach the fetus,                Since there are no indications of the use of
causing birth defects, alterations in the                    inorganic forms of chlorine (e.g. chlorides)
structure of bones, brain, liver, kidney, and                in interior automotive applications, we
testes of the young animals, and even fetal                  assume that XRF detectable concentrations
death30. Studies have also shown that                        of chlorine above 10,000 ppm (1%) indicate
DEHP, or some of its breakdown products,                     the presence of organic chlorine
can pass from mother to babies through                       compounds, such as PVC and other
                                                             chlorinated hydrocarbons. Depending on
Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Vinyl          the percentage of additives, such as
Chloride and Dioxins) (Accessed 03/01/07).
27
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. “Di(2-        stabilizers, plasticizers, and flame
ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (CASRN 117-81-7).”               retardants, the chlorine content of PVC
http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0014.htm. (Accessed
12/13/06).
                                                             ranges between 28 and 57% by weight
28
   The Center for Collaboration on Health and the            (280,000-570,000 ppm)33. Since all chlorine
Environment. 2006. “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database:       detection levels in HealthyCar.org testing
di-2 ethylhexyl phthalate.”
http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm. (See
                                                             31
- Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, di-2            Ibid.
                                                             32
ethylhexyl phthalate.) (Accessed 12/13/06).                     Ecology Center. 2006. “Automotive Plastics Report Card.”
29
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.   http://www.ecocenter.org/sustainableplastics/ (Accessed
“Public Health Statements: Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate         12/13/06).
                                                             33
(DEHP).”                                                        European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. 2007. The role
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs9.html.              and origins of PVC.
Accessed 12/13/06).                                          http://www.ecvm.org/code/page.cfm?id_page=108
30
   Ibid.                                                     (Accessed 03/16/07)




8 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
were found to be consistent with these                       problems at varying degrees depending on
levels, it is likely that detection of chlorine              concentration and application, they were
indicates the use of PVC in all car seats                    included in our evaluations, but at a lesser
components we tested.                                        relative weight than bromine, chlorine and
                                                             lead. Voluntary and mandatory safety
LEAD                                                         standards for most of these chemicals have
Lead is sometimes used as an additive in                     been published both in the U.S. and Europe,
plastics such as PVC. The European Union                     particularly for applications involving
began restricting some uses of lead in                       direct human contact, such as with toys.
automotive applications in accordance with                   The “levels of concern” in these standards
its End of Life Vehicle Directive issued in                  — based either on leaching tests or the
2000. Since then, many auto and child car                    percent by weight of the element contained
seat companies have significantly reduced                    in a material — are typically much lower
their use of lead, but nonetheless it is still               than levels found by XRF analyses of car
found in some car seats and many vehicle                     seat components. All of these chemicals
components in the U.S.                                       may be released from plastics or fabrics due
                                                             to abrasion or evaporation. It must be noted
The link between lead exposure and a                         that the presence of low-level toxic metals
number of severe health effects is well                      in cars and car seats also has the potential
established. Long-term exposure in                           for negative environmental impacts during
children can affect a child’s growth, damage                 the end-of-life processing of these products.
kidneys, and cause learning and behavioral
problems, as well as possible brain                          Antimony
damage34. In adults, exposure to lead can                    DecaBDE and other BFRs are commonly
increase blood pressure, cause kidney                        combined with antimony trioxide during
damage, nerve disorders, reproductive                        the production process to increase fire
problems, and other health problems35. The                   resistance36. Antimony is also used as a
Department of Health and Human Services                      catalyst in the production of polyesters37. In
has determined that lead and lead                            our testing we found both lower levels of
compounds are reasonably anticipated to be                   antimony (160-700 ppm range) that are
human carcinogens. Lead also causes                          consistent with polyester applications, as
environmental concerns when disposed of                      well as higher levels (2000-5000 ppm range)
in landfills or incinerated at the end of car                that may be consistent with flame retardant
seat and vehicle life because it can                         applications38,39. In either case, it is possible
contaminate water, soil, air and wildlife.                   that antimony is released from the material,
                                                             contaminating the air and dust inside
OTHER CHEMICALS,                                             vehicles.
ALLERGENS AND HEAVY
METALS
XRF measurements of car seat components
also revealed the presence of several other                  36
                                                                Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.
                                                             Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for
elements and chemical compounds                              environmental and health data. Danish EPA.
containing these elements. Since these are                   http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (See: puliciations,
known to cause health and environmental                      publications database, type title.)
                                                             37
                                                                Victor-Innovatex, Inc. 2006. Sustainable Textile Design at
                                                             Victor Innovatex. www.victor-
                                                             innovatex.com/doc/sustainability.pdf. (Accessed on
34
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.   02/25/07).
                                                             38
“Public health statement for lead.”                             Survey of chemical substances in
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs13.html#bookm        textile colorants, in Survey of Chemical Substances in
ark06. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                  Consumer Products, No. 58 2005, Danish Ministry of
35
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.   Environment, Environmental Protection Agency, 2005.
                                                             39
“Public health statement for lead.”                             International Antimony Oxide Industry Association,
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs13.html#bookm        Antimony Trioxide Frequently Asked Questions:
ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                  March 2006


                     WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG - THE ECOLOGY CENTER – 9
Antimony trioxide is classified as a                          tanning47. Our vehicle testing confirmed
carcinogen in the state of California and has                 that chromium (most likely chromium
been listed as a possible human carcinogen                    Cr(III)) was often used in leather seating
by the International Agency for Research on                   applications. Approximately 90% of all
Cancer40 and the European Union41. In                         leather is tanned with Cr(III)48. Chromium
long-term studies, animals that breathed                      compounds may be released from leather
very low levels of antimony had eye                           upholstery as the material is abraded
irritation, hair loss, lung damage, and heart                 during the life of the product. The toxicity
problems. Higher levels of antimony have                      of chromium strongly depends on the
been shown to cause fertility problems and                    oxidation state of this element, two of the
lung cancer in animals42.                                     most common forms are the less toxic Cr
                                                              (III) and the highly toxic Cr (VI) state. XRF
Arsenic                                                       does not however distinguish between
In automotive applications, arsenic is                        oxidation states and only indicates the
traditionally used as a biocide in coated                     presence of the element chromium.
fabrics43. Arsenic is a known human
carcinogen44. There is strong evidence that                   While chromium is an essential nutrient49,
arsenic is linked to lung, skin, and bladder                  the limit level of chromium in fabrics,
cancer45. It may also cause skin irritation,                  leathers and plastics established to be
blood disorders, cardiovascular diseases,                     protective from allergic reactions is <50
and hormone disruption46.                                     ppm50. HealthyCar.org revealed levels
                                                              greater than this in car seats and automotive
Chromium                                                      seating. There is strong evidence that
In many products, including car seats and                     chromium can cause asthma attacks and
vehicles, the presence of chromium                            other allergic reactions, bronchitis and lung
compounds is often linked to leather                          conditions, skin irritation, and kidney
                                                              disorders51. There is also evidence that
                                                              exposure to chromium may cause brain
                                                              cancer, photosensitivity, stomach cancer,
40
   Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Havelund, S.; Birkved, M. 2000.       and possibly reduced fertility, immune
“Alternatives to brominated flame retardants, Screening for   system disorders, adult-onset Leukemia and
environmental and health data.” Danish EPA.                   other cancers52.
http://www.mst.dk/homepage/ (See: puliciations,
publications database, type title.)
41
   European Commision. 2007. “The Directive on Dangerous
Substances.”
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/dansub/consolidated_en
.htm. (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                              47
42
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.       Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
Public health statement for antimony.                         “Public health statement for chromium.”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs23.html.              http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs7.html#bookmar
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                          k01. (Accessed 03/01/07).
43                                                            48
   Inventory of biocides used in Denmark, Danish                 International Council of Tanners. 2003. Perspective on
Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Project        leather. http://www.tannerscouncilict.org/perspective.htm
no. 585, 2001.                                                (Accessed 03/01/07)
                                                              49
http://glwww.mst.dk/udgiv/Publications/2001/87-7944-             Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
383-4/html/helepubl_eng.htm (Accessed 03/01/07)               “Public health statement for chromium.”
44
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.    http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs7.html#bookmar
“Public health statement for arsenic.”                        k01. (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                              50
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs2.html#bookmar           TUV Rheinland SG Standard for low polluting leathers,
k05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                     fabrics and plastics, 2001
45
   The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.     http://www.tuvdotcom.com/pi/web/TuvdotcomIdSearch
“CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Arsenic.”                 Results.xml?TUVdotCOMID=4111008300&LanguageChange
http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -     d=en-us (Accessed 03/01/07)
                                                              51
Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Arsenic).          The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                          “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Chromium.”
46
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.    http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -
“Public health statement for arsenic.”                        Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Chromium).
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs2.html#bookmar        (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                              52
k05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                        Ibid.




10 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                               plastics.  Copper ions are often added to
Cobalt                                                         polyester and a variety of other fibers,
Cobalt is used as a catalyst in production of                  ranging from cotton to rayon,
polyethylene and other plastics53. It can also                 polypropylene and nylon in order to protect
be used as pigment in paints54.                                against bacteria, fungus and odors59,60. The
HealthyCar.org detected cobalt in several                      main application in car seats is seat
different car seats.                                           upholstery. Copper may also be used in
                                                               combination with flame retardants to
Cobalt is essential in trace amounts for                       reduce the toxicity of combustion
human life. The toxicity of cobalt is quite                    emissions61. 
low compared to many other metals,
however high exposure can cause several                        Copper is an essential nutrient for all living
health effects. Cobalt is an allergen that can                 things, but too much can be harmful. Long-
cause asthma and skin irritation55. Some                       term exposure to copper dust can irritate
cobalt compounds are classified as a                           the nose, mouth and eyes, and cause
possible human carcinogen according to the                     headaches, dizziness, nausea and diarrhea62.
International Agency for Research on                           Exposure to excess levels of copper may
Cancer56. Long term exposure to low doses                      result in liver and kidney damage, and
results in damage to the heart, liver,                         anemia63. Children may be more sensitive to
kidneys, blood, testes, and behavioral                         copper than adults64.
changes in laboratory animals57. There is
also strong evidence that cobalt is linked to                  Nickel
hearing loss, lung disorders, and thyroid                      Automotive uses of nickel are wide ranging,
disorders. There is limited evidence that it                   including printed circuit boards in
causes lung cancer, damage to the pancreas,                    electronic components, batteries, valves and
and skin cancer58.                                             other applications. Nickel is also
                                                               increasingly used in electroplating of plastic
Copper                                                         components.
Copper has a number of uses in fabrics and
                                                               The most common harmful health effect of
53
                                                               nickel in humans is allergic reaction.
   Basketter D.A.; Angelini G.; Ingber A.; Kern P.S.; Menné
T., Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products:
                                                               Approximately 10-15% of the population is
revisiting safe levels in the new millennium. Contact          sensitive to nickel. Reactions may occur in
Dermatitis, Volume 49, Number 1, July 2003
54
   Substitution of cobalt driers in wood
                                                               59
coatings, Jakob Kjær Larsen, Dyrup A/S; Eva Wallström,            Foss Manufacturing Company, LLC.
EnPro ApS. Danish Minister of Environment, Environmental       http://www.fossmfg.com/bu_fosshield.cfm (Accessed
Protection Agency, Working Report No. 20 2006                  03/01/07)
55                                                             60
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.        Advanced Seat Fabrics with High Performance Deodorant
“Public health statement for cobalt.”                          Function, R&D Review of Toyota CRDL Vol. 35 No. 4 (2000.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs33.html.               12)
                                                               61
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                              PVC Additives Make Vinyl More Fire-retardant without
56
   International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2003. Cobalt   Toxic Heavy Metals, Innovations Report.
in Hard-metals and Cobalt Sulfate, Gallium Arsenide,           http://www.innovations-
Indium Phosphide and Vanadium Pentoxide. International         report.de/html/berichte/materialwissenschaften/bericht-
Agency for Research on Cancer. 2003. “Cobalt in Hard-          32741.html. (Accessed 03/01/07)
                                                               62
metals and Cobalt Sulfate, Gallium Arsenide, Indium               Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
Phosphide and Vanadium Pentoxide.”                             “Public health statement for copper.”
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Meetings/vol86.php.              http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs132.html#book
(Accessed 03/01/07).. Accessed on March 1, 2007.               mark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).
57                                                             63
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.        The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.
“Public health statement for cobalt.”                          “CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Chromium.”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs33.html.               http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                           Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Copper).
58
   The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. 2006.      (Accessed 03/01/07).
                                                               64
“CHE Toxicant and Disease Database: Chromium.”                    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
http://database.healthandenvironment.org/index.cfm (See -      “Public health statement for copper.”
Science, Toxics Database, Browse by Toxicant, Cobalt).         http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs132.html#book
(Accessed 03/01/07).                                           mark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).


