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Fault Identification – Desktop Study _UTM Zone 9_

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					                               Fault Identification – Desktop Study
                                           (UTM Zone 9)

                                                                        WP52D116-006



                                                                     Work Package: 52




                                            Imperial Oil Resources Ventures Limited
                                            Conceptual and Preliminary Engineering
                                                  for Mackenzie Gas Project

                                                                        Job No. 99-C-3079


                                                                            Prepared by:




  Rev.             Date                          Description                      Document         Document          ColtKBR         IORVL Review &
                                                                                  Originator:       Owner:           Approval:          Approval:
                                                                                  Keith Meyer    John Greenslade   Brian McCloskey       Ken Phaff
   0         August 2, 2006            Issued for Preliminary Engineering

FileNET No003764212
Owner File Key: 4.13.1.k, Category I                                 For Imperial Oil Use Only                               FORM-PA-010 March 27, 2006
Fault Identification – Desktop Study (UTM 9)                                                        August 2006
Mackenzie Gas Project                                                                                 Revision 0




EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Mackenzie Gas Project (the project) pipeline route from the Alberta boundary to Niglintgak in the
Northwest Territories crosses areas of various levels of seismicity. This report provides the results of a
review of information about seismic faulting, using LiDAR data followed by detailed desktop
examination and a review of LiDAR data.

A seismic hazard assessment of the project (Klohn Crippen 2005) recommended further examination for
evidence of modern fault displacement between Fort Good Hope, at about KP-310 on the pipeline route,
and the Trout River (about KP-930). This study applies the review methodology to the area of interest
along the Mackenzie Valley pipeline route within UTM Zone 9 (KP-292 to KP-509). The same
methodology is being applied to UTM Zone 10 from KP-509 to the Trout River along the pipeline route.
The report for the area of interest within UTM Zone 10 is expected to be completed by the end of
September 2006.

In UTM Zone 9, 55 sites were initially identified with surficial anomalies similar to surface-penetrating
faults. Of those, two sites were identified as high priority, requiring further examination in the field. An
additional five sites were determined to be medium priority, requiring field work as resources allowed.
The anomalies at the remaining 48 sites can be attributed to other causes (anthropogenic features or
surficial landforms) and do not require further examination.




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TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... II
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................III
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................ IV
1.0        INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1
           1.1        Previous Seismic Study ...................................................................................................... 1
           1.2        Scope of Study.................................................................................................................... 3
2.0        METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................. 5
           2.1        General Approach ............................................................................................................... 5
           2.2        Information Sources ............................................................................................................ 5
3.0        LIDAR ALIGNMENT REVIEW ................................................................................................ 7
           3.1        General ............................................................................................................................... 7
           3.2        Use of LiDAR to Identify Faults........................................................................................... 7
           3.3        GIS Methodology ................................................................................................................ 8
           3.4        Results of LiDAR Assessment ............................................................................................ 9
4.0        DESKTOP REVIEW OF LIDAR FEATURES ........................................................................... 13
           4.1        Types of LiDAR Features.................................................................................................. 13
           4.2        Identifying and Rating Features for Field Investigation..................................................... 13
           4.3        Results of Linear Feature Identification in UTM Zone 9 ................................................... 15
           4.4        Future Work – Zone 10 ..................................................................................................... 21
5.0        REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 34
APPENDIX A            BEDROCK GEOLOGY MAPS IN UTM ZONE 9 .......................................................... 37
APPENDIX B            ILLUSTRATED EXAMPLES OF LIDAR IMAGE AND LANDFORM INTERPRETATION ....... 41


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1:        Mackenzie Gas Project Pipeline Route through the Northwest Territories ...............................2
Figure 2:        Slope Change Intervals Used in GIS analysis (Degrees) .........................................................8
Figure 3:        Analyzed Feature at KP-421 (Scale 1: 3,000)...........................................................................9
Figure B-1: LiDAR Image of an Anthropogenic Example...........................................................................42
Figure B-2: Terrain Map Image of an Anthropogenic Example..................................................................43
Figure B-3: LiDAR Image of a Positive Surficial Geology Landform..........................................................44
Figure B-4: Terrain Map Image of a Positive Surficial Geology Landform.................................................45
Figure B-5: LiDAR Image of a Negative Surficial Geology Landform ........................................................46
Figure B-6: Terrain Map Image of a Negative Surficial Geology Landform ...............................................47
Figure B-7: LiDAR Image of Potential Fault Lineation (and a Positive Surficial Geology Landform).........48


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Figure B-8: Terrain Map Image of Potential Fault Lineation (and a Positive Surficial Geology Landform)49
Figure B-9: Plan View of 353.9A (Positive Surficial Geology Landform) and 353.9B (Possible Fault)......50
Figure B-10:   Plan View with Contours; 353.9A (Positive Surficial Geology Landform) and 353.9B
            (Possible Fault)........................................................................................................................51
Figure B-11:    Oblique View (East) of 353.9A (Positive Surficial Geology Landform) and 353.9B
            (Possible Fault). Feature 353.9A is right of the North arrow. Feature 353.9B is the Vertical
            Line below the North Arrow. ....................................................................................................52
Figure B-12:   Oblique View (West) of 353.9A (Positive Surficial Geology Landform) and 353.9B
            (Possible Fault)........................................................................................................................52
Figure B-13:           Profile Index Map of 353.9B..............................................................................................53
Figure B-14:           Cross-Section Profile 1 – 353.9B......................................................................................54
Figure B-15:           Cross-Section Profile 2 – 353.9B (Possible Fault)............................................................54
Figure B-16:           Cross-Section Profile 3 – 353.9B (Possible Fault)............................................................55
Figure B-17:           Cross-Section Profile 4 – 353.9B (Possible Fault)............................................................55



LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:         Project Fault Study using LiDAR to Detect Possible Scarp Targets ....................................... 10
Table 2:         Summary Review of LiDAR-Determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9 ...................................... 22
Table 3:         Fault Locations and Characteristics (Sites Rated High and Medium)..................................... 30
Table 4:         Anticlines, Synclines, Lineations and Characteristics (Sites Rated High and Medium).......... 32




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1.0            INTRODUCTION
The Mackenzie Gas Project (the project) comprises a pipeline system to transport natural gas and natural
gas liquids (NGLs) from three anchor fields in the Northwest Territories (Niglintgak, Taglu and Parsons
Lake) to Alberta. The project involves constructing about 1,200 km of NPS 30 gas pipeline from the
Inuvik area facility to the Alberta boundary, about 190 km of NPS 16 to NPS 32 gathering pipelines, and
about 457 km of an NPS 10 natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline from the Inuvik area facility to Norman
Wells (see Figure 1). This pipeline system will be constructed within rights-of-way 30 to 50 m wide,
depending on the number and diameter of pipelines to be accommodated.


1.1            Previous Seismic Study
A seismic hazard assessment of the project pipeline route was completed in 2005 (Klohn Crippen 2005).
This study made the following statements concerning faults:

          Several sections of the pipeline route cross known or inferred fault traces. These include the
          Eskimo Lakes and Taglu fault zones north of Inuvik, and a series of faults that the route crosses
          or parallels between Fort Good Hope and Trail River. The location of the northern faults
          (Eskimo Lakes and Taglu fault zones) is inferred from deep seismic surveys of the region. The
          southern mapped faults are thrusts forming the Franklin Mountains. These are based on surface
          expression of the fault traces in bedrock exposures and interpreted from geophysical data
          collected in this area.

          For design purposes, a fault is typically considered to be active if there is evidence of ground
          surface displacement during the Holocene epoch (past 11,000 years) (PRCI 2001). As noted
          above, no surface rupture has been mapped in the Quaternary (past 3,000,000 years) sediments.
          This does not, rule out the possibility of active faults with displacement at the ground surface. In
          the Mackenzie Delta, there does not appear to be a direct correlation between the mapped faults
          and current seismic patterns. In the Cordillera, there is a close spatial relationship between
          current seismic activity and pre-existing faults, even if current earthquakes are not occurring
          directly on the known faults. This suggests that further investigation is warranted near the
          locations of mapped faults crossing the route. (Klohn Crippen 2005, p. 20).

Based on the literature review, Klohn Crippen made the following conclusion and recommendation:

          No evidence of recent surface displacement has been found either on the mapped faults in the
          region or in the Quaternary sediments. It does appear that the current faulting mechanisms are
          similar to, and geographically associated with, the historic Laramide faults in the area.

