In Focus by gyvwpsjkko


									Mujeres Adelante
                                                                                                                         Tuesday• 5 August 2008

                                             Daily newsletter on women’s rights and HIV – Mexico City 2008

In Focus...
                                                                                                  Ida Susser, Zena Stein and Marion Stevens

Young woman’s voice heard for the first time at the Plenary

E     lizabet Fadul, a youth activist
      from Honduras became the
first young woman to address
                                        and for greater investment in
                                        youth capacity. In referring to the
                                        inconsistent messaging towards
                                                                                 on the continuum of care, he noted,
                                                                                 ‘we cannot treat our way out of the
                                                                                 epidemic, we need a combination         Whats inside:
the plenary sessions, since the         young people, she gave the example       prevention strategies’.
start of the IAS conferences. She       that at ‘age 18 we are able to fight         Alex Coutinho from Uganda           Special report:
noted that of all infections, 40%       in the military, but we cannot           noted the achievements of a million     Not a ‘magic
are youth – HIV is increasingly         access contraception.’ This has          people on treatment, yet noted          bullet’
young, significantly female and         been, because policy is informed         that 69% of those who should be
increasingly marginalized. They         by theological beliefs and is not        on treatment are not on treatment.      Feedback from
have met below 50% of the goals set     evidenced-based. And we have not         He noted the need to keep parents       the Global
for access and prevention. Referring    participated in the development of       healthy, and to treatment as a          Village…
to key messages developed by the        that curriculum.                         strategy to deal with orphans. He       International
Mexico Youth Force, a wide ranging          She noted that the Caribbean         claimed that treatment had already      Women’s March
coalition of groups, she articulated    governmental meeting has adopted         saved 200,000 from orphanhood,
the call for:                           evidenced-based sexual health in         and pointed out, that of all the        News from the
       • Rights: We have the right      informing policy and services and        alternatives for raising children we    ‘margins’…
       to comprehensive, accurate       added ‘We expect to be at the table      know that, parents (we might say        Addressing the
       information and service to       with you’.                               mothers) are the best.                  ‘double epidemic’
       protect our sexual health;           Jaime Sepulveda from the                 In spite of the great advance
       • Respect: for our realities,    Gates Foundation called for a            in treatment, new HIV infections        Women’s
       our experience and our           quantification of the effects of         significantly outpace the numbers       realities…
       contributions;                   prevention globally. He advocated        of those started on ART by a ratio      Putting women
       • Responsibility: together, we   for combination prevention               of 5 to 2 (2.5 million new infections   and mothers in jail
       must create an environment       strategies to accompany combination in comparison to 1 million on
       where we have power over the     therapy and increased funds for a        treatment).                             Women’s Voices…
       decisions that affect our health full range of prevention options.            More women than men globally        Invest in women
       and lives; and                   He affirmed that prevention was          are starting treatment, but only        and girls
       • Resources: we need             cost-effective and cost-saving.          12% of women have been assessed
       training, mentorship, funding    He noted the need to address the         for their own treatment needs           Regional voices…
       and opportunities.               integration of HIV and AIDS and          during pregnancy. Even this small       Quienes deben
    She also called for the             family planning and to, in particular,   percentage is a significant increase    decidir
‘implementation of rhetoric’,           address the need of unwanted             over the last two years.
making governments accountable,         pregnancy. In answering a question           He noted that the number of
  2                                                                                                         Tuesday • 5 August 2008

