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The Cold War – China and the USA - The Cold War - China and the

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The Cold War – China and the USA - The Cold War - China and the Powered By Docstoc
					                    USA, China and the
                      background to
                     rapprochement
• Lesson Focus
• US/Chinese relations post WW2
• Korea and Vietnam
• Reasons for Rapprochement
    Starter
   Write down the following:
    1. 2 reasons for good relations between China
       and the USSR between 1949 and 1956;
    2. 2 reasons for the Sino Soviet Split of the late
       1950‟s;
    3. 2 examples of close co-operation between
       China and the USSR prior to 1956;
    4. 2 examples of conflict or clashes between
       China and the Soviet Union after the split.
Conflict Between the U.S. and
China Begins
 When Mao took power in 1949, the U.S.
  refused to recognize the People‟s
  Republic of China (PRC)
 Instead, they backed the Nationalists who
  fled to Taiwan
 The U.S. made sure that Taiwan was
  given China‟s seat at the UN
    Tibet (1950)
 The U.S. condemned the
  PRC for what it perceived
  as expansionism, as well
  as the horrific bloodshed
 Mao had believed it was a
  domestic matter
Korean War (1950-53)

 In the Korean War, China would
  intervene in Korea by sending
  300,000 “volunteers” and the drove
  the U.S. back beyond the 38th parallel
 The war would end at a stalemate
  around the same physical boundaries
  where it began
Effects of the Korean War on China
   The war strengthened alliances in the West, but
    alienated the Chinese and Soviets
   China held their own against UN/US forces, so they
    gained prestige
   As a result of the Korean War, Truman recognized only
    Taiwan as the real China and protected it with the 7th
    Fleet
   China obtained loans and technical assistance from the
    Soviets (engaged in the first 5-Year Plan)
   China became disillusioned with the Soviets because
    they sold them military equipment at high prices
    Vietnam (1954)
 China gave support and aid to Ho Chi Minh in
  the war against France
 They felt betrayed when the U.S. did not keep
  to the agreement by failing to hold promised
  elections in 1954
 In the same year, the U.S. created the South-
  East Asia Organization (SEATO) to “contain”
  China and signed a defense treaty with Taiwan
SEATO Countries
Quemoy and Matsu
(1954 & 58)

 In response to Chiang‟s attacks on the
  mainland, the Communists bombarded
  two nationalist-held islands (Quemoy and
  Matsu)
 In response:
     Chiang‟s airforce bombed the mainland
     Eisenhower threatened the Chinese with
      nuclear weapons
Quemoy &
Matsu

   In May 1957, the U.S. supplied the Nationalists
    on Taiwan with missiles capable of reaching the
    mainland and carrying nuclear warheads
   In 1958, Mao again bombarded the two islands,
    and China was again threatened with nuclear
    weapons
   The USSR didn‟t give the Chinese nuclear
    weapons technology as they had agreed
   The U.S. continued to fortify Taiwan as a military
    base, and used it to conduct illegal flights over
    Chinese territory by U-2 spy planes
Results of Quemoy and Matsu
 A trade embargo with the PRC
 Obstruction of PRC entry into the UN
 Huge economic and military aid to Taiwan
 A regional containment bloc - SEATO
Cultural Revolution (1966-68)
 To the U.S., it was a clear demonstration
  of the out of control fanaticism of the
  Maoist leadership
 The Chinese increased the ferocity of their
  attacks on the U.S. and its allies, calling
  them “capitalist running dogs”
    U.S. Reasons for Sino-American
    Rapprochement or Détente
   Sought help in getting out of Vietnam
   Realized their policy of containment in China had
    failed
   Wished to be on good terms with a nuclear power
   Wished to cause anxiety to the Soviets
   Wanted to play off the fears of both the USSR and
    China
   It was a popular move in the U.S.
   They realized Communist movements around the
    world weren‟t monolithic (created by the USSR or
    China)
Chinese Reasons for Sino-American
Rapprochement or Détente
 An American counterweight to Soviet hostility
 Concessions on the status of Taiwan
 Trade with the U.S. and its allies
 The transfer of modern technology
 UN membership
 U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam
 Worry about a strong Japan
Sino-American Rapprochement
 In  March 1969, the U.S.
  lifted restrictions on its
  citizens to visit China
 In April, the trade
  embargo was eased
 In April 1971, a U.S.
  table tennis team was
  invited to play in China
 (Ping pong diplomacy)
    Sino-American Rapprochement
   In October, the U.S. ended its veto
    on the entry of Communist China
    into the UN
   In February 1972, Nixon visited
    China
   In December/January 1978/79,
    President Carter withdrew
    recognition of Nationalist China and
    entered into full diplomatic relations
    with the People‟s Republic of China
Results of Sino-American
Rapprochement for the U.S.
 Good relations with China caused them to
  urge their ally, North Vietnam, to the
  negotiating table
 The weakening of the Soviet position in
  the world, making it more amenable to
  compromise
 The U.S. had less influence in Asia, which
  was a popular move
    Results of Sino-American
    Rapprochement for China
   UN membership, which increased its prestige and
    influence, while decreasing its diplomatic isolation
   Acceptance of a “One China” policy by the U.S. and
    withdrawal of U.S. military installations from Taiwan
   Improved relations with the U.S. resulted in improved
    relations with Japan, who became their 2nd largest
    trading partner
   Security from the danger of a U.S.-Soviet or Soviet
    attack
        Tasks for today – one
   Reading pages 129/130 of Superpower
    Relations as well as the extra notes you
    have been given, make notes on, and
    answer the following:
     The  conventional or „geopolitical‟
      interpretation of rapprochement;
     The ideological interpretation of
      rapprochement.
           Summary
   What were the
    reasons for, and
    results of, the
    rapprochement
    between China and
    the United States in
    the 1970‟s?

				
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