          Several faults are mapped that either cross or closely approach the pipeline route. It is thought
          that these are inactive ancient faults, however, these are areas that require further study. This
          should include a detailed review of air photos and field reconnaissance to look for evidence of
          modern fault displacement and seismic activity in the area of Cordilleran deformation (between
          Fort Good Hope and Trail River). (Klohn Crippen 2005, p.22)




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                                   135°0'0"W                                            130°0'0"W                                       125°0'0"W                                         120°0'0"W                                       115°0'0"W




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      70°0'0"N
                                                                                 Beaufort Sea


              70°0'0"N
                          Mackenzie     Niglintgak
                            Bay
                                          Taglu


                                               Tuktoyaktuk
                                       KP-T0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      115°0'0"W
                           KP-N0                         Parsons Lake                                                                           Paulatuk


                                                       KP-P0

                                                     KP-S0
                            Storm Hills
                          Pigging Facility
                                                                                                                                 INUVIALUIT
                                      Inuvik                                                                                    SETTLEMENT
                                                         KP-0                                                                      REGION                                                                               NUNAVUT
                             Aklavik
                                                                      Fish Trap Lake
                           Inuvik Area Facility


                                                                        KP-100         Thunder River
                                               Tsiigehtchic
                             Fort
                           McPherson

                                        GWICH'IN                                              Little Chicago
              135°0'0"W




                                       SETTLEMENT
                                          AREA                                                                    Colville Lake
                                                                                         KP-200

                                                                                                                      SAHTU
                                                                                                                SETTLEMENT AREA
                                                                                                                 K'AHSHO GOT'INE
                                                                                                                     DISTRICT                                                     Great Bear Lake
                                                                                                       KP-300
                                                                       Loon River North
                                                                      Compressor Station                                                                                        SAHTU
                                                                                  Fort Good Hope                                                                          SETTLEMENT AREA
                                                                                                                   Chick Lake                                              DÉLINE DISTRICT



                                                                                                                KP-400
                                                                                                                                Norman Wells




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      65°0'0"N
              65°0'0"N




                                                                                                                                                            Déline
                                                                                                        Norman Wells                KP-500




                                                                                                                                       Tulita
                                                                                                             Great Bear River
                                                                                                            Compressor Station                              Little Smith Creek South
                                                                                                                                          KP-600




                                                                                                 SAHTU                                                                     Crow Rock Creek                              NORTHWEST
                                                                                           SETTLEMENT AREA                                                                                                              TERRITORIES
                                                                                            TULITA DISTRICT                                                       KP-700

                                                                                                                                                                                Hodgson Creek


                           YUKON TERRITORY
                                                                                                                                                            Wrigley
                                                                                                                                                                             KP-800



                                                                                                                                  River Between Two Mountains
                                                                                                                                       Compressor Station                                    Ebbutt Hills


                                                                                                                                                                                          KP-900


                              LEGEND                                                                                                                                                                             Manners Creek
                                                                                                                                DEH CHO REGION
                                        Gas Pipeline Route Marker (KP)                                                                                                                Fort Simpson
                                        Community                                                                                                                                                                Jean Marie River
                                                                                                                                                                                             KP-1000
                                        Gas Conditioning Facility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Deep Lake
                                        Facility Site

                                        Future Facility Site
                                                                                                                                                       Nahanni Butte
                                        Pigging Facility Site
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        KP-1100
                                        Heater Station
                                                                                                                                                                                            Trout River
                                        Route of Gathering Pipelines
                                                                                                                                                                                           Heater Station
                                        Route of NGL and Gas Pipelines
                                        Gas Pipeline Route                                                                                                                                   Trout Lake
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60°0'0"N




                                                                                                                                                             Fort Liard
              60°0'0"N




                                        Road
                                        District Boundary                                    Watson Lake

                                        Regional Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                                       NGTL
                                        Provincial Boundary                                                                                                                                     Interconnect Facility
                              NGTL Features (not part of MGP)                                                                                                                                                                     ALBERTA
                                        NGTL Interconnect Facility
                                        NGTL NWML (Dickins Lake Section)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zama City
                                        NGTL NWML Loop (Vardie River Section)
                                                                                                        BRITISH
                                 90             45             0                   90                  COLUMBIA                                                                                                                         Chateh
                                                                                                                                                                       Fort Nelson
                                                         Kilometres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rainbow Lake
                               107-0000-011-553 003




                                                                   130°0'0"W                                                                    125°0'0"W                                                                   120°0'0"W




FIGURE 1: MACKENZIE GAS PROJECT PIPELINE ROUTE THROUGH THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

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1.2            Scope of Study

The seismic hazard assessment was discussed with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) at a meeting in
Ottawa in October 2005. During that meeting, NRCan suggested that the project LiDAR data might be
used to help find potential faults. The project proponents agreed to further investigate this. It was
recognized that such a procedure would be especially useful to guide a field reconnaissance.

The study included:

•    identifying linear features along the pipeline alignment that have characteristics similar to seismically
     active faults, using the LiDAR data

•    reviewing the identified linear features, using aerial photography, geological interpretation and
     mapped fault traces to identify those that merit further examination and that are potential candidates
     for field reconnaissance




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2.0            METHODOLOGY

2.1            General Approach
The previous seismic study (Klohn Crippen 2005) recommended reviewing the aerial photography
between Fort Good Hope and Trail River for evidence of surface penetrating faults. The engineering
effort focused first on the segment contained in UTM Zone 9, which covers the northern end of the
recommended review section from Fort Good Hope to about KP-510 of the current alignment. A further
study will examine the alignment segment within UTM Zone 10, covering the southern segment to Trail
River.

This study first used the project’s existing LiDAR data, using geographical information system (GIS)
methodology and associated analytical tools, to examine the alignment for linear features that were
potentially surface faults (see Section 3).

The potential features identified by the GIS study of the LiDAR data were followed by a detailed
engineering geological review using project mapping (see Appendix A) and aerial photographs.
Additional sites to be examined, which were not initially identified through the GIS and LiDAR study,
were added to the list to be examined based on previous geological studies. The engineering geological
review (see Section 4) then carefully examined each of these surface features to determine its potential as
a fault, classifying the potential as high, medium or low. The high-priority sites were prioritized for field
reconnaissance, and sites classified as medium were to be visited as project time and resources permitted.


2.2            Information Sources
The information used for the fault identification assessment was from several sources, including tables,
databases and maps. Most of the required spatial information for the project resides within the GIS
environment, although some additional derived data sets reside in publications, internal reports and
spreadsheets. Some of the more relevant data sets used to conduct the geohazard analysis included:

     •    pipeline corridor with terrain analysis mapping

     •    pipeline route

     •    1:10,000-scale project aerial photographs

     •    LiDAR data




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3.0            LIDAR ALIGNMENT REVIEW
The first task was to identify linear features along the alignment that present surface characteristics
similar to those of a surface-penetrating seismic fault. The project LiDAR data set was used for this task,
and this section discusses the methodology and results of this first task.


3.1            General
The project LiDAR data set was collected in the summer of 2004 by:

     •    Remote Sensing Inc.

     •    ALL-CAN Engineering and Surveys Ltd.

     •    North of 60 Geomatics

The objective of the survey was to create detailed terrain models of the proposed pipeline corridor for the
project. The LiDAR survey covered a 600-m-wide strip along the proposed pipeline corridor. The terrain
products produced from this survey included the ground digital elevation model (DEM) and digital
surface model (DSM). The relative vertical accuracy met the required 20-cm root mean square error
(RMSE) in the project specifications. This data is archived in the project GIS using the Environmental
Systems Research Institute (ESRI) software ArcView and ArcGIS. To further assist in identifying faults,
ArcView’s 3-D Analyst further manipulated the LiDAR data set to visualize and amplify potential
seismic topographical expressions.


3.2            Use of LiDAR to Identify Faults
Some faults in the earth’s upper crust leave topographical expressions indicating their surface location.
Airborne LiDAR surveys can be used to identify fault traces, because LiDAR surveys provide high-
resolution terrain data indicating geomorphic features associated with faults not otherwise readily
observable through dense vegetation. The vegetation and other non-ground laser energy returns are
removed from the data set. The ground laser returns are converted to a high-resolution DEM used to
locate potential fault scarps and other topographical features that might be associated with faulting. This
technology has proven highly successful in locating surface traces of faults that had not been previously
identified (http://pugetsoundlidar.ess.washington.edu/faults).

In 1996, a pilot LiDAR mapping project of Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, Washington, was
conducted. The mapping project exposed:

     •    a previously unrecognized fault scarp

     •    an uplifted marine wave-cut platform

     •    tilted sedimentary strata




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This project led to the detailed LiDAR mapping of all of Kitsap County and most of Kings County in
Washington. The study mapped the entire extent of the Seattle fault. For the Mackenzie Gas Project, the
LiDAR data set will be used as an aid in:

     •    determining the location of existing faults

     •    locating possible undetected faults

LiDAR data can be projected in two dimensions and draped in three. When geospatially located in
ArcGIS, the projected data can be analyzed for hill shade, slope and aspect. This helps to locate features
that analysts previously needed aerial photos to see or infer.

LiDAR DEM coverage allows sections to be drawn through features of interest so that breaks in slope can
be identified. These interpretations can then guide field investigation. LiDAR can also be used to identify
landslides that cover a fault scarp. This information might be useful for dating the fault.

False low sun angle three-dimensional digital images were generated with a full range of illumination
azimuths and altitudes. Using topographic shadowing techniques in ArcGIS, systematic searches were
conducted for scarps and linear topographic features that might indicate the presence of faulting.
Candidate faults identified on the LiDAR images were then transmitted to project engineering geologists
for further review.


3.3            GIS Methodology
Fault scarps in the Mackenzie Valley might be illustrated by subtle changes in topology. To accommodate
sensitive lineations in topology, two methods were used to highlight anomalies. A change-in-slope
algorithm and high-resolution contour generation were used to detect minute changes in topology used for
indicating possible fault scarps. The area of the pipeline corridor examined was KP-292 to KP-509, which
lies within UTM Zone 9. An automated process using ArcView’s 3-D Analyst was used to inspect
topographical data from several hundred square kilometres.

Change-of-slope classification mapping involves carefully selecting change-of-slope intervals represented
topographically by colour. Green and yellow represent negligible to moderate changes in slope. Orange
and bright red represent steeper changes in slope. Figure 2 shows a typical range of slope change intervals
for an area.




                  FIGURE 2: SLOPE CHANGE INTERVALS USED IN GIS ANALYSIS (DEGREES)

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Slope-change classification allows visual representation of topographical features indicated by slope
changes. Once these areas are chosen for further review, false hill shade images, 3-D modelling and dense
contour representations are made for detailed analysis. Examples of such areas are illustrated in
Appendix B.


3.4            Results of LiDAR Assessment
In UTM Zone 9, about 217 km of the proposed pipeline route were analyzed using the change-of-slope
mapping classification. This technique identified the 51 linear topographical features that required further
inspection. The first criterion, used to classify features, was visual inspection of features showing absolute
changes in slope of about 15° or more. These changes were easily depicted using the colour scheme
shown in Figure 2. The second criterion, used to isolate possible scarp anomalies, was evaluating the
length and direction of the change-of-slope features possessing characteristics of scarps. Anthropogenic
features were easily isolated using this classification and not reviewed further. Figure 3 shows a typical
feature that has been analyzed using change-of-slope mapping classification. The feature is located at
about KP-421.