                    W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 11
the form of skin irritations or asthma65. The                approximately two-thirds of the global
Department of Health and Human Services                      consumption69.
has determined that nickel metal may
reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen                 Organotins may also be used as additives in
and that some nickel compounds are known                     fabrics and plastics due to their strong
human carcinogens.                                           fungicidal and bactericidal properties70.
                                                             Exposure to some organic tin compounds
Mercury                                                      can occur through contact with consumer
Mercury is used as a catalyst in reactions to                products that are made of PVC,
form polymers66. While HealthyCar.org did                    polyurethane and other plastics, or when
not detect mercury in any of the car seat                    these products are abraded and turned into
components, it was founding some other                       dust that is inhaled.
vehicle components.
                                                             According to the Department of Health and
Mercury is a persistent toxin that can build                 Human Services, breathing, swallowing, or
up in the body. According the Department                     direct skin contact with some organotins
of Health and Human Services, long-term                      can interfere with the way the brain and
exposure to high levels of methylmercury                     nervous system work. Some have also been
or phenylmercury causes behavior changes                     shown to affect the immune and
and damage to the kidneys, stomach, large                    reproductive system in animals, though the
intestine, circulatory system, and                           effects depend on the exact compound
reproductive organs in animals67. The                        used. Direct contact with certain organotins
nervous system is more sensitive to                          can also produce skin and eye irritation71.
methylmercury toxicity than are other
organs in the body and is affected at lower
concentrations. Animal studies also provide                  ALTERNATIVES
evidence that mercury damages the nervous                    When considering alternatives, car seat
system during development and increases                      manufacturers have the following three
the incidence of spontaneous abortions and                   choices, listed in order of environmental
stillbirths68. It is not known whether                       preference:
mercury compounds cause cancer in
humans.                                                      1. Change the product: Redesign or engineer
                                                                the car seat component to eliminate the
Tin                                                             need for a chemical. This can be done,
Organic tin compounds are used as                               for example, by eliminating the need for
esterification catalysts in polyurethane foam                   foams that contain BFRs, or enhancing
production and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) heat                    barriers between foam and fabric.
stabilizers in plastic production. The major                 2. Change the material: Select an alternative
use of organotin compounds is for heat                          material that does not require the
stabilization of PVC, which represents                          chemical.


65
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
“Public health statement for nickel.”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs15.html#bookm
ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).
66                                                           69
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1999.      Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2005.
Toxicological Profile for Mercury, March 1999                “Toxicological Profile for Tin .”
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp46.html#bookmar       http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp55.html#bookmar
k08 (Accessed 03/01/07).                                     k09. (Accessed 03/01/07).
67                                                           70
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.      Ibid.
                                                             71
“Public health statement for mercury.”                          Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2006.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs46.html#bookm        “Public health statement for tin.”
ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).                                  http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs55.html#bookm
68
   Ibid.                                                     ark05. (Accessed 03/01/07).




12 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                      HealthyCar.org testing found that at least
3. Change the chemical: For example, replace                          some car seat companies are producing car
   BFRs with an alternative flame retardant                           seats that meet stringent safety standards
   that is non-halogenated (i.e. does not                             without using harmful compounds like
   contain bromine, chlorine or other                                 PVC and brominated flame retardants
   halogens).                                                         (BFRs) in the components tested. Table 3
                                                                      below illustrates this. Overall, 28% of the
In addition to following this general                                 components tested contained no PVC or
approach, car seat manufactures and                                   BFRs.
retailers should implement a
comprehensive chemicals policy. Key
elements of a comprehensive chemicals
policy are outlined at HealthyCar.org.


Table #3: Number of Bromine-Free and PVC-
Free 2008 Child Car Seats Components
                                               Number (%)           Number (%)                                    Number (%)
                        Number (%)        Components Br/BFR Components Halogen Number (%) Components Components Vritually
 Component        Components PVC Free             Free                  Free          Virtually Br/BFR Free      Halogen Free
                     2007        2008        2007        2008      2007        2008      2007         2008      2007       2008
 Base              63 (100%) 72 (100%)     45 (71%)    59 (82%) 45 (71%)     59 (82%) 57 (90%)      71 (98%) 57 (90%)    71 (98%)
 Clip              52 (100%) 60 (100%)     9 (17%)     11 (18%)  9 (17%)     11 (18%) 31 (50%)      35 (58%) 31 (60%)    35 (58%)
 EPS Foam          26 (100%) 47 (100%)     4 (15%)     6 (13%)   4 (15%)     6 (13%)   6 (23%)       7 (15%)  6 (23%)     7 (15%)
 Seat              63 (100%) 72 (100%)      5 (8%)     16 (22%)   5 (8%)     16 (22%) 25 (40%)      31 (43%) 25 (40%)    31 (43%)
 Shade              8 (47%)    11 (91%)     1 (6%)      1 (8%)    0 (0%)      1 (8%)   3 (18%)       5 (38%)   0 (0%)     3 (30%)

 Trim               0 (0%)       NA        1 (20%)       NA       0 (0%)       NA       3 (60%)       NA        0 (0%)        NA
 Arm Rest             NA      4 (100%)        NA      4 (80%)       NA      4 (80%)        NA      5 (100%)       NA       5 (100%)

 All Components   213 (96%)   270 (99%)    65 (29%)   98 (36%)   65 (29%)   97 (36%)   125 (55%)   154 (57%)   119 (53%)   153 (56%)

Note: We define Virtually-Halogen free as not containing any intentionally-added PVC or BFRs. Bromine found at levels
<100 ppm are believed to be inconsistent with the use of BFRs.




                    W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 13
   CAR SEAT GUIDE — RANKINGS BY CAR SEAT TYPE
This section lists the car seat ratings for car
seats available through retailers during
December 2006 and June/July 2008.
The car seats are listed by car seat
type(infant, convertible or booster) and in
order of overall rating, lowest concern to
highest concern. The overall car seat rating,
as well as ratings for bromine, chlorine, lead
and other chemicals, are provided. Detailed
information on the concentrations of
elements found in particular components is
available on the next page(listed
alphabetically) and at
www.HealthyCar.org.




14 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                     Other Chemicals
                                                                  Overall Ranking

                                                                                      Bromine

                                                                                                 Chlorine

                                                                                                             Lead
2008 Model Child Car Seats
                                                    Infant
Graco–Passage 540 Travel System Mary Ann (2400888)               0.1                0.0         0.0         0.0     0.0
Graco–Snugride Sterling (8F30SLG5)                               0.1                0.2         0.0         0.0     0.0
Graco–Snugride Sterling (8F30SLG3)                               0.1                0.2         0.0         0.0     0.0
Evenflo–Discovery Infant Seat Explorer (691BAF6F)                0.3                0.5         0.0         0.0     0.0
Graco–Snugride Safari Friends (8F09SFR3)                         0.4                0.0         0.0         0.0     2.5
Graco–Safeseat Eclipse (8A12AUR)                                 1.3                2.3         0.0         0.0     0.0
Britax–Companion Plum/Tan (R1080L5)                              1.4                2.5         0.0         0.0     0.0
Baby Trend–Stride Sport Travel System Orange Oak (1865CT)        1.6                2.7         0.0         0.0     0.0
Britax–Companion Black/Tan (R1080L4)                             1.7                2.5         0.0         0.0     1.7
Britax–Companion Onyx (R108069)                                  1.7                2.5         0.0         0.0     0.8
Evenflo–Aura Elite Travel System Oh So Big (E3D4353A)            1.7                0.5         5.0         5.0     0.8
Graco–Quattro Tour DLX Travel System Deco (7B11CAD3)             1.7                2.7         0.0         0.0     0.8
Maxi Cosi–Mico Lemonade (22371LMD)                               1.7                2.7         0.0         0.0     0.0
Baby Trend–Flex Loc Grey Mist (6352)                             1.8                3.0         0.0         0.0     0.8
Evenflo–Journey Elite Travel System Le Grand Jungle (CBC6BD68)   2.8                2.5         5.0         5.0     0.0
Maxi Cosi–Mico Juice (22371JUC)                                  3.4                5.0         0.0         0.0     1.7
Orbit–Infant Carrier Mocha (ORB850000M)                          3.4                5.0         0.0         0.0     1.7


                                                Convertible
Orbit–Toddler Car Seat Mocha (ORB807000M)                        0.2                0.3         0.0         0.0     0.0
Britax–Roundabout Tan Swirl (E9L02F0)                            0.4                0.3         0.0         0.0     1.0
Cosco–Alpha Omega Elite Grayson (AC7A6D3A)                       0.4                0.5         0.0         0.0     0.0
Cosco–Alpha Omega Elite Sophia (30045E64)                        0.4                0.5         0.0         0.0     0.0
Britax–Marathon Tan Swirl (E9L06F0)                              0.6                0.5         0.0         0.0     1.0
Britax–Roundabout Cowmooflague (E9L0234)                         0.6                0.3         0.0         0.0     2.0
Britax–Roundabout Granite (E9L0227)                              0.6                0.3         0.0         0.0     1.0
Britax–Roundabout Jessica (E9L02H9)                              0.6                0.5         0.0         0.0     1.0
Britax–Roundabout Latte                                          0.6                0.5         0.0         0.0     1.0
Eddie Bauer–3-in-1 Deluxe Convertible Preston (7C21DC4E)         0.6                0.5         0.0         0.0     0.0
Evenflo–Titan Elite DLX - Larson (0648585A)                      0.6                0.3         0.0         0.0     2.0
Evenflo–Tribute 5 Convertible Chalkboard (6F4A6942)              0.6                0.5         0.0         0.0     1.0
Evenflo–Tribute Premier Buckingham                               0.6                0.5         0.0         0.0     1.0
Evenflo–Triumph LX Barley Twist                                  0.6                0.3         0.0         0.0     2.0
Britax–Boulevard Shannon (R1057D9)                               0.8                0.5         0.0         0.0     1.0
Britax–Marathon Cowmooflague (E9W0634)                           0.8                0.3         0.0         0.0     2.0
Britax–Marathon Platinum                                         0.8                0.5         0.0         0.0     2.0
Maxi Cosi–Priori Penguin (22476PNG)                              0.8                0.8         0.0         0.0     1.0
Britax–Boulevard Barrington (R1057J9)                            1.0                0.5         0.0         0.0     2.0
Britax–Marathon Mariposa (E9L06J0)                               1.0                0.8         0.0         0.0     1.0
Evenflo–Triumph Advance DLX Sandbox (6DE43455)                   1.0                0.5         0.0         0.0     2.0
Evenflo–Triumph Advance LX Raven (2739371)                       1.2                0.5         0.0         0.0     3.0
Graco–ComfortSport Alesia (8C04ALA2)                             2.0                2.5         0.0         0.0     0.0
Cosco–Alpha Sport 3-stage Convertible NYC (22458NYC)             2.2                2.8         0.0         0.0     0.0
Safety 1st–All-in-one Deluxe Monument (22159)                    2.2                2.8         0.0         0.0     0.0
Cosco–Scenera 5-point Convertible Transatlantic (22155HMR)       2.4                2.8         0.0         0.0     1.0
Evenflo–Triumph Advance LX Hansen (6DE43655)                     2.4                2.8         0.0         0.0     1.0
Graco–ComfortSport Covertible Graphite (8C00GRP2)                2.4                2.8         0.0         0.0     1.0
Maxi Cosi–Priori Corniche (22476PNG)                             2.4                2.8         0.0         0.0     1.0