infected babies born to HIV positive      people living with HIV and AIDS                            noted the sentiment that lesbian
mothers has been greatly reduced by       around the world. In the period                            women felt left out of this equation.
PMTCT. Mothers receiving PMTCT,           1990 to 2000 the rise was very                             And how the involvement of men
which was only 10% in 2004, is 33% steep, but had leveled off somewhat                               needs to be carefully negotiated
in 2007.                                  everywhere. The numbers of people                          and crafted in the realm of gender
    At the same time, he called for       living will depend on those who           …because         programming. Programming on
greater efforts to address violence       survive, which will be higher with                         gender needs to always work for
                                                                                    policy is
against women and sex workers. In         the spread of successful treatment,                        women and the tools of gender
addressing male circumcision, he          and the number of new cases. In           informed by      analysis are very useful. But do
noted the limitations of the three        discussing HIV prevention, he noted       theological      not loose women in this activity of
research trials, which has lacked         that reduction of multiple partners                        gender. There is a need to be specific
                                                                                    beliefs and is
community-based studies, which            is one strategy, it is also about                          about who we are and what we want.
can indicate how this possible            condoms, and it is a mistake to see       not evidenced-   It was also noted that, for example,
strategy might have a population          anything as a ‘magic bullet’.             based…           male circumcision programmes need
effect. Currently, we do not know,            Later in the day, there were a                         to work for women. The result that
and have not seen, the results of the     number of sessions that in a sense                         is done on male circumcision needs
RCTs on a population. In addressing       addressed some of the issues raised                        to reflect the inter-connectness of
messaging, he noted the confusing         in the plenary.                                            the world, ‘humans are not lab rats’
negative messages and suggested               An abstract session had a                              – the individual protection needs to
that messaging should capture ‘how        presentation on the female condom                          be translated and understood if it can
to have sex, have fun and keep safe’.     and affirmed that it is the only tool                      be applied to a community.
    In commenting on the                  a woman can use to protect herself                             And later in the afternoon a
empowerment of women, he noted                    .
                                          from HIV But women need to be                              skills building workshop was held
that it was often just addressing         empowered how to use it: like a                            on ‘Reproductive choice and HIV
education and economic issues             bicyle or a cell phone or a computer.                      and AIDS’ by Ipas and the Health
– but not sexual empowerment.             And men need to be familiar                                Systems Trust. It was the first ever
Urbanised women have one level            with the female condom – how it                            session at an IAS conference to
of empowerment missing – that of          looks and how to use it together.                          address the issues of abortion and
sexual empowerment. They need             The paper called ‘Female condom                            HIV and AIDS. In addressing a
this, and to have all the continuum       breaks gender barriers’ described                          human rights framework, the session
of sexual and reproductive health.        the training of trainers, whose jobs                       reviewed international agreements
    In answering a question about         it was to teach women how to use                           and worked on advocacy strategies
deporting illegal immigrants from         the female condom – with excellent                         to articulate these issues. The
Europe, he said that there is so little   results.                                                   facilitators made it clear that women
opportunity for treatment in Uganda           In the WNZ on Monday, the                              have the right to have the outcome
that they should keep people in the       ICW held session titled ‘Putting                           of a choice to a healthy pregnancy
UK on treatment as part of their          women back into Gender’, which                             and baby, or to choose to have an
contribution of the global scale up of yielded an excellent discussion on                            abortion. Even in instances where
treatment.                                how the language we use informs                            abortion is not legal, women have
    And in reference to research he       the spectrum of policy, planning and                       the right to have post-abortion care.
noted that less than 20% of local         implementation. Gender has been                            This is increasingly important in
research findings are translated into     a euphemism for women. However,                            cases where HIV positive women
policy.                                   this has been a term for a range                           have chosen to have an illegal unsafe
    Jeffery Garnett presented an          of meanings, often not being very                          abortion and could seriously risk
interesting set of models showing         specific, and could leave women                            their lives.
the estimated rise in the number of       invisible. At the session, participants
Tuesday • 5 August 2008                                                                                                                             3

     News from the Global Village…
     All Women, All Rights
                                                                                     information, worthy work and health services adequate to our
                                                                                     needs is a challenge. This increases our dependence on men,
     International Women’s March:                                                    increases the violation of our most basic rights, and increases

     Responding to the HIV and AIDS                                                  our vulnerability to all kinds of violence. We need to organize
                                                                                     and prepare ourselves to wield the power necessary to demand
     Epidemic                                                                        and defend our rights. – Arely Cano, ICW Nicaragua.
     Time and Place: August 5th, 5 pm, Hemiciclo
     a Juarez (Metro Hidalgo) to the Zocalo                                       All Women, All Rights! is an international call for the
                                                                              recognition that all women need to be able to exercise their basic
         The International Women’s March is organized by the Alliance         civil, economic, and cultural, rights. Only by promoting – and
     for Gender Justice AIDS 2008 to promote the rights and equality          ultimately achieving – these rights and equality can we stop HIV
     of ALL women – women living with HIV, young women, poor                  from infecting women at such frightening speed.
     women, mothers, migrants, rural women, lesbians, sex workers,                For more information about media at the March, contact
     etc. Faced with a lack of international action on women and HIV,         Lourdes Gomes: 22 57 00 75 / 044 55 54 16 46 97 (cell) or
     we are marching to remind the world that HIV is an issue that            Laura Viadas: 55 56 77 38 01
     affects all women.
           …For women in developing countries, access to education,