                          FIGURE 3: ANALYZED FEATURE AT KP-421 (SCALE 1: 3,000)
This scale example shows linear, striated features ranging in slope from 10° to more than 60°. Because
this initial classification does not show whether the change is positive or negative, contouring fused with
hill shade imagery is used to further inspect the anomaly. If further analysis is required, cross-sections
along the scarp formation are created (see examples in Appendix B).

The narrow corridor covered by the LiDAR data limits the value of this method of fault identification.
The width of the LiDAR corridor is only 600 m and this type of classification requires evidence of scarps
within this data bank. Faults in this region span hundreds of kilometres, and this technique might not
discover them within this corridor.


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         TABLE 1: PROJECT FAULT STUDY USING LIDAR TO DETECT POSSIBLE SCARP TARGETS

                                         UTM Zone 9 Easting           Northing
                    KP Number                   (m)                     (m)                Comments
           1      292.5                        511816                 7370182    Possible scarp
           2      294.6                        512994                 7368275    Possible scarp
           3      310.4                        520707                 7354725    Possible scarp
           4      311.2                        520707                 7353913    Possible scarp
           5      314                          321033                 7351260    Scarp or glacier deposit
           6      323.2                        323118                 7342483    Possible scarp
           7      324.8                        523713                 7340854    Possible scarp
           8      341.3                        328946                 7325360    Possible scarp
           9      341.6                        329035                 7325071    Possible scarp
           10     344.2                        529992                 7322673    Possible scarp
           11     346.5                        530686                 7320419    Possible scarp
           12     353                          532442                 7314200    Possible scarp
           13     353.9                        532800                 7313363    Possible scarp
           14     355.6                        533401                 7311791    Possible scarp
           15     359                          534417                 7308709    Creek, check for scarp
           16     359.6                        534642                 7308135    Possible scarp
           17     361.3                        535420                 7306621    Possible scarp
           18     362.6                        536454                 7305866    Possible scarp
           19     364.3                        537800                 7305006    Possible scarp
           20     386.3                        551003                 7288748    Possible scarp
           21     386.9                        551132                 7288111    Possible scarp
           22     388.2                        551025                 7286921    Possible scarp
           23     388.6                        550984                 7286490    Possible scarp
           24     397.8                        554816                 7278488    Possible scarp
           25     402.7                        558008                 7274861    Possible scarp
           26     From 403.4                   557982                 7274868
                                                                                 Long linear features
           27     To 407.1                     560985                 7271624
           28     408.5                        561842                 7270590    Possible scarp
           29     421.4                        569313                 7260373    Check area
           30     423.6                        571020                 7259225    Possible scarp
           31     426.7                        573303                 7257824    Scarp or glacier deposit
           32     432.9                        578120                 7254159    Possible scarp



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                                         UTM Zone 9 Easting           Northing
                    KP Number                   (m)                     (m)                Comments
           33     From 434.2                   579255                 7253653
                                                                                 Possible scarp
           34     To 437.1                     581690                 7252290
           35     438.6                        582959                 7251394    Possible scarp
           36     441.1                        585017                 7249939    Possible scarp
           37     441.6                        585323                 7249691    Possible scarp
           38     From 444.8                   587781                 7247950
                                                                                 Long gentle slope feature
           39     To 447.6                     590441                 7246524
           40     450                          592574                 7245382    Possible scarp
           41     455.8                        597709                 7242895    Possible scarp
           42     458.3                        600136                 7243485    Possible scarp
           43     466.9                        607933                 7240216    Possible scarp
           44     474.8-475.5                  614885                 7236283    Possible scarp
           45     476.9                        616372                 7235257    Possible scarp
           46     477.3-479.5                  617690                 7234313    Possible scarp
           47     480.6                        619321                 7233137    Possible scarp
           48     482.1                        620641                 7232152    Possible scarp
           49     488.9                        625975                 7228155    Possible scarp
           50     499.6                        634489                 7222019    Check surrounding area
           51     502-503.4                    636944                 7220198    Possible scarp




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4.0            DESKTOP REVIEW OF LIDAR FEATURES
The second part of this study included a review of the linear features that were identified along the
pipeline in UTM Zone 9 by the LiDAR study, and included desktop identification of:

     •    linear anthropogenic features

     •    linear non-structural surficial geology landforms

     •    linear structural lineaments (faults, anticlines, synclines and structural lineaments)

The combined desktop LiDAR and geological study was used to better define potentially active faults
along the pipeline. The results will be used as input into the planned summer 2006 field program, when a
geologist will visit the high-priority fault locations.


4.1            Types of LiDAR Features
LiDAR lineations identify changes in the relief and slope of the land surface regardless of the vegetative
cover. By using false imagery colours, LiDAR images reflect the differences in these elements.

Linear features identified by LiDAR are usually one of the following:

     •    anthropogenic features – anthropogenic features are created by people and include trails, roads,
          seismic cutlines and pipeline rights-of-way. Generally, these are readily identifiable on maps and
          aerial photographs, as they are unusually straight or cross at well-defined angles. These features
          indent the land surface enough to be reflected by LiDAR contours.

     •    surficial geology landforms (positive topography) – surficial geology landforms might exhibit
          linear morphology because of their depositional history. Landforms that are depositional often
          appear as raised features with side slopes on the LiDAR images.

     •    surficial geology landforms (negative topography) –surficial geology landforms and geological
          features might exhibit linear depressional morphology on the LiDAR imagery because of the
          erosional processes that formed them. These erosional landforms and features include streams,
          gullies, bedrock cliffs and adjacent low areas, and escarpments in surficial deposits and adjacent
          low areas. The erosional bedrock cliffs and escarpments are linear to curvilinear and change
          elevation along their trend.

     •    structural features – lineations related to earth movements, such as folding and faulting, are the
          least common lineations identified by LiDAR. These features often lack surface expression and
          are covered by unconsolidated surficial deposits. They are often near structural features identified
          from bedrock geology maps and reports. Some might be active.


4.2            Identifying and Rating Features for Field Investigation
Features were identified using information from the following sources:


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     •    published bedrock and surficial geology maps and publications covering the Mackenzie Valley,
          produced mostly by the Geological Survey of Canada

     •    Rev. D of the Mackenzie Gas Project Terrain Analysis and Mapping of the 2-km-wide pipeline
          corridor

     •    LiDAR information that showed linear features

     •    interpretation of the 1:10,000 and 1:30,000-scale aerial photographs taken for the project

The analysis included the following steps:

1. LiDAR images and contours were used to identify all lineations.

2. Anthropogenic lineations were identified from maps and aerial photographs.

3. The 1:30,000-scale project Rev. D terrain maps and the stereoscopic 1:30,000-scale aerial
   photographs used to prepare the maps were consulted to determine lineations that represented
   surficial geology landforms or features with both positive and negative topography.

4. Bedrock geology maps and publications were reviewed and all known structural features, such as
   synclines, anticlines and faults, were mapped up to 20 km on either side of the pipeline corridor.
   Bedrock boundaries were plotted for 5 km to 10 km on either side of the pipeline corridor. The
   structural features and bedrock boundaries were plotted on 1:150,000-scale topographic maps. These
   maps were then used to identify areas where faults and other structural features identified with faults
   cross the pipeline right-of-way.

5. LiDAR-identified structural lineations were also assessed on the 1:30,000 and 1:10,000-scale aerial
   photographs to compare them with the structural features on the 1:150,000-scale maps.

6. All LiDAR-identified lineations were rated as low, medium or high in importance. The rating was
   used to determine high priority locations in the field that should be visited. Field investigations and
   further literature reviews will attempt to determine whether any of the high priority faults are active.
   Medium priority faults might also be investigated.

7. All lineations identified geologically and by LiDAR in UTM Zone 9 are described in Table 2, which
   locates each lineation by KP and National Topographic System (NTS) number, and also gives:

     •    the aerial photograph coverage

     •    the feature’s orientation

     •    the mapped terrain unit

     •    regional permafrost characteristics

     •    estimated thickness of overburden

     •    associated boreholes


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     •    the priority rating of the lineation for field investigation

The priority ratings are:

     •    high priority (H) – high priority lineations can be explained best by structural trends. They might
          be on trend with the faulted zone or on top of it, or associated with sheer bedrock walls along the
          fault line. They are high priority for field examination.

     •    medium priority (M) – medium priority lineations might or might not be related to bedrock or
          structural control or both. They are medium priority for field examination.

     •    low priority (L) – low priority lineations are anthropogenic features or surficial geology features
          that were identified in the desktop study. They are eliminated from the field investigations.

For illustrated examples of the study using LiDAR images and contours, see Appendix B.


4.3            Results of Linear Feature Identification in UTM Zone 9

               4.3.1          Geological Review

               For the study, all known structural geology features were plotted on 16 topographic map
               bases of 1:150,000. This included:

                    •    anticlinal and synclinal folds

                    •    salt dome occurrences

                    •    normal faults

                    •    thrust faults

                    •    reverse thrust faults

                    •    undetermined lineations

               All recognized geological boundaries were plotted from 5 to 10 km outside the corridor on
               the 1:150,000-scale contour map bases incorporating the original formation nomenclature of
               the authors. References to bedrock maps and geological formations on these maps were listed
               in each legend of the 1:150,000-scale maps. Appendix A contains Map 107-0000-011-641-
               005 and Map 107-0000-011-641-006, from Loon River to Jungle Creek (KP-290 to KP-495).

               Structural elements and geological boundaries for all 16 maps along the entire pipeline have
               been completed in draft form, and Map 5 and Map 6 have been digitized. The remaining 14
               maps should be completed in August 2006.

