FFA Proceedings MAURITIUS - PROCEEDINGS

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FFA Proceedings MAURITIUS - PROCEEDINGS Powered By Docstoc
					                                    Ministry of
                                   Public Utilities




DEVELOPMENT OF A MAURITIUS COUNTRY FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION
  WITHIN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN VISION FOR WATER, LIFE AND
                  ENVIRONMENT IN THE 21st CENTURY




           PROCEEDINGS




                     3, Poupinel de Valence Street, Rose Hill, Mauritius
    Tel.: (230) 454 4294, 465 4046 Fax: (230) 466 9691 E-mail: seenyen@intnet.mu
    DEVELOPMENT OF A MAURITIUS COUNTRY FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION
       WITHIN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN VISION FOR WATER, LIFE AND
                          ENVIRONMENT IN THE 21st CENTURY




                                        03 March 2005

        La Petite Cannelle, Domaine Les Pailles, Les Guibies, Pailles, MAURITIUS




Papers presented by

     Mr D. Deepchand - Head, Water Resources Unit
     Mr R. Mungra - General Manager, Central Water Authority
     Mr N. Toolsee - General Manager, Irrigation Authority
     Mr S. Mukoon - Senior Generation Planner Engineer, Central Electricity Board
     Mr S. Mooloo - Department of Environment, Ministry of Environment
     Mr M. Kerof - General Manager, Wastewater Management Authority
     Dr B. M. Pathack - Deputy Director, Meteorological Services



Proceedings prepared by

     E. Seenyen - SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.
     C. Seenyen - SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.
     C. P. Khedun - University of Mauritius



Proceedings reviewed by

     Dr H. R. Sharma - Ministry of Public Utilities

                                                                                    I
                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
1   INTRODUCTION                                                     1
    1.1   Overview                                                  1
          1.1.1 Purpose                                             1
          1.1.2 Approach                                            2
    1.2   The Workshop                                              2
    1.3   Mauritius                                                 3
          1.3.1 The Island of Mauritius                             3
          1.3.2 Population and Economy                              4
2   WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT - PRESENT STATUS AND
    FUTURE PROGRAMME                                              5
    2.1   The Water Resources Unit                                   5
    2.2   Water Resources                                            5
          2.2.1 Climatology                                          5
          2.2.2 Water Balance                                        6
          2.2.3 Present Water Resources                              7
          2.2.4 Achievements of the Water Resources Unit             8
    2.3   Constraints                                                8
    2.4   Water Resources Potential                                  9
          2.4.1 Water Requirement for each Supply System            10
          2.4.2 Future Projects                                     15
    2.5   Conclusions                                               15
3   POTABLE WATER SUPPLY - PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROGRAMME      16
    3.1   The Central Water Authority                               16
    3.2   The Water Sector – Past                                   16
    3.3   The Water Sector – Present                                17
          3.3.1 Access and Quantity                                 17
          3.3.2 Quality                                             18
          3.3.3 Service Level                                       18
          3.3.4 Challenges Facing the Water Sector                  18
    3.4   The Water Sector – Future                                 19
4   FOOD SECURITY AND IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT - PRESENT STATUS AND
    FUTURE PROGRAMME                                                21
    4.1   Introduction                                              21
    4.2   Systems of Irrigation                                     22
    4.3   Operating Scheme of Irrigation Authority                  23
    4.4   Support Measures                                          25
5   ENERGY - PRESENT SCENARIO AND FUTURE STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMME   26
    5.1   Subject Matter                                            26
          5.1.1 Electricity Sector                                  27
          5.1.2 Electricity Plan                                    28
          5.1.3 Current Situation                                   28

                                                                    II
          5.1.4 Demand Forecast                                                   28
          5.1.5 Current Trends                                                    29
    5.2   Demand-Supply                                                           30
          5.2.1 Capacity Balance                                                  30
          5.2.2 Energy Mix                                                        30
          5.2.3 Biomass other than Bagasse                                        32
          5.2.4 Solar                                                             32
          5.2.5 Wind Power                                                        32
          5.2.6 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion                                   33
    5.3   The Situation in the Island of Rodrigues                                33
          5.3.1 Residential Development                                           33
          5.3.2 Access to Water and the Desalination Project                      34
          5.3.3 Other Islands                                                     34
    5.4   Further Actions                                                         34
          5.4.1 Demand Side Management                                            34
          5.4.2 Energy Saving Lamps                                               34
          5.4.3 Energy Efficient Household Appliances                             34
          5.4.4 Energy Efficient Industrial Equipment                             35
          5.4.5 Energy Efficient Building Design                                  35
          5.4.6 Time of Use Pricing                                               35
    5.5   Key Players                                                             35
    5.6   Ongoing Activities                                                      35
    5.7   Conclusion                                                              36
6   ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMME                                        37
    6.1   Introduction                                                            37
    6.2   National Environmental Strategy                                         38
          6.2.1 Activities under National Environmental Action Plans I & II       38
          6.2.2 Environment Investment Programmes                                 39
          6.2.3 Conventions                                                       41
    6.3   Institutional Arrangement and Legislation                               42
          6.3.1 Provisions under the Environment Protection Act 2002              42
          6.3.2 Environmental Standards, Guidelines and Regulations               43
          6.3.3 Enforcement                                                       44
          6.3.4 Coordination Role of the Ministry of Environment & NDU            44
          6.3.5 Technical Advisory Committee on Rivers and Canals                 44
7   WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT - PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROGRAMME 46
    7.1   Introduction                                                            46
          7.1.1 Mauritius                                                         46
          7.1.2 Government of Mauritius Vision for Water, Life, and Environment   46
          7.1.3 The National Environmental Policy                                 47
          7.1.4 The Sewerage Master Plan/National Sewerage Program                47
    7.2   WMA Legal Framework                                                     47
    7.3   WMA Mission and Vision                                                  48
    7.4   Wastewater Sector Policy and Major Objectives                           49
          7.4.1 Wastewater Sector Policy                                          49
          7.4.2 Objectives/Strategies                                             49
          7.4.3 Expected Results                                                  49

