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MAPHUMULO MAPHUMULO MUNICIPALITY MUNICIPALITY Powered By Docstoc
					    MAPHUMULO
    MUNICIPALITY




COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC
 PARTICIPATION STRATEGY




    24 FEBRUARY 2010
Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




            MAPHUMULO LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC                                Directorate:
PARTICIPATION STRATEGY                                  Community Services


                         DOCUMENT APPROVAL


POSITION                    NAME               SIGNATURE APPROVAL
                                                           DATE

      Mayor




Municipal Manager



  Chief Financial
     Officer




   Manager:
Community Services

     Business
Person/Community
 Stakeholers and
 Interest Group:
  Representative




   STRATEGY                         _______________/_______/___________



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 EFFECTIVE AS                                                yyyy         / mm       /   dd
      OF


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ITEMS                                                                                         PAGE(S)
                                                                                              PAGE(S)
1. INTRODUCTION                                                                                     5

2. WHAT IS A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY/DEFINITION?                                                          5
3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE                                                                               6
4. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STRATEGY                                                             6
5. COMMUNICATION IS NEED DRIVEN                                                                     7
6. THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK                                                                             7
        6.1.      Section 30 of the Constitution                                              8
        6.2.      Municipal Systems Act                                                             8
7. COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF MAPHUMULO MUNICIPALITY
        9
        7.1.      Principles underpinning the strategy                                              10
8. BACKGROUND TO THE MUNICIPAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
        10
9. DEFINING THE AUDIENCE AND STAKEHOLDERS ROLES AND FUNCTIONS WITHIN
      COMMUNICATION
  THE COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FRAMEWORK
                  11
        9.1. Citizens as Partners                                                                   11
10. COMMUNICATION STRENGTHS OF THE MUNICIPALITY
        12
11. LOCAL COMMUNICATION FORUM (LCF)
        14
12. ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LOCAL COMMUNICATION FORUM
        15
13. THE COMPOSITION OF THE STRUCTURE OF COMMUNICATION COMPONENT
        17
14. THE HEAD OF COMMUNICATION FOR THE MUNICIPALITY
        17
15. COMMUNICATION COMPONENT FUNCTIONS (SEE TABLE OVERLEAF)
        18
        15.1. Media Liaison Officer (MLO) as a Municipality Communication function                  21
        15.2.
        15.2. The ‘RAISE’ formula to municipal public relations practitioners                 23
        15.3. Community/Stakeholder participation in policy/strategy formulation                    24
16. STRATEGIC APPROACH TO COMMUNICATION LANGUAGE
        25
17. COMMUNICATION AS A DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM
        25




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18. PLANNING A COMMUNITY AWARENESS CAMPAIGN
        27
19. CHANNELS AND MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION
        29
        19.1.    Example of channels
        29
20. THE COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENT CHART
         31
21. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
        32
22. COMMUNICATION POLICY CHARTER
        33
23. THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
        36
24. POSSIBLE KEY AUDIENCE SEGMENTS MAY INCLUDE
        37
25. MARKETING COMMUNICATIION
        38
26. MUNICIPAL COMMUNICATION IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
        39
27. COMMUNICATION CYCLE
        46
28. STRATEGIC TOOL TO IMPROVE MUNICIPAL COMMUNICATION
        48
29. STRATEGIC LINKAGES BETWEEN COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
        50
30. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
        50
31. PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES FOR COMMUNUTY PARTICIPATION
        51
32. EXCLUSION OF PUBLIC IN THE MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
        51
33. IMPERMISSIBLE EXCLUSION OF PUBLIC IN MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
        52
34. DUTIES OF THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL
        52
35. RIGHTS OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY
        53
36. VALUE OF COMMUNITY PARTICIATION
        54
37. BENEFITS OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
        54
38. MAPHUMULO LOCAL MUNICIPALITY STRATEGIC PORTFOLIO COMMITTEES
        55
        38. 1. The Function of the Portfolio Committees                      55




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        38.2. WHO SERVES ON THESE COMMITTEES?
                  56
        38.3. WHAT POWERS DO THESE COMMITTEES HAVE?
                  56
        38.4. WHEN ARE COMMITTEE MEETINGS HELD?
                  56
39. COMPOSITION OF MAPHUMULO MUNICIPALITY PORTFOLIO COMMITTEES
        56
40. WARD COMMITTEES, THEIR ROLES AND FUNCTIONS.
        57
        40.1. Linking public participation through Ward Committees with local government activities.   59
        40.2. Challenges of Ward Committees participation in the Maphumulo Municipality
        40.                                                                Munici                      60
41.
41. RECOMMENDATIONS
        64
42. APPENDICES                                                                                         65
43. ACRONYMS                                                                                           65




1.      INTRODUCTION



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In South Africa, local government operates as an autonomous sphere of government and
within a highly defined and indeed complex legal environment. As such, communication
services at municipalities need to operate within a policy framework which is developed in
accordance with the prevailing local government legislation, but considering precedents
set by prevailing norm and standards guiding the system of government communication
generally.


Political leadership and oversight of the communication function locally is a critical
success factor in ensuring healthy communication within communities. It is only when
communication functions are properly reported on, accounted for, monitored and
evaluated,   that   municipal   communicators   are   able   to   effectively   support   the
implementation of a municipality’s programme of action as contained in the legislative
framework and the Integrated Development Programme. As such, a municipality must have
a dedicated communication capacity which puts in place an intentional and planned
communication programme.


Institutional arrangement and intergovernmental systems also need to be in place to
ensure co-ordination of an integrated and coherent system of government communication
from the national to the provincial sphere, so as to ensure that communication messages
and information reach all government spheres as well as effective interface of
communicators from all spheres. Therefore, the municipal communication programme
needs to be adequately co-coordinated and synergized with the provincial and national
programmes.


2.       WHAT IS A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY/DEFINITION?
A communication strategy (CS) is a living document that guides the municipality’s internal
and external communication with an aim of improving its relationships, performance,
image and enhance service delivery mandate in a coordinated and integrated manner.
It is also the best way the municipality articulates its vision, mission and goals in a
persuasive yet realistic way. In essence communication strategy document will answer the
following questions:


     •   Purpose: What are the objectives of municipal communication?



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     •   Message
         Message: What the municipality should say and how it should say it?
     •   Audience Who is the recipient of the municipal message and how best can the
         Audience:
         municipality tailor its message to suit its target audience?
     •   Image:
         Image How does the municipality wants to be viewed by its target audience?
     •   Channel: Which channels of communication is the municipality using to reach its
         target audience?
     •   Compatibility:
         Compatibility: The strategy will be compatible with community needs.
     •   Change: The strategy like communication shall bring about change for the better.


Communications between the municipality and its citizens should be in the form of
qualitative engagement. This entails the identification of needs and subsequent
implementation of programmes and projects that address such needs. The strategy shall
amongst other things recommend that media and other means of communication be utilized
by the municipality to achieve its strategic communicative goals.


3.       THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
The strategy shall approach communication from two broad theoretical perspectives
namely:


     1. A dynamic view: regards the process of communication as the opposite of the
         static view of communication. This view perceives communication as being
         constantly in motion because messages travel between people who are actively
         involved in exchanging meaning and creating relationships.
                        view:
     2. A transactional view This view emphasizes mutual responsibility of participants in
         the communication process.


4.       STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STRATEGY
1. Enable the municipality to communicate effectively and efficiently both internally and
externally.
2. Develop coherent and coordinated messages that are understood by the municipal
     constituency.
3. Improve the municipality’s capacity to market itself, its services and build a positive
image of the



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     municipality.
4. Ensure that there is genuine two way communication between the municipality and the
public.
5. Help municipality to respond adequately and appropriately to prevailing conditions
within its
     environment.
6. Ensure that the right communication methods and media are employed to deliver the
message
     to the target audience.


5.        COMMUNICATION IS NEED DRIVEN
Communication cannot take place unless there is a need to communicate. In the municipal
context the need may arise because of the number of factors. It is imperative for the
municipality/communicator to understand the need for that particular communication
action, programme or campaign.
The following are the examples of needs that the strategy will take into consideration,


      -   To address queries from the public or media.
      -   To correct media statements.
      -   To invite people to a meeting, hearing, function.
      -   To convey specific message.
      -   To inform.
      -   To asses public feeling by prodding reaction.
While needs listed above may not be exhaustive, it is evident that the municipality need to
understand precisely what the need for communication is. This would assist the
municipality to craft the message in such a way that it has a desired effect.


6.        THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK
The formulation of the strategy is informed by the following legislations,


      •   Local Government Municipal Systems Act, 32 of 2000
      •   Local Government Municipal Structures Act 117 of 1998
      •   Promotion of Access to Information Act, 3 of 2000



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       •   Municipal Finance Management Act, 56 OF 2003
       •   Intergovernmental Relations (IGR) Framework Act, 2005
       •   Media Development and Diversity Act, 14 of 2002


6.1.       Section 30 of the Constitution
Everyone has a right to use the language and to participate in cultural life of their choice.


Section 32.
Everyone has the right to access to;


       (a) any information held by the state.
       (b) Any information that is held by another person and the information is required to
           exercise protection of the rights of the other person.


