USA, China and the background to rapprochement • Lesson Focus • US/Chinese relations post WW2 • Korea and Vietnam • Reasons for Rapprochement Starter Write down the following: 1. 2 reasons for good relations between China and the USSR between 1949 and 1956; 2. 2 reasons for the Sino Soviet Split of the late 1950‟s; 3. 2 examples of close co-operation between China and the USSR prior to 1956; 4. 2 examples of conflict or clashes between China and the Soviet Union after the split. Conflict Between the U.S. and China Begins When Mao took power in 1949, the U.S. refused to recognize the People‟s Republic of China (PRC) Instead, they backed the Nationalists who fled to Taiwan The U.S. made sure that Taiwan was given China‟s seat at the UN Tibet (1950) The U.S. condemned the PRC for what it perceived as expansionism, as well as the horrific bloodshed Mao had believed it was a domestic matter Korean War (1950-53) In the Korean War, China would intervene in Korea by sending 300,000 “volunteers” and the drove the U.S. back beyond the 38th parallel The war would end at a stalemate around the same physical boundaries where it began Effects of the Korean War on China The war strengthened alliances in the West, but alienated the Chinese and Soviets China held their own against UN/US forces, so they gained prestige As a result of the Korean War, Truman recognized only Taiwan as the real China and protected it with the 7th Fleet China obtained loans and technical assistance from the Soviets (engaged in the first 5-Year Plan) China became disillusioned with the Soviets because they sold them military equipment at high prices Vietnam (1954) China gave support and aid to Ho Chi Minh in the war against France They felt betrayed when the U.S. did not keep to the agreement by failing to hold promised elections in 1954 In the same year, the U.S. created the South- East Asia Organization (SEATO) to “contain” China and signed a defense treaty with Taiwan SEATO Countries Quemoy and Matsu (1954 & 58) In response to Chiang‟s attacks on the mainland, the Communists bombarded two nationalist-held islands (Quemoy and Matsu) In response: Chiang‟s airforce bombed the mainland Eisenhower threatened the Chinese with nuclear weapons Quemoy & Matsu In May 1957, the U.S. supplied the Nationalists on Taiwan with missiles capable of reaching the mainland and carrying nuclear warheads In 1958, Mao again bombarded the two islands, and China was again threatened with nuclear weapons The USSR didn‟t give the Chinese nuclear weapons technology as they had agreed The U.S. continued to fortify Taiwan as a military base, and used it to conduct illegal flights over Chinese territory by U-2 spy planes Results of Quemoy and Matsu A trade embargo with the PRC Obstruction of PRC entry into the UN Huge economic and military aid to Taiwan A regional containment bloc - SEATO Cultural Revolution (1966-68) To the U.S., it was a clear demonstration of the out of control fanaticism of the Maoist leadership The Chinese increased the ferocity of their attacks on the U.S. and its allies, calling them “capitalist running dogs” U.S. Reasons for Sino-American Rapprochement or Détente Sought help in getting out of Vietnam Realized their policy of containment in China had failed Wished to be on good terms with a nuclear power Wished to cause anxiety to the Soviets Wanted to play off the fears of both the USSR and China It was a popular move in the U.S. They realized Communist movements around the world weren‟t monolithic (created by the USSR or China) Chinese Reasons for Sino-American Rapprochement or Détente An American counterweight to Soviet hostility Concessions on the status of Taiwan Trade with the U.S. and its allies The transfer of modern technology UN membership U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam Worry about a strong Japan Sino-American Rapprochement In March 1969, the U.S. lifted restrictions on its citizens to visit China In April, the trade embargo was eased In April 1971, a U.S. table tennis team was invited to play in China (Ping pong diplomacy) Sino-American Rapprochement In October, the U.S. ended its veto on the entry of Communist China into the UN In February 1972, Nixon visited China In December/January 1978/79, President Carter withdrew recognition of Nationalist China and entered into full diplomatic relations with the People‟s Republic of China Results of Sino-American Rapprochement for the U.S. Good relations with China caused them to urge their ally, North Vietnam, to the negotiating table The weakening of the Soviet position in the world, making it more amenable to compromise The U.S. had less influence in Asia, which was a popular move Results of Sino-American Rapprochement for China UN membership, which increased its prestige and influence, while decreasing its diplomatic isolation Acceptance of a “One China” policy by the U.S. and withdrawal of U.S. military installations from Taiwan Improved relations with the U.S. resulted in improved relations with Japan, who became their 2nd largest trading partner Security from the danger of a U.S.-Soviet or Soviet attack Tasks for today – one Reading pages 129/130 of Superpower Relations as well as the extra notes you have been given, make notes on, and answer the following: The conventional or „geopolitical‟ interpretation of rapprochement; The ideological interpretation of rapprochement. Summary What were the reasons for, and results of, the rapprochement between China and the United States in the 1970‟s?