                                                                                  III
     7.5    Organisation Structure                                                       49
            7.5.1 Training and Development                                               50
     7.6    Current Status of Wastewater/Sewerage Facilities                             52
            7.6.1 History                                                                52
            7.6.2 Current Status                                                         52
     7.7    NSP and Capital Projects under Progress                                      53
            7.7.1 National Sewerage Program                                              53
            7.7.2 Capital Projects under Progress                                        56
     7.8    WMA Financial Sustainability                                                 62
            7.8.1 Tariff                                                                 62
            7.8.2 Joint Billing                                                          62
            7.8.3 Cost Recovery – Financial Sustainability                               62
     7.9    Implementation of Industrial Pollution Control Programme                     63
     7.10   Key Performance Indicators and Targets                                       63
     7.11   Future Actions                                                               64
            7.11.1 New Wastewater Sector Policy                                          65
                                                              th
            7.11.2 Technical Assistance Back Up Facility – 9 EDF                         65
            7.11.3 Private Sector Participation in the Water & Wastewater Sector – Brief
                   Summary of the IFC Study                                              65
            7.11.4 Regulation of the Wastewater Sector                                   66
            7.11.5 Updating of Sewerage Master Plan and National Sewerage Plan to cover
                   period 2010-2030                                                      66
            7.11.6 Implementation of Medium Term Expenditure Framework                   66
     7.12   Conclusion                                                                   66
     7.13   Acknowledgement                                                              67
8    DISASTER PREPAREDNESS & CLIMATE CHANGE                                             68
     8.1    Introduction                                                                68
     8.2    Definitions                                                                 68
     8.3    Effects of Climate Change and Variability                                   69
     8.4    Global Warming: Radiative Forcing                                           69
            8.4.1 Effect of Global Warming at Local Scale                               70
     8.5    Numerical Simulations                                                       71
     8.6    Disaster Preparedness                                                       71
     8.7    Programme of Action for SIDS                                                72
9    FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION                                                               73
     9.1    Discussion – Technical Session 1                                            73
     9.2    Discussion – Technical Session 2                                            76
     9.3    Proposed Framework for Action                                               79
10   REFERENCES                                                                         83
ANNEX 1        The Programme of the Workshop
ANNEX 2        List of Stakeholders who Attended the Workshop




                                                                                        IV
                               LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1: The workshop                                                                     3
Figure 1-2: The island of Mauritius                                                         4
Figure 2-1: Mean rainfall distribution over Mauritius                                        6
Figure 2-2: Surface and ground water resources of Mauritius                                  8
Figure 2-3: Water supply systems                                                            10
Figure 4-1: Irrigation systems in use in Mauritius (high pressure, pivot & low pressure
systems)                                                                                    22
Figure 4-2: Irrigation projects implemented                                                 24
Figure 4-3: Drip irrigation systems                                                         25
Figure 5-2: Capacity balance 2005 - 2013                                                    30
Figure 5-3: Generation fuel mix for the year 2004                                           30
Figure 5-4: Fuel mix                                                                        31
Figure 7-1: Analysis of WMA organization structure                                          50
Figure 7-2: Current and future sewered areas                                                52
Figure 8-1: Climate system                                                                  68
Figure 8-2: Effects of floods on property and agriculture and sea-level rise on the beach   69
Figure 8-3: The greenhouse effect                                                           70
Figure 8-4: The impact of human activities on the greenhouse effect                         70
Figure 8-5: Maximum and minimum temperatures registered in Vacoas                           71
Figure 8-6: Numerical model predictions for temperature and sea level rise                  71




                                                                                            V
                                 LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1: Water utilisation in Mauritius                                                  7
Table 2-2: Projected water demand up to 2040 for Mauritius                                10
Table 2-3: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the Upper Mare aux Vacoas Water Supply
System                                                                                11
Table 2-4: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the Lower Mare aux Vacoas Water Supply
System                                                                                11
Table 2-5: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the Port Louis Water Supply System       12
Table 2-6: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the District Water Supply System - East 13
Table 2-7: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the District Water Supply System - South
                                                                                         14
Table 2-8: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the District Water Supply System -North 14
Table 3-1: Water utilisation in Mauritius                                                 17
Table 3-2: Hours of supply for 1999 drought                                               18
Table 4-1: Irrigated areas and potential irrigable areas                                  21
Table 4-2: Method of irrigation and irrigated areas                                       22
Table 4-3: Operating scheme of the Irrigation Authority                                   23
Table 5-1: Demand forecast for 2004 and 2005                                              29
Table 6-1: Programmes and component projects implemented or being implemented under
EIP II                                                                              40
Table 7-1: Training and development of the WMA Staff                                      50
Table 7-2: A summary of the status of the national sewerage projects – February 2005      54
Table 7-3:Status of rehabilitation works on CHA housing estates                           56
Table 7-4: House connection targets                                                       61
Table 7-5: Sector policy tariffs and tariffs implemented over period 2000-2004            62
Table 7-6: Status of the key performance indicators and targets for financial year 2003/04 64