     W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 15
      Britax–Roundabout Onyx (E9L0269)                                        3.0   2.8   0.0   0.0   3.0
      Britax–Marathon Onyx (E9L0669)                                          4.4   5.0   0.0   0.0   1.0


                                                        Booster
      Graco–Air Booster Rain (8G00RAN)                                        0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Sunshine Kids–Monterey Expandable Booster Red (15010)                   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Sunshine Kids–Radian 65 Champagne (101369CHAMPAGNE)                     0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Alpha Sport–Booster Chantel ( 0648575A)                                 0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Britax–Monarch Red Racer (E9053E9)                                      0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Clek–Olli Booster Seat Zebra (OLM1U-ZB)                                 0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Evenflo–Big Kid Booster Oregon Trail (4CD7F30E)                         0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Graco–Backless Turbo Booster Image (8E91IMG)                            0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Graco–Turbo Booster Chili (8E13CIL)                                     0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Graco–Turbo Booster Kayla (8498KAY)                                     0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Maxi Cosi–Rodi Bijan (22575BJN)                                         0.2   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Sunshine Kids–Radian 80 Super Cool (101970SUPERCOOL)                    0.2   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Britax–Regent Madison (R1039G5)                                         0.5   0.3   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Cosco–High Rise Auto Booster Blue (5E81D61F)                            0.5   0.3   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Cosco–High-back Booster Gotham (22206)                                  0.5   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Evenflo–Chase Booster Walnut Hill (3291752)                             0.7   0.5   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Evenflo–Chase Booster Steeplechase (6F4A6A42)                           0.9   0.8   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Cosco/Eddie Bauer–Eddie Bauer Deluxe Booster Chestnut Hill (0648565A)   2.5   2.8   0.0   0.0   0.0
      Britax–Frontier Red Rock (E9L54E7)                                      2.7   2.8   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Clek–Olli Booster Seat Blacktop (OLM1U-BT)                              2.7   2.8   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Britax–Frontier Pink Sky (E9L54H7)                                      3.0   2.8   0.0   0.0   1.3
      Graco–Platinum Cargo Chance (8D10CCE)                                   3.4   3.0   0.0   0.0   2.5
      Britax–Regent Onyx (R103969)                                            3.6   2.8   0.0   0.0   3.8
      Alpha Sport–Vantage Booster Blue Steel (4149216E)                       4.5   5.0   0.0   0.0   0.0




16 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                             Other Chemicals
                                                               Overall Rating

                                                                                 Bromine

                                                                                           Chlorine

                                                                                                      Lead
2007 Model Car Seats
                                          Infant
Graco–SnugRide Emerson (8465EME3)                             0.2               0.2        0.0        0.0    0.7
Evenflo–Discovery Infant Churchill (3911698)                  0.4               0.3        0.0        0.0    1.4
Graco–SnugRide Lindsey (8465LRD3)                             1.1               0.2        5.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–SnugRide Family Tree (8645FMT2)                         1.1               0.2        5.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–SnugRide Windsor (8465EME)                              1.3               0.3        5.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Pierson (8A00PSN)                     1.4               1.9        0.0        0.0    0.7
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) French Roast (8A10FNR)                1.4               0.3        5.0        0.0    0.7
Evenflo–Embrace DLX Infant (3961613)                          1.5               1.8        0.0        0.0    2.1
Graco–SnugRide Park Meadows (8646RRY3)                        1.5               1.8        0.0        0.0    2.1
Graco–SnugRide Josephine (8643JOS2)                           2.3               1.8        5.0        0.0    0.7
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Roxy (8A05RXY)                        2.4               1.9        5.0        0.0    0.7
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Heirloom (8A08HLR)                    2.4               1.9        5.0        0.0    0.7
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Fusi on (8A03QST)                     2.5               3.4        0.0        0.0    2.1
Britax–Companion Monza (E9L8OC9)                              2.5               3.4        0.0        0.0    2.1
Peg Perego–Primo Viaggio Toffee (P73RU46)                     3.8               3.5        5.0        0.0    2.9
Combi–Centre EX Mango (808660)                                5.0               5.0        5.0        0.0    5.0

                                      Convertible
Cosco–Scenara 5-Point (22120POL)                              0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
Safety 1st–Alpha Sport (22452RB)                              0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
Eddie Bauer–Deluxe Convertible Hampton (22740HPN)             0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
Eddie Bauer–3 in 1 Convertible Montecito (22759MTT)           0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–Toddler SafeSeat (Step 2) (8B00BDR)                     0.4               0.5        0.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–ComfortSport Convertible Watercolor Flowers (8C03WCF)   0.4               0.3        0.0        0.0    1.3
Evenflo–Titan Delux Convertible Cobblestone (3671702)         0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
Evenflo–Triumph Premier Car Seat Stonehenge (3931624)         0.6               0.8        0.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–Toddler SafeSeat (Step 2) Pierson (8B03PSN2)            0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
Graco–ComfortSport Convertible Graphite (8C00GRP)             0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
Graco–ComfortSport Convertible Timber (8C00TMB)               0.6               0.8        0.0        0.0    0.0
Britax–Decathlon Cappucino (E9L47D4)                          0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
Britax–Marathon Graystone (E9LO6D5)                           0.6               0.5        0.0        0.0    1.3
Eddie Bauer–3 in 1 Convertible Cambridge (22758CMP)           0.8               0.5        0.0        0.0    2.5
Evenflo–Tribute V Premier Brighton (3791686)                  0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
Evenflo–Triumph LX Convertible (3891609)                      0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
Evenflo–Triumph Deluxe Ashby (3941611)                        0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
Britax–Roundabout Bridgeport (E9L02D2)                        0.8               0.5        0.0        0.0    2.5
Britax–Marathon Brooke (E9LO6D6)                              0.8               0.5        0.0        0.0    2.5
Britax–Roundabout Jefferson Tan (EPL0270)                     0.8               0.8        0.0        0.0    1.3
Evenflo–Triumph 5 Rain Shadow (3591658)                       2.7               2.8        0.0        0.0    2.5
Graco–ComfortSport Convertible (8636AER)                      2.7               3.0        0.0        0.0    1.3
Britax–Marathon Olivia (E9L06D1)                              2.7               2.8        0.0        0.0    2.5
Fisher Price–Safe Voyager (EF20EDA)                           2.7               2.8        0.0        0.0    2.5
Cosco–Alpha Omega Elite (22155BDF)                            2.9               3.0        0.0        0.0    2.5
Britax–Marathon Platinum (E9LO6B9)                            5.0               5.0        0.0        0.0    5.0

                                         Booster
Evenflo–Big Kid No-Back Gold Dust (3331703)                   0.2                0.3       0.0        0.0    0.0
Eddie Bauer–Summit Booster Astoria (22862AT1)                 0.5                0.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
Britax–Parkway Express (E904157)                              0.5                0.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
Cosco–SoHo Booster Youth (222985OH)                           0.7                0.3       0.0        0.0    5.0
Evenflo–Big Kid Mocha Chill (3391706A)                        0.7                0.3       0.0        0.0    5.0
Evenflo–Chase DLX Booster Arlington (3261567)                 2.3                2.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–Backless TurboBooster Belmont (8491BEM)                 2.3                2.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
Compass–B505 Pistachio (B505PST)                              2.3                2.5       0.0        0.0    0.0
Evenflo–Generations (3521607)                                 2.5                2.5       0.0        0.0    2.5
Graco–Platinum CarGo Booster (8689CAV)                        2.5                2.5       0.0        0.0    2.5
Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Gabrielle (8693GBR)      2.5                2.5       0.0        0.0    2.5
Cosco–Gotham High Back Booster (22206GTH)                     2.7                2.8       0.0        0.0    2.5
Cosco–Alpha Elite Apex (22534BDW)                             2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
Eddie Bauer–Summit Booster Brown Tech Print (22862EBCE)       2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
Evenflo–Chase DLX Moonbeam (3261722)                          2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Pierson (8498PSN)        2.7                2.5       0.0        0.0    5.0
Graco–Platinum CarGo Booster Zephyr (8D01ZPH)                 2.7                2.8       0.0        0.0    2.5
Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Glory (8693GLY)          4.5                5.0       0.0        0.0    0.0
Graco–TurboBooster Emily (8498DEH)                            5.0               5.0        0.0        0.0    5.0
Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3) Athens (8674ATH)         5.0               5.0        0.0        0.0    5.0

W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 17
CAR SEAT GUIDE — COMPLETE TEST RESULTS
The table below shows the test results for all components tested in parts per million (ppm). Car seats
models tested in 2007 & 2008 are presented in separate tables.




                                                                                                                            Bromine/BFRs
                                                           Chlorine/PVC
                                               Component




                                                                          Chromium




                                                                                                                                                           Antimony
                                                                                                                                           Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                      Mercury
                                                                                                         Copper
                                                                                     Cobalt


                                                                                                Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                                Lead
                                                                                                                   Zinc




                                                                                                                                                     Tin
2008 Models
Alpha Sport—Booster Chantel             Seat                     0            0         0          0        0        0      18                0       0        0         0        0
                                        EPS
                                        Foam                     0            0         0          0        0     213             0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0          0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0          0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Alpha Sport—Vantage Booster Blue Steel Seat                      0            0         0          0        0     707 30,620                  0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0          0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        EPS
                                        Foam                     0            0         0          0        0        0 4,974                  0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0          0        0      47     1,352               0       0        0         0        0
                                        EPS
Baby Trend—Flex Loc Grey Mist           Foam                     0            0         0          0        0      99      938                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0          0        0        0            7           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Shade                    0            0         0          0        0        0     341                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0          0        0     143 2,078                   0       0        0         0        0
                                        Shade                    0            0         0          0        0      97      275                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0          0        0      95       42                0       0        0         0        0
Baby Trend—Stride Sport Travel System   EPS
Orange Oak                              Foam                     0            0         0     3,063         0     421 3,086                   0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0          0        0     229       36                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0          0        0        0     209                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Shade                    0            0         0          0        0        0 15,250                 0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0          0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Boulevard Barrington (R1057J9)   Seat                     0            0         0          0     163         0      17                0       0        0         0        0
                                        EPS
                                        Foam                     0            0         0          0        0        0 5,337                  0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0          0     248      583      890                0       0        0         0      17
                                        Base                     0            0         0          0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Boulevard Shannon (R1057D9)      Base                     0            0         0          0        0     978             4           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0          0     293      685      722                0       0        0         0      14
                                     Seat                        0            0         0          0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                        0            0         0          0        0        0 4,983                  0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
Britax—Companion Black/Tan (R1080L4) Foam                        0            0         0          0        0        0 2,602                  0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0          0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0      266       76        46             8           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Companion Black/Tan (R1080L4) Seat                        0            0         0          0        0        0 5,357                  0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0      386           0        0 12,625              0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Shade                    0            0         0          0        0        0      37                0       0        0         0        0