               During the review of the LiDAR lineations, a geologist and LiDAR specialist identified and
               enhanced the perspective of the lineations by using:


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                    •    3-D imaging

                    •    oblique aerial rotation

                    •    0.3 m contouring

                    •    hill-slope shading

               In addition, LiDAR personnel generated 360º rotational videos and computer cross-sections
               to illustrate subtle ridge expressions seen on LiDAR in selected sites rated high or medium
               priority.

               Table 2 lists all lineations determined by LiDAR. Fifty-five sites in UTM Zone 9 were
               reviewed. This analysis includes sites identified by geological assessment, either because of
               detailed scanning of LiDAR plats or because they represent extensions of significant
               structural trends outside the corridor (for example, Site 355.25 and the Effie Fault Trend).

               Table 3 summarizes map-plotted faults that were reviewed in terms of:

                    •    geological character

                    •    dimensions

                    •    orientation

                    •    age

                    •    authorship or information source

               Only faults associated with high and medium priority sites are described.

               Table 4 shows the location and characteristics of additional geological structures such as
               anticlines, synclines and additional non-categorized lineaments. Only anticlines and synclines
               associated with high and medium priority sites are described.

                               4.3.1.1          High-Priority Sites

                               The lineament assessment showed two high-priority sites in UTM Zone 9:

                               •   Site KP-353.9 B (see Figure B-7 to B-16)

                               •   Site KP-397.8

                               Site KP-353.9 B

                               Site KP-353.9B is:

                               •   natural linear feature


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                              •    on trend with a known fault

                              •    a low-profile positive ridge extending 225 m west of the right-of-way with a
                                   faint continuation east of the right-of-way

                                   General Description

                                   The linear trend is a low-relief ridge oriented northwest-southeast on a gently
                                   sloping till plain below a dolomite outcrop. This feature tracks along the
                                   slope as far as the winter road and might be represented as a weak contour
                                   break east of the winter road and just north of the 353.9A site. Profiles
                                   suggest an average relief of 0.5 m.

                                   This site is rated high because of the trending of the Effie fault line (EF-1),
                                   which is mapped from the north side of Mount Effie but ends about 7 km east
                                   of the corridor. A bedrock outcrop orientation at KP-353.9 suggests two
                                   dominant trends:

                                   •    the dolomite, which trends west-southwest and east-southeast

                                   •    the Mount Kindle Formation cored anticline (dolomite) which trends
                                        east-west (EF-A1)

                                   The LiDAR feature could also be an alluvial overbank ridge on a poorly
                                   drained slope on a poorly developed alluvial fan.

                                   An earthquake of magnitude 3 to 4 occurred in 1971, with an epicentre
                                   40 km to the west-northwest, south of the Bat Hills on the shore of the
                                   Mackenzie River. In addition, a major rockslide occurred 3 km east of the
                                   corridor on the north slope of the anticline.

                                   Access

                                   Site KP-353.9B can be accessed by landing on the winter road trail or on a
                                   bedrock outcrop. The ridge area is moderately treed and reasonably well
                                   drained. A general flyover of the fault trend is recommended for additional
                                   indicators.

                              Site KP-397.8

                                   Site KP-353.9B is:

                                   •    a linear feature visible for more than 100 m with variable relief of 0.3 to
                                        0.5 m

                                   •    a faint trace on the original LiDAR plat. However, it is more apparent
                                        using hill shade views, vertical profiles and detailed 0.3 m contour maps.




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                                   •    associated with an anticlinal fold and cuesta-type outcrops on the north
                                        flank and a low profile ridge, which flares out on the south flank of the
                                        eroded anticline

                                   •    located west of a limestone outcrop and associated vertical wall

                                   General Description

                                   Site KP-397.8, a subtle linear feature on LiDAR, is rated high because of the
                                   presence of a known underlying fault, the Carcajou Thrust Fault (GH-4), in
                                   association with the Carcajou anticline (GH-A1 and A2). This east-west
                                   trend joins the Gibson Thrust Fault (GH-1) at Paige Mountain.

                                   The Carcajou anticline was interpreted as a steep-limbed anticline with the
                                   steep face on the south side. The associated thrust fault underlies the surface
                                   anticline with the fault surface trace covered (Aitken et al. 1982). The area
                                   was mapped with variable till cover in the lows and colluvial sand and rubble
                                   on the bedrock slopes.

                                   This LiDAR-identified linear feature might be part of the eroded Late
                                   Cretaceous anticline. However, it is in line with a vertical rock face to the
                                   east which forms the south-facing rock wall and shoreline of a lake. The
                                   right-of-way crosses the fault line.

                                   The question remains whether there is any active movement and if anything
                                   could be identified from surface indicators. Apart from the vertical wall face
                                   at the lake, two interesting features occur directly east of the site as seen on
                                   the 1:10,000-scale photographs. Three fresh-looking drainage paths or debris
                                   torrent paths are present and should be reviewed during field operations.

                                   An earthquake of magnitude 3 to 4 occurred in 1975, with an epicentre less
                                   than 10 km to the southwest on the west bank of the Mackenzie River. The
                                   epicentre of another earthquake of the same magnitude in 1971 was 40 km to
                                   the west-northwest, south of the Bat Hills on the shore of the Mackenzie.

                                   Access

                                   Access to the site is excellent with plenty of open flat areas. The site is
                                   within easy walking distance of both the linear trend and the lake bounded by
                                   the vertical rock face. Note: this site is west of Borrow Site 7.028 – a bedrock
                                   quarry location.

                              4.3.1.2           Medium Priority Sites

                              The lineament assessment showed five medium priority sites in UTM Zone 9:

                                   •    Site KP-353.0

                                   •    Site KP-353.6

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                                   •    Site KP-353.9A

                                   •    Effie Fault Trend

                                   •    Site KP-355.25

                              Site KP-353.0

                                   General Description

                                   Site KP-353.0, located southwest of a large unnamed lake, is an elongated
                                   feature with abrupt turns. It was mapped as part of a larger unit identified as
                                   a glaciofluvial blanket over a till plain. It is associated with narrow, low-
                                   profile esker knobs and ridge segments to the north.

                                   An excellent oblique view highlights the feature. This could possibly be a
                                   bedrock-supported feature with a dominant linear trend crossing the right-of-
                                   way. It was not visited during the field season. However, just to the south, at
                                   project field site 81.0, gravelly sand was identified.

                                   Field verification would confirm its landform designation as a glacial deposit
                                   versus bedrock and associated faults.

                                   Access

                                   A helicopter landing can probably be made on the winter road, which crosses
                                   this feature.

                              Site KP-353.6

                                   General Description

                                   Although not in the original LiDAR set, enhanced hill-slope images picked
                                   up an unusual 90o bend in a drainage channel half way between the winter
                                   road and the proposed right-of-way. The image was verified by the 0.3 m
                                   LiDAR contour map. This type of feature is an indicator of bedrock faulting
                                   and might prove valuable in conjunction with other potential fault features in
                                   the area.

                                   Access

                                   Moderate to poor access through medium-dense tree cover and perhaps
                                   soggy ground. It is suggested that a helicopter land on the winter road and
                                   field personnel hike to a GPS coordinate.

                              Site KP-353.9A

                                   General Description



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                                   See Figure B-8 through Figure B-12, and the discussion of Figure .B-13 and
                                   the profiles of B-14 to B-17.

                                   Access

                                   The right-of-way crosses this feature. However, the nearest clear-cut
                                   helicopter landing location is the winter road 100 m to the west. The aerial
                                   photographs show that the site is well treed. An exposure for a helicopter
                                   landing might be found on the crest of the feature.

                              Site: Effie Fault Trend

                                   General Description

                                   The Effie Fault Trend site is the potential fault along a major east-west
                                   structural trend. The Effie anticline (EF-A1) is cored by Mount Kindle
                                   Dolomite (OSk) of Ordovician and Silurian age. The associated Effie thrust
                                   fault (EF-1 and EF-2) curves around from the north and east side of Mount
                                   Effie and ends about 7 km east of the corridor in an east-west trend (Aitken
                                   and Cook 1976). The bedrock outcrop orientation at KP-353.9 suggests two
                                   dominant trends:

                                   •    a west-northwest to east-southeast trend

                                   •    an east-west trend where the anticline seems to end and perhaps plunge
                                        under the right-of-way

                                   The outcrop patterns in this area suggests a complex structural history (Hume
                                   1954).

                                   The field program should include a flyover to check for unusual ruptures,
                                   unusual springs, massive rockfalls and other indicators of recent movement.
                                   If the fault line continues under the right-of-way, fault activation could be
                                   possible.

                                   Access

                                   Reasonable access is expected along the anticline. Potential helicopter stops
                                   would depend on need and unexpected locations.

                              Site KP-355.25

                                   General Description

                                   The LiDAR image located a straight linear trend similar to Site 353.9B. It is
                                   a low relief ridge oriented northwest-southeast across the right-of-way. This
                                   feature is barely noticeable. It is unusual as it cannot be explained as an
                                   anthropogenic feature. It might be a channel or alluvial fan.



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                                   The ridge extends southeast from a dolomite bedrock outcrop and is in a
                                   terrain unit mapped as tMv/doR-2 – a morainal veneer on dolomitic bedrock.

                                   Access

                                   The site can be accessed from the winter road. It is moderately treed.