                                                                                          VI
                   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AFD         Agence Française de Développement
BPoA        Barbados Programme of Action
CEB         Central Electricity Board
CHA         Central Housing Authority
CSO         Central Statistics Office
CTDS        Central Thermique de Savannah
CWA         Central Water Authority
DFID        Department for International Development
DSM         Demand-side Management
DWS         District Water-supply Systems
ECC         Environment Coordination Committee
EDF         European Development Fund
EIA         Environmental Impact Assessment
EIB         European Investment Bank
EIP         Environment Investment Programme
EPA         Environmental Protection Act
ESA         Environmentally Sensitive Areas
ESA         Environmentally Sensitive Areas
EU          European Union
EUR         Euro
FFA         Framework for Action
GDP         Gross Domestic Product
GHG         Greenhouse gases
GNI         Gross National Income
GoM         Government of Mauritius
GWP SA      Global Water Partnership Southern Africa
IA          Irrigation Authority
ICT         Information and Communication Technology
ICZM        Integrated Coastal Zone Management
IFC         International Finance Corporation
IRS         Integrated Resort Scheme
KfW         Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau
MAV         Mare aux Vacoas
MoE & NDU   Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit

                                                                    VII
MoE       Ministry of Environment
MPU       Ministry of Public Utilities
MSIRI     Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
MTEF      Medium Term Expenditure Framework
MUR       Mauritian Rupee
NDS       National Development Strategy
NEAP      National Environmental Action Plan
NEC       National Environment Commission
NES       National Environmental Strategy
NGO       Non-governmental Organisation
NHDC      National Housing Development Corperation
NPDP      National Physical Development Plan
NSMP      National Sewerage Master Plan
NSP       National Sewerage Program
OTEC      Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
PSO       Private Sector Operator
PSP       Private Sector Participation
RER       Renewable Energy Resources
RET       Renewable Energy Technologies
SADC      Southern African Development Community
SEIA      Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment
SIDS      Small Island Developing States
SPL       Sector Policy Letter
STC       State Trading Corporation
TA        Technical Assistance
TAC       Technical Advisory Committee
TOU       Time-of-use
UFW       Unaccounted for Water
UNDP      United Nation Development Programme
UoM       University of Mauritius
US$/USD   United States Dollar
WHO       World Health Organisation
WMA       Wastewater Management Authority
WRU       Water Resources Unit




                                                        VIII
IX
                                     1 INTRODUCTION

1.1     OVERVIEW

The Southern African Vision for Water, Life and Environment calls for “equitable and
sustainable utilisation of water resources for environmental justice, regional integration and
economic benefit for future and present generations”. It was adopted by the Water Ministers
of SADC in December 1999 and was presented at the World Water Forum II at The Hague in
March 2000. The development of the Vision was facilitated by the Global Water Partnership
Southern Africa (GWP SA) on behalf of the (then) SADC Water Sector Coordinating Unit
with the financial support of DFID.

The Vision has 8 sub vision statements, namely:
        Equitable and sustainable social and economic development in Southern Africa
        Equitable access to water of an acceptable quantity and quality
        Proper sanitation for all and safe waste disposal
        Food security for all households
        Energy security for all households
        A sustainable environment
        Security from natural disasters
        Integrated Water Resources Development and Management

The target date for the achievement of the Vision is 2025.

The Vision requires the development of a Framework for Action (FFA) for its achievement.
Like the Vision, the FFA process has also been facilitated by GWP SA on behalf of SADC
and with the financial support of DFID. It comprises various activities on information
dissemination, the development of the regional FFA and the facilitation of the development of
national FFAs. While the first component (information dissemination) continued after The
Hague, the regional and national FFAs processes were only initiated at the end of 2002 and
early 2003.

The development of the FFA for the SADC region is now nearing completion with the
regional FFA report due to be released by 31st March 2005 and country consultations having
taken place in most SADC Countries.

The FFA workshop in Mauritius takes place as part of this process for the benefit of Mauritius
as a country, but also as a contribution by Mauritius to this regional SADC initiative.

As in other countries, the FFA process in Mauritius was consultative with the participation of
as many stakeholders as possible in the form of a workshop.

1.1.1    Purpose

The purpose of the FFA workshop in Mauritius was to bring together stakeholders
representing the sectors covered by the 8 themes of the sub vision statements and from

                                                                                            1
different institutions (government, private sector, research institutions, NGOs etc.) for
consultations on the relevant themes in the context of Mauritius so as:
        to confirm their current status
        highlight the achievements and challenges
        identify key role players
        identify/recognise on-going initiatives that would contribute to the achievement of the
        specific sub vision (in order to avoid duplication)
        outline further actions required so that the sub vision can be achieved in Mauritius by
        2025.

1.1.2    Approach

Each SADC country had the choice to select those themes that were relevant to its context
with some countries choosing the 8 themes whereas others focused on a few of them. Seven
themes were selected by the organising committee as relevant to Mauritius. and for which a
presentation was carried out at the meeting.

The focus of the presentation was to highlight the contribution of water to the attainment of
the specific sub vision, bearing in mind that there are other role players (other than the water
sector) driving these sectors in Mauritius.

The presenters addressed the five points mentioned in Section 1.1.1 above. The papers
presented was based on a cursory review of the sector given that the presenter is familiar with
the sector in Mauritius tailored to address these points while responding specifically to the
following questions:
        What are the implications of the sub vision for Mauritius?
        Which institutions do and/or should play a major role for this sub vision to be achieved
        in Mauritius?
        What is the suggested (current or possible) action plan needed in order to achieve this
        sub vision in Mauritius?
        What should/could be Mauritius’ contribution to the achievement of this sub vision and
        the vision as a whole in the SADC region?

1.2     THE WORKSHOP

The one day workshop was organised on Thursday 03rd March 2005, at La Petite Cannelle,
Domaine Les Pailles, Pailles, Mauritius. Stakeholders from various sectors of the public and
parastatal institutions were represented at the workshop.

