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Computer Software

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					Computer Software
       The software is what really gives the computer life. It is a set of instructions that tells the
computer what to do when the computer operator does something. Software is installed onto your
computer and stored in mass storage devices.
Software can actually be classified into three broad categories.
    1. System Software
    2. Application software
    3. Utilities Software

System software
When you switch on the computer the programs written in ROM is executed which activities
different units of your computer and load the operating instructions which makes it ready for you to
work on it. This set of program is called system software. Therefore the system software may be
defined as a set of one or more programs designed to control the operation of computer sys tem.
System software is a general program designed for performing tasks such as controlling all operation
required to more data into and out of the computer. It communicates with other hardware connected
with CPU and system software is essential for the development of applications software. System
software allows application packages to be run on the computer with less time and effort. Remember
that it is not possible to run application software without system software.
System software, (popularly called to operating system) is the foundation software for a computer. It
is a complex task to develop system software. Due to its complexity it is not developed in house and
manufactures builds and supplies this system software with the computer system.
An OS is system software because it (OS) controls all parts of the computer. The major functions of
the OS are to handle all input devices (keyboard. mouse. disk). Handle all output devices (screen.
printer, disk) coordinate and manage use of other resources (memory. disk. CPU, etc) accept
commands from users: provide an environment over which other programs (soft ware) can run.
Examples of popular OS are DOS (Disk Operating System), windows, UNIX, Linux, OS/2. and
Solaris etc.
Application software
Application software is the software that is developed for a particular use. These software run over
the environment provided by the system software. Most of these process our data. There is thousands
of application software. They are further divided into numerous categories depending on the
operation they perform on our data i.e., their application. Some of them are described below.
Word processing software allows you to process and manipulate text. Examples are Corel
WordPerfect and Microsoft Word. Spreadsheets, very simply put, gives you 4 when you input 2+2
are Quattro Pro and Excel. Databases are most useful for organizing data. For example, database
software track of your friend's name, address, telephone numbers and you can add or remove
whenever you want. Some examples are Paradox and Access. Internet browsers give us access to
the world. When this software is installed and you are connected to an ISP (Internet Service
Provider). You have access to worldwide information. Common examples are Netscape and
Explorer. Another example of tailored application software is programming language. Among the
programming languages COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) are more suitable for
business application where as FORTAN (Formula Translation) is useful for scientific applica tion.
Utility Software
This is the software used to manage the computer hardware and user relation and force the
computer to maximize the utilization of the resources used on the computer system. The
resources may the hardware and software. We can use the virus scanners, scandisk to find the
error on disk and the repair them. Similarly we can use partition manager to split the secondary
memory, we can use file recovery to recover the file etc. These are the example of utility
software.
                                                             Prepared By Bickram Shrestha/Prime Chartered/ Foundation CA