     News from the margins… Luisa Orza and Sue O’Sullivan
New visions and                                     the need for women to know their rights in
                                                    order to claim them.
                                                                                                        Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
                                                                                                        emphasised that raped women are survivors
actions to address HIV                                   Nduku Kilonzo from the Liverpool VCT           seeking solidarity from the global community
and gender-based                                    Care and Treatment in Kenya then spoke              and not victims, seeking our pity. She spoke

violence…                                           about in persuasive detail about the need for
                                                    closer engagement between the medical and
                                                                                                        personally about the horrendous scale of rape
                                                                                                        and sexual violence in the DRC. Although
    The recognition that sexual violence and        legal sectors in post-rape care and redress. At     the majority of rapes and attacks are carried
rape are significant factors in the growth of the   best, medical and legal frameworks operate          out by soldiers, she reminded us that 26% of
HIV pandemic, especially in areas of war or civil   in parallel, at worst, they can be completely       reported cases are perpetrated at the family
unrest, has gained momentum over the last           divergent. An integrated perspective and            or community level. She called for a zero
6 years. In this shared ICW-ATHENA satellite,       approach is called for, which includes, for         tolerance response to sexual violence at
Anne-Christine d’Adesky from Athena and WE-         instance, common training approaches for            all levels.
ACTx brought together a panel of activists and      health and legal service providers.                       Taking the different strands of the
advocates in the area of HIV and gender-based            Richard Pearshouse from the Canadian           discussion, Anne-Christine d’Adesky
violence to examine some of the difficulties        HIV/AIDS Legal Network spoke about the              highlighted the centrality of the trauma
and possibilities in responding to this             limited role the law can play in the response       experienced by rape survivors, often
‘double epidemic’.                                  to HIV and AIDS. While ‘impotent’ to provide        perpetuated by the services which intend
    The session was opened by Patricia Perez,       prevention, treatment and care, law can             to help them. With every step of the way,
Nobel Peace Prize nominee from ICW Latina,          address human rights abuses that fuel and           the experience may be re-lived. Community
who introduced the ICW Peace Campaign,              drive the epidemic. Examples of successful          advocates, she suggested, could be best
asserting that human rights denials of all          legislation, especially from countries within the   placed to respond with the necessary
kinds constitute forms of violence. Dorothy         same region, can provide effective leverage for     psycho-social care and access to medical and
Onyango, co-chair of ICW International              advocacy.                                           legal redress.
Steering Committee from Kenya, spoke about               Lynne Lucy from HEAL Africa in the                                    Luisa and Sue are from ICW.
  4                                                                                                         Tuesday • 5 August 2008

Women’s Realities…                                                                                                          Aziza Ahmed