The programme for the workshop is enclosed at Annex 1 and a list of the participants who
attended is included at Annex 2.




                                                                                              2
                                   Figure 1-1: The workshop

Out of the eight sub-visions, seven themes, considered relevant to Mauritius, were selected
and seven papers, as listed below, were presented.
        Water Resources Development and Management - Present Status and Future
        Programme by Mr D. Deepchand, Head, Water Resources Unit
        Potable Water Supply - Present Status and Future Programme by Mr R. Mungra,
        General Manager, Central Water Authority
        Food Security and Irrigation Development - Present Status and Future Programme by
        Mr N. Toolsee, General Manager, Irrigation Authority
        Energy - Present Scenario and Future Strategies and Programme by Mr S. Mukoon,
        Senior Generation Planner Engineer, Central Electricity Board
        Environmental Strategies and Programme by Mr S. Mooloo, Department of
        Environment, Ministry of Environment
        Wastewater Management - Present Status and Future Programme by Mr M. Kerof,
        General Manager, Wastewater Management Authority
        Disaster Preparedness & Climate Change by Dr B. M. Pathack, Deputy Director,
        Meteorological Services

These proceeding are a compilation of all the papers presented, the discussions held and the
proposed Framework for Action. The presentations made at the workshop are included in this
CD.

1.3     MAURITIUS

1.3.1    The Island of Mauritius

The island of Mauritius is located in the western Indian Ocean between latitudes 19o 50' S and
20 o 30' S and longitudes 57 o 18' E and 57 o 46' E. It lies at about 800 km off the eastern coast
of Madagascar and constitutes with the Reunion Island and the Rodrigues Island the volcanic
archipelago of the Mascareignes Archipel. It is roughly pear shaped and covers a surface area


                                                                                                3
of about 1,860 km2 (1,850 km2 of land and 10 km2 of water) with a maximum width of 48 km
and a maximum length of 65 km. It is surrounded by coral reefs over a perimeter of 160 km.




                           Figure 1-2: The island of Mauritius

1.3.2 Population and Economy

Mauritius has a total population of 1,220,481 (July 2004 est.) and the annual population
growth is 0.81 %. The life expectancy is 72.5 years with a death rate of 6.82 deaths/1,000
population.

Prior to independence, Mauritius had a mono-crop economy. After independence in 1968, it
has developed from a low-income, agriculturally based economy to a middle-income
diversified economy with growing industrial, financial and tourist sectors. The annual growth
has been of the order of 5 to 6 %.

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2003 was US $5.2 billion with an annual growth of
3.2 %. The Gross National Income (GNI) per capita for the same year was US$ 4,090.




                                                                                           4
      2 WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT -
            PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROGRAMME

Mr D. Deepchand, Head, Water Resources Unit and Mr C. P. Khedun

2.1    THE WATER RESOURCES UNIT

The Water Resources Unit (WRU) was created in 1992 within the Ministry of Public Utilities
as the nodal organisation for the coordination of all activities concerning water resources
management in coordination with the major water users such as the Central Water Authority,
the Irrigation Authority, the Central Electricity Board and the Wastewater Management
Authority.

The vision and mission of the WRU are as follows;



                                           VISION
       To ensure an adequate and sustainable supply of water for the country’s
       present and future needs.



                                          MISSION
            To assess, mobilise, control, develop, manage and conserve water resources
            and to supply such resources to stakeholders.
            To advise the Central Water Authority in the enforcement and
            administration of
            (a)   the Ground Water Act, and
            (b)   the Rivers and Canals Act
            To administer any other enactment relating to water which makes
            provision for its enforcement and administration by the Water Resources
            Unit/Ministry of Public Utilities.


2.2    WATER RESOURCES

2.2.1 Climatology

Situated near the southern edge of the tropical belt, Mauritius is practically free from
continental influences and has a strong oceanic climate. The temperature is tropical and varies
between 21 and 28 oC during the year. The month of February is the warmest month, with
mean temperature of 27.8 oC, while July is the coolest month with mean temperature of
21.9 oC.



                                                                                             5
The rainfall distribution is affected by the south east trade winds and the topography of the
island. The northern and western regions are drier while the south and the central plateau
receive higher rainfall, being on the windward side. The mean annual rainfall over the island
as a whole is 2,100 mm (with a maximum of 4,000 mm over the central plateau and a
minimum of 800 mm on the western coast) as shown in Figure 2-1 below. The summer
months of November to April receive 70 % of the rainfall (1,300 mm). During this period the
island is also under the influence of tropical cyclones, which may bring up to 400 mm of rain
over a period of 24 hours. The winter period, May to October, is much cooler and drier (800
mm of rainfall).




                     Figure 2-1: Mean rainfall distribution over Mauritius

Evaporation is high (2,000 mm/yr) on the low coastal plains and decreases significantly with
altitude to reach 1,400 mm/yr on the central plateau (Geolab, 1999). The mean monthly
relative humidity ranges between 83 % (on the central plateau) and 80 % (in the coastal
regions). The mean annual evapotranspiration (Penman) varies between 1,400 mm to
2,000 mm.

