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					Teaching objectives
  Get a general idea about Stephen
   Hawking

  Understand the main ideas and
   structures in Text A

  Appreciate the style differences
   between narrative writing and
   expository writing

  Grasp the main language points
         Warm-up Activity

         Brainstorm   some of the scientific and
                       technological inventions.

 Discuss: In what way do scientific discoveries
change our lives for the better or for the worse?

         Make   a brief introduction to Stephen
                                        Hawking
Brainstorm some of the scientific and
      technological inventions.

                   E-mail
  nanotechnology                 clone


     Genetic
                             telephone
    engineering


              Laptop        TV
             computer
In what way do scientific discoveries
 change our lives for the better or for the
 worse? Take one invention for example.
People must understand that science is
inherently neither a potential for good
nor for evil. It is a potential to be
harnessed by man to do his bidding.

             -----Glenn T. Seaborq
                   A brief introduction of
                     Stephen Hawking
               Read the passage on P279 and answer
                   the following three questions.
1. What do many people find most striking about
   Hawking?
It is the contrast between the strength of his mind
and the weakness of his body.
2. How does Hawking communicate with others?
  He uses a computer that enables him to select
  words which are then turned into speech.

      3. What are his main achievements?
 Singularity:大星燃烧耗尽会继续坍缩直至达到具有无
  限密度的奇点,这个奇点,引力场特别强大使得光线不
  能从围绕它的区域逃逸,而被引力场拉回去。这就叫做
  黑洞 .

 Black hole: Objects from which nothing was
  supposed to be able to escape任何物质一旦进入黑洞
  之后将会不能逃出而最终消失黑洞不是完全黑的。在宇
  宙意义的微观尺度上,粒子和辐射可以从黑洞漏出来。
  黑洞附近的强大引力场引起粒子反粒子对的创生,粒子
  对中的一颗粒子落进黑洞,而另一颗逃到无穷远去,逃
  逸的粒子好象是从黑洞里发射出来的,也就是说,黑洞
  象一个热体似的在辐射,这就是著名的霍金辐射。

 A Brief History of Time:时间简史
What impress us most is
Hawking’s optimism.
Although there was a cloud hanging
over my future, I found, to my
great surprise, that I was enjoying
life more than before.
At the beginning of A Brief History of
        Time, Hawking writes
  “有人告诉我,我在书中每写一个方程式,
   都将使销量减半。于是我决定不写什么方
   程。不过在书的末尾,我还是写进一个方
   程,爱因斯坦的著名方程E=mc2。我希望此
   举不致吓跑一半我的潜在读者。”
  I was advised that each equation I included
   would halve the sales. I included one
   equation. Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc2.
   maybe I would have sold twice as many
   copies without it.
   In-class Reading
Compare  Unit 2 and Unit 3 to see the
   differences between narration and
             exposition (Video Tape)

           Analyze   the text structure

               Read each part in Detail
      The style of expository writing
Longer paragraphs in which there are longer
 and more involved sentences.
Closely packed
Third-person narration—for the purpose of
 objectivity
Sentences in the passive voice
Structure: A statement of opinion

                 Supporting details

                    a conclusion
       Parts       Paragraphs           Main ideas

Part 1:                         The public needs education in
Present a view     Paras____
                        1--3    science so as to make informed
                                decisions on their fate

Part 2:
                         4--6    The way to educate the
Raises and answers Paras____
                                 public are detailed.
a relevant question

Part 3:                           Human civilization will
                         7        survive if the public
The conclusion     Paras____
                                  understand science well.
     Exercises on Part 1
    Answer the following four questions.
•     What’s the attitude of some people
      towards the change brought about by
      science and technology?
•     What was life like before science and
      technology began to change our life?
•     What would happen if all government
      money for research were cut off?
•     Is it possible to prevent science from
      further development? Why or why not?
             Exercises on Part 2
             a. Mini-exposition
Introduce   What can be done to give the public the
            scientific background it needs to make
  a topic   informed decisions on science?

            1.Science education in schools

Solutions   2. Replacing equations with
            words and diagrams
            3. Making use of popular media such as
            newspapers, magazines and above all TV.
                  b. Difficult sentences
 Explain the underlined words:
  A qualitative grasp of scientific concepts is sufficient.(L47)

 Analyze the structure of the following sentences:
 But the rate of scientific progress is now so rapid that there
  are always new developments that have occurred since one
  was at school or university. (L50)
 Genetic engineering and computers are two of the
  developments most likely to change the way we live in the
  future. (L53)

 Translate the following sentences:
 Maybe I would have sold twice as many copies without it.
  (L43)
 Only television can reach a truly mass audience. (L57)
 But others present scientific wonders simply as magic,
  without explaining them or showing how they fit into the
  framework of scientific ideas. (L60)
     c. Cultural words

• Acid rain



• Greenhouse effect
Acid rain, a serious threat around the world, occurs when
sulfur dioxide (二氧化硫) and nitrogen oxide (氧化
氮)emissions from automobiles and fossil-fuel burning power
plants which react (起反应) in the atmosphere (大气层) with
water, oxygen, and oxidants (氧化剂) to form various acidic
compounds (化合物) fall back to Earth as acidic precipitation
(雨或雹).