6.2.       Municipal Systems Act
Section 18.
This sections states categorically that,


       (1) A municipality must communicate to its community, information concerning the
           available mechanisms, processes and procedures to encourage and facilitate
           community participation.
       (2) The matters with regard to which community participation is encouraged.
       (3) The rights and duties of members of the local community.


When communicating the information mentioned, the municipality must take into account:
       •   Language preferences and usage in the municipality.
       •   The special needs of people who cannot read or write as the core of this
           communication strategy.
Section 20 further states that,
A municipal council or committee of the Council, may not exclude the public, including the
media, when considering or voting on any of the following matters:


       (a) A draft by-law tabled in the council.



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     (b) A budget tabled in the council.
     (c) The municipality draft integrated development plan, or any amendment of the plan,
         tabled in the council,
     (d) The municipality’s draft performance management system or any amendment of
         the system tabled in the council.


Section 21: Communications to local community
When anything must be notified by the municipality through the media to the local
community in terms of the Municipal Systems Act or any other applicable legislation it
must be done-
     (a) in the local newspaper or newspapers of its area.
     (b) In a newspaper or newspapers circulating in the area and determined by the
         council as a newspaper of record.
     (c) By means of radio broadcast covering the area of the municipality.
Any such notification shall be in the official languages determined by the council, having
preferences and usage within its area.


7.       COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF MAPHUMULO MUNICIPALITY
         COMMUNICATION
Communication strategy shall be viewed as:
     •   A fundamental organizing process.
     •   As the basis for visionary and strategic leadership within the municipality.
     •   As an integral part of sound decision-making within the council and the
         municipality in general.
     •   Acknowledges diversity as part of the municipality.
     •   A tool and strategy to improve performance and enhance effectiveness within the
         municipality.
     •   Improvement of the effectiveness of the municipality.
     •   Conflict resolution.
     •   Help people acquire the knowledge and skills they need to improve their condition
         and that of their community.
     •   Help people to plan for change and sustainable development.
     •   Help target audience to gain understanding of their option to change.




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       •   Establish a culture of information sharing and dissemination within Maphumulo
           municipality.
       •   To help identify key features of the communications environment including
           opportunities for and threats to communication with key target audiences such as
           the community, other spheres of government and traditional leaders.
       •   Identify individuals and groups who are best placed to communicate with key
           target audiences.
       •   Put in place effective communication monitoring and reviewing tools.
       •   Help identify effective communication channels for reaching specific target
           audiences.


7.1.       Principles underpinning the strategy
       1. Trust and commitment
       2. Interaction
       3. Participation and involvement
       4. Long term relationships
       5. Consultation, buy-in and consensus seeking.
       6. Two way horizontal communication
       7. Honesty
       8. Empowerment


8.         BACKGROUND TO THE MUNICIPAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
Municipality as the coalface between the government and people has a mammoth task of
ensuring that its constituency is always well informed about government programmes,
projects, processes and developments. The purpose for the strategy is meant to assist the
municipality communicates internally and externally with its audience.
This communication shall be planned in such a way that it becomes an observable pattern
of interactions amongst its audience and is both sequential and systematic. This approach
to communication analyzes communication not just as a simple transfer of information, but
rather as a catalytic imperative of empowerment and participation.




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One of the critical functions of local government is to be a forum where citizens can
negotiate their interests, raise concerns about matters affecting them, try to reach a
consensus and accommodate the needs of other.


9.         DEFINING THE AUDIENCE AND STAKEHOLDERS ROLES AND FUNCTIONS
           WITHIN THE COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FRAMEWORK.
The Communications and Public Participation Strategy shall define amongst other things
its audience within the context of the White paper on Local Government which defines
municipal residents:
       -   As voters.
       -   As consumers.
       -   As partners in resource mobilization for development via business, NGOs, etc,
       -   As participants in policy making.


Residents in terms of the strategy will further be viewed as:
       -   Partners in the municipality
       -   Issue-framers and independent-outcome-trackers.


9.1.       Citizens as Partners
           -   Citizens are viewed as legitimate owners of government.
           -   Through their tax payments citizens are investors in public services and
               publicly owned services.
           -   Through their votes citizens are part of the local government performance.
           -   As partners they should work with local government to get the job done.


                              issue-
               a. Citizens as issue-framers
There has been a major upswing at the local and state level in engaging citizens in
identifying issues of concern for communities to guide planning and action. Citizens can
act as “issue-framers” by being vision-builders or advisors.


       •   Vision-builders: citizens have been called to articulate a desirable future and
           broad strategies to get there-as part of community visioning and strategic




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          planning, as part of the development towards the developing of desired egalitarian
          societies.
      •   Advisors: Citizens have been called on to provide advice for such things as land
          use, budgeting, specific services or issues.
      •   Citizens as co-producers of services: citizens and civic society organizations are
          often asked to play an active role in providing important services, or in solving
          problems to achieve a community vision. Productively engaging volunteers and
          citizen groups as partners with government to leverage public resources with
          citizens’ effort to multiply the improvement of results of communities.
      •   Citizens as service quality evaluators: Acting as customers, citizens sometimes fill
          in a reply card to rate a public service after a service encounter, or become
          survey focus group respondents. A citizen who becomes more actively involved in
          service assessment takes on the role of service evaluator.
      •   Citizens as independent-outcome-trackers: citizens measure national, provincial
          and local issues independent of government. Independent-outcome-trackers are
          interested in long term community well being as measured by a wide range of
          outcomes.


10.       COMMUNICATION STRENGTHS OF THE MUNICIPALITY
Communication strength of the municipality can be realised through the proper
establishment      of   communication   facilities   and   the   engagement   of    professional
communication experts within the municipality. This in essence requires the establishment
of the communication component within the municipal structure to deal and handle any
matters relating to communication, branding, image and customer service.


Communication Institutional Arrangement requires that, a communication unit be located in
the Office of the Mayor but with administrative accountability resting with the office of the
Corporate Services. This means the function will be politically accountable to the Mayor
and administratively to the Municipal Manager.


The communication unit should ideally comprise officials to handle the following functions,


      •   Internal communication



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    •   External communication, including Izimbizo programme
    •   Media and stakeholder liaison
    •   Media production and marketing and branding


Municipal communicators should be allowed to sit in the Executive Committee of
municipalities, to be able to appreciate policy and be in the better position to articulate it.


Maphumulo municipality will establish an internal communication forum to co-ordinate
communication activities within the municipality.


Maphumulo municipality will hold frequent communication strategising meetings headed by
the Mayor/Speaker to provide communication guidance.
Maphumulo municipality will establish municipality communication forums to develop its
own municipal communication capacity.


The Maphumulo municipality’s Communication Officer will be represented at a district and
provincial Government Communication Forums (GCFs)


The municipality will set guidelines for the development of reviewable communication
strategies and the communication review cycle will start in August annually.


To ensure effective reporting and accountability at an institutional level, oversight and
leadership of political principals will be the pre-requisite within the municipality.
The rank of Maphumulo municipality Communication Officer will reflect the strategic
importance of communication.


The Communication Officer will participate in various strategic committees within the
municipality e.g. Executive Committee (EXCO), so that it can appreciate the work of such
committee and have direct information.


The Maphumulo municipality will define and determine the roles and key performance
areas of the Communication Officer, the communication unit will identify and update the




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information about role players, various structures in the municipal communication on an
annual base.


Maphumulo municipality will set aside the budget for the establishment of the
communication component including the training and development of the Communication
Officer.


11.       LOCAL COMMUNICATION FORUM (LCF)
LCF are established in the local government as a communication co-ordinating point.
Each local government core team should establish any necessary intergovernmental rapid
response     teams    aimed    at   implementing   crises   communication-support    initiative,
particularly to encounter municipal protest actions, in the event of any.


District forums should also assist in communication capacity development, communication
strategising and strategic intervention in specific municipalities when problems arise.


The LCF meets monthly or quarterly and deals with a review of local communication
strategies and action plans.
The LCF meeting may also serve an in-house training function and address any other
business relating to communication in government and provision of other government
services.


To foster a link between local communications, and provincial and national communication
structures, the Communication Officer of the GCIS who services the district concerned,
should sit on the relevant LCF as well.


Chairpersons of the LCF should sit on the DCF.
12.                                                      FORUM
          ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LOCAL COMMUNICATION FORUM
      •   The LCF is a strategic meeting of government communicators in a particular
          municipality.
      •   The LCF should be attended by the HOCs within local municipality, parastatal
          institutions and any other government-related structure in the district.




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   •   The LCF should be used for information sharing and ironing out communication
       problems at a district level.


   •   The LCF should also assist each other with strategising for communication.


   •   The LCF should co-ordinate and organise a calendar of events with the district
       and ensure that these activities are streamlined across the district to avoid
       duplication and waste of resources.