18 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                     Bromine/BFRs
                                                         Chlorine/PVC
                                             Component




                                                                        Chromium




                                                                                                                                                    Antimony
                                                                                                                                    Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                               Mercury
                                                                                                     Copper
                                                                                   Cobalt


                                                                                            Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                         Lead
                                                                                                              Zinc




                                                                                                                                              Tin
2008 Models
Britax—Companion Onyx (R108069)       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0    301               0       0        0         0        0
                                      Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
                                      Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 2,303                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Seat                     0 1,536                0        0        0 2,919 44,528                 0       0        0         0      96
Britax—Companion Plum/Tan (R1080L5)   Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0    300               0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
                                      Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 3,564                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 8,145                0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Frontier Pink Sky (E9L54H7)    Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 3,056                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Clip                     0            0         0        0     201      618    985               0       0        0         0      18
                                      Arm
Britax—Frontier Red Rock (E9L54E7)    rest                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 3,076                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      Clip                     0            0         0        0     258      679    761               0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Marathon Cowmooflague
(E9W0634)                             Seat                     0        388           0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
                                      Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 5,166                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Clip                     0            0         0        0     213      587    725               0       0        0         0      21
                                      Base                     0            0         0        0        0     35           0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Marathon Mariposa (E9L06J0)    Base                     0            0         0        0        0     845    78                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Clip                     0            0         0        0     210      603    830               0       0        0         0      17
                                      Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    11                0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
                                      Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     359 2,115                0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Marathon Onyx (E9L0669)        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,401                0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
                                      Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,496                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0    66                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Clip                     0            0         0        0     230      649 1,067                0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Marathon Platinum              Clip                     0            0         0        0     279      687    735               0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
                                      Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 5,056                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      Strap
                                      Pad                      0        320           0        0        0       0    298               0       0        0         0        0
                                      Seat                     0        299           0        0        0       0    235               0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
Britax—Marathon Tan Swirl (E9L06F0)   Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 5,280                0       0        0         0        0
                                      Clip                     0            0         0        0     203      597    697               0       0        0         0        0
                                      Seat                     0            0         0        0        0 4,854            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      Base                     0            0         0        0        0 1,099      61                0       0        0         0        0




                  W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 19
                                                                                                                      Bromine/BFRs
                                                          Chlorine/PVC
                                              Component




                                                                         Chromium




                                                                                                                                                     Antimony
                                                                                                                                     Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                Mercury
                                                                                                      Copper
                                                                                    Cobalt


                                                                                             Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                          Lead
                                                                                                               Zinc




                                                                                                                                               Tin
2008 Models
                                       Arm
Britax—Monarch Red Racer (E9053E9)     rest                     0            0         0        0        0     742          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    165               0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Regent Madison (R1039G5)        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     100          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     217      477    826               0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     94     534               0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0     201          0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Regent Onyx (R103969)           Seat                     0            0         0        0     512        0 68,985               0       0 3,027            0      208
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0     246          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     150      489    797               0       0        0         0      17
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     144    932               0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Roundabout Cowmooflague
(E9L0234)                              Seat                     0        962           0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,548                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     259      648    748               0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Roundabout Granite (E9L0227)    Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     162      490    769               0       0        0         0      14
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,618                0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Roundabout Jessica (E9L02H9)    Clip                     0            0         0        0     224      598    717               0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    35                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0     792          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     513 1,474                0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Roundabout Latte                Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     151    170               0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 3,767                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     209      560    922               0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0 1,112            0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Roundabout Onyx (E9L0269)       Seat                     0 1,743                0        0        0       0 76,286               0       0 7,399            0      463
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,005                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     239      589    988               0       0        0         0        0
Britax—Roundabout Tan Swirl (E9L02F0) Base                      0            0         0        0        0 1,447            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                      EPS
                                      Foam                      0            0         0        0        0     584 1,023                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     269          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     175      510    921               0       0        0         0        0
Clek—Olli Booster Seat Blacktop (OLM1U-
BT)                                     Base                    0            0         0        0        0     40           4           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 15,858               0       0 4,131            0        0
                                       Arm
                                       rest                     0            0         0        0        0     57           0           0       0        0         0        0




20 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                          Bromine/BFRs
                                                           Chlorine/PVC
                                               Component




                                                                          Chromium




                                                                                                                                                         Antimony
                                                                                                                                         Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                    Mercury
                                                                                                       Copper
                                                                                     Cobalt


                                                                                              Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                              Lead
                                                                                                                 Zinc




                                                                                                                                                   Tin
2008 Models
Clek—Olli Booster Seat Zebra (OLM1U-
ZB)                                     Seat                     0            0         0        0        0        0            8           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0     120             0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Arm
                                        rest                     0            0         0        0        0      88             0           0       0        0         0        0
Cosco—Alpha Omega Elite Grayson         Clip                     0            0         0        0        0        0      61                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0        0      43                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Cosco—Alpha Omega Elite Sophia          Clip                     0            0         0        0        0        0      10                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        EPS
                                        Foam                     0            0         0        0        0      44       82                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     144       11                0       0        0         0        0
Cosco—Alpha Sport 3-stage Convertible
NYC                                     Base                     0            0         0        0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0        0        0        0     251                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     210 1,318                   0       0        0         0        0
Cosco—High Rise Auto Booster Blue       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     123      201                0       0    575           0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0     195             0           0       0        0         0        0
Cosco—High-back Booster Gotham          Clip                     0            0         0        0        0        0     125                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0        0     805                0       0        0         0        0
Cosco—Scenera 5-point Convertible
Transatlantic                           Clip                     0            0         0        0        0        0      25                0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0        0 1,736                  0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Cosco/Eddie Bauer—Eddie Bauer Deluxe
Booster Chestnut Hill                Base                        0            0         0        0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                        0            0         0        0        0     441             0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     693 10,516                  0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0        0        0        0     329                0       0        0         0        0
Eddie Bauer—3-in-1 Deluxe Convertible
Preston                                 Clip                     0            0         0        0        0        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0      90      647                0       0        0         0      14
                                       Base                      0            0         0        0        0        0      48                0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Aura Elite Travel System Oh So
Big                                    Seat                      0            0         0        0        0 1,044               0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Shade 35,082                          0         0        0        0        0      27                0       0    321           0        0
                                        EPS
                                        Foam       0                          0         0        0        0 1,219       2,226               0       0        0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0 2,392               0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0        0        0 1,005         20                0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Big Kid Booster Oregon Trail
(4CD7F30E)                              Base                     0            0         0        0        0     504             0           0       0        0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     259       90                0       0        0         0        0




                   W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 21
                                                                                                                           Bromine/BFRs
                                                            Chlorine/PVC
                                                Component




                                                                           Chromium




                                                                                                                                                          Antimony
                                                                                                                                          Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                     Mercury
                                                                                                         Copper
                                                                                      Cobalt


                                                                                               Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                               Lead
                                                                                                                  Zinc




                                                                                                                                                    Tin
2008 Models
Evenflo—Chase Booster Steeplechase
(6F4A6A42)                               Clip                     0            0         0        0     417       35       35                0       0        0         0        0
                                         Seat                     0            0         0        0         0       0     658                0       0        0         0        0
                                         Base                     0            0         0        0         0       0            3           0       0        0         0        0
                                         EPS
                                         Foam                     0            0         0        0         0       0 1,467                  0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Chase Booster Walnut Hill        Base                     0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                         Seat                     0            0         0        0         0       0     413                0       0        0         0        0
                                         Clip                     0            0         0        0     338       265            9           0       0        0         0        0
                                         Armres
                                         t                        0            0         0        0     556 82,310         19                0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Discovery Infant Seat Explorer
(691BAF6F)                               Seat                     0            0         0        0         0     906            7           0       0        0         0        0
                                         EPS
                                         Foam                     0            0         0        0         0     866 1,496                  0       0        0         0        0
                                         Base                     0            0         0        0         0 1,895              0           0       0        0         0        0
                                         Shade                    0            0         0        0         0       0      32                0       0        0         0        0
                                         Clip                     0            0         0        0         0     119            0           0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Journey Elite Travel System Le
Grand Jungle                             Seat                     0            0         0        0         0 1,289              0           0       0        0         0        0
                                         Base        0                         0         0        0         0 1,931              0           0       0        0         0        0
                                               124,00
                                         Shade       5                         0         0        0         0       0 4,179                  0       0        0         0        0
                                         EPS
                                         Foam        0                         0         0        0         0 1,241      1,942               0       0        0         0        0
                                         Clip                     0            0         0        0         0     52       36                0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Titan Elite DLX - Larson
(0648585A)                               Base                     0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                         Clip                     0            0         0        0     356       200      19                0       0        0         0        0
                                         EPS
                                         Foam                     0            0         0        0         0       0     749                0       0        0         0        0
                                         Seat                     0            0         0        0     303         0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Tribute 5 convertible Chalkboard
(6F4A6942)                               Base                     0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                         EPS
                                         Foam                     0            0         0        0         0     192 2,184                  0       0        0         0        0
                                         Clip                     0            0         0        0     425       69       15                0       0        0         0        0
                                         Seat                     0            0         0        0         0       0     886                0       0        0         0        0
                                         EPS
Evenflo—Tribute Premier Buckingham       Foam                     0            0         0        0         0     167 2,664                  0       0        0         0        0
                                         Base                     0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                         Seat                     0            0         0        0         0       0     108                0       0        0         0        0
                                         Clip                     0            0         0        0     333       59       19                0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Triumph Advance DLX Sandbox
(6DE43455)                          Base                          0            0         0        0         0     481            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                         Seat                     0            0         0        0     193       571     494             157        0        0         0      86
                                         Clip                     0            0         0        0     428       49       56                0       0        0         0        0




22 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                      Bromine/BFRs
                                                          Chlorine/PVC
                                              Component




                                                                         Chromium




                                                                                                                                                     Antimony
                                                                                                                                     Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                Mercury
                                                                                                      Copper
                                                                                    Cobalt


                                                                                             Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                          Lead
                                                                                                               Zinc




                                                                                                                                               Tin
2008 Models
Evenflo—Triumph Advance LX Hansen      Vinyl 379,34
(6DE43655)                             Fabric      2                         0         0        0        0 1,155      912               0       0        0         0      109
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,234                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     392      34     14                0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
Evenflo—Triumph Advance LX Raven       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0     314      129    20                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0     63       148    83                0       0        0         0      16
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0     312          0           0       0        0         0        0
Evenflo—Triumph LX Barley Twist        Clip                     0            0         0        0     330      228          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     119    223               0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
Graco—Air Booster Rain (8G00RAN)       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     400 7,269                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 42,355               0       0 10,139           0      276
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat
                                       mesh                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
Graco—Backless Turbo Booster Image
(8E91IMG)                              Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    36                0       0        0         0        0
Graco—ComfortSport Alesia (8C04ALA2)   Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0     96           0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 2,332                0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,942                0       0        0         0        0
Graco—ComfortSport Covertible Graphite
(8C00GRP2)                             Seat                     0        800           0        0        0       0 5,275                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0          7           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0    872               0       0        0         0        0
Graco—Passage 540 Travel System Mary
Ann                                  Seat                       0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Shade                    0            0         0        0        0     168          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0      12
Graco—Platinum Cargo Chance
(8D10CCE)                              Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0    600               0       0    449           0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,372                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 19,893               0       0 4,582            0      115
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          6           0       0        0         0        0




                  W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 23
                                                                                                                      Bromine/BFRs
                                                          Chlorine/PVC
                                              Component




                                                                         Chromium




                                                                                                                                                     Antimony
                                                                                                                                     Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                Mercury
                                                                                                      Copper
                                                                                    Cobalt