2.2.2 Water Balance

The water balance for the island, based on an average rainfall of 2,100 mm per year, is as
follows:

Area of the island                      1,865 km2

Annual average rainfall                 2,100 mm

Annual volume                           3,900 Mm3



                                                                                           6
      Surface runoff                       2,340 Mm3          60 %

      Evapotranspiration                   1,170 Mm3          30 %

      Groundwater recharge                 390 Mm3            10 %


2.2.3 Present Water Resources

The island relies both on surface and ground water resources to meet its water demands. Table
2-1 below gives the water utilisation by the different sectors.
Table 2-1: Water utilisation in Mauritius

Purpose                        Surface water Mm3/year           Groundwater         Total
                               River-run          Storage
                                                                 Mm3/year          Mm3/year
                                offtakes         reservoirs

Domestic, industrial,
                                  38                 72              114              224
tourism

Industrial
                                   –                   –             11                11
(private boreholes)

Agricultural                     370                 95              25               490

Hydropower                       129                 160              –               289

Overall utilisation              537                 327             150              1014

Total water mobilisation         512                 261             150              923

The total water utilisation represents 26 % of the total precipitation and is equivalent to 71 %
of the utilisable fresh water.

Surface water resources

The island of Mauritius has a dense network of rivers, most of which have their source in the
highly elevated regions. Drainage is essentially radial from the Central Plateau, the location of
the source of the rivers, towards the sea. The rivers are deeply incised and fast flowing. The
island has been divided into 25 main river basins and 22 minor river basins. The catchment
areas vary from 3 to 164 km2.

Surface water is being harnessed both for domestic and agricultural purposes.

Groundwater resources

Groundwater resources are significantly being harnessed to cater for water demand. A number
of hydrogeological studies have been carried out over the island, and the most recent one
carried out in 1999, delineated the island into five major aquifers. The annual groundwater
recharge has been estimated to be around 390 Mm3 and presently about 150 Mm3 of
groundwater are being harnessed to cater for domestic, industrial and agricultural needs.
Groundwater resources contribute up to 51 % of the domestic water supply, and 15 % of the
total water demand.

                                                                                               7
Figure 2-2 below gives the present surface water network, with the location of reservoirs and
river gauging stations, and the location of boreholes (domestic, industrial and agricultural) in
Mauritius. It can be seen that Mauritius has a less dense river network in the north of the
island and consequently water need has been met by groundwater exploitation.




               Figure 2-2: Surface and ground water resources of Mauritius

2.2.4 Achievements of the Water Resources Unit

The following projects have been completed by the Water Resources Unit since 1995:
      The construction of the Midlands Dam which now contributes an additional 41 m3/year
      to the surface water supply. The water from the Midlands dam is channelled to La
      Nicolière reservoir and is expected to meet the total domestic and industrial water
      requirement and part of the agricultural water needs in the north of the island.
      A hydrological study to assess the groundwater potential of the island. The WRU has
      drilled 85 boreholes with a supply capacity of 58 Mm3 of which 38 Mm3 has been
      commissioned. An additional 91 private boreholes has been drilled of a total supply
      capacity of 8.6 Mm3.
      The WRU has also carried out a hydrographic survey to determine the effective storage
      capacity of the reservoirs. It was found that there is a loss in storage capacity of 0.02 to
      0.06 % per year.
      A safety study of the dams in both Mauritius and Rodrigues (7 in Mauritius and 3 in
      Rodrigues) has been carried out.
      The WRU has also completed the rehabilitation of MAV dam, the municipal dyke and
      the TGRFC and LNFC.
      Four new river gauging stations have already been completed.

2.3   CONSTRAINTS

Further to the hydrological studies carried out, it has been found that groundwater abstraction
has almost reached saturation level except in the eastern and southern aquifers. Furthermore,
the following factors are increasing the pressure of the water supply capacity on the island.
      High variation in rainfall throughout the year and across the island. This calls for the
      setting up of appropriate infrastructure for the collection and storage of water in the
                                                                                                8
      areas of high precipitation and an adequate supply system for the channelling of the
      stored water. The Midlands dam is a good example, whereby water is collected in the
      highlands, which receive up to 4,000 mm of water per year, and the water is channelled
      to La Nicolière reservoir for distribution to the north of the island.
      Water shortages in the dry month from September to December. Mauritius frequently
      experiences water shortage at the beginning of summer (which is paradoxically the
      wettest period of the year). To address this problem, there is strong need to provide
      adequate storage with a carry-over capacity to meet the next summer period.
      Rapid run-off because of topography. All the rivers in Mauritius find their source in the
      highlands which receive the highest rainfall, but owing to the size and topography of the
      island, the length of the rivers are relatively small and steep. This leads to a rapid run-
      off in the rainy season and thus most of the precipitation reaches the sea in a few hours
      only.
      Decrease in average rainfall over the last 50 years. Data collected by the
      Meteorological Services in Mauritius confirms the regional and international trend
      whereby there is a shift in the climate pattern and a decrease in average rainfall in this
      part of the world. Coupled with an increase in population, a rise in the standards of
      living and an increase in the number of water consuming industries, water shortage in
      the future is expected.
      Submarine groundwater discharges. All the aquifers in Mauritius are open to the sea
      and are exposed to saline intrusion. Further hydrological studies are required to
      establish safe pumping rates to prevent the deterioration of groundwater, especially in
      the north and west, through saline intrusion.
      High conveyance and distribution losses in water supply systems. The Central Water
      Authority which is the organisation responsible for the treatment and conveyance of
      potable water has already embarked on a study on Unaccounted for Water also known
      as Non-revenue Water.
      Limited financial resources. Adequate fund to finance projects in the water sector has
      been a major hurdle towards project implementation. The government often requests the
      help of international funding agencies and this process is very time consuming.

2.4   WATER RESOURCES POTENTIAL

A country is water stressed when its potential supply of water is less than 1,700
m3/person/year and water scarce when the supply is lower than 1,000 m3/person/year (UNDP,
1998). The present usable fresh water potential for Mauritius is 1,300 Mm3/year which is
equivalent to 1,083 m3/person/year. Thus, as per UNDP’s definition, Mauritius is already
water stressed.