   •   As the aim of the LCF is co-ordination and information sharing, some aspects of
       the agenda should include:


           a) Assessment of the communication environment, the public mood and the
                media agenda.
           b) Provision of feedback from the GCF, the PCF, the DCF and other forums
                e.g. Premier/Council Forum.
           c) District and local communication strategy reviews – how far we are?
           d) The communication programme-including input from all three spheres
                (usually guided by theme months and the communication cycle of each
                sphere).
           e) Special discussion on Izimbizo, Cabinet/Premier outreach and the Mayor/
                Council meeting the people.
           f)   Distribution of communication and information resources material.
           g) Monitoring the implementation of the Izimbizo approach on an ongoing
                basis in the municipal communication cycle through ‘Mayor and Ward
                Councillors meet the people’ initiative.
           h) Ensure effective monitoring systems of such forums through the relevant
                provincial intergovernmental relations (IGR) premier-mayor forums.


Structures at municipal level, which may form a forum


   •   Local municipal communicators
   •   Communicators of Departments with local offices



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      •    Communicators from hospitals
      •    Communicators from Police Stations
      •    CDWs and health workers
      •    Other community structures of importance
      •    Traditional Leaders
      •    Organised Business Community, etc,




13.        THE COMPOSITION OF THE STRUCTURES OF COMMUNICATION COMPONENT




                                                Mayor



                                       Municipal Manager                        Head of
          PA: Office of the                                                  Communication
              Mayor

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          Public/Media           Communication            Communication                Outreach/
           Relations               Research                & Marketing                Community
                                                                                     participation/
                                                                                        Liaison
Existing



Proposed

FIGURE 1


14.                  THE HEAD OF COMMUNICATION FOR THE MUNICIPALITY


The Functions


      •     The function of the communication structure is to maintain an oversight in the
            implementation of the overall communication strategy.
      •     Responsible for drawing the communications policy of the municipality.
      •     Promoting the integrated communication with all spheres of government.
      •     Chairs communication co-ordinating forums.
      •     Overall Officer in the communication component.
      •     Compile a municipal communication strategy and ensure its implementation.
      •     Co-ordinate, manage and participate at all times in the communication structures
            of government:
            -Communication Clusters at municipal level,
            -Provincial Communicators Forum (PCF) and District Communicators Forum
            (DCF),
            -Give strategic leadership to the communication programme,
            -Ensure the DCF acts as a training forum for communicators,
            -Feed information to the Government’s Calendar of Events (District and
            Province),




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       -Submit news releases and diary information to BuaNews Online,
       -Ensure quality information is submitted for the South Africa Yearbook through the
       office of the Premier,
       -Ensure accuracy of services information and the identification of new services
       for the e-gateway portal,
       -Plan and ensure participation in Izimbizo focus weeks and the timeuos submission
       of events to the national Izimbizo core team via the provincial Izimbizo team,
       -Compile key messages for current affairs and issues for discussion at council
       meetings,
       -Give assistance to the municipality on protocol-related issues,
       -Give leadership and direction to clusters as chairperson and deputy chairperson
       of the cluster if applicable,
       -Responsible for advertising and marketing bulk-buying service,
       -Responsible for equitable distribution of advertising expenditure,
       -Rapid Response Unit participation when called upon (either by the province or
       district),
       -Continuous profiling of ‘good news’ stories within the municipality,
       -Working with GCIS in the province on communication issues.


       15.          COMMUNICATION COMPONENT FUNCTIONS (SEE TABLE OVERLEAF)




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MEDIA RELATIONS                                       COMMUNICATIONS            CORPORATE            OUTREACH       MLO:
                                                      RESEARCH                  COMMUNICATION        AND            SPOKESPERSON
                                                                                S & MARKETING        COMMUNIT       OF THE MAYOR
                                                                                                     Y LIAISON
Media statements for the municipality                 Content Development       Internal             Inter          Media
                                                      and Management            communications       government     statements,
                                                                                                     Relations      opinion pieces
                                                                                                                    and articles

Media Relations and Liaison                           Research                  Marketing            Outreach       Communication
                                                                                                     Programme      Support to the
                                                                                                                    Mayor

Support the municipality with media                   Media monitoring          Branding and         Community      Take part in
                                                                                Corporate identity   Liaison        MLO Forum

Draw media plans                                      Speech writing            Events               IzIzimbizo     Update political
                                                                                management                          principal diary
                                                                                                                    for media
                                                                                                                    relations

Work closely with the MLO Spokesperson                Communication             Convening the DCF    Stakeholders   Arranging
                                                      environment analysis      and LCF              Liaison and    networking
                                                                                                     mobilisation   sessions media

Networking session with the Journalists               Publications & other      IGR                  Stakeholders   Official




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                                                      promotional materials                     database      spokesperson of
                                                                                                              the Mayor

Calendar of events for the department and political   Website content           Intranet        Local         Drawing the
principal                                             management                                government    municipality to
                                                                                                communicati   the public
                                                                                                on            commitments
                                                                                                              made by the
                                                                                                              Mayor

Manage and coordinate Rapid response                  Branding and corporate
                                                      identity of the
                                                      municipality

Media briefings                                       Daily news clippings

                                                      Participate in Rapid
                                                      response

                                                      Key messages for
                                                      campaigns and projects


                   FIGURE2




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15.1.
15.1. Media Liaison Officer (MLO) as a Municipality Communication function
The following key performance areas (KPA) will be developed by Maphumulo
municipality as a generic guideline for the work of the MLOs and would serve as a
point of reference for assessment of MLOs. The MLO in Maphumulo Municipality will
be the same person as the Communication Officer.


In carrying out his/her functions, the MLO will operate as part of the overall
communication team within district, province and the municipality.


Generic key performance areas for media liaison officers


In line with the department’s communication strategy, the MLO is expected to
perform the following functions,


a. Support to the Mayor
The MLO is expected to support the Mayor in all media-related activities and
functions. These include:
   •   Organising/managing/facilitating media conferences in line with the media
       strategy.
   •   Organise interviews and information sessions.
   •   Writing articles, opinion pieces, briefing/speech notes and letters to the
       editor.
   •   Organise unmediated communication opportunities for the Mayor e.g. Izimbizo,
       outreach programmes, etc.
   •   Communicating the implementation of public commitments made by Mayor.
   •   Giving advice on protocol issues relating to the Mayor.
b. Mayoral and departmental media liaison functions
To maintain a positive profile of the municipality, the MLO needs to perform the
following functions:
   •   Participating in the development/review of the municipal communication
       strategy.
   •   Developing and disseminating media statements.
   •   Preparing media packages for media statements.



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     •   Preparing media packages for media conferences.
     •   Arranging interviews with the media.
     •   Working with the communication team to develop responses to the media
         queries.
     •   Frequently hosting the media to extend relations and make them aware of the
         Government environment.
     •   Visiting media houses to extend relations and learn about the environment.
     •   Participate in the development of responses to council questions, written or
         oral to ensure that a communicator plans are well for communication around
         these questions.
     •   Involved   in    the   development/review   of   the   provincial   and   district
         communication strategy.
     •   Involved in the drafting of the key messages on matters going to the council.
     •   Involved in organising media briefings between the Mayor, Municipal Manager
         (MM) and Councillors.


c.       Media monitoring, analysis and rapid response
The MLO needs to do daily media monitoring and analysis to respond intelligently and
rapidly to issues that affect the Mayor and the municipality. This include:


     •   monitoring media reports on both print and electronic media and scanning the
         communication environment.
     •   analysing information gathered through the process stipulated above.
     •   responding rapidly to issues raised in the media.


d.       Calendar Management
The MLO needs to be involved in the management of the calendar of the Mayor to
ensure effective media work in relation to the calendar. This requires,
     •   participating in determining the Mayor’s calendar to maximise media
         opportunities.
     •   ensuring that there are media plans for the Mayors’ key events.
     •   co-ordinating and managing the Mayors’ interaction with the media.




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


   •   involved in making input into the provincial calendar of events to ensure co-
       ordination of such events and to avoid duplication.


e. Media Briefing
The MLO needs to regularly arrange media briefings to deepen the understanding of
the media in certain policies and pronouncements. This includes:
   •   Involvement in preparing the Mayor’s presentation and contribution to the
       media briefings, meetings, etc.
   •   Amplifying in messages that emerge from post-council media briefings as and
       when required.


f. Compulsory participation in collective planning ground communication and media
  issues
The MLO is required to actively participate in forums aimed at the collective planning
of government communication. This includes:
   •   Cluster,
   •   The DCF,
   •   Rapid response teleconferences when requested to do so,
   •   Working with others within the communication core teams (e.g. Izimbizo, 10
       year celebrations, etc),
   •   Ensuring that the municipality speaks with one coherent voice.


15.2. The ‘RAISE’ formula to municipal public relations practitioners and
15.2.      RAISE’
   communication practitioners
The most popular and effective approach to public relations recommended by the
strategy is the formula. Raise stands for:


R= Research
A= Adaptation
I= Implementation of
S= Strategy
E= Evaluation




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


                    this
Among other things, this is in a way attempts to ensure that,
   •    The municipality has adequate human resource.
   •    Has very good working relationship with stakeholders such as traditional
        leaders.
   •    Public participation is a priority issue.
   •    There is general support from management.
   •    There is vibrant workforce and strong leadership.
   •    Sound ICT systems.
   •    Existence of a sound community participation policy and other related
        policies.


15.3.   Community/Stakeholder                  policy/strategy
        Community/Stakeholder participation in policy/strategy formulation




FIGURE 3; This diagram shows the stages for community involvement in the
formulation of the municipal policies and strategies.