                                                                                             Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                          Lead
                                                                                                               Zinc




                                                                                                                                               Tin
2008 Models
Graco—Quattro Tour DLX Travel System
Deco (7B11CAD3)                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0 3,359 22,294                 0       0 2,092            0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0     343    47                0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     143 2,544                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Shade                    0            0         0        0        0       0    120               0       0        0         0        0
Graco—Safeseat Eclipse (8A12AUR)       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     102 2,152                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0     461          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     157 4,330                0       0        0         0        0
Graco—Snugride Safari Friends          EPS
(8F09SFR6)                             Foam                     0            0         0        0     188        0 3,231                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0        80            0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0    204           0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0     187      209          0           0       0        0         0        0
Graco—Snugride Sterling (8F30SLG5)     Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    39                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0     146          9           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,328                0       0        0         0        0
Graco—Turbo Booster Chili (8E13CIL)    Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          4           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     320 5,228                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
Graco—Turbo Booster Kayla (8498KAY)    Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     147 3,420                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    26                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
Maxi Cosi—Mico Juice (22371JUC)        Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0    82                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0    80                0       0        0         0      13
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     959 2,623                0       0    542           0        0
                                       Shade                    0            0         0        0     509        0 60,085               0       0        0         0      309
Maxi Cosi—Mico Lemonade (22371LMD) Seat                         0            0         0        0        0       0    808               0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0     39     81                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0     0                0       0        0         0        0
                                                                                                                 123,01
                                       Shade                    0            0         0        0        0 2,556       6                0       0        0         0      516
Maxi Cosi—Priori Corniche              Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0    58                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0       0        0         0        0
                                       EPS
                                       Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     308 3,607                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 4,108                0       0        0         0        0
Maxi Cosi—Priori Penguin (22476PNG)    Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0    304               0       0        0         0        0
                                       Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0    52                0       0        0         0        0
                                       Seat                     0            0         0        0 1,293          0    769               0       0        0         0        0




24 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                       Bromine/BFRs
                                                           Chlorine/PVC
                                               Component




                                                                          Chromium




                                                                                                                                                      Antimony
                                                                                                                                      Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                 Mercury
                                                                                                       Copper
                                                                                     Cobalt


                                                                                              Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                           Lead
                                                                                                                Zinc




                                                                                                                                                Tin
2008 Models
Maxi Cosi—Rodi Bijan (22575BJN)         Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    12                0        0       0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0     48           0           0        0       0         0        0
Orbit—Infant Carrier Mocha
(ORB850000M)                            Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          6           0        0       0         0        0
                                        Shield                   0            0         0        0        0       0    73                0        0       0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 17,488               0      433       0         0      38
                                        Shade                    0            0         0        0        0       0 27,979               0        0       0         0      111
                                        Clip                     0            0         0        0     237      617    890               0        0       0         0        0
Orbit—Toddler Car Seat Mocha
(ORB807000M)                            Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0    89                0        0       0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0        0       0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0        0       0         0        0
Safety 1st—All-in-one Deluxe Monument   Clip                     0            0         0        0        0       0          4           0        0       0         0        0
                                        EPS
                                        Foam                     0            0         0        0        0     137    601               0        0   430           0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0       0 1,037                0        0       0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0        0       0         0        0
Sunshine Kids—Monterey Expandable
Booster Red (15010)                     Base                     0            0         0        0        0     245          0           0        0       0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     364          0           0        0       0         0        0
Sunshine Kids—Radian 65 Champagne
(101369CHAMPAGNE)                       Seat                     0            0         0        0        0     30           0           0        0       0         0        0
                                        Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0        0       0         0        0
Sunshine Kids—Radian 80 Super Cool
(101970SUPERCOOL)                       Base                     0            0         0        0        0       0          0           0        0       0         0        0
                                        Seat                     0            0      108         0        0       0          0           0        0       0         0        0
                                        Clip                     0            0         0        0        0     37           0           0        0       0         0        0




                   W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 25
                                                                                                                        Bromine/BFRs
                                                         Chlorine/PVC
                                             Component




                                                                        Chromium




                                                                                                                                                       Antimony
                                                                                                                                       Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                  Mercury
                                                                                                      Copper
                                                                                   Cobalt

                                                                                            Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                            Lead
                                                                                                               Zinc




                                                                                                                                                 Tin
2007 Models
Britax–Companion Monza (E9L8OC9)     Seat                      0        93            0        0         0       0    5,078               0       0        0         0        0
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0            0         0        0         0       0     146                0       0        0         0        0
                                     Shade                     0 1,453                0        0         0       0 64,444                 0       0        0         0      230
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0            0         0        0         0       0    3,029               0       0        0         0        0
Britax–Decathlon Cappucino (E9L47D4) Seat                      0            0         0        0         0     66      972                0       0        0         0        0
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0 1,421              0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0            0         0        0     191       727     821                0       0        0         0      16
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0            0         0        0         0       0    5,345               0       0        0         0        0
Britax–Marathon Brooke (E9LO6D6)     Seat                      0            0         0        0         0     212      12                0       0        0         0        0
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0     973            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0        61            0        0     161 1,044         750                0       0        0         0        9
                                     Shade                     0            0         0        0         0     127    4,032               0       0        0         0        0
Britax–Marathon Graystone (E9LO6D5) Base                       0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0            0         0        0     177 1,088         749                0       0        0         0      11
                                     Seat                      0            0         0        0         0       0      13                0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0            0         0        0         0       0    4,009               0       0        0         0        0
Britax–Marathon Olivia (E9L06D1)     Seat                      0        82            0        0         0     198      22                0       0        0         0        0
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0     865            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0            0         0        0     281       665    1,053               0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0            0         0        0         0 1,227      6,006               0       0        0         0        0
Britax–Marathon Platinum (E9LO6B9)   Seat                      0        665        150         0     236         0 23,512                 0       0 2,644            0      103
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0            0         0        0     295       709    1,078               0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0            0         0        0         0     839    5,843               0       0        0         0      24
Britax–Parkway Express (E904157)     Seat                      0            0         0        0         0       0      13                0       0        0         0        0
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0     94      935                0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0        156           0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Britax–Roundabout Bridgeport
(E9L02D2)                            Seat                      0        113           0        0         0     34             4           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0            0         0        0     199       831     897                0       0        0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0            0         0        0         0       0    5,304               0       0        0         0        0
Britax–Roundabout Jefferson Tan
(EPL0270)                            Seat                      0            0         0        0         0     143      10                0       0        0         0        0
                                     Base                      0            0         0        0         0 1,871              3           0       0        0         0        0
                                     Clip                      0            0         0        0     181       697     843                0       0        0         0        9
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                      0            0         0        0         0 1,072      1,525               0       0        0         0        0




26 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                              Bromine/BFRs
                                                              Chlorine/PVC
                                             Component




                                                                             Chromium




                                                                                                                                                             Antimony
                                                                                                                                             Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                        Mercury
                                                                                                           Copper
                                                                                        Cobalt

                                                                                                 Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                                  Lead
                                                                                                                     Zinc




                                                                                                                                                       Tin
2007 Models
Combi–Centre EX Mango (808660)       Seat                           0 1,935             159         0     220       130 24,586                  0        0 1,651        49        111
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0     976                0        0   233           0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0        0    2,289               0        0   442           0        0
                                     Shade               334,646 26,410 1,453                       0         0 1,785 366,776                   0 1,011 10,599 1,126 1,502
Compass–B505 Pistachio (B505PST)     Seat                           0            0         0        0         0        0    1,353               0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0            0           0        0       0         0        0
Cosco–Alpha Elite Apex (22534BDW)    Seat                           0        69            0        0         0        0    1,383               0      179       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0        0      60                0        0       0         0        0
Cosco–Alpha Omega Elite (22155BDF) Seat                             0        282        77          0         0        0    4,490               0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0        0     124                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0      24                0        0       0         0        0
Cosco–Alpha Omega Elite Grayson
(22158GRS)                           Seat                           0            0         0        0      51        92      108                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                    Clip                            0            0         0        0         0        0     381                0        0       0         0        0
Cosco–Gotham High Back Booster (22-
206GTH)                             Seat                            0        445        284         0         0 2,628 36,713                    0      421       0      107       166
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0      43                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0     240     1,868               0        0       0         0        0
Cosco–Scenara 5-Point (22120POL)     Seat                           0            0         0        0         0     135      164                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0     135             0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0        0      12                0        0       0         0        0
Cosco–SoHo Booster Youth
(222985OH)                           Seat                           0            0         0        0     108       202             4           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0     236       312             0           0        0       0         0        0
Eddie Bauer–3 in 1 Convertible
Cambridge (22758CMP)                 Seat                           0        98            0        0      93          0     256                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0        0      90                0        0       0         0        0
Eddie Bauer–3 in 1 Convertible
Montecito (22759MTT)                 Seat                           0            0         0        0         0        0     711                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0        0      79                0        0       0         0        0
Eddie Bauer–Deluxe Convertible
Hampton (22740HPN)                   Seat                           0            0         0        0         0        0      44                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0        0            2           0        0       0         0        0
Eddie Bauer–Summit Booster Astoria
(22862AT1)                           Seat                           0            0         0        0         0      25      218                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0      16                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0      22       33                0        0       0         0        0
Eddie Bauer–Summit Booster Brown
Tech Print (22862EBCE)               Seat                           0        357        200         0     247 2,343 29,938                      0      504       0         0      113
                                     Base                           0            0         0        0         0        0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                           0            0         0        0         0      28      386                0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Big Kid Mocha Chill
(3391706A)                           Seat                           0            0         0        0         0      75      173                0        0       0         0        0


                   W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 27
                                                                                                                            Bromine/BFRs
                                                             Chlorine/PVC
                                             Component




                                                                            Chromium




                                                                                                                                                           Antimony
                                                                                                                                           Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                      Mercury
                                                                                                          Copper
                                                                                       Cobalt

                                                                                                Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                                Lead
                                                                                                                   Zinc




                                                                                                                                                     Tin
2007 Models
                                     Base                          0            0         0     131      162 93,857               0           0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Big Kid No-Back Gold Dust
(3331703)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0         0       0            3           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Chase DLX Arlington
(3261567)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0         0       0    5,887               0      257       0         0      26
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0      50         0     287                0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Chase DLX Moonbeam
(3261722)                            Seat                          0        106           0        0         0       0    1,172               0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0      60       112      81                0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Discovery Infant Churchill
(3911698)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0         0     406            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0      69 1,276                0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0         0       0      34                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Shade                         0            0         0        0         0       0     324                0        0   564           0        0
Evenflo–Embrace DLX Infant (3961613) Seat                          0            0         0        0     212       376      25                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0     412          0       0            0           0        0   200           0        0
                                     Shade                         0            0         0        0         0       0 10,316                 0        0       0         0      29
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0         0       0    2,745               0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Generations (3521607)        Seat                          0            0         0        0         0       0    1,813               0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0     114       452      62                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Trim                174,766                0         0        0         0     258      11                0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Titan Delux Convertible
Cobblestone (3671702)                Seat                          0            0         0        0         0       0      98                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0      93       126      73                0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Tribute V Premier Brighton
(3791686)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0         0     24       87                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            6           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0     274       596      97                0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Triumph 5 Rain Shadow
(3591658)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0         0     70     2,045               0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0     308         0      28                0        0       0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0         0     365    5,290               0        0       0         0        0



Evenflo–Triumph Deluxe Ashby
(3941611)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0         0     85       55                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0         0       0      49                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0     140       221     177                0        0       0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0         0     499    5,029               0        0       0         0        0




28 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                           Bromine/BFRs
                                                             Chlorine/PVC
                                             Component




