Oil from Algae Lecture - PowerPoint Presentation by suchenfz

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									 CO2 MITIGATION,
 FUELS AND FOODS
 FROM MARINE
 PHOTOSYNTHETIC
 MICROBES




Dr. Hank Trapido-Rosenthal
Center for Marine Microbial Ecology and Diversity
University of Hawaii
CO2 MITIGATION,
FUELS AND FOODS
FROM MARINE
PHOTOSYNTHETIC
MICROBES
Robert Bidigare1, Sue Brown1,
Flavienne Bruyant2, John Cullen2,
Mark Huntley1,2, Zackary Johnson1,
Charles O’Kelly1, Donald Redalje3,
Gabriel de Scheemaker4,
Hank Trapido-Rosenthal1




        1University      2Dalhousie   3University of   4Cellana   BV
         of Hawaii       University   S. Mississippi
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Ecological Necessity

       • Economic Necessity

       • Intellectual Challenge
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Ecological Necessity

       • Economic Necessity

       • Intellectual Challenge

       • Benefits to Hawaii
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Ecological Necessity

         – Atmospheric Effects of Increasing
            CO2 Concentrations
           Increasing CO2




Atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the year 1000 AD estimated from
ice core data and monitoring of CO2 at Mauna Loa.
    Increasing CO2

Atmospheric CO2 is
now 370 ppm -

a value not exceeded
in the past 20 million years




        Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2001
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Ecological Necessity

         – Oceanic Effects of Increasing
            CO2 Concentrations
                     Ocean Acidification
 Caldeira & Wickett (2003)
 “Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH”
 Nature 425 (6956): 365




 As pH decreases
 calcification diminishes


 Coral reefs, molluscs, and
 other marine life forms
 are threatened                        ΔpH




The marine food web will change – for at least 1,000 years
 Impact of Increased CO2-Associated Ocean Acidification on
                    Marine Food Chains


Eukaryotic phytoplankton - diatoms, coccolithophores, & dinoflagellates.


Diatoms are favored in a dynamic, turbulent ocean (today); they will
       be less competitive in a stratified, steady state ocean
(tomorrow).


Coccolithophores are very competitive in stratified systems, but
       produce calcium carbonate plates; ability to compete will be
       compromised as the ocean becomes more acidic.


Dinoflagellates will be the winners;
       many Harmful Algal Blooms are dinoflagellates.
          Health Effects Associated with Dinoflagellates


Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (species of the genus Dinophysis).


Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (Karenia brevis),


Paralytic shellfish poisoning (species of the genera Gymnodinium,
        Alexandrium, and Pyrodinium).


Ciguatera fish poisoning (Gambierdiscus toxicus).
Impact of a rise
in sea level of
3.5 meters on
the southeast
coastline of the
United States
Impact of a rise in
sea level of 3.5
meters on the
coastline of Oahu
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Economic Necessity

         – Fossil Fuels are Becoming Scarcer
(1) Global Energy demands are increasing…




   http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/energy_issues_energydemand.aspx
(2)… but global fossil fuel production is not keeping up.
Oil Discovery/Production
                           Decreasing Oil Supply
      Our Global Challenge

• By 2050:

• Double Energy Production, and;

• Halve (or better) CO2 Emissions
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Ecological Necessity

       • Economic Necessity

       • Intellectual Challenge
                              Marine Algae
                   Compelling Advantages

 •   Algae Consume CO2, a Major Greenhouse Gas
 •   Do Not Use Fresh Water
 •   Do Not Require Arable Land
 •   Grow Very Rapidly
 •   Represent a “New” Source of Fuel*
 •   Represent a New Source of Animal Food
 •   *Historical Footnote - Most of Our “Old” Fuels
         (i.e., Fossil Fuels) Were Produced by:

                               MARINE ALGAE!
Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
                       Not a New Idea




Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
 Studied for years




Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
             Reported yields for biomass crops
                                           Biomass      Oil-content     Bio-       Bio-diesel
                                           (Mt/ha/yr)      (% dry      diesel      (bbl/ha/yr)
                                                           mass)      (Mt/ha/yr)
                Soya
                                             1-2.5         20%         0.2-0.5      1.4-3.5
           Rapeseed
                                               3           40%           1.2          8.2

           Palmoil
                                              19           20%           3.7          26.4

         Jatropha
                                            7.5-10       30-50%        2.2-5.3       16-38

     Microalgae
                                           140-255       35-65%         86.6        350-700



Note: 1Mt bio-diesel equals 1,136 litres
                     Photobioreactors



 • Advantages
       – Controlled, optimized conditions
       – Contamination can be minimized
       – High rates of production


 • Disadvantages
       – Expensive
Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
                              Open Ponds

 • Advantages
       – Economical
       – Relatively simple
       – High rates of production possible


 • Disadvantages
       – Potential for contamination (competitors, invaders)
       – Less control of conditions (e.g., pH, Temp)




Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
    Cellana two-stage cultivation
      PHOTO-BIOREACTORS + OPEN PONDS




              •   Continuous
                                        • Batch
              •   Nutrient sufficient
                                        • Short residence time
              •   High yield
                                        • Large area
              •   Small area




Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
               Optimizing Production




                              Huesemann et al., 2008, Appl Biochem Biotechnol



Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
               Optimizing Production
    Choosing the Right Species:

               • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Oils
               • Taxonomic Characterization


    Determining the Right Grow-Out Conditions

                • Temperature
                • Light
                • Nutrients
                • Agitation
Bigelow Laboratory Phytopia
   Challenges & Opportunities
• Unknown Microbes
   Challenge: 1,000s of species, >90% not isolated,
     > 99.9% never cultivated!
   Opportunity: Unexplored biodiversity!
• A Very Young Technology
   Challenge: 7,000 years of agriculture vs 60 years of
     algaculture
   Opportunity: Scope for rapid progress
• Technology Integration – complete process
   Challenge: Technology development at new interfaces, e.g.
     marine optics, fluid mechanics, bioprocess engineering
   Opportunity: New interdisciplinary field
              Cellana Group



         •   Incorporated: 11 December 2007
         -   Cellana LLC and Cellana BV
         -   HRBP: algae cultivation
         -   Royal Dutch Shell:
                  technology integration and
                          scaling,
                  network, project management,
                          reach
         •   - Shell interested in oil off-take
Cellana’s vision: to be the world’s preferred sponsor of
commercial algae oil and protein facilities
               We shouldn’t be surprised that the
               Dutch are interested in meeting this
                            challenge




A Scene on the Ice by Hendrick Avercamp was inspired by the harsh winter
of 1608 in Europe.
               We shouldn’t be surprised that the
               Dutch are interested in meeting this
                            Challenge


Netherlands Battens Its Ramparts Against Warming Climate



http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/08/0829_wiredutch_2.html
                   Cellana Partners                             FCP…?


                  Duke                                                    Bodo
                                Dalhousie               Thornton


   SFSU




3x UH




                                            USM
                                                                     Amsterdam


              Westhollow                               The Hague
        KPF
                           Houston
                                                  • University research
                                                  • Shell research
   136 FTEs                                       • Cellana production facilities
                                                  • Cellana corporate
            Cellana Science &
               Technology
                                              Integrating
                        Cultivation &
Strain selection                                Scaling
                         Processing
                                              Templating

Dalhousie University    Kona Pilot Facility
                                                  Shell
 University of Hawaii       Shell Labs
                                               Technology
   University of                                Suppliers
Southern Mississippi
 San Francisco State
     University

                        Photobioreactors         2.5 ha
      No GMOs              Open Ponds           1,000 ha
                          Downstream            20,000 ha
     Strain Selection
           “Upstream” Science
                Program
         5000                    75              12               8           8           8              8               4                         2

                               HTS1             HTS2             HTS3       MSS1        MSS2        MSS3                LSS


Pre-screening:                High-Throughput Screening (HTS):          Mid-scale Screening (MSS):            Large-scale Screening (LSS):   Demonstration
Complete bibliographic data   Lab-based                                 Outdoor production simulations        Full-scale production          Sustained production runs
                              3 levels, production criteria             3 levels                              30-day trials                  90-day trials
                              Double-blind design                       Variable production criteria




                       Dalhousie University                                                                  Kona Pilot Facility
                       University of Hawaii                                                              San Francisco State
                                                                                                             University
                         University of
                      Southern Mississippi
  Novel isolates




Use natural genetic variability – no GMOs
         Cultivation and Processing
    O2          Water                                                         Lipids     FAMEs/VO




Cultivation    Harvesting        Dewatering          Processing              Protein    Animal Feed




   CO2                                                                         Dry
   Water                                                                     Biomass   Carbohydrates
                             Industrial                                      Residue
 Nitrogen         CO2                        Waste Heat
                              Facility
Phosphorus
 Electricity


    v
                        Possible power feedstock for own use (CO2 recycle)

                                                          Upstream & Downstream:
                                                             Kona Pilot Facility
                                                           First Commercial Plant
            Aquaculture
•   Future Production Directions
    •   New Carnivorous Fish Species,
    •   Low Fish Meal Feeds
    •   Zero-Exchange,
    •   Value-added Processing
    •   Intensive Production
    •   Disease Resistance
            Aquaculture
•   Future Production Directions
    •   New Carnivorous Fish Species,
    •   Low Fish Meal Feeds
    •   Zero-Exchange,
    •   Value-added Processing
    •   Intensive Production
    •   Disease Resistance
Single-Cell Protein and Oil. Single cell oils (SCO),
extracted from microorganisms grown under
heterotrophic conditions, can also be rich in omega-3
oils. There is mounting interest by the biofuels industry
to develop microalgae as a feedstock, which could
help reduce production costs over time.
           Scaling and Integrating
• 2.5 ha  1000 ha  20,000 ha
• Leveraging Shell’s expertise
  –   Technology selection and due diligence
  –   Integration of technologies
  –   Design of large scale plants
  –   Project management
  –   Professional infrastructure
       •   Health, Safety, Environment
       •   Environmental Impact Assessment
       •   Product Quality Management
       •   Contracting & Procurement
  – Network, reach, etc.
                Screening Protocol
 Novel             Culture
Isolates          Collections
                                        Phase 2: (Detailed Analyses)