                              4.3.1.3          Low Priority Sites

                              The lineament assessment showed 48 low priority sites in UTM Zone 9:

                              KP-292.5                 KP-406.0
                              KP-294.6                 KP-407.1
                              KP-310.4                 KP-408.5
                              KP-311.2                 KP-421.4
                              KP-314.0                 KP-423.6
                              KP-323.2                 KP-426.7
                              KP-324.8                 KP-432.9
                              KP-341.3                 KP-437.0 (434.2-437.1)
                              KP-341.6                 KP-438.6
                              KP-344.2                 KP-441.1
                              KP-346.5                 KP-441.6
                              KP-354.5                 KP-444.8-447.6
                              KP-355.6                 KP-450.0
                              KP-359.0                 KP-455.8
                              KP-359.6                 KP-458.3
                              KP-361.3                 KP-466.9
                              KP-362.6                 KP-474.8-475.5
                              KP-364.3                 KP-476.9
                              KP-386.3                 KP-477.3-479.5
                              KP-386.9                 KP-480.6
                              KP-388.2                 KP-482.1
                              KP-388.6                 KP-488.9
                              KP-402.7                 KP-499.6
                              KP-403.4                 KP-502.6 (502.0-502.4)

4.4            Future Work – Zone 10
About 90 sites in UTM Zone 10 have been selected by LiDAR assessment and will be assessed using the
same methodology as for sites in UTM Zone 9 by the end of August, for the commencement of the 2006
field reconnaissance planned for September.




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TABLE 2: SUMMARY REVIEW OF LIDAR-DETERMINED FAULT SITES IN UTM ZONE 9

                                                                                        Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                     Terrain                        Overburden                          Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                          Aerial Photo           Orientation          Map                            Thickness           Anthro-           Landforms           Landforms                                       Bedrock Typed        Rating
    KP         NTS       Line (Number)           and Slope          Symbol b       Permafrostc      (Boreholes)          pogenic       (Positive Features) (Negative Features)         Fault Structures         (Formation)         H/M/Le
292.5          106 I        SKG-9 110          East-west across     tMu-V-1,2          DE        Overburden >3 m      NA               NA                       Drainage channel on   NA                  Shale gully exposure to     Low
                            (531-533)          right-of-way, low                      4LM        (South of FH01-04)                                             broad till plain                          north
                                               gradient
294.6          106 I          ML 113           Northeast-            tMu-1,2           DE        Overburden >3 m      Cutline          Very low profile esker   NA                    NA                  NA                          Low
                             (467-468)         southwest across                       4LM        (West of Borrow Site                  ridge
                                               right-of-way,                                     184, 185 and 186)
                                               low to medium
                                               gradient
310.4          106 I       SKG-10 118          Northeast-          fLb/g,sAt-2,1       DE        Overburden >3 m      NA               Alluvial embankments     NA                    NA                  NA                          Low
                            (154-156)          southwest,                             4LM        (HIR-04-BH04 in or                    of Hare Indian River
                                               low gradient                                      near unit)
311.2          106 I       SKG-10 121          Northeast-            s,fLu-1,2         DE        Overburden >3 m      NA               Alluvial embankments     NA                    NA                  NA                          Low
                            (498-499)          southwest,                             4LM        (723C4, C5, C6 in or                  of Hare Indian River
                                               low gradient                                      near unit)
314.0          106 I       SKG-10 118          East-west, steep-    g,sGr-4,3          DE        Overburden >3 m      NA               Prominent esker ridge NA                       NA                  NA                          Low
                            (158-160)          walled ridge                           4LM        (722C6, C7, C8)
                                               slopes
323.2          106 I       SKG-10 119          ENE-WSW, subtle       tMu-1,2           DE        Overburden >3 m      Winter road      Low profile ridge        NA                    NA                  NA                          Low
                            (108-109)          break in slope                         4LM        (716C8 and 715C1)
324.8          106 I          ML-122           Northeast-          tMu-1,2 and         DE        Overburden >3 m      NA               Reflects southern        NA                    NA                  NA                          Low
                             (163-164)         southwest            pOv/tMp-1         4LM        (715B6-B9)                            edge of low morainal
                                                                                                                                       ridge
341.3          106 I       SKG-12 122          Northeast-            Divides           DE        Overburden >3 m       NA              NA                       Stream channel        NA                  NA                          Low
                            (182-183)          southwest, linear    pOv/tMp-1         4LM        (North of Borrow Site
                                               and winding          and tMp-1                    6.089 till ridge)




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                                                                                       Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                     Terrain                       Overburden                             Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                          Aerial Photo           Orientation          Map                           Thickness              Anthro-           Landforms           Landforms                                                     Bedrock Typed       Rating
    KP         NTS       Line (Number)           and Slope          Symbol b      Permafrostc      (Boreholes)             pogenic       (Positive Features) (Negative Features)                 Fault Structures               (Formation)        H/M/Le
341.6          106 I       SKG-12 122          Northeast-             tMr-1,2         DE        Overburden >3 m         NA               Till drumlinoid ridge      NA                          NA                        NA                         Low
                            (182-184)          southwest, linear                     4LM        (Site of Borrow Site
                                                                                                6.089 till ridge-TP1-
                                                                                                3)
344.2          106 I       SKG-12 122          Circular             pOb/tMp-1         DE        Overburden >3 m         NA               NA                         Depression in till plain,   NA                        NA                         Low
                            (185-186)                                                4LM        (4761006 is 0.5 km                                                  overlain by peat
                                                                                                north)
346.5          106 I       SKG-12 122          Linear                 Divides         DE        Overburden >3 m         NA               NA                         Stream channel              NA                        NA                         Low
                            (188-189)                               pOv/tMp-1        4LM        (700C2, C3 in
                                                                    and tMu-V-                  channel)
                                                                        1,2
353.0          106 H       SKG-12 122          Zigzag               s,gGb/tMp-1      DE         Overburden >3 m         Winter road      Possible glaciofluvial     NA                          Might be a bedrock        Dhi                      Medium
                            (195-196)                                                4NL        (project field site                      ridge*                                                 ridge*                    Shale, minor limestone
                                                                                                81.0 is south of                                                                                On trend with fault*
                                                                                                LiDAR site)
353.6a         106 H       SKG-12 122          Zigzag               s,gGb/tMp-1      DE         Overburden >3 m         Winter road      NA                         Stream channel in a         Might be bedrock-fault Dhi/Dh*                     Medium
                            (195-196)                                                4NL        (project field site                                                 zigzag formation            controlled             Shale or limestone
                                                                                                81.0 is north of
                                                                                                LiDAR site)
353.9A         106 H       SKG-12 122          East-west              tMu-1,2        DE         Overburden >3 m         Winter road      Originally mapped as NA                                Need to confirm           Db                       Medium
                            (196-197)          Curvilinear east-                     4NL        (No borehole)                            Gu, might be bedrock*                                  gravel knoll or ridge,    Dolomite
                                               west                  s,gGu-2,1                                                                                                                  might be bedrock*

353.9B         106 H       SKG-12 122          Northwest-             tMp-1,2        DE         Overburden <3 m*        Winter road      Possible sand or           NA                          Subtle low-relief ridge   Db                        High
                            (196-197)          southeast,                            4NL        (No borehole)                            gravel ridge or alluvial                               might cross right-of-     Dolomite
                                               crossing right-of-                                                                        fan                                                    way, see detailed
                                               way*,                                                                                                                                            profiles and hill shade
                                               Linear WNW-ESE                                                                                                                                   views*




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                                                                                         Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                    Terrain                          Overburden                           Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                          Aerial Photo           Orientation         Map                              Thickness            Anthro-           Landforms           Landforms                                                 Bedrock Typed         Rating
     KP         NTS      Line (Number)           and Slope         Symbol b         Permafrostc      (Boreholes)           pogenic       (Positive Features) (Negative Features)              Fault Structures              (Formation)          H/M/Le
Effie Fault     106 H      SKG-12 122          East-west            Check out          DE         Overburden variable    NA              NA                         Possible*               Subtle low-relief         Dh, Db limestone        Medium; based
and Anticline               (194-198)                                possible          4NL        <1 to >3 m, subtle                                                                        lineations                                        on proximity to
Trend a                    N39 (19-21)                            faults north of                 lineations on LiDAR;                                                                                                                             fault
                             A31877                                 mountain                      (two boreholes east
                            (327-330)                             range outside                   of right-of-way:
                                                                     corridor                     313DH1, 2)
354.5 a         106 H      SKG-12 122          East-west             tMu-1,2           DE         Overburden >3 m        Winter road     Might be low profile till NA                        NA                       NA                           Low
                            (197-198)                                                  4NL        (No borehole)                          or gravel knoll. Linear
                                                                                                                                         but short*
355.25          106 H      SKG-12 122          Northwest-            tMu-1,2           DE         Overburden >3 m       NA               Possible sand or           NA                      Subtle low-relief ridge   Db                         Medium
(similar to                 (197-198)          southeast                               4NL        (No borehole on site,                  gravel ridge or alluvial                           might cross right-of-     Dolomite
353.9)                                                                                            also see Borrow Site                   fan                                                way*
                                                                                                  7.003AP)
355.6           106 H      SKG-12 122          North-south and       tMu-1,2           DE         Overburden >3 m       Enhanced by      NA                         Partly eroded*          Bedrock underlying        Dolomite, shale,             Low
                            (197-198)          east-west*,                             4NL        (No borehole on site, thaw of winter                                                      thin till or gravel       limestone (at 20.114)
                                               unusually curved                                   also see Borrow       road
                                                                                                  Sites 20.114P and
                                                                                                  7.003AP)
359.0           106 H      SKG-12 122          East-west            tMu-V-1,2           DI        Overburden >3 m        Winter road     NA                         Drainage channel         NA                       NA                           Low
                            (201-202)          connecting lakes                        3LM        (FH3-04 1,2,3)                                                    between two water
                                                                                                                                                                    bodies
359.6           106 H      SKG-12 122          East-west            f,sAf-1,2           DI        Overburden >3 m        Winter road     NA                         Drainage channel on      NA                       NA                           Low
                            (202-203)                                                  3LM        (692C6,C7)                                                        alluvial fan