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


16.   STRATEGIC APPROACH TO COMMUNICATION LANGUAGE WITHIN THE
      MUNICIPALITY
       •   Fostering respect and promoting the use of other languages.
       •   Create conditions within the municipality for the development and equal
           use of other languages particularly IsiZulu.
       •   Promote access to municipal information resources by ensuring that
           communication is done through the language that people are familiar with.
       •   To liberate people of Maphumulo from linguistic discrimination that they
           suffered during the times of apartheid.
       •   To enable local people to exercise appropriate linguistic choices for their
           own well being as well as for the development of their municipality and
           their communities.
       •   To give effect to the latter and spirit of section 6 of the Constitution of the
           Republic of South Africa.
       •   To enable municipal residents to use languages of their choice as a matter
           of right ensuring equal access to government services,             programmes,
           knowledge and information.
       •   To   provide    for   regulatory   framework    to   facilitate   the   effective
           implementation of the legislative obligation to promote local indigenous
           languages.
       •   Ensure entrenchment of language equity and language rights.
       •   Encourage learning of South African languages, especially the indigenous
           languages.


17.                                   PARADIGM
       COMMUNICATION AS A DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM
The Maphumulo Municipality is a relatively underdeveloped municipality in terms of
infrastructure and human resource. This condition is manifested through the high rate
of unemployment, poverty, high prevalence of HIV and AIDS lack of access to water,
sanitation, health, roads and housing of the vast majority of its people.


It is therefore imperative that the municipality considers using communication as a
development tool to communicate effectively both internally and externally. Using
communication as a developmental tool incorporates, amongst other things, the



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


following efforts to inform, motivate and advance development. For the municipality
to effectively implement the concept of development communication it shall amongst
other things:
   •   Identify appropriate information dissemination models and channels that will
       assist it to achieve its developmental mandate.
   •   Develop communication methods and media relevant to the municipal
       audience.
   •   Adopt a participatory approach to communication and development by
       ensuring that communication is not only a one way process.
   •   Encourages horizontal communication with an emphasis of communication in
       development initiatives.
   •   Stimulate   the   process   of   community   participation   in   implementation,
       evaluation, benefits and decision making.
   •   Reinforcing agents of change.
   •   Influencing the development of educational, institutional and national policies.


In the context of this strategy, development communication as it applies to the
Maphumulo Municipality shall entail:
   1. Understanding of user needs, internalization, and an analysis of all key
       participants: these aspects emphasize the importance of a needs analysis and
       a thorough understanding of key stakeholders. This greatly contributes
       towards the credibility of municipality messages and how they are accepted.
   2. External environment: Factors such as living conditions, political climate,
       timing of communication and accessibility of technology shall be taken into
       account.
   3. Internal environment: The municipality acknowledges the fact that the internal
       climate influences the effectiveness of external communications, hence,
       systems, structures and processes shall be put in place to ensure that the
       internal environment is conducive to effective communication.
   4. Participants as managers of communication: All stakeholders and participants
       shall play an equal role in the communication process. The municipality shall
       ensure that the messages it receives emanate from participants, and that
       there is active involvement in two-way communication.



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


      5.   Relevance of the message and transmission problems: the municipality shall
           always ensure that the needs of the people and their preferences are taken
           into consideration when messages are formulated. The message content shall
           be closely evaluated and monitored.
      6. Communication shall be strategically planned and coordinated.
      7. Objective oriented: The success of the communication strategy shall be
           measured against the achievement of these objectives. Meaning that it
           depends on personal interpretation and collective agreement: The meaning of
           messages depends on the unique characteristics of the target audience,
           hence, space, time and culture shall also be treated with utmost sensitivity
           and sensibility by the municipality communicators, etc


18.        PLANNING A COMMUNITY AWARENESS CAMPAIGN
In terms of the strategy the municipality shall constantly embark upon various
awareness campaigns to raise awareness and facilitate action within its constituency.
These awareness campaigns within the Maphumulo Municipality context could include
amongst other things:
      1. Safety and security awareness campaigns.
      2. HIV and AIDS campaigns.
      3. Report back regarding the construction of low-cost houses in the area.
      4. Tourism awareness campaigns.
      5. Disaster management campaigns.
      6. Property rates awareness.
      7. Masakhane campaigns.
      8. ID and birth certificates campaigns.
      9. IDP campaigns.
      10. Municipal budget campaigns.
      11. Anti cholera campaign.
      12. Environmental awareness campaigns.
      13. Mayoral Izimbizo
      14. Current and future planned developments
These campaigns are to all intent and purposes communication campaigns. To this
end they should be strategically planned in order to maximize their effectiveness,



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


hence, their strategic planning is an integral part of a communication strategy.
Planning these campaigns should not just be a cursory or ad hoc task, but shall take
various strategic and programmatic issues into consideration. These campaigns shall
ascribe to the following guidelines and regulations:
   (a) Approach shall be both holistic and endogenous.
   (b) Communication should not be regarded as a given and artless, but should be
       strategically planned and for every project or campaign.
   (c) Consultation and involvement of community representatives, self surveys and
       self analysis are crucial in determining strengths and weaknesses.
   (d) Budgets and planning should aim for long term results.
   (e) The role of multi-directional and multi-voiced communication in democratic
       participation and a free flow of information shall be recognized.
   (f) A vision of growth and hope for the future should form the core of all
       interactions with the community. The mission and direction of the campaign or
       programme should be conveyed.
   (g) Constant feedback to strategic stakeholders, such as community leaders and
       members of action groups, is essential.
   (h) The community shall be urged to convey their feelings, wishes and
       expectations.
   (i) Dialogue should focus on problem analysis and raising awareness of problems
       experienced at grassroots level.
   (j) Relationships of trust shall be built, etc




MEDIA TRIANGLE




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




           FREQUENCY
                                                                   REACH




                                  IMPACT




FIGURE 4


19.     CHANNELS AND MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION
The channel of communication can be generally defined as “a physical means of
carrying a signal” other scholars prefer to refer to channels as mediums. The latter
however, denotes an “intermediate agency that enables communication to take place
through the use of one or more channels”. Although these two mediums are
sometimes used interchangeably in communication, it is possible to distinguish
between the two.


  .1.
19.1.   Example of channels
19.1.1. Conventional
19.1.1. Conventional Mass Media
  .1.1
Films, radio, television, print, outdoor and transportation. This media has only a
cognitive influence (it gives knowledge, awareness and interest)


19.1.2. Unconventional media
19.
Group communication, road shows, industrial and community theatre.




19.1.
19.1.3. Oramedia (folk and traditional media)
  .1




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This media is based on the indigenous culture produced and consumed by members
of a group. Unlike the mass media which reaches many people at a time but has only
cognitive influence, oramedia can only reach a few people at a time. It is however a
very effective relay chain to the mass media. Oramedia has visible cultural features
by which social relationships and world view are maintained and defined.


It may take many forms and are rich in symbolisms. This particular media speaks to
common people in their language, in their idiom, and dealing with problems of direct
relevance to the situation. Oramedia may include oratory, poetry, music, insignia,
festivals and other cultural forms. This latter could also be used by the municipality
as part of mechanism to promote and develop arts and culture in its respective
jurisdiction.


Within the municipality context it is imperative that not only conventional media is
used, but the municipality should always thrive to choose appropriate channels of
communication that would be useful to their communication processes and assist
them in achieving communication objective. The communication strategy shall explore
this further.




20.
20. THE COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENT CHART (4WS)



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                                                                                Who
       COMMUNICATOR




           COMMUNICATION                                                     Says
           ENVIRONMENT
              Attitude
              Concerns


      Devise Message to influence change                                     What


      ALTER MESSAGES TO SUIT
      MOOD AND ADDRESS
      ATTITUDES & CONCERNS
                                                                    In



                                                                             Which
       Identify appropriate Channel


      DELIVER MESSAGE
                                                                         With

                                      Monitor Message
                                      Acceptance                             What
                                                                             effect
FIGURE 5




21.      STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION IMPLEMENTATION PLAN



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


Communication is at the centre of any campaign or human interaction. People must
know who you are, what you stand for and why they should support your
municipality.


A successful municipality needs to build a profile to which people can relate. A good
artistic and well crafted communication implementation strategic plan will ensure that
the right information reaches your target audiences (other municipalities, supporters,
decision-makers, opposition forces, civil movements, and the public (community) both
inside and outside the municipality.     This in essence, requires the municipality to
develop the ability to put itself in its target audience’s shoes and see how they will
benefit from supporting its existence.


The municipality should adopt a specific audience centered approach so as to
understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of its target audience through
audience research methods. This requires aligning benefits and offers available from
the municipality with each audience segment by taking into account its beliefs and
attitudes. That is the way of grouping them according to their audience segment in
order to address them on their specific fears and work out a formidable
communication plan with each segment.




22.    COMMUNICATION POLICY CHARTER

Maphumulo municipality Communication Policy Charter Application and Authority



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


The policy should apply to the communicators, political principals in the municipality
and other municipal officials, and must address the following issues:


The Maphumulo municipality communication strategy shall ensure that,


Official Languages
In all communication, the Maphumulo municipality will respect the equality of status
of all official languages as established by the Constitution of our country. The
municipality will adhere to all legal requirements and regulations derived from these
statutory provisions.