The Impact of Criminalization
on Women and Girls
C     riminalization of HIV             knowledge of their HIV status                                HIV—however, women often cannot
      transmission refers to the        have to be actual, or can a person
                                                                                …criminalization     negotiate condom use. It is unclear
                                                                                                     how the gendered dynamics of sex
use of criminal law to address          be found guilty of transmission if      laws are unclear
HIV transmission. Criminalization       they ‘should have known’ they were                           will play out in a courtroom, and
of HIV and AIDS has taken two           ‘guilty’? This question also leads      and … left           if and how courts will take these
main forms – through HIV specific       to the related issue of how high                             factors into consideration.
                                                                                open to the
criminal transmission laws and          prevalence (and often marginalized)                              Fourth, laws criminalizing HIV
through general criminal laws           groups will interface with the law?     interpretation       transmission will be reinforced
applied to HIV transmission. Some       Will members of marginalized                                 by already existing laws, which
countries not only criminalize the      groups, who are already
                                                                                of misinformed       discriminate based on sex and
                                                                                                     gender. For example, in countries
transmission of HIV, but go as far      marginalized by the law, now find       courts…
as to criminalize exposure to HIV       themselves vulnerable to yet another                         which do not acknowledge martial
(even in cases where no actual          form of criminal prosecution?                                rape, women are always seen to
transmission takes place). This             Women will have a more                                   have consented to sex with their
article will highlight some of the      nuanced interaction with                                     husbands. In a country where HIV
main critiques of the criminalization   criminalization of HIV Firstly, such
                                                              .                                      is criminalized and marital rape is
framework both generally and with       laws criminalize mother-to-child                             not recognized, the husband could
specific regard to women and girls.     transmission of HIV Mothers are
                                                           .                                         always use the defence of consent to
    There are several general           often made into criminals for having                         defend himself against his wife.
critiques of criminalization laws.      HIV positive children in resource                                Finally, putting women in jail has
First, criminalization increases        poor settings, where they would have                         a grave impact on families. Women are
stigma for people living with HIV       no access to PMTCT.                                          the primary caretakers and providers
and AIDS. The use of a criminal             Second, routine HIV testing of                           for the majority of households. When
law framework to address the issue      women leads to the assumption that                           women ‘disappear’, it is girls that
of transmission contributes to an       women know their HIV status. If a                            will have to replace them with likely
unfounded notion that HIV positive      woman does not disclose her HIV                              negative effects, such as dropping out
people intentionally and recklessly     status to her partner, due to fear of                        of school. Putting women and mothers
transmit HIV. Alongside the laws        violence, for example, her partner                           in jail also worsens the situation
themselves, media hysteria and          could use the law to blame her for       …criminalization    for orphans.
public discourse about people living    infecting him with HIV This point
                                                              .                                          Criminalization of HIV does
                                                                                      of HIV does
with HIV and AIDS as criminals          also speaks to men’s greater access                          not advance a rights-based approach
will be further stigmatizing.           to legal services and greater legal         not advance a    to public health. To the contrary,
    Second, criminalization laws        literacy, which results in lopsided                          criminalization of HIV detracts from
are unclear and, therefore, will be     access to the ‘protections’ awarded
                                                                                      rights-based   progress made to respect the rights
                                                                                                     of people living with HIV, and to
left open to the interpretation by      by the law.                                   approach to
misinformed courts. For example,            Third, and related, the use of                           end stigma and discrimination.
how will consent play a part in         condoms is a potential defence for         public health…
determining guilt? Does one’s           women prosecuted for transmitting                                                 Aziza is from ICW.
Tuesday • 5 August 2008                                                                                                                                                                5

   Women’s Voices…                                                                                                                                              Sylvie Jacquat

   YWCA calls for women’s leadership
   T    he theme for the International AIDS
        Conference – Universal Action Now
   – emphasises the need for continued
                                                           to-child-transmission increased from 14%
                                                           in 2005 to 33% in 2007, Sophie Dilmitis,
                                                           World YWCA HIV and AIDS coordinator,
                                                                                                                            2. Ensure the safety and security of
                                                                                                                            women and girls
                                                                                                                                 As long as women in their households,
   vigilance on the part of all stakeholders               comments that                                                    communities, schools and nations remain
   at the global, national, regional and local                    …although this news is uplifting, the                     vulnerable to sexual and gender-based
   levels to ensure the provide for Universal                     World YWCA continues to advocate                          violence, they remain vulnerable to
   Access by 2010 is achieved. The World                          for PMTCT programmes to be revised                        contracting HIV.
   YWCA, participating at the conference,                         and to ensure mothers are not treated                          Preventing violence is in itself HIV
   is advocating for a clear focus on what                        as vessels and vectors, but that though                   prevention.
   universal action means for women                               preventing transmission – the women
   and girls.                                                     is also kept alive.                                       3. End stigma and discrimination
        Nyaradzayi Gumbonzvanda, General                        To ensure Universal Action Now,                                   After 25 years of HIV, stigma and
   Secretary of the World YWCA, comments                   we believe that women’s leadership                               discrimination continue to drive the
   that                                                    is essential. Thus, the World YWCA is                            pandemic. Today, over 70 countries
          …we must ensure women and girls                  calling on government, international                             still impose some form of HIV-specific
          have the information and resources               organisations, civil society and corporate                       restriction on entry and residency for
          they need to protect themselves…                 sector to:                                                       people living with HIV.
          governments must invest in sexual and                                                                                   Such violations of human rights must be
          reproductive health and HIV education            1. Invest in women and girls                                     eliminated.
          to ensure the prevalence continues to            Investing in women and girls means                                     Advocating for solutions to the many
          decline…                                         providing quality information on sexual and                      challenges women and girls are facing in
        The World YWCA has extensive                       reproductive health. Young women are 1.6                         the context of HIV and AIDS, Susan Brennan,
   expertise on HIV and AIDS with YWCAs                    times more likely to be living with HIV, than                    World YWCA President, emphasises that
   in over 70 countries, implementing                      young men. In 2007, 40% of young males                                   …reducing gender inequality is a crucial
   programmes on sexual and reproductive                   and only 36% of young females had accurate                               step in reversing the HIV epidemic…civil
   health and HIV. This grassroots experience              HIV knowledge – yet, the Universal Access                                society and women’s organisations, like
   positions the YWCA as a vital partner in the            target for HIV knowledge among youth is                                  the YWCA, must continue to challenge
   global response to AIDS.                                95% by 2010.                                                             gender roles and cultural practices that
        Responding to the release of the                       Investment also means providing                                      put women and girls at risk.
   UNAIDS 2008 Report on the global                        adequate, accessible and flexible financial
   AIDS Epidemic, indicating that the                      resources to communities in ways that
   percentage of pregnant women receiving                  empower women and reduce gender                                  Sylvie is the Communication Assistant of
   antiretroviral drugs to prevent mother-                 inequality.                                                      the World YWCA.