                                                                            Chromium




                                                                                                                                                          Antimony
                                                                                                                                          Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                     Mercury
                                                                                                         Copper
                                                                                       Cobalt

                                                                                                Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                               Lead
                                                                                                                  Zinc




                                                                                                                                                    Tin
2007 Models
                                     Trim                415,304                0         0        0        0     740     791                0        0 5,002           0      557
Evenflo–Triumph LX Convertible
(3891609)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0        0     66      134                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0     25      199                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0     87         0     281                0        0       0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0        0     421    5,200               0        0       0         0        0
Evenflo–Triumph Premier Car Seat
Stonehenge (3931624)                 Seat                          0            0         0        0        0     66       42                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0      80                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0      28                0        0       0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0        0     524    6,092               0        0       0         0      35
                                     Trim                550,000                0         0        0        0     678    1,543               0        0 5,434           0      63
Fisher Price–Safe Voyager (EF20EDA) Seat                           0            0         0        0        0     58     1,720               0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0     211      535     902                0        0       0         0      10
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0     815            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0        0     213    3,894               0        0       0         0        0
Graco–Backless TurboBooster Belmont
(8491BEM)                           Seat                           0            0         0        0        0     26     1,083               0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
Graco–ComfortSport Convertible
(8636AER)                            Seat                          0        145           0        0        0       0    6,620               0        0       0         0      24
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            9           0        0       0         0      10
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0      26                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Trim                346,712                0         0        0        0     995      51                0        0 5,692           0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0    1,922               0        0       0         0        0
Graco–Comfortsport Convertible Timber
(8C00TMB)                             Seat                         0            0         0        0        0     178     429                0        0       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            3           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0     429                0        0       0         0        0
Graco–Comfortsport Convertible
Watercolor Flowers (8C03WCF)         Seat                          0            0         0        0     135        0      30                0      222       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
Graco–ComfortSport Convertible
Graphite (8C00GRP)                   Seat                          0        575           0        0        0     64       36                0      238       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0     409                0        0       0         0        0
                                     EPS
                                     Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0    1,028               0        0       0         0        0

Graco–Platinum CarGo Booster
(8689CAV)                            Seat                          0            0         0        0        0       0    4,761               0      224       0         0        0
                                     Base                          0            0         0        0        0     43             0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0        0       0         0        0
                                     Trim                118,797                0         0        0        0     239            0           0        0 2,251           0        0
Graco–Platinum CarGo Booster Zephyr Seat                           0        128           0        0        0       0    5,780               0        0       0         0      20
(8D01ZPH)

                   W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 29
                                                                                                                          Bromine/BFRs
                                                            Chlorine/PVC
                                            Component




                                                                           Chromium




                                                                                                                                                         Antimony
                                                                                                                                         Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                    Mercury
                                                                                                        Copper
                                                                                      Cobalt

                                                                                               Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                              Lead
                                                                                                                 Zinc




                                                                                                                                                   Tin
2007 Models
(8D01ZPH)
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            4           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0      15                0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) French Roast
(8A10FNR)                            Seat                         0        124        107         0        0     30       50                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0     637            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade               184,464                0         0        0        0       0     219                0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Fusion
(8A03QST)                           Seat                          0        769           0        0        0       0    4,858               0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0     605      91                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade                         0 1,379                0        0        0       0 15,027                 0       0        0         0      41
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0     686      33                0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Heirloom
(8A08HLR)                           Seat                          0            0         0        0     108        0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            5           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0     502     153                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade               542,171                0         0        0        0       0    1,167               0       0        0         0        0
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0     160    3,260               0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Pierson
(8A00PSN)                           Seat                          0            0         0        0        0     68       10                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0     439      16                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade                         0        363           0        0        0       0 21,789                 0       0        0         0      86
Graco–SafeSeat (Step 1) Roxy
(8AO5RXY)                           Seat                          0            0         0        0        0       0    2,112               0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0     599      52                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade               175,092                0         0        0        0       0     595                0       0        0         0        0
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0     360            0           0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SnugRide Emerson (8465EME3) Seat                            0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0     67          0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade                         0            0         0        0        0       0     756                0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SnugRide Family Tree
(8645FMT2)                          Seat                          0            0      140         0        0 1,969              0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade                67,540                0         0        0        0       0      77                0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SnugRide Josephine
(8643JOS2)                          Seat                          0            0         0        0        0       0    5,150               0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade               208,906                0         0        0        0       0      33                0       0        0         0        0




30 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
                                                                                                                          Bromine/BFRs
                                                            Chlorine/PVC
                                            Component




                                                                           Chromium




                                                                                                                                                         Antimony
                                                                                                                                         Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                    Mercury
                                                                                                        Copper
                                                                                      Cobalt

                                                                                               Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                              Lead
                                                                                                                 Zinc




                                                                                                                                                   Tin
2007 Models
Graco–SnugRide Lindsey (8465LRD3)   Seat                          0            0         0        0        0     24             0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0            3           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade               113,003                0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SnugRide Park Meadows
(8646RRY3)                          Seat                          0            0         0        0     84         0      12                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0        90            0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade                         0        518           0        0        0       0 13,009                 0       0        0         0      47
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0    4,073               0       0        0         0        0
Graco–SnugRide Windsor (8465EME)    Seat                          0            0         0        0        0     23       21                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Shade               288,727                0         0        0        0       0     296                0       0        0         0        0
Graco–Toddler SafeSeat (Step 2)
(8B00BDR)                           Seat                          0            0         0        0        0     925     436                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0      63                0       0        0         0        0
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0    5,153               0       0        0         0        0
Graco–Toddler SafeSeat (Step 2)
Pierson (8B03PSN2)                  Seat                          0            0         0        0        0 1,116       262                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
                                    Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0      10                0       0    164           0        0
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0    4,751               0       0        0         0        0
Graco–TurboBooster Emily (8498DEH) Seat                           0            0         0        0        0     524    6,714               0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0        75            0        0        0       0    3,319               0       0        0         0        0
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3)
Athens (8674ATH)                     Seat                         0        169           0        0        0     758    6,225               0       0        0         0      19
                                    Base                          0        228           0        0        0       0 11,564                 0       0        0         0      35
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0            4           0       0        0         0        0
Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3)
Gabrielle (8693GBR)                  Seat                         0            0         0        0        0       0    2,927               0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3)
Glory (8693GLY)                      Seat                         0            0         0        0        0     408    6,680               0       0        0         0      25
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0    1,655               0       0        0         0        0
                                    EPS
                                    Foam                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0

Graco–TurboBooster SafeSeat (Step 3)
Pierson (8498PSN)                    Seat                         0        91         55          0        0       0    3,886               0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0
Safety 1st–Alpha Sport (22452RB)    Seat                          0            0         0        0        0     43      195                0       0        0         0        0
                                    Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0            0           0       0        0         0        0


                   W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 31
                                                                                                                        Bromine/BFRs
                                                          Chlorine/PVC
                                          Component




                                                                         Chromium




                                                                                                                                                       Antimony
                                                                                                                                       Cadmium




                                                                                                                                                                  Mercury
                                                                                                      Copper
                                                                                    Cobalt

                                                                                             Nickel




                                                                                                                                                                            Lead
                                                                                                               Zinc




                                                                                                                                                 Tin
2007 Models
                                  Clip                          0            0         0        0        0       0      24                0       0        0         0        0
Peg Perego–Primo Viaggio Toffee
(P73RU46)                         Seat                          0        134        75          0        0 3,820      5,627               0       0        0         0        0
                                  Base                          0            0         0        0        0       0      20                0       0        0         0        0
                                  Clip                          0        123           0        0        0     494     375                0       0        0         0        0
                                  Shade               203,435 3,027 1,123                       0        0 85,890 137,519                 0       0        0         0      535
                                  EPS
                                  Foam                          0            0         0        0        0     156    1,459               0       0        0         0        0




32 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
APPENDIX:
UNDERSTANDING THE CAR SEAT RATINGS
The www.HealthyCar.Org child car seat rating system was developed in order to provide a
means for consumers to compare the relative concern associated with materials in new model
car seats. The following section provides an overview of the method used to determine the car
seat ratings.

SELECTING THE                                           electronics and packaging is included in
CHEMICALS OF CONCERN                                    Table A1 on the next page.
HealthyCar.org rates car seats based on the
detection and concentrations of the                     Two voluntary certification standards
following elements or chemical compounds                are currently being used by Volvo72 and
containing these elements: Antimony,                    Ford73 to certify vehicles for air quality
Arsenic, Bromine, Chlorine, Chromium,                   and allergen-free content: the Oeko-Tex
Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Nickel, Tin.             100 and TÜV standards. Ford certifies
These elements or compounds were chosen                 vehicles using the TÜV Rheinland
for the following reasons.                              Group’s TOXPROOF Certification
                                                        (including the SG textiles standard).74 So
1. They could be easily and quickly                     far, four of Ford’s European model
   identified using non-destructive                     vehicles have been certified, including
   methods. Sampling for this project was               the Focus, Focus C-MAX, Ka and
   limited to new car seats, thus testing               Galaxy.75 Volvo has certified all of its
   could not damage the car seat. The XRF               vehicle interiors to the Oeko-Tex
   device was used to sample each                       Standard 100. 76,77 Each of these
   component for the presence of 38                     standards are also relevant to child car
   elements as percent by weight or parts               seats. The Oeko-Tex 100 standard has
   per million (ppm). The reporting of 27               specific standard for baby products
   of these elements was eliminated on the              which children are likely to come in
   basis of non-occurrence or low concern,              direct contact with.
   leaving the 11 elements mentioned
   above.                                               Two other standards for plastic and
                                                        fabric in other types of products are also
2. These elements, and the chemicals
   associated with them in car seat                72
                                                      Volvo Cars.
                                                   http://www.volvocars.com/corporation/environment/Cle
   applications, have been subject to              anInside.htm (Accessed 03/09/07).
   either regulatory restrictions and/or           73
                                                      TUV Rheinland. 2007. “First Allergy Label for Car
   voluntary limits set by industry                Buyers.”
                                                   http://www.tuv.com/de/en/news_first_allergy_label_for_
   associations or third party certification       car_buyers.html (Accessed 03/09/07).
   organizations. These elements and their         74
                                                      TUV Rheinland. 2007.
   chemical compounds have been                    http://www.tuvdotcom.com/pi/web/TuvdotcomIdSearch
                                                   Results.xml?TUVdotCOMID=4111008300&LanguageChange
   associated with health and                      d=en-us (Accessed 03/01/07)
   environmental concerns in the range of          75
                                                      TUV Rheinland. 2007. “First Allergy Label for Car
                                                   Buyers.”
   the concentrations detected in the              http://www.tuv.com/de/en/news_first_allergy_label_for_
   sampling conducted for this study. A            car_buyers.html (Accessed 03/09/07).
                                                   76
   wide-range of regulatory and voluntary             Volvo Cars.
                                                   http://www.volvocars.com/corporation/environment/Cle
   limits for elements in products were            anInside.htm (Accessed 03/09/07).
   reviewed for this study. A summary of           77
                                                      Volvo Cars.
   the standards reviewed for childrens            http://www.volvocars.com/corporation/FactsandFigures/
                                                   EnvironmentalProductInformationEurope/incar.htm
   products, toys, paints, vehicles,               (Accessed 03/09/07).