Production of food crops has declined .
Causes acidification (成酸性) of lakes and streams and
contributes to damage of trees at high elevations (海拔) .
The surfaces of great art and architectural treasures has
been eroded(腐蚀), including the ancient sculptures of Rome
and the Sphinx in Egypt.
         1. Solar energy enters
 atmosphere.(大气层) unaffected (未受
      影响的) by greenhouse gases.
2. Solar energy is absorbed (吸收) by
the earth and re-radiated (再辐射) back
 to space of longer heat wavelengths
                  (波长) .
  3. Greenhouse gases absorb heat
radiation and re-radiate (再辐射) some
 of it back to the surface, much like an
     insulating (绝缘的) blanket (毯).
  4. Higher concentrations (浓度) of
  greenhouse gases trap (挡住,拦住)
     more re-radiated heat, causing
temperatures in the lower atmosphere
   and of the earth's surface to rise.
Exercises on Part 3

     T/F (Video Tape)
Useful expressions

Retell the text

Debate

Check exercises
Should cloning of human beings
          be banned?
 Find out useful
expressions from
  the exercises
• Reasonable price         •   Raise a question
• Grasp the seriousness    •   On the basis of
  of the problem           •   Despite the fact that
• Commit the crime         •   Make predicate predictions
• Sufficient evidence      •   Line of products
  against sb.              •   Regain one’s health
• Timely help              •   Mountainous region
• Economic development     •   Trained doctors
• The board of directors   •   Survive the car accident
• Open a branch office     •   Release sb. From prison
• Ensure sb. Sth           •   Further negotiation
• Be dismissed             •   Have difficulty doing sth.
• Be vital to              •   Support military action
• Hold an election         •   Peaceful solution
• Meet one’s requirements     • Joint venture
• As is shown by history      • Not because of …but
• With the improvement          because of
  of the standard of living   • Lack of capital
• Local clashes               • Poor management
• Dial a wrong number         • Have the right attitude
• Go on a diet                  toward sth.
• In the last two decades     • Latest developments
• Reform and open policy      • Rely on
• A great success             • Lengthen one’s life
• Substantial cut in          • Daily life
• In the coming year
• Human rights situation
             Useful sentences
• The job is great in terms of advancement but the
  starting salary is rather low.
• The lawn was laid out in the form of figure 8.
• Words cannot convey how grateful we are for his
  timely help.
• No living thing can do without air and water.
• Mary is undecided about whether to stay on in her
  present post or to find a new job.
• As is proved by the records, china’s human rights
  situation has been steadily improving over the years.
• What we learn in school is no longer sufficient to last
  a lifetime.
                  Prefix
           Fore--before       Foresight, foresee
           Pre—before           Pre-condition
Time and   Post—after              Post-war
  order
           Ex—former        Ex-wife, ex-president
           Re--again            Regain, review
           Un                 Unease, undecided
           non                   Non-smoker
Negative   In, il, im, ir   Inconsistent, illiterate,
prefixes                     irrelevant, immoral
           dis               Dishonest, disabled
           A—lack of                amoral
Pejorative mis—wrongly            Misdoing, mispronounce
 prefixes mal—badly                     maltreat
            Super—above, more Superstar, supermarket
            than, better
            Out—better, faster,     Outgrow, outlive
Degree      longer than
and size
            Over—too much              Overdo
            Mini--small           Minibus, miniskirt
            Under– too little        Underdeveloped
            Co—with, together,        Co-chairman,
            through                  correspondence
            Counter--aganist     Counterattack
 attitude
            Anti--against    Antiwar, anticlock wise
            Pro--for                 Pro-European
       Uni& mono—one      Uniform, monosyllable
       Bi& di—two         Bicycle, bimonthly
       Tri                Tricycle, triple
       Poly& multi—many   Polysemy
Number Centi—100, 1/100   Centimetre, centigrade
       Milli—1/1000       Multitude, multiple
       Semi& hemi—half    Semicircle, hemisphere
   Assignments

Writing based on the debate
Prepare for Unit Four American
Dream
         Topic sentence
 Topic sentence--the sentence containing the topic.
  It tells the reader what the paragraph is about, so
  it acts as a kind of signpost.
 Support sentence—the other sentences telling us
  more about the topic.
 Two ways of writing down the topic of a
  paragraph:
 a noun or noun phrase, such as: examples, causes,
  other causes
 A question. For example: Why is the world
  getting hotter?

				
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