Based on the assumption that the population will increase by 10.6 % over the 2005 population
(CSO, 2000), the unaccounted for water will be reduced to 25 % by 2010 and that the
domestic water consumption will rise to 210 l/capita/day and meeting the Irrigation
Authority’s water demand (IA, 2003) the WRU predicts that the country will suffer from
water scarcity by 2020. The forecasted supply is 970 m3/person/year.

Table 2-2 below gives the projected municipal and irrigation water demand for the next 35
years.




                                                                                               9
Table 2-2: Projected water demand up to 2040 for Mauritius

           Year                Municipal Water Demand                   Irrigation Water Demand
                                      Mm3/year                                   Mm3/year

           2005                              192                                 242

           2010                              211                                 322

           2020                              230                                 363

           2030                              261                                 382

           2040                              275                                 400

Increase over 2005                           83                                  158

Total water requirement
                                                                  241
in 2040


2.4.1 Water Requirement for each Supply System

The island has been divided into the following six district water supply systems (DWS) and is
operated by the Central Water Authority:
     the Upper Mare aux Vacoas water supply system
     the Lower Mare aux Vacoas water supply system
     the Port Louis water supply system
     the North water supply system
     the South water supply system and
     the East water supply system

The extents of the different water supply systems are shown in Figure 2-3 below.




                                Source: CWA Corporate Plan 2004/2008

                            Figure 2-3: Water supply systems

                                                                                                  10
The Water Resources Unit has worked out the projected water requirement, based on the
assumptions stipulated above, for the different water supply systems. This is further explained
hereunder.

The Upper Mare aux Vacoas Supply System caters for the domestic and industrial water
needs of the central part of the island having a population head of 220,000. This area has 7
agricultural boreholes, 46 industrial boreholes and 3 surface water sources. The daily potable
water production is 114,000 m3/day of which 77 % is surface water and 23 % is groundwater.
The projected municipal and irrigation water demand for the Upper MAV Water supply
system for the next 35 years is detailed in Table 2-3 below.
 Table 2-3: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the Upper Mare aux Vacoas Water
                                  Supply System

           Year                 Municipal Water Demand             Irrigation Water Demand
                                       Mm3/year                             Mm3/year

           2005                            32.0                              7.72

           2010                            37.5                              8.9

           2020                            41.6                              9.9

           2030                            46.0                              9.9

           2040                            48.7                              9.9

Increase over 2005                         16.7                              2.2

Total water requirement
                                                            18.9
in 2040

To meet the additional water requirement, by 2010, water will not be released from this
system into the Lower MAV Water Supply System. This will contribute 4.9 Mm3/year.
Additionally Pradier Canal is expected to contribute 3.1 Mm3/year and the diversion of rivers
Tatamaka, St Martin, Cogliano, Papayes and Sèches will contribute 4.4 Mm3/year.

The Lower Mare aux Vacoas Water Supply System caters for the potable water supply of
the lower Plaines Wilhems and the Black River District with a population head of 210,000.
The normal potable water production is 70,000 m3/day of which 99 % is groundwater from
the Curepipe aquifer. The water requirement is supplemented, as and when required, from the
Upper MAV Water Supply System. This area has 22 agricultural boreholes, 11 industrial
boreholes and 5 surface water sources. The projected municipal and irrigation water demand
for the Lower MAV Water supply system for the next 35 years is detailed in Table 2-4 below.
Table 2-4: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the Lower Mare aux Vacoas Water
Supply System

           Year                Municipal Water Demand              Irrigation Water Demand
                                      Mm3/year                              Mm3/year

           2005                           31.75                             104.7

           2010                            30.2                             108.8

                                                                                             11
            Year                   Municipal Water Demand                 Irrigation Water Demand
                                          Mm3/year                                 Mm3/year



            2020                                32.4                                119.6

            2030                               35.64                                127.9

            2040                                37.6                                136.2

Increase over 2005                      5.85 + 4.9* = 10.75                          31.5

Total water requirement
                                                                  42.25
in 2040
* No transfer of 4.9 Mm3/year of water from MAV reservoir to Lower MAV system in 2010.

To meet its potable water needs, the Upper MAV Water Supply System will not be able to
supply water to the Lower MAV Water Supply System in 2010. The potential source to meet
potable water supply demand is the Bagatelle Dam which is due to be commissioned in 2010.

Located on the leeward side of the island, the western area receives only an average of 800
mm of rainfall per year. This area thus places a high burden on the available water supply for
its irrigation needs. As can be seen from Table 2-4 above, the irrigation water requirement for
this district is presently around thrice the municipal water needs. While the municipal water
need is expected to increase by only 6 Mm3/year the irrigation water requirement will increase
by 30 Mm3/year. To meet this soaring water requirement, treated water from the St Martin
Treated Plant will be sold to the Irrigation Authority for irrigation purposes. Presently 25.2
Mm3/year will be available and at term this figure will increase to 31.5 Mm3/year. Moreover,
the Mon Vallon and the Black River Dam will contribute a further 6 Mm3/year and 20.1
Mm3/year respectively.