               W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 33
    Table A1: Samples of Product Standards and Elemental Limits

                         Oeko-Tex 100              TUV            Nordic Swan4            TCO8
                            Fabrics and          Cars and                             Computers and
    PRODUCTS                  Leather             Fabrics          Computers           Work Chairs
    ELEMENTS                                          "SAFE" LIMITS
    Antimony                        30 ppm              2 ppm
    Arsenic                          1 ppm            0.2 ppm   None, Leathers
    Bromine                       No BFRs1          Non Detect      No BFRs6                 No BFRs9
                                                                          No PVC/             No PVC
                                                                                  5
    Chlorine                                                            No Cl FRs            NoClFRs9

                                                       2 ppm2 /
    Chromium                         2 ppm        200/50 ppm3               3 ppm7
    Cobalt                           4 ppm              4 ppm
    Copper (organic)                50 ppm             60 ppm
    Lead                             1 ppm            0.8 ppm           1,000 ppm                None
    Mercury                       0.02 ppm            .02 ppm           1,000 ppm                None
    Nickel                         4.0 ppm              4 ppm
    Tin (organic)                    1 ppm         Non Detect
    TEST METHOD                 Extractable         Extractable          By weight           By weight

1
    BFR includes: PBB, TRIS, TEPA, pentaBDE, octaBDE. A list of approved flame retardant materials are listed on Oeko
    Tex web site.
2
    Chromium (VI)
3
    Total Chromium content. 200 ppm adults/50 ppm children
4
    Available at: http://www.svanen.nu/Eng/products/ (Accessed on 03/02/07).
5
    No PVC in housing and chassis. No chlorinated flame retardants.
6
    No BFRs. Exemption for printed wiring boards and plastic parts weighing less than 25g. These parts must not, however,
    contain any PBB (polybrominated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) or chlorinated paraffins (maximum
    allowable concentration for impurities is 0.1 % by weight in homogenous material).
7
    Chromium (VI)
8
    Available at: http://www.tcodevelopment.com/ (Accessed on 03/02/07)
9
    Plastic parts weighing more than 25 grams shall not contain flame retardants that include organically bound bromine or
    chlorine. Exempted are printed wiring board laminates, electronic components and all kinds of cable insulation. Plastic
    parts weighing more than 25 grams shall not contain chlorine or bromine as a part of the polymer. Parts containing other
    materials in any significant amounts, e.g. cables with their metal conductors, are not included in the requirements.

        highlighted. Since the 1980’s TCO                              industry, the elemental limits in these
        Development in Sweden has developed                            standards were used as a baseline for
        standards for information technology                           evaluating the health of the inside
        equipment for ease of use and                                  vehicle environment. While the
        environmental considerations. The                              elemental limits in these standards are
        TCO’05 Desktop Computer and Work                               based on the amount of extractable
        Chairs Standard is one of the more                             metals from a homogeneous material,
        comprehensive and restrictive standards                        the XRF measures elemental
        available. The Nordic Swan label for                           composition of materials as percent by
        computers also limits the presence of                          weight and averages measurements
        many groups of chemicals, including                            between different layers of a
        halogens, in plastic components. The                           heterogeneous material (e.g. fabric
        elemental limits for all of these                              covers the seat foam). In general, the
        standards are listed in Table A1.                              amount of metals extractable from
                                                                       materials is typically less then the actual
        Due to the current use of the Oeko-Tex                         content of the material.
        & TÜV standards within the auto



    34 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
The XRF results were considered to be
relevant because the levels typically
observed in cars significantly exceeded
guideline limits cited in Table A1. The
XRF also underestimates actual levels of
elements in heterogeneous materials
due to the averaging of different layers
of the material. Most materials in this
study were multi-layer materials. XRF
results greater than the instrument
detection limit in general exceed the
levels outlined in Table A1.




           W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 35
CAR SEAT SAMPLING
The primary purpose of testing individual
components in car seats was to establish the
presence and relative abundance of
chemicals of concern.

Two to six components from each car seat
were selected for sampling. The
components were selected based on the
following criteria:

•    Potential of exposure, i.e. components
     that drivers or passengers come in
     contact with, that are subject to
     abrasion, or that otherwise release
     vapors or particles to the environment;
•    Surface area and relative size of
     component;
•    Potential to off-gas or degrade during
     heat and/or UV-ray exposure;
•    Ease of access to component for
     sampling.

Components sampled included:

     Base
     Clip
     Seat
     Shade
     EPS Foam*
     Trim*

*Components not present in all car seats.

Examples of sample location and results are
show to the right. Non-destructive
sampling was conducted on car seat                analyzed.
components using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)      2. These photons knock electrons in each
spectrometry. XRF spectrometry is used to         atom from the innermost orbitals of
identify elements in a substance and              some atoms in the sample, making the
quantify the amount of those elements             atoms unstable.
present. Hand-held, portable XRF devices       3. As electrons move from outer orbitals to
are now commonly used in many industrial          the vacant space closer to the nucleus of
settings to verify material quality and           the atom, they emit energy in a
assure adherence to composition                   secondary x-ray photon; this is known
specifications.                                   as fluorescence.
                                               4. The analyzer measures the amount of
XRF devices use the following process to          energy in the x-rays emitted by the
determine the composition of materials:           atoms in the sample material as they
                                                  return to their original state, an energy
1. An x-ray tube emits high-energy x-ray          that is characteristic of each element.
   photons that strike the sample being



36 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
5. The analyzer quantifies this energy and                              Each component was sampled for 30
   makes a conversion to report whether                                 seconds. Components were sampled at
   an element is present and in what                                    similar locations in each car seat. Detection
   concentration.                                                       limit guidelines were provided by the XRF
                                                                        manufacturer. (Detection limits are
When in use, the analyzer emits radiation                               estimates based on 1-2 minute test times
from the exit port (the front of the                                    and detection confidence of 3-sigma, or
instrument). Radiation levels at the port are                           99.7% confidence.) Detection limit
approximately 28,000 millirems per hour in                              guidelines and lowest observed detection
the direct x-ray beam, and 2,000 millirems                              limits are presented in Table A2. Observed
per hour 4 inches away. To put these                                    detection limits were consistent with
numbers in perspective, a chest x-ray                                   manufacturers guidelines.
provides a dose of 100 millirems; 5,000
millirems total per year are considered                                 The XRF sampler also automatically
acceptable for a non-pregnant adult. The                                calculates a 1-sigma (68.2%) error margin
radiation level for the operator is less than                           for each sample. A sample of the test data
0.1 millirems per hour. The analyzer does                               showing detected level in ppm and +/- one-
not emit radiation when it is not in use.                               sigma error margin is shown in Table A3.
When it is emitting radiation during a test,                            To ensure that our readings were accurate,
the red light on the top of the analyzer                                we performed a quality analysis on several
blinks. The XRF Analyzer is manufactured                                samples. In this analysis, we tested the same
by Innov-X Systems, Inc., located in                                    component at multiple points on a Cosco
Woburn, Massachusetts. More information                                 Alpha Omego Elite Convertible car seat and
about the analyzer and the company may be                               two vehicle models, the Subaru Legacy and
found at www.innov-xsys.com.                                            the Nissan Versa. The results of these
                                                                        samples are shown in Table A4 on the next
                                                                        page. Table A6 shows the result of sampling
                                                                        multiple components on two identical car
                                                                        seats. In all cases, we found adequate
                                                                        consistency in detection levels at different
                                                                        locations in the same component.
  Table A2: XRF Detection Limits
                                                          Observed
                           Manufacturers               Detection Limits
  ELEMENT                Detection Limits1          (30 second sample)2
  Antimony                            50-150 ppm                      109 ppm
  Arsenic                             10-100 ppm                        1 ppm
  Bromine                             10-100 ppm                        2 ppm
  Chlorine                                1%-5%                         2.80%
  Chromium                            10-100 ppm                       39 ppm
  Cobalt                              10-100 ppm                       37 ppm
  Copper                              10-100 ppm                       38 ppm
  Lead                                10-100 ppm                        5 ppm
  Mercury                             10-100 ppm                        7 ppm
  Nickel                              10-100 ppm                       27 ppm
  Tin                                 50-150 ppm                      130 ppm

  1
      InnovX Model ABC XRF Detector detection estimates based on 1-2 minute test times and detection confidence of 3-sigma, or 99.7%
      confidence. Detection limits are a function of testing time, sample matrix and presence of interfering elements.
  2
      Observed detection limits varied by type of material being tested. Detection limits presented here are the lowest observed from all
      testing.




                     W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 37
                                                        leather seat covering, and any fabric
XRF measures surfaces up to a depth of                  backing as shown in Table A5. Therefore,
6–12 mm and provides quantitative values                the seat foam alone may have a higher
for specific elements within the matrix of a            bromine level, but the reading will be lower
given test object. For homogeneous                      due to the presence of the fabric and back
materials, the results are expected to reflect          coating, or vice versa. This type of
the actual concentration of the measured                averaging results in lower levels being
element. However, since components like                 reported in heterogeneous samples. Most
seat cushions are usually composed of                   samples used in this study are considered
several layers of different materials, the XRF          heterogeneous samples.
results are an average of all materials up to
the depth of X-Ray penetration. For
example, the XRF reading for bromine
levels in a seat will be composed of the
foam, the fabric or



Table A3: Sample Date for Door trim (soft), Cl and Br error margins (ppm)
                                                                                 Cl                        Br
  MAKE         MODEL          SPECS    MARKET CLASS   YEAR     CHLORINE     (1-sigma +/-)   BROMINE   (1-sigma +/-)
Chrysler   Town & Country   LTD       Minivan          2006      247,636       10,424           0            4
VW         Jetta             -        Small Car        2006      183,186        8,736           0            4
Buick      Lucerne          CXL       Large Sedan      2007      157,568        7,659           3            1
Audi       Q7                -        SUV              2007      175,511        8,534           4            1
VW         Touareg          V8        SUV              2006      170,562        8,181           0            3
GMC        Yukon            Denali    SUV              2006      141,634        8,001        2,500          35
Saturn     Sky               -        Convertible      2007      163,789        9,607           0            4
Mercedes   GL450            4matic    SUV              2007      204,440        9,236           0            4
Cadillac   DTS              4.6L V8   Luxury Sedan     2007      134,341        7,362          26            2
Buick      Terraza          CXL 1SD   Minivan          2007      121,029        7,504         791           13
Saturn     Relay            AWD RF3   Minivan          2006      153,625        7,867           0            4
Audi       A6 Avanti        3.2       Luxury Sedan     2006      175,068        8,707          17            2




38 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
 Table A4: Repeat Sample Data
 Note: <LOD, Level of Detection

Cosco Alpha Omega Elite Convertible Infant Seat: Repeat samples & elemental detection levels (ppm)
COMPONENT                   Cl       Cl +/-     Br     Br +/-    Sb      Sb +/-     Pb       Pb +/-    Cr    Cr +/-
Seat - Cushion             <LOD     21,046     126       5      <LOD      220      <LOD       12      <LOD    80
Seat - Cushion             <LOD     16,820      95       4      <LOD      176      <LOD        9      <LOD    66
Seat - Cushion             <LOD     16,667     102       4      <LOD      174      <LOD        9      <LOD    70
Base - Hard Plastic        <LOD     15,848    <LOD       2      <LOD      170      <LOD        7      <LOD    49
Base - Hard Plastic        <LOD     17,837    <LOD       3      <LOD      195      <LOD       10      <LOD    65
Base - Hard Plastic        <LOD     18,746    <LOD       3      <LOD      194      <LOD        9      <LOD    51
Clip                       <LOD     17,694     610      13      <LOD      185      <LOD       11      <LOD    62
Clip                       <LOD     15,308     357       8      <LOD      170      <LOD       10      <LOD    50
Clip                       <LOD     12,236     177       4      <LOD      137      <LOD        7      <LOD    40