361.3           106 H      SKG-12 122          Southwest-          Gullies are          DI        Overburden >3 m        Winter road     NA                         Erosional gullies and     NA                      NA                           Low
                            (203-204)          northeast           f,sCx-2 on          3LM        (690B1,2,3,                                                       colluvial slopes draining
                                                                      tMu-2                       MGP 83.7)                                                         into Chick Lake
362.6           106 H         ML 123           Southwest-            f,sCx-2            DI        OB>3m                  Winter road     NA                         Erosional gullies and     NA                      NA                           Low
                             (455-457)         northeast           (gullies) on        3LM        (690B1,2,3,                                                       colluvial slopes draining
                                                                      tMu-2                       MGP 83.5)                                                         into Chick Lake


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                                                                                            Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                        Terrain                         Overburden                            Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                          Aerial Photo           Orientation             Map                             Thickness             Anthro-           Landforms           Landforms                                          Bedrock Typed      Rating
    KP         NTS       Line (Number)           and Slope             Symbol b        Permafrostc      (Boreholes)            pogenic       (Positive Features) (Negative Features)        Fault Structures             (Formation)       H/M/Le
364.3          106 H          ML 123           Southwest-             tMu-2,1 with         DI        Overburden >3 m        Winter road      NA                   Erosional gullies and     NA                     NA                        Low
                             (457-458)         northeast                gullies           3LM        (689C4,C5)                                                   colluvial slopes draining
                                                                                                                                                                  into Chick Lake
386.3           96 E          ML 127           Southwest-              tMm-V-2,3           DI        Overburden >3 m        NA               NA                   Erosional gullies and     NA                     NA, dolomite nearby       Low
                             (491-492)         northeast                 sAf-1            3LM        dolomite outcrop to                                          colluvial slopes draining
                                                                                                     west and southeast                                           into Chick Lake
                                                                                                     (675C7, C8,
                                                                                                     MGP 91.0)
386.9           96 E          ML 127           Southwest-               tMm-2,1            DI        Overburden >3 m        NA               NA                   Erosional gullies and     NA                     NA                        Low
                             (491-492)         northeast                                  3LM        (674C4, 674S1,                                               colluvial slopes draining
                                                                                                     MGP 91.0)                                                    into Chick Lake
388.2           96 E          ML 127           Northwest-             f,s,gLu-2,3,1        DE        Overburden >3 m        NA               Edge of bedrock slope NA                      NA                      Limestone                 Low
                             (493-494)         southeast                                  4LM        (673C1,2,3,
                                                                                                     MGP 91.1)
388.6           96 E          ML 127           Northwest-              lsR-5,4 and        DE         Mostly bedrock         NA               Cuesta range         Creek                   Cuestas defined by       Db: dolomite and          Low
                             (493-494)         southeast and          tMb/lsR-2,3,4       4NL        slopes                                                                               Gibson Thrust Fault.     limestone
                                               perpendicular                                         (673C6 nearby)                                                                       No obvious fault line.   Dh: shale
                                               Northeast-
                                               southwest
397.8           96 E      Main: ST-1 128       Centre of west-         tMv/ls,shR-         DE        Thin colluvial and     NA               NA                   NA                      Linear trends,           Limestone quarry (see    High
                            (505-508);         east anticlinal fold       2,3,            4LM        morainal cover on                                                                    possibly fault-          7.018) and quarry
                         ST-1 129 (22-26);                            s,rCb/sh,lsR-                  bedrock anticlinal                                                                   controlled (active*)     report
                          ST-1 130 (2-6)                                   4,5                       slopes,                                                                              See GH-4, GH-A2.
                                                                                                     (677 B10, B11)
402.7           96 E     ST-1 129 (27-28)      Northeast-              f,sAf-TK-2,         DE        Overburden >3 m        Winter road      NA                   Yes                      NA                      NA                        Low
                                               southwest                 f,sCx-3          4LM        (665C8)
403.4           96 E     ST-1 129 (28-30)      North-south            fL, Mp, slight       DE        Overburden >3 m        Winter road      Likely wave-cut bench NA                      NA                      NA                        Low
                                                                          terrace         4LM        (662C1-C8)                              marking edge of
                                                                        alignment                                                            lacustrine area




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                                                                                        Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                    Terrain                         Overburden                             Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                          Aerial Photo           Orientation         Map                             Thickness              Anthro-           Landforms           Landforms                                         Bedrock Typed   Rating
    KP         NTS       Line (Number)           and Slope         Symbol b        Permafrostc      (Boreholes)             pogenic       (Positive Features) (Negative Features)      Fault Structures              (Formation)    H/M/Le
406.0           96 E     ST-1 130 (10-11)      North-south        fL, Mp, slight       DE        Overburden >3 m         Winter road      Yes                   NA                    NA (Note: lineation is   NA                     Low
                                                                      terrace         4LM        (No borehole)                                                                        parallel to GH-1 fault
                                                                    alignment                                                                                                         on Paige Mountain)
407.1           96 E     ST-1 130 (11-12)      North-south        fL; Mps slight       DE        Overburden >3 m         Winter road      Yes                   NA                    NA (Note: lineation is   NA                     Low
                                                                      terrace         4LM        (No borehole)                                                                        parallel to GH-1 fault
                                                                    alignment                                                                                                         on Paige Mountain)
408.5           96 E     ML-131 (436-437)      East-west            f,sLu-1,2          DE        Overburden 3 m,         NA               NA                    Drainage channels     NA                       NA                     Low
                                               curvilinear to                         4LM        (661C4-C7)
                                               northeast-
                                               southwest
421.4           96 E     ML 133 (463-464)      Northwest-         sAb/f,sLu-1,2       DE         Overburden >3 m         Winter road      Unmapped sand         NA                    NA                       NA                     Low
                                               southeast,                             4LM        (653C1-C4)                               dunes identified by
                                               relatively steep                                                                           LiDAR
                                               and arcuate
423.6           96 E     ML 133 (464-465)      NNW-SSE            sAb/f,sLu-1,2       DE         Overburden >3 m         NA               NA                    This is a narrow      NA                       NA                     Low
                                                                                      4LM        (652C1,C2;              Winter road                            meltwater channel
                                                                                                 653C6,C7)                                                      identified by LiDAR
426.7           96 E     ML 133 (468-469)      Curvilinear          sEu-2,1,           DE        Overburden >3 m         NA               NA                    Embankment slope      NA                       NA                     Low
                                               roughly              s.fLu-1,2         4LM        No borehole             Winter road
                                               northwest-
                                               southeast
432.9           96 E     ML 133 (475-476)      Arcuate shapes       sEr-2,3,           DE        Overburden >3 m         NA               Unmapped sand         NA                    NA                       NA                     Low
                                               and clusters       pOv/sAb/ fLp-       4LM        (646B2A, 287B2A)        Winter road      dunes identified by
                                                                      TK-1                                                                LiDAR
437.0           96 E          ML 133           WNW-ESE            sAb/fLp-TK-          DE        Overburden >3 m         NA               NA                    NA                    On trend with Morrow     NA                     Low
                            (477-481),                                1,2             4LM        (644C1-C6)              Winter road                                                  Creek anticline, see
(434.2-                    N385 (7-10)                                                                                                                                                ML133 479-480 (no
437.1)                                                                                                                                                                                fault Identified)




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                                                                                        Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                     Terrain                        Overburden                           Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                          Aerial Photo           Orientation          Map                            Thickness           Anthro-            Landforms           Landforms                                         Bedrock Typed   Rating
    KP         NTS       Line (Number)           and Slope          Symbol b       Permafrostc      (Boreholes)          pogenic        (Positive Features) (Negative Features)           Fault Structures         (Formation)    H/M/Le
438.6           96 E     ML 133 (481-482)      Stream is NNE-      sAb/fLp-TK-         DE        Overburden >3 m      NA                NA, small sand dune   NA                         NA                  NA                     Low
                                               SSW, winter road,       1,2            4LM        (642S1, C1)          Winter road,
                                               trail or dune is                                                       possible trail
                                               NW-SE
441.1           96 E     ML 133 (484-485)      Stream NNE-         sAb/fLp-TK-         DE        Overburden >3 m      NA, two trails, NA                      Stream crossing            NA                  NA                     Low
                                               SSW                     1,2            4LM        (641C1, C3)          one winter road
441.6           96 E     ML 133 (484-485)      Stream northeast-   sAb/fLp-TK-         DE        Overburden >3 m      NA, trail and     NA                    Stream crossing            NA                  NA                     Low
                                               southwest               1,2            4LM        (641B6)              winter road
444.8-447.6     96 E     ML 137 (489-490)      Stream northeast-       s,fLp           DI        Overburden >3 m      NA, cutlines,     NA                    Embankment slope and NA                        NA                     Low
                                               southwest                              3LM        (MGP 106.2A,         winter road                             stream drainage
                                                                                                 107.2, CAGSL-N75-
                                                                                                 PRS-6-2,6-5)
450.0           96 E     ML 137 (221-222)      Cutline NNE-SSW     sAv/fLu-1,2         DI        Overburden >3 m      Cutline, winter   NA                    NA                         NA                  NA                     Low
                                                                     s,fCx-2          3LM        (No borehole)        road
455.8           96 E         ST 5 136          Variable            sAv/fLu-1,2         DI        Overburden >3 m      All lineations    NA                    NA                         NA                  NA                     Low
                             (421-422)                                                3LM        (No borehole)
458.3           96 E     ML 137 (229-230)      Variable            f,sLp-TK-1,2        DI        Overburden >3 m      Cutlines          NA                    Meanders, thermokarst      NA                  NA                     Low
(N. Wells)                                                                            3LM        (CAGSL-N75-IVS-                                              lakes
                                                                                                 1,2,3)
466.9           96 E     ML 137 (457-458)      Variable               tMp-1            DI        Overburden >3 m      Enbridge right-   Low profile ridges    Stream drainage paths      NA                  NA                     Low
(N. Wells)                                                                            3LM        (8-36,37,38)         of-way, winter
                                                                                                                      road
474.8-475.5     96 E     ST-5 140 (11-12)      Northeast-           tMv/shR-2,         DI        Overburden 1-3 m,    Cutlines          NA                    Gullied drainage           NA                  NA                     Low
                                               southwest           s,g,fLb/tMp-1      3LM        >3 m                                                         breaches slope
                                                                                                 (620B 967)
476.9           96 E     ST-5 140 (13-14)      Northeast-              fCx-2,          DI        Overburden >3 m      Winter road,      NA                    Gullied colluvial slopes   NA                  NA                     Low
                                               southwest           s,g,fLb/tMp-1      3LM        (H81-B2B)            cutline
                                                                       tMp-1