The municipality will identify and respect all official languages requirements when
engaging in any communication activities stipulated in this policy. The municipality
will abide by the Treasury Boards official language policies, which set out various
requirements with respect to communities.


Plain language
Plain language and proper grammar will be used in all communication with the public
to ensure clarity and consistency of information.


Corporate identity
To maintain a recognizable and unifying corporate identity, the Maphumulo
municipality will apply a unified identity and ensure that their buildings, facilities,
programmes, services and activities are clearly identified according to their identity,
including Community Halls, etc. Clear and constant corporate identity will be used to
assist the public in recognizing, accessing and assessing municipal services.


The Maphumulo municipality will have a corporate identity manual that will provide
guidance in logo application, branding, a uniform identity and the paint colour for
municipal buildings.
Codes of conduct will be internalized politically and administratively to enhance the
corporate image.




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


Reflecting diversity
The   Maphumulo        municipality   will    ensure     that   the   publications    and   other
communication material depict the diverse nature of South Africa in a fair,
representative and inclusive manner. The Maphumulo municipality will treat
differences among and within the constituencies and wards with sensitivity. Balances
in the communication plans and activities will be ensured so that the needs and
interest of local and special populations are reflected and addressed.


Publication
The Maphumulo municipality will develop guidelines to guide editorial issues such as
fairness, accuracy, sign-off of contents and adherence to corporate identity, e.g.
colours, fonts, etc.


Environment analysis
The   Maphumulo municipality          will   routinely   monitor      and   analyse   the   public
environment as it relates to their policies, programmes, services and initiatives. The
municipality will use a variety of tools to assess the environment in which it operate,
including citizens feedback, enquiry analysis, media monitoring and opinion research.


As an element of effective environment analysis, the municipality will identify and
track current and emerging public issues and trends reported by the media.


Consultation and citizen engagement
Maphumulo municipality will inform the communities about opportunities to participate
in public consultation and other initiatives addressing citizen engagement. Open and
responsive communication is critical to the success of public consultations.




     communication
Risk communication
Maphumulo municipality will anticipate and assess potential risks to public health and
safety, environment and the policy and programme administration. The municipality
will develop plans and strategies to effectively communicate risks to the public,
demonstrating interest and concern for all opinions and positions, understanding



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


different perspectives and respecting their underlying premises. Effective risk
management requires open and transparent communication among differing or even
opposing interests.


Through this, Maphumulo municipality will:


-Foster open dialogue with the public on issues involving risk and build a climate of
trust, credibility and understanding.
-Facilitate the interactive exchange of information on risks and risk-factors among
interested parties inside and outside of the municipality.
-Responding to public perceptions and provide factual information to address
misconception or misunderstandings about risk.
-Integrating environment analyses and communication planning and strategy into risk
assessment and decision-making processes.


Crises and emergency communication
Maphumulo municipality will have in place a crises and emergency communication
plan to ensure that information is co-ordinated and communicated in times of crisis
situations.


Media
Maphumulo     municipality   will   develop   a   media      policy   and   guidelines   on
spokespersonship, media strategy, rules and procedures of disseminating information
to the media, etc.


Event management
Maphumulo municipality will develop a policy in order to address integration and co-
operation across the three spheres of government and promotes partnerships vis-à-
vis competition and publication. The municipality will develop and adopt annual
calendar of events and submit them to the GCF and publish it on its website.
Unplanned events will be reported to the GCF for intervention and to comply with co-
ordination arrangement.




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Advertising and marketing
Maphumulo municipality will develop advertising and marketing plans to address the
following principles.
Information education and service delivery issues should take priority and political
faces should be seen as messengers of service delivery.


Internal communication
Maphumulo municipality managers are obliged to keep staff informed of strategic
issues. There should be regular monthly meetings of the administrative component
and bi-monthly meetings with the politicians in the Council meetings.


External communication
External communication
Maphumulo municipality will develop external communication protocols which are in
line with their overall communication plan and processes.
Maphumulo municipality will develop a protocol to regulate IGR communication
activities across the three spheres and in line with the IGR structure across the
municipality.



23.       THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
Communication plays a major role in public participation techniques. It acts as a
scientific support to public participation, provide technical advice to public
participation campaigns, assist to broaden community participation, assist to move
beyond the idea of public participation, assists with the sustainability of public
participation    processes   and   programmes,    strengthens   the   impact   of   public
participation and provides informed environmental analyses which in essence
requires that,


      •   Communication should prepare the community for public engagements and to
          allow inputs before and after the engagements have taken place.
      •   Communication should popularize public participation programme.
      •   To interact and engage all role players for the success of public participation
          programme.




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


24.       POSSIBLE KEY AUDIENCE SEGMENTS MAY INCLUDE
      •   Politicians (local, district, regional),
      •   Local Government officials,
      •   Business or business leaders,
      •   Other civil society organization and networks,
      •   Other neighbouring local municipalities (local and district),
      •   CBOs and other community groups,
      •   Religious groups/churches,
      •   Labour organizations and other social organization,
      •   Academics/legal institutions,
      •   Professionals and consultants,
      •   Opposition leaders and their constituencies,
      •   Speech writers,
      •   Victims of social, criminal and family violence,
      •   Media and Government communication agencies (GCIS),
      •   Ward Committees,
      •   Local Women’s Organisations,
      •   Local Development Agencies,
      •   Local and District Government departments,
      •   Influential people in the communities,
      •   Local Based Trade Unions,
      •   Traditional Leaders (Amakhosi)
      •   Traditional Healers, etc,


For example, when the local municipality is intending to communicate budget review
message to these segments in an attempt to solicit input, it is important that a
message must be persuasive, must cite the benefits and able to respond to their
uncertainties. It often happens that, mostly the local municipality would issue one
media release informing a mixed bag of intentions, beliefs, and attitudes with a one
single media message hoping to receive a maximum feedback from them. Contrary to
the intended feedback, audience segments would rather consider the message as a
general public notice not warranting any feedback.




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25.    MARKETING COMMUNICATION
Marketing communication messages required to be used in the target audience should
be designed to achieve goals. A winning message takes into account what will work
with the target audience to build support. Messages are to be created in the way that
makes it possible for the communicator to meet the desired goals and objectives.




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




26.
26.     MUNICIPAL COMMUNICATION IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

WHO SAYS...            WHAT...
                       WHAT...                                             WHEN...
                                                                           WHEN...                             WHY...
                                                                                                               WHY...                 HOW...
                                                                                                                                      HOW...



Mayor                     •   Entire municipal communication is            In consultation with the Council,   As               per   Through
                              located in this office, but,                 District            Municipality    constitutional         presentation,
                          •   Report administratively to the MM,           Communication Forums assisted       requirements,          media        slots
                                                                                                                                                   slots,
                          •   Outreach, road shows, Izimbizo,              by the MM                           MFMA, MSA and          Comments, Local
                          •   municipal plans,                                                                 Municipal              Municipal    News
                          •   IDP reviews and target, Budget                                                   Structure Act          Bulletin
                                                                                                                                      Bulletin
                              announcements
                          •   A    focus    on     achievements      and
                              progress
                          •   Plans in addressing challenges
                          •   An        internal        communication
                              strategy
                          •   Forging      synergies     between     the
                              three     levels     of   government    in
                              improving conditions at local level
                          •   Introduction of the new              Ward
                              Council
                          •   Information of free basic services




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




Deputy Mayor           As instructed by the council

Speaker                    •   Council Matters, decide in cases         After   consultation   with   the   Protect          the   Promulgate
                               where an administrative action           Executive committee                 public interest        Council, Agenda
                               materially and adversely affects                                             Serve       as     a   and      Resolution,
                               the right of the public and by-                                              custodian         of   allow     sufficient
                               laws impact on the community                                                 public rights          public           input
                           •   ward committee campaigns,                                                                                      by-
                                                                                                                                   before the by-
                           •   Follow up on the contemporary                                                                       lays are passed
                               and current

Councillors
Councillors
        or                 •   Community         needs,       public    Community meetings, campaign,       Know-your-             Notice      boards,
                               participation,    current     affairs,   stakeholders meetings,              municipality-          hold        monthly
                               emerging      communication     risks,                                       programmes             meetings,
                               information        on         ongoing                                        participate       on   Loudhailers,
                               government        and       municipal                                        decision-making        fliers, etc.
                               programmes                                                                   processes
                                                                                                            Assess level of
                                                                                                            willingness       to
                                                                                                            engage
                                                                                                            constructively
                                                                                                            with             the
                                                                                                            municipality




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                                                                                                                Give feed back
                                                                                                                to              the
                                                                                                                community
                                                                                                                Represent
                                                                                                                municipality     to
                                                                                                                the community

Municipal Manager         •   Determining          practical     ways      to   All     inclusive   proactive   As              per    Through
                              bring the content of the by-law to                development plan.               delegation      and    correspondence,
                              the attention of the community,                                                   accountability to      verbal
                          •   Deal           with            performance                                        the public office      communication,
                              management issues that poses a                                                    expected         to    development     of
                              threat    to     the     image       of     the                                   uphold       among     internal
                              municipality e.g. unruly behaviour                                                other        things,   procedures,     e-
                                                                                                                                                       e-
                              of staff members who fails to                                                     Public                 mail,      media,
                              uphold the values of Batho Pele,                                                  Administration         memorandums,
                          •   Develop Communication Cycle of                                                    Act,     Access to
                              the    municipality      in      consultation                                     Information Act,
                              with           the        Communication                                           Constitution,
                              Component,               and              other                                   MSA, MFMA.
                              stakeholders
                          •   Sought     best        practice      in     the




                                                                                                                                                  42
Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




                              development of the customer care
                              policy
                          •   Make report available to the public
                              for comments and scrutinization,
                              etc
                          •   All matters determined by the
                              Council.