SUBARU LEGACY: Repeat samples & elemental detection levels (ppm)
COMPONENT                   Cl       Cl +/-    Br      Br +/-    Sb      Sb +/-     Pb       Pb +/-    Cr    Cr +/-
Steering Wheel             <LOD     11,160      7        1      <LOD      125      <LOD        5      <LOD     36
Steering Wheel             <LOD     12,139      6        1      <LOD      130      <LOD        5      <LOD     37
Steering Wheel             <LOD     12,981      8        1      <LOD      139      <LOD        5      <LOD     40
Dashboard                  <LOD     12,375      9        1      <LOD      133      <LOD        6      <LOD     46
Dashboard                  <LOD     12,692     10        1      <LOD      134      <LOD        6      <LOD     43
Dashboard                  <LOD     13,383     11        1      <LOD      143      <LOD        6      <LOD     48
Headliner                  <LOD     23,444     11        2      <LOD      220      <LOD       12      <LOD     98
Headliner                  <LOD     19,856      8        2      <LOD      208      <LOD        9      <LOD     73
Headliner                  <LOD     22,590     13        2      <LOD      218      <LOD       12      <LOD     89
Seat Front                 <LOD     16,443    <LOD       3      <LOD      175       14         3      <LOD     59
Seat Front                 <LOD     17,072    <LOD       3      <LOD      182      <LOD        8      <LOD     66
Seat Front                 <LOD     18,561    <LOD       3      <LOD      193      <LOD        8      <LOD     69
Exterior Window Seal      303,078   12,526    <LOD       5      <LOD      159      <LOD       12      <LOD    153
Exterior Window Seal      258,969   11,484    <LOD       5      <LOD      168      <LOD        9      <LOD    140
Exterior Window Seal      277,308   12,366    <LOD       5      <LOD      166      <LOD       11      <LOD    128



NISSAN VERSA: Repeat samples & elemental detection levels (ppm)
COMPONENT                   Cl       Cl +/-     Br     Br +/-    Sb      Sb +/-     Pb       Pb +/-     Cr   Cr +/-
Armrest/Center Console    116,232    8,766    <LOD        4     2,866      81      <LOD        9      <LOD     92
Armrest/Center Console    112,203    8,793    <LOD        4     2,855      83      <LOD        9      <LOD     94
Armrest/Center Console    100,292    8,086    <LOD        3     2,685      76      <LOD        8      <LOD     78
Seat Front                 <LOD     36,809    34,098    835     7,761     255       139       11       492     58
Seat Front                 <LOD     34,375    32,146    764     7,577     242       156       11       626     65
Seat Front                 <LOD     31,505    25,283    550     5,964     190       115        9       431     51
Hard Door Trim             <LOD     13,921    <LOD        3     <LOD      146      <LOD        7       128     25
Hard Door Trim             <LOD     15,796    <LOD        2     <LOD      158      <LOD        7       146     29
Hard Door Trim             <LOD     14,302    <LOD        3     <LOD      153      <LOD        8       131     26
Soft Door Trim            112,451    6,485      53        2     1,566      55         9        3      <LOD     62
Soft Door Trim            282,862   13,035     203        7     3,523      92        48        7      <LOD    158
Soft Door Trim            136,685    7,748      65        3     2,012      62        16        3      <LOD     76
Exterior Window Seal      471,785   20,375    <LOD       11     <LOD      162      <LOD       24      <LOD    374
Exterior Window Seal      547,122   22,473    <LOD       12     <LOD      154      <LOD       28       939    205
Exterior Window Seal      550,000   23,843    <LOD       12     <LOD      158        31       10       735    204




                       W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 39
                                                                      1
Table A5: XRF Averaging of Heterogeneous Samples
VEHICLE                                COMPONENT                   BROMINE
1996 Dodge Neon                  Full Seat (Cloth)                 21,300 ppm
                                 Seat Foam Only                       89 ppm
                                 Fabric Only - outer surface       62,400 ppm
                                 Fabric Only - inner surface       77,400 ppm
1993 Mercury Grand Marquis       Full Seat (PVC)                     87 ppm
                                 Seat Foam Only                        8 ppm
                                 Fabric/PVC - outer surface          192 ppm
                                 Fabric/PVC - inner surface           34 ppm
1998 Oldsmobile Silhouette       Full Seat (Leather)                4,181 ppm
                                 Foam Only                         10,100 ppm
                                 Leather - outer surface            2,780 ppm
                                 Leather - inner surface            2,564 ppm
1
     Seat coverings (cloth, PVC or leather) were removed from foam and analyzed from the outer and inner surface of the material. “Full
     seat” reading is taken with seat assembly intact and is typical of samples used in this study. “Foam only” sample is for seat foam that
     has been sliced in half to give a foam only sample.


Table A6: Repeat Sample Data, Identical Model – Britax Campanion

    Seat Model                 Model .     Component     Cl     Cl +/-    Cr   Cr +/- Br   Br +/- Sb  Sb +/-        Pb   Pb +/-
    Companion Black/Tan #1     R1080L4     Base          <LOD   19,108    <LOD    58 <LOD      4 <LOD   210         <LOD    11
    Companion Black/Tan #2     R1080L4     Base          <LOD   18,359    <LOD    56 <LOD      3 <LOD   191         <LOD    10
    Companion Black/Tan #1     R1080L4     Clip          <LOD   18,991    <LOD    68 <LOD      4 <LOD   194         <LOD    10
    Companion Black/Tan #2     R1080L4     Clip          <LOD   19,828    <LOD    62     8     2 <LOD   223         <LOD    12
    Companion Black/Tan #1     R1080L4     Seat          <LOD   39,204    <LOD   106 2,277    75 <LOD   375         <LOD    28
    Companion Black/Tan #2     R1080L4     Seat          <LOD   32,424    <LOD   120 5,357 143 <LOD     327         <LOD    32




40 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG
ESTABLISING THE
RELATIVE LEVELS OF
CONCERN                                             Bromine: Bromine indicates the likely
Car seat ratings were calculated based on           presence of a brominated flame
the XRF results from two to four car seat           retardant (BFR). BFRs, particularly
components that were tested on all car              decabrominated diphenylethers (deca),
seats. Seat and base were tested on all             have been found in dust and windshield
booster seats; seat, base, clip were sampled        film samples from new model vehicles.
on all convertible car seats; and seat, base,       Deca may degrade into more toxic
clip and shade were sampled on all infant           chemicals when exposed to heat and UV
car seats.                                          radiation. We therefore consider
                                                    bromine a relatively high-concern
The rating for each car seat was determined         substance when present at higher
using the following process:                        concentrations. We thus assigned it a
                                                    relative weight of 10 for concentrations
1. Each component was given a weighting             above 1,000 ppm. Concentrations lower
   based on its relative size and potential         than 1,000 ppm received a weight of 1.
   to release chemicals or dust. This
   weighting was based on judgment on               Chlorine: All chlorine detected was in
   the part of the researchers. The                 concentrations higher than 10,000 ppm,
   component weighting factor for each              which indicates the likely presence of
   component is indicated in Table A7.              PVC. We cannot, however, rule out the
                                                    possibility of other chlorinated
2. Each element was given a chemical                compounds, like flame retardants, being
   weighting factor (multiplier) based on           present in the materials. PVC has been
   the level of concern associated with it          identified as a problem chemical
   and its related chemical compounds, as           throughout its lifecycle. Formation of
   well as the concentration level detected.        highly toxic dioxins and furans during
   Higher concentrations were assigned              combustion and evaporation in
   higher weights. For instance, there were         production and end of life, as well as
   2 levels of concern determined for               release of phthalates from soft PVC
   bromine depending on the                         materials are of particular concern.
   concentration that was detected. The             Considering the likely possibility that
   weighting for each element and for               chlorine indicates the use of PVC and
   different concentrations of elements is
   shown in Table A8. Explanation of the
   relative weight of each element is                  Table A8: Elements Detected and Their
   provided below.                                     Relative Weight in the Ratings
                                                       LOD = Level of Detection
                                                                             RELATIVE
    Table A7: Relative Weighting of Each                    ELEMENT           WEIGHT
    Component                                          Bromine (low)      1 (>LOD, <1,000 ppm)
                          COMPONENT                    Bromine (high)           10 (>1,000 ppm)
     COMPONENT              WEIGHT                     Chlorine               10 (> 10,000ppm)
                                                       Lead (low)           1 (>LOD, <600 ppm)
     Base                       1
                                                       Lead (high)                5 (>600 ppm)
     Clip                       1
                                                       Antimony                       1 (>LOD)
     Seat                       1                      Arsenic                        1 (>LOD)
     Shade                      1                      Chromium                       1 (>LOD)
                                                       Cobalt                         1 (>LOD)
                                                       Copper                         1 (>LOD)
                                                       Nickel                         1 (>LOD)
                                                       Mercury                        1 (>LOD)
                                                       Tin                            1 (>LOD)

                W W W . H E A L T H Y C A R . O R G - T H E E C O L O G Y C E N T E R – 41
   phthalates additives, we regard chlorine                                                points. The shaded area in Table A9
   as a relatively high-concern substance                                                  shows the resulting points.
   and assigned it a relative weight of 10.
                                                                                    4. The points for each of the components (2
   Lead: The link between lead and serious                                             to 4 depending on seat type) were
   developmental and other health                                                      added to produce chemical scores for
   concerns is well established. The toy                                               bromine, chlorine, lead and other
   industry restricts the use of lead in                                               chemicals. In order to communicate the
   concentrations higher than                                                          relative concern to the public, these
   600 ppm. We therefore assigned a                                                    scores were then scaled on a 0-5 basis,
   relative weight of 5 to lead                                                        with 5 being the highest concern and 0
   concentrations above 600 ppm, and a                                                 being the lowest. These 0-5 scores are
   relative weight of 1 to lower                                                       referred to as the chemical ratings.
   concentrations.
                                                                                    5. The total scores for all the chemicals
   The remaining elements were also                                                    were added to produce an overall score
   found in car seat components and are                                                that indicates the relative concern of the
   associated with harmful health effects                                              complete car seat. This score was then
   even at relatively low concentrations.                                              scaled on a 0-5 basis with 5 being the
   Some of them are carcinogens, others                                                highest concern and 0 being the lowest.
   are allergens or heavy metals.                                                      This scaled score is referred to as the
   Concentrations of these substances were                                             overall car seat rating. It allows
   mostly found at lower levels than the                                               consumers to identify car seats of lower
   above-mentioned substances, and thus                                                concern.
   we consider them to have a
   comparatively low health concern, and                                            6. Finally, the general categories of
   assigned them each a relative weight of                                             concern were established. This was
   1.                                                                                  done by ranking the overall car seat rating
                                                                                       for each type of seat sampled, and
3. The component weight factor was                                                     assigning relative low concern to car seats
   multiplied by the chemical (and                                                     in the 0-15th percentile; relative medium
   concentration) weight factor to produce                                             concern to car seats between the 15th to
                                                                                       85th percentile; and relative high concern
   Table A9: Final Points Used for Vehicle                                             to car seats above the 85th percentile.
   Ratings
                                                                      BROMINE               CHLORINE             LEAD             OTHER***
                                           PPMs            >LOD & <1000          >1000        >10,000    >LOD & <600     >600       >LOD

                                      COMPONENT                                                                                    UP TO 8
  COMPONENT                             WEIGHT                 1 POINT         10 POINTS     10 POINTS    1 POINT      5 POINTS    POINTS
  Base                                    1                       1                10            10          1             5          8
  Clip *                                  1                       1                10            10          1             5          8
  Seat                                    1                       1                10            10          1             5          8
  Shade **                                1                       1                10            10          1             5          8

  *Only convertible and infant seats have this component.
  ** Only infant seats have this component.
  *** Includes antimony, tin, arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel and mercury.




42 – THE ECOLOGY CENTER – WWW.HEALTHYCAR.ORG

								
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