                                                           Platform for the U.S. Global AIDS Response in PEPFAR II          Accountable for Reproductive Rights Violations of People Living
  UpCoMING                                                 11:00-12:30, Session Room 5
                                                           Prevention Programs with Female Sex Workers
                                                                                                                            with HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                                            16:30-18:30, Session Room 2
  eVeNts                                                   11:00-12:30, Session Room 11
                                                           Women’s Rights Equal Women’s Lives: Violence Against Women
                                                                                                                            Who is Right and Who is Wrong – Putting the Right Back into
                                                                                                                            Sexual and Reproductive Rights
  Tuesday, 5 August                                        and HIV                                                          17:45-18:45, Global Village Session Room 2
                                                           11:00-12:30, Skills Building Room 6                              PMTCT vs. Full ART for Pregnant Women. Which is the Most
                                                           Taking Into Account Gender Implications in Addressing the AIDS   Effective and Responsible Approach to Saving Lives and
  07:00-08:30, Skills Building Room 1                      Epidemic – A Focus on Prevention                                 Preventing Further Transmission?
  Scaling Up an Effective Response to Violence against     14:30-15:30, Global Village Session Room 1                       18:30-20:30, Skills Building Room 2
  Women and Girls: Case Studies, Promising Practices and   Mobilizing Men for Gender Equality: A Dialogue About             Linking Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV
  Recommendations for Achieving Zero Tolerance             Accountability, Principles and Strategies                        18:30-20:30, Skills Building Room 4
  07:00-08:30, Skills Building Room 8                      16:30-17:30, Community Dialogue Space in Global Village          Macroeconomic Policy and the Feminization of the AIDS
  Raising Women’s Voices from the Margins: A Progressive   Partnerships and Strategies for Holding Governments              Epidemic: Film Screening of “Now or Never”and Discussion
  6                                                                                                           Tuesday • 5 August 2008

special report:
                                                                                                                      Neelanjana Mukhia