Staff                     •   Customer/Client Care,                     During   interaction    with   the   Promote      human     Assist        public
                          •   Uphold the values of Batho Pele,          members of the public                dignity,               with       relevant
                              Conduct      Needs         Assessment                                          courtesy,              information      by
                              Workshops       in   a     professional                                        business ethics,       not giving public
                              manner,                                                                        professionalism,       a run around but
                          •   Daily administrative duties                                                    accepted      codes    prompt     service
                                                                                                                                               service
                                                                                                             of business good       at all times.
                                                                                                             practice

Wards Committees          •   Channel       of         communication    Regular briefing with portfolio      To provide input       Through
                              between the municipality and the          committees within the ward           and feedback on        consultative
                              community                                                                      the        municipal   meetings
                          •   Give     feedback    on     community                                          services,      IDP,
                              expectations,                                                                  Budget          and
                          •   Communicate municipal policies to                                              performance




                                                                                                                                               43
Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




                                the community,                                                                     management
                          •     Communicate issues timely and                                                      systems
                                promptly to the community,
                          •     Attend      council      meeting      as
                                required,
                          •     Together with CDW develop a
                                profile and baseline database of
                                each ward,
                          •     Build mechanisms to communicate
                                with people on the ground,
                          •     Community mobilization

Civil Society          Watchdogs      of     the    society,     critique   Part    of   the        consultative   Promote           News        report,
                       municipal policies and by-laws, challenge            municipal stakeholder, day to          accountability    meeting,      focus
                       constructively, represent certain interest           day bases                              and               groups,
                       groups                                                                                      transparency      advocacy forums

Business People as     Issues    statements        jointly     with   the   Press   release    by     organised    Public-Private-   Business
Partners               municipality on strategic issues e.g. crime,         business                               Partnership       Consortiums,
                       car theft, cross border trafficking, gun-                                                                     Business
                       smuggling                                                                                                     Chammbers
                                                                                                                                     statements,
                                                                                                                                     research,
                                                                                                                                     research,




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




                                                                                                                                   published
                                                                                                                                   information,
                                                                                                                                   surveys, etc.



Community              Develop     community       on     strategic   Ward    Committee         meetings,   Promote        self-   Provide on site
Development            development issues, improve standard of        Community      meeting,     project   driven                 training         to
Workers                living, capacity and knowledge of the          meetings,           presentation,     community              targeted groups,
                       community in line with the municipal           stakeholder    meeting,      attend   development            disseminate
                       programmes, promote local government           quality cycle meeting of the          initiatives,           municipality
                       services   to   the   community,   establish   development     section    of   the   promote                programmes
                       community based sustainable livelihood         municipality                          government
                       projects, attend strategic Ward Committee                                            programme, like
                       meetings, empower ward committees.                                                   Vukuzenzele,
                                                                                                            Asisebenze,
                                                                                                            Phezukomkhono,
                                                                                                            Black Economic
                                                                                                            Empowerment
                                                                                                            Programmes




CBO & NGO              Support their existence by enlisting them      Training,   Advocacy,     lobbying,   Strategic              Focus       groups,




                                                                                                                                               45
Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




                       under IDP, provide funding where possible        capacity building workshops to     partners          IDP       enlisting,
                       Allow them to advocate on issues of              the municipal wards under their    supporting        budget      review
                       interest to the community sectors they           service                            government        submissions,
                       serve                                                                               programmes

Traditional Leaders    Sought out ways to integrate them in the         Izimbizo,
                                                                        Izimbizo,   ibandla,   community   Social contract   Harness          good
                       IDP,    Municipal   structure   Act,   Provide   meeting                                              working
                       training, link to the community, respect                                                              relations
                       their existence by engaging them on
                       strategic developmental issues

FIGURE 6




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


27.    COMMUNICATION CYCLE
Depending on the decision taken by the Council, it is imperative that the municipality
must work out a communication cycle. In most cases, the National communication
cycle begins in 01 April in each year after the State of the Nation Address. The
financial year end part of it would be 31 March the following year.


The Maphumulo municipality will align its communication activities with the local
government planning cycle as managed through the IDP. (see overleaf Local
                                       rt)
                               flow-chart
government Communication Cycle flow-chart




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                                                          FEB: Council               March: Tabling of
                                  January:                Opening                    IDPs & Budget
                                  Finalisation of draft   SONA/SOPA                  HUMAN RIGHTS
                                  IDP Mid-year
                                  budget &                                                                      April: Mun Public
                                  performance report                                                            Consultation :
    December: LG                                                                                                izIzimbizo
    Week                                                                                                        FREEDOM DAY
    Vuna Awards
    INTERNATION
    AIDS DAY

                                                                                                                            May: Approval of
                                                                                                                            IDPs & Mun Budget
                                                                                                                            WORKERS DAY

    November: Izimbizo
    Focus Week-Vuna
    Awards
    13 DAYS OF
    ACTIVISM

                                                                                                                       June: Promoting
                                                                                                                       IDP’s & End of
                                                                                                                       Comstrat
            October: Beginning                                                                                         YOUTH DAY
            of IDP consultation
            for next financial
            Year: IZIMBIZO &
            LEKGOTLA                                                                          July: Promoting
                                                                                              new IDP’s, new
                                       Sep: Vuna Awards          August: Women’s              comstrat
                                       prep                      Month Celebration            implementation
                                       HERITAGE &                                             begin
                                       TUORISM




FIGURE 7




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




28.    STRATEGIC TOOL TO IMPROVE MUNICIPAL COMMUNICATION

CORPORATE BRANDING                     INFORMATION & ICT                  MARKETING AND ADVERTISING             CORPORATE                         SOCIAL
                                                                          TOOLS                                 INVESTMENT             &          HUMAN
                                                                                                                RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

One corporate Logo and Letter head     One Website for the municipality   Establish customer complaints help    Invest on staff training e.g. on
                                                                          line                                  business ethics
Develop    municipal   banners   and   Improve ICT standard for the       Improve the standard of the billing   Develop strategy to support local
         tools
campaign tools                         municipality and the community     invoice                                                  inter-
                                                                                                                sporting codes and inter-schools
                                                                                                                games
                                                                                                                Develop     strategy       to   fund   and
                                                                                                                technically       support       community
                                                                                                                gardens and emerging black local
                                                                                                                farmers
Develop municipal calendars with       Develop Intranet (LAN)                                                   Engage local businesses on your
commemorative dates                    Develop municipal news bulletin                                          Corporate         Social        Investment
                                                                                                                programmes
Improve the standard of welcoming                                                                               Support     and     enlist      community
signages
signages                                                                                                        projects under municipal IDP for
                                                                                                                technical support and funding
Develop complementary slips
Develop elegant business cards and




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level




staff diaries.

Improve the standard of municipal
     suits, T-
work suits, T-shirts & staff name
tags.
tags.



FIGURE 8




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29. STRATEGIC LINKAGES BETWEEN COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC
PARTICIPATION


A municipality is required to develop a culture of municipal governance that
complements formal representative government with a system of participatory
governance, and must for this purpose:


-Encourage and create conditions for, the local community to participate in the affairs
of the municipality, including:


The preparation, implementation and review of its IDP;
Establishment , implementation, review of its performance management system;
The monitoring and review of its performance management system;
The preparation of its budget, and strategic decisions relating to the provision of
municipal services.


30. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
The Municipal Systems Act is very specific on the need for community participation.
Community participation – derive from Section 152 (1) e of the Constitution, requires
municipalities to encourage the involvement of the community organizations in the
matters of the local government.
The provisions of community participation in the Municipal Systems Act therefore
have a constitutional base. The local community should be enabled to participate in
the affairs of the municipality, and Councillors and staff to foster community
participation. Use its resources, annually allocate funds in its budgets, as may be
appropriate for the purpose of implementing the above provisions. However, these
provisions must not be interpreted as permitting interference with a municipal
council’s right to govern and to exercise the executive and legislative authority of the
municipality as conferred by the Constitution. In other words, a balance must be
struck between community participation and the acts of government: At some point
participation must cease and governing must begin.




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The legislation refers to IDP, Performance Management, Budget and Strategic
Decisions on the provision of municipal services. The reference to the above is
preceded by the words ‘including in’, the legislation is not exclusive. It would be
contrary to the intent of the constitution not to extend community participation to all
services, facilities and development.


31. PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES FOR COMMUNUTY PARTICIPATION
Community Participation must take place through:-
Political structures e.g. sub council and ward committees, Municipal Structures Act.
The mechanisms, processes and procedures e.g. communication Strategies and Public
Participation, IDP forums, traditional councils, appeals board, Izimbizo, etc,


Municipality should provide conducive environment for:-
-the receipt, processing and consideration of petition and of the complaints lodged by
members of the community,
-notification and public comment procedures, when appropriate,
-public meetings and hearings by the council and other political structures and
political office bearers of the municipality,
-consultative      sessions   with   locally   recognized   community    organizations   and
traditional institutions where applicable,
-report back to the community, e.g. Annual report as per the prescriptions by the
MFMA .
The Municipality is expected to provide mechanisms to cater for:-
       •   People who cannot read or write
       •   Language preference
       •   People with disabilities, e.g. who cannot get to libraries or municipal offices to
           read documents open for public inputs,
       •   Other disadvantaged groups.


32. EXCLUSION OF PUBLIC IN THE MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
The municipal Council meetings can exclude members of public, including the media
if:-




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It is reasonable to do so, having regards to the nature of the business being
transected, a by-law or resolution of the council specifying the circumstances which
the council of such committee may close a meeting and which complies with the
above provision, authorities the council or committees to close the meeting to the
public.


                                         MUNICIPAL
33. IMPERMISSIBLE EXCLUSION OF PUBLIC IN MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
Council may not exclude the public when considering the following:-
    o     A draft by law tabled in the council,
    o     A budget,
    o     A draft IDP,
    o     A draft municipal performance management system,
    o     A decision to enter into a service delivery process.


34. DUTIES OF THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL
A council, within the municipality’s financial and administrative capacity and having
regards to practical consideration, has a duty to:-
    -     Exercise the municipality’s executive and legislative authority and use the
          resources of the municipality in the best interest of the local community,
    -     Provide without favor or prejudice, democratic and accountable government,
    -     Encourage the involvement of local community,
    -     Strive to ensure that municipal services are provided to the local community
          in a financially and environmentally sustainable manner,
    -     Consult the local, community about:
    -     The level, quality, range and impact of municipal services, provided by the
          municipality, either directly or through another service provider, and
    -     The available options for service delivery.
    -     Give members of the local community           equitable access to the municipal
          services to which they are entitled,
    -     Promote and undertake development in the municipality,
    -     Promote gender equity in the exercise of the municipality’s executive and
          legislative authority,
    -     Promote a healthy and safe environment in the municipality, and



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


   -   Contributes, together with other organs of state, to the progressive realization
       of fundamental rights contained in the sections 24, 25, 26, 27 and 29 of the
       constitution.


35. RIGHTS OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY
The persons who makes up the local community have the right through the
mechanisms and in accordance with processes and procedures provided for in terms
of the Municipal Systems Act or other applicable legislations to:
   o   Contribute to the decision-making process of the municipality, and
   o   Submit written or oral recommendations, representations and complaints to
       the council or to another political structure or a political structure or political
       office-bearers or the administration of the municipality,
   o   To prompt responses to their written or oral communications, including
       complaints, to the council or to another political structures or a political
       office-bearers or the administration of the municipality,
   o   To be informed of decisions of the council, or another political structure or
       any political office-bearer of the municipality, affecting their rights, property
       and reasonable expectation,
   o   To regular disclosure of the state of affairs of the municipality, including its
       finances,
   o   To demand that the proceedings of the municipal council and those of its
       committees must be:
   o   Open to the public as outlined above
   o   Conduct impartially and without prejudice, and
   o   Untainted by personal self-interest.
   o   To use and enjoyment of public facilities, and
   o   To have access to municipal services which the municipality provides,
       provided there is compliance with the duties imposed on members of the
       community.




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


The person who make up local community also has a duty. These duties include the
following:
   o   When exercising their rights, to observe the mechanisms, processes and
       procedures of the municipality, that is to be patient and understanding when
       patience and understanding are called for:
   o   Where applicable and subject to the council’s credit control and debt
       collection taxes, levies and duties imposed by the municipality.
   o   To respect the municipal rights of other members of the local community.
   o   To allow municipal officials reasonable access to their property for the
       performance of municipal functions.
   o   To comply with by-laws of the municipality applicable to them.


36. VALUE OF COMMUNITY PARTICIATION
   o   Moral and Practical,
   o   Deepens democracy
   o   Can improve information, needs identification & service delivery,
   o   Build community solidarity
   o   Enhance tolerance of differences,
   o   Expose corruption, and
   o   Improve wealth distribution


37. BENEFITS OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
Public/Community participation within the context of the Local Municipality,
   o   Create an enabling platform for community engagement
   o   Builds or restore confidence of the communities into the system of local
       government
   o   Encourages citizens focused service delivery
   o   Reduces levels of misconception
   o   Bridges the gap between Government and communities
   o   Contributes towards a culture of learning (Community Empowerment)
   o   Increased level of accountability
   o   People centered governance/development
   o   Enhanced decision making



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38. MAPHUMULO LOCAL MUNICIPALITY STRATEGIC PORTFOLIO COMMITTEES


           function
38. 1. The function of the Portfolio Committees
Portfolio Committees are the ‘engine’ of the Local Government and play a vital role in
the process of building democracy and facilitating public involvement in the
municipality. The Committee system of the municipality is one of the most important
mechanisms for ensuring efficient, transparent governance and allowing public input
in the policy-making process and enactment of municipal By-Laws. Discussions and
debates cannot be held in detail during the sittings of the municipal Council. Portfolio
Committees have therefore been formed to do most of the detailed work such as
considering and scrutinizing the municipal by-laws, planning, financial management
and auditing, community service needs and the municipal infrastructural services and
dealing with issues related to the work of the Councillors and their respective local
government                                                                 department.


Portfolio Committees play a vital role in facilitating public participation by providing
forums such as public hearings for the public to air their views and make submissions
regarding issues. A public hearing is a meeting where a Portfolio Committee hears
the views of the public (usually about the municipal policy, By-laws or a petitions-
related issue). Public/Community hearings are suppose to be held in cities, towns and
villages throughout the entire jurisdiction of the local government so as to
accommodate all the people. Public hearings are advertised in the media. Local
government notice Boards, community structures, political parties and organisations,
as well as identified stakeholders, are individually invited to attend the hearings to
make              submissions               or             raise              concerns.


Your voice needs to be heard. Take control of your life and aid your community by
attending public hearings and participating in the municipal activities. The community
                                                                       .
can also petition the local municipality, so that one of its Portfolio Committees can
look into its concerns either as individuals or as organized groups.


          SERVES
38.2. WHO SERVES ON THESE COMMITTEES?
All members of the local municipality Council, with the exception of those who serve



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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


on the Municipal Executive Committees can serve on the Portfolio Committee. The
size of the committee in terms of its membership is determined by the municipal
Council. This ensures that every political party has the chance to have its say on
topics under discussion.


38.3. WHAT POWERS DO THESE COMMITTEES HAVE?
The Committees have the power to initiate and introduce, to call and examine
witnesses, and call for documents and books. Committees consider matters referred
to it and make recommendations to the municipal Council. Before a municipal By-Law
goes before a sitting of the Council or any issue that needs scrutinity. Members of
the Portfolio Committee will discuss the any issue summoned to it provided that
particular issue falls within its competence.


38.4.        WHEN           ARE         COMMITTEE            MEETINGS           HELD?
Committee meetings are held throughout the year. Committee meetings are usually
held at municipality venues. For more information, the document is accessible at the
local government for public/community scrutiny and the schedule of portfolio
committees meetings.


39. COMPOSITION OF MAPHUMULO MUNICIPALITY PORTFOLIO COMMITTEES
Maphumulo Municipality is comprised of four specific portfolio committees that are
established to deal with issues as they relate to their competence. The Executive
Committee of the municipality does not form part of these portfolio committees. The
more information or document regarding the work and function of the following
Maphumulo Local municipality can be available for public consumption with the
municipality. To name them, these portfolio committees are


   I.   Audit Committee
  II.   Planning and Finance Portfolio Committee
 III.   Infrastructure and Service Delivery Portfolio Committee
IV.     Community Service Portfolio Committee.
40.                        ROLES
40. WARD COMMITTEES, THEIR ROLES AND FUNCTIONS




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From a broader view of community participation, the legislation on local government
set clear mechanism for the establishment of the ward committees as a structure to
liaise with the municipalities. Establishing ward committees is currently not
mandatory for municipality and thus not all municipalities have to have them.
However legislation makes it mandatory for municipalities to develop mechanisms to
consult and involve communities in the affairs of the municipality and its processes.


It would seem that most municipalities have chosen to establish ward committees to
comply with this aspect of the legislation on citizen participation. Some municipalities
have chosen not to refer to the community participation structures as ward
committees. Some for instance, in Durban Metro, refer to these structures as
development forums or residents associations and intend to use them for a similar
purpose intended for ward committees.


Municipalities are obliged to develop lasting and successful model by ensuring that
participation   takes   place   through   these   established   structured   and   as   are
institutionalised. They are a creation of legislation, the Municipal Structures Act,
giving effect to the Constitution of the South Africa. Ward Committees are a part of
local government and an important way of achieving the aims of local governance and
democracy as mentioned in the Constitution, 1996. These structures are a committee
of not more than 10 members of a ward and Ward Councillor is the chairperson. Its
role is to facilitate participatory democracy; disseminate information; help rebuild
partnership for better service delivery and assist with problems experienced by the
people at ward level.