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                                                                                       Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                    Terrain                       Overburden                           Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                          Aerial Photo           Orientation         Map                           Thickness           Anthro-            Landforms           Landforms                                      Bedrock Typed   Rating
    KP         NTS       Line (Number)           and Slope         Symbol b       Permafrostc     (Boreholes)          pogenic        (Positive Features) (Negative Features)        Fault Structures         (Formation)    H/M/Le
477.3-479.5     96 E    ST-6 142 (403-404) NW-SE                    s,gLr-1,2         DI        Overburden >3 m     Winter road       Beach ridge parallel to Drainage channel      NA                  NA                     Low
                                                                                     3LM        (282X929, X931)     present           slope                   through beach ridge
480.6           96 E    ST-6 143 (168-169) Fan – north-           g,sAf-1, tMu-       DI        Overburden >3 m     Cutline, winter   NA                     Drainage channel on    NA                  NA                     Low
                                           south,                      1,2           3LM        (617C919)           road                                     fan
                                           Cutline – north-
                                           south
482.1           96 E      ML 140 (19-20)       NNE-SSW               g,sGt-1,         DE        Overburden >3 m     Cutline, winter   NA                     Drainage channel for   NA                  NA                     Low
Helava                                                              f,rCx-3,2,       4LM        (MGP 125.0)         road                                     Helava Creek
Creek                                                             g,sAv/tMp-1,2
488.9           96 E      ML 140 (26-27)       Curved lineation     g,sAp-1           DE        Overburden >3 m     Cutline           NA                     Meandering curved      NA                  NA                     Low
Prohibition                                                                          4LM        (MGP 132.0)                                                  escarpments
Creek
499.6           96 E      ML 140 (37-38)       Northeast-           f,sCx-3,          DE        Overburden >3 m     Cutline           NA                     Steep embankment       NA                  NA                     Low
Vermillion                                     southwest           g,sAp-B-1         4LM        (TEM 197,
Creek                                                                                           605B788.787)
502.6 (502.0    96 E     ML 145 (173-175)      Northeast-           tMp-1,2           DE        Overburden >3 m     Cutline,          Possible landform –    NA                     Bedrock related*    NA                     Low
-503.4)                                        southwest and is                      4LM        (603C715-C718)      Enbridge right-   terrace*
                                               subparallel to                                                       of-way, winter
                                               ridges N-W                                                           road




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                                                                                               Summary Review of LiDAR-determined Fault Sites in UTM Zone 9


                                                                         Terrain                            Overburden                              Elevated Surficial     Erosional
                             Aerial Photo          Orientation            Map                                Thickness              Anthro-            Landforms           Landforms                                                  Bedrock Typed   Rating
    KP           NTS        Line (Number)          and Slope            Symbol b       Permafrostc          (Boreholes)             pogenic        (Positive Features) (Negative Features)               Fault Structures              (Formation)    H/M/Le
NOTES:
NA = not applicable
*The potential for this feature. A field investigation would be required.
aIndicates sites identified by geological review of potential fault areas, i.e., added to LiDAR sites or might be outside LiDAR path.

bFor terrain symbols, see Mackenzie Gas Project 2005b.

cPermafrost definitions (Heginbottom and Radburn 1992)

•     DE – discontinuous extensive
      •     4LM – Ice content low to moderate where material frozen, as thin seams, reticulate veins and wedges; massive ice might occur at depth
            •           Lacustrine and glaciolacustrine blanket deposits: primarily silt and silty clay with some fine sand and gravel; thermokarst depressions common in areas of high ice content; locally underlain by diamicton
            •           Alluvial deposits as floodplains and terraces: silty sand and silt; thermokarst depressions common in floodplains
      •     4NL – Nil to low ice content where material frozen
            •           Glaciofluvial deposits as terraces, eskers, and kames: gravel and sand
            •           Landslide debris deposits; extremely variable textures
            •           Eroded and eroding river banks: surface colluvial materials on moderate to steep valley walls and scarps
            •           Alluvial terrace deposits: gravel
•     DI – discontinuous intermediate
      •     3LM – Low to moderate ice content where material frozen, as thin seams, lenses and wedges
            •           Morainal and colluvial blanket deposits: diamicton
            •           Alluvial deposits as floodplains, fans and aprons, delta, and terraces: interbedded silt, sand and gravel
            •           Glaciofluvial deposits as outwash plains, fans, and terraces: sand and gravel with a veneer of silt or fine grained sand
            •           Marine deposits as tidal flats: interbedded silt, clayey silt and sand; generally high in organic content
dBedrock Devonian Formation

•     Dh Middle Devonian Hume Formation limestone; fossiliferous; minor shale; might contain karst
•     Dhi Middle Devonian Hare Indian Formation shale; minor siltstone, limestone
•     Db Lower Devonian Bear Rock dolomite and limestone, solution-breccia, gypsum; might contain karst
eRatings:

•     High Priority – explained best by structural trends; field examination recommended
•     Medium Priority – source not easily explained or contradictory; field work might clarify the problem
•     Low Priority – no further steps required as feature is not fault related

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TABLE 3: FAULT LOCATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS (SITES RATED HIGH AND MEDIUM)

                                                                              Fault Locations and Characteristics (Sites Rated High and Medium) UTM Zone 9

                                 Feature                                       Geologic Age
                   Feature       Name on                                           and            Est.    KP or           Geological                            Air Photos                      Geology
                  Label on        Project                 Orientation            Surface         Length   LiDAR        Explanation for          Alignment        1:30,000         NTS/         Author and          Rating
 Fault Zone      Project Map       Map            Type   and Dip Angle         Expression a       (km)      KP         LiDAR signature          sheet No. b      1:10,000       Map Name          Date            (H, M, L)      Remarks
Chick Lake       CL-1           NA             Fault     Northwest-                               3.5     NA        NA                         NA             NA               106H Sans     Aitken et al. 1982   NA
                                                         southeast                                                                                                             Sault Rapid
                                                                                                                                                                               1453A
                 CL-2           NA             Reverse   Northwest-                               4.0     NA        NA                         NA             NA               106H Sans     Aitken et al. 1982   NA
                                               thrust    southeast                                                                                                             Sault Rapid
                                                                                                                                                                               1453A
Effie Mountain   EF-1           Effie Fault    Reverse   West-east;           Latest: Late       20.0     353.0 to Either bedrock              55/5,6         N39#19-21        106H Sans     Aitken et al. 1982   H/M         On trend with
                                                         curvilinear; along   Cretaceous.                 354.5    ridge/fault or                             ML-122#195-198   Sault Rapid                                    Effie Fault and
                                                         North face of        Laramide;                            glaciofluvial hummock                                       1453A                                          anticline
                                                         Mount Effie          asymmetrical                         as in initial terrain map
                                                                              anticline to the
                                                                              north
                 EF-2           Effie Fault    Reverse   East-west            Latest: Late        4.0     NA        NA                         NA             NA               106H Sans     Aitken et al. 1982
                                                                              Cretaceous.                                                                                      Sault Rapid
                                                                              Laramide;                                                                                        1453A
                                                                              asymmetrical
                                                                              anticline to the
                                                                              north
Gibson Ridge     GR-1           Gibson Fault   Reverse   East-west to                            47.0     388.0     Fault                      58/5-7         N383#5-7 ST1     96E Norman    Hume 1954            H           Bedrock
                                                         northwest-                                                                                           129 #492-497     Wells                                          outcrops but no
                                                         southeast                                                                                            ST1 128                                                         identifiable fault
                                                                                                                                                              #495-500                                                        lineation
Greenhorn        GH-1           Paige          Reverse   Northwest-                              30.0     NA        NA                         59,60/6        N41 #3-5 NA      96E Norman    Cook and Aitken      H
Fault                           Mountain                 southeast;                                                                                                            Wells         1975;
                                                         curves east. and                                                                                                                    Aitken et al. 1982
                                                         eventually joins
                                                         Mount Richard’s
                                                         south face




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                                                                                Fault Locations and Characteristics (Sites Rated High and Medium) UTM Zone 9

                                   Feature                                       Geologic Age
                   Feature         Name on                                           and           Est.     KP or          Geological                            Air Photos                      Geology
                  Label on          Project                      Orientation       Surface        Length    LiDAR       Explanation for          Alignment        1:30,000          NTS/        Author and        Rating
 Fault Zone      Project Map         Map            Type        and Dip Angle    Expression a      (km)       KP        LiDAR signature          sheet No. b      1:10,000        Map Name         Date          (H, M, L)      Remarks
                 GH-2            Paige          Fault           North-south                        2.0     402.7 to Surface landform         59/6              N383 #10-11;      96E          Cook and Aitken L              Short fault on
                                 Mountain                                                                  407.0    (positive); Lacustrine                     N41 #3-5          Norman       1975; Aitken et al.            map
                                                                                                                    escarpment                                 ST1 129           Wells        1982
                                                                                                                                                               #25-29
                 GH-3                           Fault           Northwest-      Extends north      5.0     NA        NA                      NA/6              NA                96E          Cook and Aitken NA
                                                                southeast       from GH-A4                                                                                       Norman       1975; Aitken et al.
                                                                                                                                                                                 Wells        1982