The Port Louis Water Supply System caters for the water requirement of domestic, light
manufacturing industries, commercial enterprise and government departments and institutions
(most of them being located in the capital district). The population head is 200,000 (130,000
residents and 70,000 commuting public). The normal water production is 110,000 m3/day of
which 61 % is surface water and 39 % is groundwater. This area has 15 agricultural
boreholes, 15 industrial boreholes and 1 surface water source. The projected municipal water
demand for the Port Louis Water supply system for the next 35 years is detailed in Table 2-5
below.
Table 2-5: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the Port Louis Water Supply System

            Year                    Municipal Water Demand                Irrigation Water Demand
                                           Mm3/year                                Mm3/year

            2005                                31.7                                     –

            2010                                32.2                                     –

            2020                                32.05                                    –

            2030                                32.96                                    –

                                                                                                    12
           Year                Municipal Water Demand            Irrigation Water Demand
                                      Mm3/year                            Mm3/year

           2040                            34                               –

Increase over 2005                         2.3                              –

Total water requirement
                                                           2.3
in 2040

The Midlands Dam/La Nicolère System to Port Louis, which is due to be commissioned this
year will contribute 30,000 m3/d during the dry months of September to December (i.e. 3.6
Mm3). The Bagatelle Dam of a capacity of 14.3 Mm3/year, expected to be commissioned by
2010, will alleviate the water supply requirement in this district.

The District Water Supply System - East caters for domestic and other economic needs in
the eastern region having a population head of 135,000. The normal water supply is 72,000
m3/day of which 42 % is surface water and 58 % is groundwater. This area has 3 agricultural
boreholes and 4 industrial boreholes. The projected municipal and irrigation water demand for
the East Water supply system for the next 35 years is detailed in Table 2-6 below.
Table 2-6: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the District Water Supply System -
East

           Year                Municipal Water Demand            Irrigation Water Demand
                                      Mm3/year                            Mm3/year

           2005                           24.7                             30.6

           2010                           26.5                             34.1

           2020                           29.0                             36.4

           2030                           33.7                             41.4

           2040                           35.9                             46.2

Increase over 2005                        11.2                             15.6

Total water requirement
                                                          26.8
in 2040

To meet the additional water requirement, the WRU will turn to further groundwater
exploitation which is expected to bring around 12 Mm3/year. Small dam projects on Rivière
Françoise or a dam downstream of Diamamove dam at the confluence of Rivière Françoise
and the Grand River South East including water from River Canard (Mt Maurice) will help in
alleviating the water requirement.

The District Water Supply System - South caters for domestic and other economic needs in
the Savanne and Grand Port districts having a population head of 170,000. The normal water
supply is 70,000 m3/day of which 38 % is surface water and 62 % is groundwater. This area
has 13 agricultural boreholes, 6 industrial boreholes and 3 surface water sources. The


                                                                                           13
projected municipal and irrigation water demand for the South Water supply system for the
next 35 years is detailed in Table 2-7 below.
Table 2-7: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the District Water Supply System -
South

           Year                  Municipal Water Demand              Irrigation Water Demand
                                        Mm3/year                              Mm3/year

           2005                              27.8                              47.6

           2010                              30.7                              51.3

           2020                              34.4                              51.3

           2030                              45.0                              51.3

           2040                              47.2                              56.0

Increase over 2005                           19.5                               8.4

Total water requirement
                                                              27.9
in 2040

Additional water need will be met by the construction of La Flora dam, Astroea dam and
Chamarel dam which will contribute 16 Mm3/year, 18.3 Mm3/year and 14.6 Mm3/year
respectively. The feasibility study for these projects is due to start this year. Moreover, further
groundwater exploitation will contribute 1.8 Mm3/year into the supply system.

The District Water Supply System - North caters for domestic and other economic needs in
the northern districts having a population head of 220,260. The normal water supply is
123,000 m3/day of which 30 % is surface water and 70 % is groundwater. This area has 40
agricultural boreholes, 47 industrial boreholes and 8 surface water sources. The projected
municipal and irrigation water demand for the North Water supply system for the next 35
years is detailed in Table 2-8 below.
Table 2-8: Projected water demand up to 2040 for the District Water Supply System -
North

           Year                  Municipal Water Demand              Irrigation Water Demand
                                        Mm3/year                              Mm3/year

           2005                              44.1                              51.8

           2010                              54.2                              119.0

           2020                              60.8                              146.0

           2030                              68.1                              152.0

           2040                              72.2                              152.0

Increase over 2005                           28.1                             100.52



                                                                                                14
Total water requirement
                                                            128.3
in 2040

As can be seen from Figure 2-2 above the northern part of the island has the highest number
of boreholes, used for meeting the domestic, industrial and agricultural water needs. Just like
the eastern part of the island, the northern districts are relatively dry and receive only around
1,000 mm of rain per year. Consequently, the need of water for irrigation purposes is very
high. However, groundwater exploitation has reached saturation point in the north.
Hydrological studies carried out have shown that there is saline intrusion and control pumping
is not required to prevent further deterioration of the groundwater.

From Table 2-8 above, we find that whilst municipal water requirement is expected to
increase by 28 Mm3/year, irrigation water needs will triple from 51 Mm3/year to 152
Mm3/year. The existing water resources, of a total supply capacity of 103.6 Mm3/year
(including the Midlands Dam) will not be able to satisfy the water requirement by 2010.
Additional sources of water should come from the second phase of the Midlands Dam (10
Mm3/year) and the construction of the Calebasses Dam which will supply 13 Mm3/year.

2.4.2 Future Projects

To address the growing water needs, the Water Resources Unit has already established a
programme for future projects which will include:
      The detailed design and construction of the Bagatelle Dam.
      The feasibility study followed by the detailed design and construction of dams in the
      south of the island. These will include dams at La Flora, Astroea and Chamarel. Studies
      re the construction of the phase II of the Midlands Dam, the Calebasse, Mon Vallon and
      Mt Maurice will also be looked into.
      The rehabilitation of the Piton du Milieu, La Ferme and Mare Longue reservoirs.
      The rehabilitation of feeder canals for the reduction in conveyance losses.
      Additional hydrological investigations and borehole drilling to harness groundwater.
      The construction of additional flow measuring stations.
      The implementation of Water Demand Management measures.