    Targeted Candidate
          Strains
                                  Diurnal      Flashing Light:       Nutrient
                                Temp / Light     High Freq.          Depletion
          Phase 1a:
 rapid growth / N-depletion
       3 Temperatures
                                           Integration / Modeling

        Phase 1b:
 growth rate / composition
         N source                          Mass Culture Validation
                                   Where we are now
         5000                    75              12               8           8           8              8                4                         2

                               HTS1             HTS2             HTS3       MSS1        MSS2        MSS3                 LSS


Pre-screening:                High-Throughput Screening (HTS):          Mid-scale Screening (MSS):             Large-scale Screening (LSS):   Demonstration
Complete bibliographic data   Lab-based                                 Outdoor production simulations         Full-scale production          Sustained production runs
                              3 levels, production criteria             3 levels                               30-day trials                  90-day trials
                              Double-blind design                       Variable production criteria




                       Dalhousie University                                                                  Kona Pilot Facility
                       University of Hawaii                                                                  San Francisco State
                                                                                                                 University
                          University of
                       Southern Mississippi
Kona Pilot Facility




   Temporary
          Kona Pilot Facility
• 2010           prove the concept
• 2.5 ha
• Freeze initial set
  of technologies
• Show that a facility can
  produce “large” amounts
  of algae and can be…
  – NPV-positive
  – Energy-positive
  – CO2-negative
     First Commercial Plant
               attract investors
• 2014
• 1000 ha
• Integrate and scale
  technologies
• Demonstrate acceptable
  technology risk
• Proof…
  – The Concept
  – The Three Equations
    (NPV, Energy, CO2)
              Commercial Rollout
              realizing the opportunities…
                             Private                           Public                         Bank
                            Investors                         Investors                       Loans

                                   $     $                        $   $                 $    $




                                                             BV           LLC
CO2

Water                                                                                                                     Oil

Real Estate                                                                                                               Protein

Power                                                                                                                     Carbohydrates

Nutrients               Plant I                     Plant II                 Plant III                    Plant n


                 priv    publ     loan       priv     publ    loan        priv   publ       loan   priv     publ   loan
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Ecological Necessity

       • Economic Necessity

       • Intellectual Challenge
Why Do We Want (Need!) To Do This?


       • Ecological Necessity

       • Economic Necessity

       • Intellectual Challenge

       • Benefits to Hawaii
Benefits to Hawaii - Short Term


    • Science Education

      – Research Students
Benefits to Hawaii - Short Term


    • Science Education

       – Research Students



    • Job Creation

       – High Interest

       – High Value
                  Jan Nakaya:

Research Student to High Interest, High Value Job
Benefits to Hawaii - Long Term


    • Carbon-Neutral Power Generation

       – Ma’alaea Power Station



    • Energy Self-Sufficiency

       – Well, Maybe
   Benefits to Hawaii - Long Term


           • Carbon-Neutral Power Generation

               – Ma’alaea Power Station



HR BioPetroleum, Alexander & Baldwin, Hawaiian Electric and
Maui Electric to Develop Algae Facility for Biodiesel on Maui
      A Petroleum-Free Hawaii?

     Plant           Oil Production         Required
   Feedstock         (bbl acre-1 y-1)     Area (acres)*


Soybean                   1.14                   8,736,000

Rapeseed                  3.02                   3,298,000


Oil Palm                 15.10                     660,000


Microalgae             175.00                     54,300**

 * Hawaii’s transportation fuel consumption is 26,000 bbl/day
         (9,500,000 bbl/year)
 ** Kaho`olawe is 28,000 acres
Why Are We Doing This?


 • Ecological Necessity

 • Economic Necessity

 • Intellectual Challenge

 • Benefits to Hawaii
   CO2 MITIGATION &
   RENEWABLE OIL
   FROM
   PHOTOSYNTHETIC
   MICROBES
Robert Bidigare1, Sue Brown1,
Flavienne Bruyant2, John Cullen2,
Mark Huntley1,2, Zackary Johnson1,
Charles O’Kelly1, Donald Redalje3,
Gabriel de Scheemaker4,
Hank Trapido-Rosenthal1




        1University      2Dalhousie   3University of   4Cellana   BV
         of Hawaii       University   S. Mississippi

								
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