Male circumcision and women’s rights
R     ecent research evidence
      has shown ‘that male
circumcision is efficacious in
                                        factors as part of scaling-up male
                                              •   There is insufficient
                                                                                  accessible, affordable and of high quality. There is
                                                                                  already a gap between prevention strategies for men
                                                                                  and women; and a scaled up roll out of MC must not
reducing sexual transmission of             data to show whether male             widen this gap. Women controlled prevention methods
HIV from women to men’ . While
                                            circumcision, without condom          including female condoms, must be made available with
this data is welcome in increasing          use, results in a direct reduction    equal commitment and vigour.
our prevention strategies in                of transmission from HIV-               While resources devoted to male circumcision seem
addressing HIV, like any other              positive men to women.                to be growing, proven HIV prevention methods, like
prevention strategy this one                  •   The extent to which             the female condom for women continue to be under
must integrate efforts to advance           male circumcision will lead           resourced. Equal and adequate funding for male and
women’s rights.                             to risk compensation (i.e.,           female prevention technologies is essential. These include
    As women continue to be                 circumcised men and their             microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis and vaccines, as
at the epicentre of the HIV and             sexual partners engaging in           well as structural and behavioral interventions to reduce
AIDS epidemic, especially in                riskier sex behaviour, because of     women’s risk of HIV infection.
sub-Saharan Africa, it imperative           misinformation or a false sense         In moving forward:
that male circumcision be seen as           of protection) is unknown. Risk         •   Male circumcision must not be seen as a 'magic
complementary to other ways of              compensation may compromise           bullet' for HIV prevention, but as complementary to other
reducing risk of HIV infection,             women’s ability to negotiate          ways of reducing risk of HIV infection.
and not as a ‘magic bullet’ for HIV         conditions of sex (if and when          •    ommunities,
                                                                                        Communities, and particularly men opting for
prevention.                                 sex happens, condom use, etc)                               the procedure and their partners,
    While the research shows                and increase gender-based                                   require careful and balanced
that male circumcision is a viable          violence.                                                   information and education materials
strategy for the prevention of                •   The positioning of male                               that directly address the need
heterosexual transmission in                circumcision, as reducing                                   for condom use and discuss the
men, it does not provide complete           transmission from women                                     change in power balance to increase
                                                                                 condom use
protection against HIV infection            to men, may perpetuate or                                   women’s ability to negotiate safe
for women or for men. Circumcised           reinforce perception of women        remains the            sex and condom use.
men can still become infected with          as vectors or transmitters of        most effective              urther
                                                                                                          • Further research should be
the virus and, if HIV-positive, can         disease and may in turn lead                                conducted to clarify the risks and
                                                                                 tool for HIV
infect their sexual partners, and           to increased gender-based                                   benefits of male circumcision with
consistent condom use remains               violence or other gender-based       prevention…            regard to HIV transmission from
the most effective tool for HIV             discrimination. Prevention                                  HIV-positive men to women, for
prevention.                                 strategies for both men and                                 men who have sex with men and in
    The Women Won’t Wait                    women must be invested in                                   the context of heterosexual
campaign urges attention to essential       so that these are available,                                anal sex.
Tuesday • 5 August 2008                                                                                                               7

     •   In rolling out male             a need to ensure meaningful             diagnosis and treatment of
   circumcision, it will be              participation of women, and             sexually transmitted infections     …there is
   important to monitor rates            positive women in particular, in        and HAART and OI treatment)
                                                                                                                     already a
   of gender-based violence, as          research; policy development;           must continue to be scaled
                                                                                                                     gap between
   well as coercive sex that may         and, programme planning                       sources
                                                                                 up. Resources earmarked for
   occur during the period of            and implementation efforts,             interventions to address women’s    prevention
   wound healing/recommended             including in relation to male           vulnerability due to gender         strategies
   abstinence post surgery and           circumcision.                           inequality and to violence must
                                                                                                                     for men and
   thereafter.                             •   Male circumcision should          not be diverted.
     •   There is a need to              never replace other known                                                   women; and a
                                                                              1. WHO/UNAIDS (2007). Technical
   strengthen resources allocated to     methods of HIV prevention and       Consultation, Male Circumcision and     scaled up roll
   the integration of HIV and AIDS       should always be considered as      HIV Prevention: Research Implications
                                                                             for Policy and Programming.             out of MC must
   and sexual and reproductive           part of a comprehensive HIV
   health and rights programming,        prevention package. Prevention
                                                                                                                     not widen this
                                                                             Neelanjana is the
   as well as around women’s             and treatment efforts that work     International Women’s Rights            gap…
                                                                             Policy and Campaign Coordinator
   empowerment and gender                (e.g. condoms, female condoms,      of Action Aid.
   equality. In addition, there is       post exposure prophylaxis,

    Regional Voices
    Quienes Deben Decidir                                                                                Ximena Andion