                 GH-4                           Reverse         East-west                         15.0     397.8     Bedrock lineations      59/5              N383 #9-10; N41   96E          Cook and Aitken H              Bedrock fault
                                                                                                                                                               #3-4ST1 128#23-   Norman       1975; Aitken et al.            potential
                                                                                                                                                               25; ST1 129       Wells        1982
                                                                                                                                                               #505-507


                 GH-5                           Reverse         Northwest-      Southwest of       1.5     NA        NA                      6                 N41#6-8; ST2      96E Norman   Cook and Aitken    NA
                                                                southeast       Mount Thomas                                                                   132#69-72,        Wells        1975b; Aitken et
                                                                                                                                                               ML131# 438-440                 al. 1982


                 GH-6                           Reverse         Northwest-      Southwest of       4.5     NA        NA                      6                 N41#7-10;         96E Norman   Cook and Aitken    NA
                                                                southeast       Mount Thomas                                                                   ST2 132#70-74     Wells        1975b; Aitken et
                                                                                                                                                                                              al. 1982


NOTE
aA blank indicates that information was not found or is unavailable.

bNA = not applicable if outside alignment sheet or topographic map 150000




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TABLE 4: ANTICLINES, SYNCLINES, LINEATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS (SITES RATED HIGH AND MEDIUM)
                                                                   Anticlines, Synclines, Lineations and Characteristics (Sites Rated High and Medium) UTM Zone 9
                                                                                                                                                     Align-
                                   Name of                                                                     Geologic                              ment
                   Label of        Anticline                                                     Comments       Age and          Est.                Sheet/ Air Photos               NTS/        Geology
  Regional       Feature on       on Project       Anticline or Orientation or                  (Geological Position of        Length       KP/      Topo.    1:30,000                Map       Author and     Rating
    Area         Project Map         Map            Syncline       Plunge           Style        Featuresa)     Feature¹        (km)     KP-LiDAR     No.     1:10,000               Name          Date       (H, M, L)     Explanation
Chick Lake       CL-A1           Donnelly River    Anticline      Northwest-     Straight                                            13.5        NA         NA       NA            106H       Aitken et al.   NA
                                 anticline                        southeast                                                                                                        Sans Sault 1982
                                                                                                                                                                                   R
                                                                                                                                                                                   1453A
Cleaver          CM-A1                             Anticline      Northwest-     Straight        Faulted                             4.0         NA         61/6     NA            96E         Cook and       NA          Parallels corridor to
Mountain                                                          southeast                      Steep face on                                                                     Norman      Aitken 1975b               east
                                                                                                 SW side; thrust                                                                   Wells
                                                                                                 from NE
Effie Mountain   EF-A1                             Anticline      East-west      Curvilinear;    Parallels                           22 km       353.0 to   55/5,6   N39#19-21     96E         Cook and       H           Might be related to
                                                                                 asymmetrical    bedrock                                         355.6               SKG-12        Norman      Aitken 1975b               potential faults
                                                                                 to the north    boundaries                                                          122#195-198   Wells                                  across corridor
Greenhorn        GH-A1           Carcajou Rock     Anticline      West-east;     Straight;       Steep limbed       Latest:          23.0+6.5    NA         /5       NA            96E         Cook and      H            Might be related to
                                 anticline                        plunges west   reverse fault   and steeply        Palaeocene or    under the                                     Norman      Aitken 1975b;              potential faults
                                                                  and east       underlies       dipping on         Late             Mackenzie                                     Wells       Aitken et al.              across corridor
                                                                                 surface         south flank        Cretaceous       River                                                     1982
                                                                                 anticline;
                                                                                 surface trace
                                                                                 covered
                 GH-A2           Carcajou Rock     Anticline      West-east;     Straight;       Steep limbed       Latest:          6.0         397.8      /5       N383#9-10    96E          Cook and      H            Bedrock fault*
                                 anticline (east                  plunges west   reverse fault   and steeply        Palaeocene or                                    N41#3-4      Norman       Aitken 1975b;              Lineations, LiDAR
                                 extension)                                      underlies       dipping on         Late                                             ST1 128      Wells        Aitken et al.              clearly shows
                                                                                 surface         South flank        Cretaceous                                       #505-507                  1982                       bedrock ridge
                                                                                 anticline;                                                                          ST1 129 #23-                                         trends
                                                                                 surface trace                                                                       25
                                                                                 covered
                 GH-A3                             Anticline;     Northwest-     Straight                           Latest:          4.0         397.8      /5,6     N41#2-4      96E          Cook and      NA           Close to right-of-
                                                   north tip of   southeast                                         Palaeocene or                                    ST1 129 #23- Norman       Aitken 1975b;              way; might have
                                                   Paige                                                            Late                                             26           Wells        Aitken et al.              offshoot faults
                                                   Mountain                                                         Cretaceous                                                                 1982



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                                                                         Anticlines, Synclines, Lineations and Characteristics (Sites Rated High and Medium) UTM Zone 9
                                                                                                                                                           Align-
                                        Name of                                                                      Geologic                              ment
                     Label of           Anticline                                                      Comments       Age and          Est.                Sheet/ Air Photos    NTS/     Geology
  Regional         Feature on          on Project        Anticline or Orientation or                  (Geological Position of        Length       KP/      Topo.    1:30,000     Map    Author and     Rating
    Area           Project Map            Map             Syncline       Plunge           Style        Featuresa)     Feature¹        (km)     KP-LiDAR     No.     1:10,000    Name       Date       (H, M, L)     Explanation
                   GH-A4                                 Anticline        Northwest-      Straight                       Latest:          10.5   NA         NA/6     NA        96E      Cook and      NA
                                                                          southeast                                      Palaeocene or                                         Norman   Aitken 1975b;
                                                                                                                         Late                                                  Wells    Aitken et al.
                                                                                                                         Cretaceous                                                     1982
                   GH-A5                                 Anticline;       West-east;      Curvilinear   Bedrock          Latest:          19.0   353.0 to   NA/5,6             96E      Cook and      NA
                                                         extends E.       plunges east.                 lineations       Palaeocene or           355.6                         Norman   Aitken 1975b;
                                                         from                                           mapped as        Late                                                  Wells    Aitken et al.
                                                         Brokenoff                                      doR, lsR         Cretaceous                                                     1982
                   GH-S1                                 Syncline                                                        Latest:          14.0   @KP397     NA/6               96E      Cook and      NA          Too far east
                                                                                                                         Palaeocene or                                         Norman   Aitken 1975b;
                                                                                                                         Late                                                  Wells    Aitken et al.
                                                                                                                         Cretaceous                                                     1982
                   GH-S2                                 Syncline                         Curvilinear                    Latest:          14.0   NA         NA/5                        Cook and      NA          Southern portion
                                                                                                                         Palaeocene or                                                  Aitken 1975b;             crosses right-of-
                                                                                                                         Late                                                           Aitken et al.             way
                                                                                                                         Cretaceous                                                     1982
NOTE:
* Indicates the potential for this feature. A field investigation would be required.
a A blank table cell indicates that information was not found or is unavailable.

NA = not applicable




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5.0            REFERENCES
               Aitken, J.D. and Cook, D.G.
                       1976: Geology Norman Wells, Mahony Lake, District of Mackenzie; Geological
                       Survey of Canada, Open File 304.

                       1979: Geology Sans Sault Rapids, District of Mackenzie; Geological Survey of
                       Canada, "A" Series Map 1453A (to accompany GSC Memoir 388, Aitken et. al 1982).
               Aitken, J.D., Ayling, M.E., Balkwill, H.R., Cook, D.G., Mackenzie, W.S. and Yorath,
               C.J.
                       1969: Geology Fort Good Hope, District of Mackenzie; Geological Survey of
                       Canada, Preliminary Map, 4-1969.
               Aitken, J.D., Cook, D.G. and Yorath, C.J.
                       1982: Upper Ramparts River (106G) and Sans Sault Rapids (106H) Map Areas,
                       District of Mackenzie; Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 388, 48p.
               Cook, D.G. and Aitken, J.D.
                       1975a: Ontaratue River (106J), Travaillant Lake (106-O), and Canot Lake (106P) Map
                       areas, District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories; Geological Survey of Canada,
                       Paper 74 -17.

                       1975b: Geology of Norman Wells (96E) and Mahony Lake (96F) Map areas, District
                       of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories; Geological Survey of Canada, Open File No. 304.
               Heginbottom, J.A. and Radburn, L.K. (comp.)
                       1992: Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions of Northwestern Canada; Geological
                       Survey of Canada, Map 1691A.
               Hume, G.S.
                       1954: The Lower Mackenzie River Area, Northwest Territories and Yukon, Canada
                       Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir
                       273, 118pp.
               Klohn Crippen
                       2005: Seismic Hazard Assessment Mackenzie Gas Project Pipeline Route Report,
                       prepared for ColtKBR, 82p.
               Mackenzie Gas Project
                       2005a: Revision 4 Routing Terrain Unit Map Series 107-0000-011-452 Mapsheets
                       001-136 Rev. C, prepared by ColtKBR for Imperial Oil Resources Ventures Limited,
                       Job No. 99-C-3079.

                       2005b: Terrain Mapping Legends to accompany Revision 4 Routing Terrain Unit Map
                       Series 107-0000-011-452 Mapsheets 001-136 Rev. C, prepared by ColtKBR for
                       Imperial Oil Resources Ventures Limited, Job No. 99-C-3079.
               Yorath, C. J. and Cook, D.G.
                       1981a: Cretaceous and Tertiary Stratigraphy and Paleogeography, northern Interior
                       Plains, District of Mackenzie; Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 398, 76 p.

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Mackenzie Gas Project                                                                          Revision 0



                       1981b: Geological Map of the Northern Interior Plains, Northwestern District of
                       Mackenzie, Geological Survey of Canada, "A" Series Map 1498A. (to accompany GSC
                       Memoir 398 by Yorath, C.J. and Cook, D.G.).




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