A general understanding has emerged that Ward committee is an area based
committee whose boundaries coincide with the boundaries. Ward committees;


Are made up of representatives of a particular ward,
Are made up of members who represent various interests within a ward,
Are chaired by the Ward Councillor,




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Taking democratic and communicative public participation to a higher level


Give the community members the opportunity to express their needs, opinions on
issues that affect their lives and to have them heard at the municipal level via ward
councilor,
Are advisory bodies created within the sphere of the community to assist the ward in
carrying out his or her mandate in the most democratic manner.


In other words, Ward committees have been tasked to raise issues about the local
ward, link Communities and Municipality, and participate on behalf of the community
in the planning, decisions, integrated development plans, performance management
and in all the budgetary processes.
Ward committees can play a critical role in:
       o   The preparation, implementation and review of Integrated Development
           Planning (IDP's);
       o   The establishment, implementation and review of a municipality's performance
           management system;
       o   Monitoring and review of a municipality's performance;
       o   Preparation of a municipality's budget;
       o   Decisions about the provision of municipal services; and,
       o   Communication and the dissemination of information.


(a) To serve as an official specialised participatory structure in the municipality;
(b) To create formal unbiased communication channels as well as co-operative
partnerships between the community and the council. This may be
       achieved as follows:


Advise and make recommendations to the ward Councillor on matters and policy
affecting the ward;
(ii)       Assist the ward Councillor in identifying conditions, challenges and the needs
           of residents;
           Spread information in the ward concerning municipal affairs such as the
           budget, integrated development planning, service delivery
           options and municipal properties;




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(iv)       Receive queries and complaints from residents concerning municipal service
           delivery, communicate it to council and provide feedback to the community on
           council's response;
(v)        Ensure constructive and harmonious interaction between the municipality and
           community through the use and coordination of ward residents meetings and
           other community development forums; and
(vi)       Interact with other forums and organizations on matters affecting the ward.


(c) To serve as a mobilising agent for community action. This may be achieved as
      follows:


           (i) Attending to all matters that affect and benefit the community;
           (ii) Acting in the best interest of the community;
           (iii) Ensure the active participation of the community in:


                     (aa) Service payment campaigns;
                     (bb) The integrated development planning process;
                     (cc) The municipality's budgetary process;
                     (dd) Decisions about the provision of municipal services; and
                     (ee) Decisions about by-laws.


(iv) To draw up the boundaries of a ward and chair zone meetings.


       inking
      Linkin                                    Committees
40.1. Linking public participation through Ward Committees with local government
       activities.
Attention has to be drawn to the compatibility of public participation with democracy
in general in accordance with the ethos of representivity. This issue becomes more
relevant in the South Africa context, where public participation is seen not only to
play a pivotal role but also enhance local democracy. Since the new government took
office, different expectations have been raised concerning policy on how government
should relate to its community. However, there is a general agreement that
participation is key to the success of local development process. By this, it is
implicitly implied that there has to be a representative and administrative systemic



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through which the views of citizen are heard are fed into policy formulation. Hence, it
is essential to ensure that control over local municipalities and civil society is not
restricted to the new urban elites in South African context. The new type of local
governance (local government) should promote inclusivity around development
planning.


40.                                                                Munici
40.2. Challenges of Ward Committees participation in the Maphumulo Municipality
The apparent gap between the promise of enhanced participation through ward
committees on the one hand, and the everyday realities of participatory politics on
the other hand, suggest the need to understand more fully the barriers and dynamics
of participation in local governance, as well as enabling factors and methods that can
be used to overcome them.


The culture of democratic practice is new and people did not know how to
constructively engage with local government including ward committees in essence,
this is aggravated by the lack of civil society that is able to exercise is constitutional
rights as entrenched by the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. South Africa
has just emerged from a situation where it was focused on liberation activities. This
caused a pattern of resistance and non co – operation to develop.


While the new local government is legitimate, it is difficult for people to adjust,
actually most citizen are readily available to do as the national or provincial
government suggest them do than the local government. People generally expected
things to change overnight. There is no proper introduction of democracy in
development agencies and people do not simply know how to constructively engage
with   local   government    including   development     agencies.   Most    importantly,
communities do not even know that they have a pivotal role to play in the
development of democracy and their own environment. This is further aggravated by,
among other things,




• Low education levels among the poor sector participants,



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Participation requires knowledge of issues so that they can make a meaningful and
mature contribution.
Comprehension level of the community, more especially in the villages is largely
below the levels of the issues that are normally requiring participation.
Issues of development have technical elements. In some cases even the Ward
Councillors could not publicly explain the development decision because they did not
understand the technicalities.


• Participatory skills,
As progress is made from lower to higher levels of participatory processes became
more complex and demanded different types of skill, knowledge, experience,
leadership and managerial capacities.
Many of the ward committee’s members such as ordinary people from the
communities, such as youth, miners, housewives, including some Councillors have
minimal educational qualifications.
Many found it difficult to contribute to the discussions.
They had difficulties understanding the technical presentation of the municipality.
On the other hand, when essential planning skills in the planning process were
lacking, they also became obstacle for more meaningful participation for meaningful
participation for disadvantaged group.
Issues of development have technical elements.


• Conflicting interest between Councillors and Ward Committees,
Ward committees are chaired by Ward Councillors, in most cases conflict erupted due
to the fact that the Ward Councillors wanted to satisfy their political mandate rather
than improving the lives of citizens.
It was also found that citizen participation is about power between the citizen and
politicians.
The problem is the control of ward committees and process of participation, the
setting of the agendas; procedures were usually in the hands of the politicians who in
some cases were barriers for effective involvement of citizen.
• Remuneration,




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Due to high levels of unemployment and poverty in the municipality, participation
comes with expectation of employment.
Participation is a voluntary and time –consuming engagement.
It calls for people to put aside their own individual commitments for public issue.
Given most residents unemployment situation, participation is a major sacrifice to ask
from them, this led to high expectations and hopes that employment would be created
out of these exercises.


• Inadequate capacity building in terms of ward committee development,
Capacity building did not take place on the scale necessary to realise the kind of
meaningful participation intended, as a result, the ward committees could not grow
beyond the formative stages.
It became apparent they did not know what to do and there is no coherent support for
them in terms of organisational guidance.


• Lack of participation by professionals on voluntary basis,
Sad to say, professional people in the area do not participate in community issues and
one might attach several reasons for this.


• Conflict with the traditional leadership,
Control by the municipality over the decisions about the nature and structure of
participatory channels restricted and undermined the influence of the traditional
authorities.
Certain powers of traditional structures of decision making were taken away and
granted to the Ward Councillors and ward committees. As a result frictions between
traditional leaders and democratically elected leaders emerged.


• Political will,
Another problem to strengthening participation involved the absence of a strong and
determined central authority in providing and enforcing opportunities for participation
at the municipality level as well as lack of political will by local government officers
in enforcing the legislation that has been created for the purpose.




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41.
41.    RECOMMENDATIONS
       RECOMMENDATIONS
Establish communication sub-committee in the office of the Mayor.
Hold workshop to work out communication calendar for the municipality.



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Conduct Skills Audit for particularly Ward Committees to ascertain their level of
competency and educability in serving as ward committee members.
Develop strategic community nodal service points (Area Based Inter-wards forums)
by strategically empowering and utilising ward committee members who possess
certain skills to manage such initiatives in collaboration with the Councillor, thereby
gradually decentralising local government structure in another form.
Develop intervention mechanisms to capacitate ward committees, through acquisition
of knowledge relating to much needed information by the community relating to
business skills, business mentorship, Business incubation, etc.
Listing your communication stakeholders, developing stakeholder register and define
each stakeholder’s communication needs.
Determine the methods and the frequency of each event by taking into account the
entire municipal communication cycle landscape.
Identify the required communications events, allocate resources to communication
events and build a communication events schedule.
Monitor the sitting of ward committee meetings and provide strategic support and
resources.
Develop monitoring systems to check completion of communication events and
impact.
Device    mechanism   of   gaining,   recording   and   responding   to   feedback   on
communication events.
Review and improve communication processes.
Develop Ward Committee Policy and Ward Committee Programme Implementation
Plan so as to better respond to the issues highlighted above, regarding the challenges
facing the Ward Committees.




APPENDICES

Appendage A Guideline on the development of Local Government



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            Communication Strategic Framework
Appendage B Local Government Communication Guidelines
Appendage C Promotion of Access to Information Act, 3 of 2000
Appendage D Municipal Finance Management Act, 56 OF 2003

Appendage E Intergovernmental Relations (IGR) Framework Act, 2005
Appendage F Media Development and Diversity Act, 14 of 2002

ACRONYMS

IGR           Intergovernmental Relations
CS            Communication Strategy
GCF           Government Communication Forum
IDP           Integrated Development Plan
PCF           Provincial Communication Forum
DCF           District Communication Forum
LCF           Local Communication Forum
GCIS          Government Communication and Information Services
KPA           Key Performance Areas
MLO           Media Liaison Officer
MM            Municipal Manager
CDWs          Community Development Workers
LM            Local Municipality
HOC           Head of Communications
EXCO          Executive Committee




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