     En Chile mujeres VIH positivas son esterilizadas forzadamente       del VIH/SIDA. Sin embargo, como señala Maria Antonieta
     porque los doctores deciden que no deben tener hijos….              Alcalde de IPPF, hoy hay un mayor reconocimiento de la
     En Brasil el Estado decide no proveer de forma adecuada             urgencia de atender estos derechos para las mujeres que
     servicios de atención de salud sexual y reproductiva a mujeres      viven con VIH.
     positivas en prisión…. En México hospitales y doctores                 Según cifras de ONUSIDA, 500,000 mujeres viven con VIH
     constantemente deciden denegar servicios de atención a              en América Latina y el Caribe. La mayoría ven de alguna u
     mujeres VIH positivas que están embarazadas…                        otra forma violados sus derechos reproductivos. Las distintas
   Historias de mujeres que ven violados sus derechos                    convenciones internacionales de derechos humanos de las
reproductivos se repiten de Sur a Norte en la región                     que los países de la Región son parte, protegen el derecho
de América Latina. En todos los casos son doctores,                      a la autonomía reproductiva, la privacidad, la dignidad, la
autoridades de las prisiones, esposos o comunidades                      no-discriminación en el acceso a los servicios de salud y
hablando por las mujeres y tomando decisiones sobre sus                  otros derechos. Hace falta que los Estados traduzcan estos
cuerpos y sus vidas. Y es que como dice Niza Picasso de                  compromisos en acciones concretas para que sean realmente
ICW Latina: ‘asumen que las mujeres positivas no tenemos                 las mujeres quienes decidan.
derechos reproductivos por tener VIH’.
   Durante mucho tiempo los derechos sexuales y                             Ximena is the International Advocacy Director of the Centre
reproductivos se vincularon, sobre todo, a la prevención                 for Reproductive Rights, USA.
    8                                                                                                               Tuesday • 5 August 2008

In my opinion…                                                                                                          Anand Grover,
                                                                                             Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health

Emerging hot issues
I think that one of the main issues,
  which is very important now, is the
issue of sex workers and the rights
                                               subjected to violence and that is not
                                               talked about. It is not an issue that
                                               is considered to be worthy to be
                                                                                                             is very important to assimilate those
                                                                                                             lessons, which I propose to do.
                                                                                                                 Access to treatment will be one
of sex workers, as opposed to the              talked about in the HIV world. That is                        of the priorities, not only limited to
notion of them being trafficked. There a tragedy, because HIV is as closely                                  HIV, but broadening to the diseases,
is a very strong lobby in the United           linked to violence, as health. And         issue, that        which impact on HIV. Another
States that includes a large number of         if a woman becomes HIV-positive,                              priority will be the deployment of
‘so-called’ feminist groups, who now           more violence ensues which I think         has to be a        resources for health, not only HIV, but
argue that any person who has sex for the movement has to take up. And                                       other areas, like the primary health
                                                                                          hot issue, is
money has to be trafficked. And they           unfortunately, I don’t see it being                           infrastructure. Similarly, I will focus
have actually now in their definition          taken up in the coming period for                             on the deployment of resources for,
                                                                                          the question
in the protocol on trafficking, if you         various reasons. It is just ignored. It                       and prioritizing the marginalized
have sex for consideration of money,           is a very critical issue that has to be    of women and       groups issues, including MSM and
then it is determined to be sex                addressed with respect to women’s                             sex workers issues. Not to be seen
trafficking.                                   right to health and prevention against     violence…          in isolation, I will also focus on the
    It means that women, who                   HIV and the consequences of HIV that                          particular role and position women
are adults and entering sex work               are being burdened upon women.                                and children occupy.
on their own volition, willingly and           The result is that people are dying.                              These are some of the issues that
by consent, are considered to be                    As Special Rapporteur, I am                              a rapporteur would need to take up
trafficked. If trafficking is going to be      not going to decide on my own                                 in the next three years. I don’t want
adapted to mean that, then the law             what should be the priorities. I think                        to predetermine the agenda on
would take its course by the police            there has been a large number                                 my own. I think it is very important
arresting these people and taking              of developments on the issues                                 to actually have consultations with
them into custody, where they may              of HIV and health and human                                   various groups to find out what they
be put into rehabilitation homes, as in        rights, not only in the international                         think. Having said this, I also want to
India where there are no facilities at all humanitarian and UN organizations,                                cooperate with governments who
for women. That is one issue.                  but also because of the community                             are trying to solve problems. It is
    The other issue is that ‘so-               empowerment, and the way that the                             important that a collaborative effort is
called’ normal women are being                 HIV movement has been mobilized. It                           embarked upon.

    Supported by a grant from the Public Health Program
    of the Open Society Institute.
    Editors:        Johanna Kehler
                    E. Tyler Crone
                    Maria de Bruyn
    Photography:    Johanna Kehler
    DTP Design:     Melissa Smith        
    Printing:       Ad Libitum, Servicios Editoriales Integrales (5255)5484-8202

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