2.5   CONCLUSIONS

The Water Resources Unit has already established the water resources potential for the island
and projected the water needs for the next 35 years. In that sense it has prepared a programme
to meet the municipal and irrigation water need until 2040.

Several projects, including the construction of additional dams, further hydrological studies
and the rehabilitation of existing reservoirs and distribution channels are already under way
and others will follow in due course.




                                                                                              15
             3 POTABLE WATER SUPPLY - PRESENT STATUS
                     AND FUTURE PROGRAMME

Mr R. Mungra, General Manager, Central Water Authority and Mr C. P. Khedun

3.1   THE CENTRAL WATER AUTHORITY

The Central Water Authority (CWA) is a parastatal body under the Ministry if Public
Utilities, responsible for the treatment and distribution of potable water to domestic,
commercial and industrial consumers. The CWA operates within the Central Water Authority
Act of 1971, which has been subsequently amended in 1975, 1982, 1985, 1989, 1991, 2000
and 2002. These amendments relate mostly to the establishment of other institutions, namely
the Irrigation Authority, the Water Resources Unit and the Wastewater Management
Authority (previously known as the Wastewater Authority) in the water sector.

The CWA has defined its Mission and Values as follows (CWA, 2004):



                                         MISSION
      To secure and provide an excellent sustainable water supply service of
      appropriate quality, at a reasonable price, which meets the growing needs of the
      people and to support the economic development of the country.



                                             VALUES
                                             Courtesy
                                         Excellence
                                             Integrity
                                         Teamwork


3.2   THE WATER SECTOR – PAST

The water supply in Mauritius has developed as three distinct systems, namely the Port Louis
System, the Mare aux Vacoas (MAV) System and the Districts System.

The MAV System is further sub-divided into the Upper and Lower MAV sub-systems and the
Districts system into the Northern, Eastern and Southern sub-systems.

The constraints which faced the CWA when it started its operations in 1973 were gradually
eased out by massive financial investments over the years, specially during the mid-eighties;
projects identified then and subsequently implemented are still yielding positive results to
date.

These constraints can be characterised by:

                                                                                          16
(i)    Low average, limited treatment and limited distribution facilities.

       The treatment plats were limited in capacity and technology. The distribution systems
       comprised of old main pipes, the majority of which was in cast-iron and asbestos-
       cement which were prone to damages, specially at the joints, resulting in leaks. The
       overall coverage the service was relatively low.
(ii)   Service facilities mainly in urban areas.

       The water supply systems which were relatively well-developed were those of the Port
       Louis system and the Mare aux Vacoas system. Those two systems catered mainly for
       the main townships; areas outside the townships and rural villages were generally
       poorly supplied both in terms of piping network, (coverage) and hours of supply (level
       of services).
(iii) Recourse to wells, rivers and public fountains

       The consuming public had to resort to other alternatives of water supply in the light of
       the constraints enumerated above. Wells were being used as a source of water by
       remotely located population, washing of clothes was carried out in rivers and numerous
       villages were provided with stand-pipes (public fountains) which supplied small
       population pockets.
(iv) Potable Water Sector Subsidized by Government.

       The above-listed context of water supply preceded well-established and integrated tariff
       structures. The end result was that Government had to subsidize the potable water
       Sector. Fortunately, this trend gradually reversed with the massive investments carried
       out by Government with the financial assistance of funding organisations.

3.3    THE WATER SECTOR – PRESENT

3.3.1 Access and Quantity

The CWA presently provides 175 L/h/d of potable water to 99.6 % of the population (CSO,
2000). 85 % of the population has water within their house and 14.5 % have water within
their yard. A mere 0.5 %, found within the vulnerable group bracket, still have recourse to
public fountain and water tankers.

To meet this demand, the CWA utilises only 22 % of the overall water utilization in the island
as evidenced in the Table 3-1 below – the other users being agriculture and hydropower.
Table 3-1: Water utilisation in Mauritius

Purpose                    Surface water Mm3/year           Ground            Total       %
                            River-run        Storage
                                                             water           Mm3/year
                             offtakes       reservoirs      Mm3/year

Domestic, industrial,
                               38              72              114             224        22
tourism

Industrial
                               –                   –            11             11          1
(private boreholes)

Agricultural                  370              95               25             490        48

                                                                                               17
Purpose                    Surface water Mm3/year        Ground            Total         %
                            River-run       Storage
                                                          water           Mm3/year
                             offtakes      reservoirs    Mm3/year

Hydropower                    129               160           –              289         30

Overall utilisation           537               327         150             1014        100

Total water
                              512               261         150              923
mobilisation


3.3.2 Quality

The water provided by the CWA meets the World Health Organisation (WHO) Standards for
drinking water. It ensures the quality of both raw and treated water through two fully
equipped laboratories. Some 500 samples are collected monthly over which tests for 28
parameters are regularly performed.

3.3.3 Service Level

Service level remains one of the priority issues for the CWA. Presently, during normal period,
around 80 % of population has access to 24 hour water supply, 15 % to less than 15 hours of
supply and 5 % to less than 10 hours of supply.

However, during the dry season, these figures can change significantly, depending on the
severity of the water supply. In the 1999 drought, which is the one of the most severe drought
faced by the country in the past 50 years, the CWA established a strategy for the rational
management of water to ensure a reasonable supply to households and businesses. Table 3-2
below gives the hours of supply profile for the 1999 drought.
                          Table 3-2: Hours of supply for 1999 drought

                      Hours of Supply per day           % Population
                                h/d

                                24                          25.3

                              18 – 23                        1.8

                              10 – 17                       33.8

                               6–9                           6.9

                                <6                          32.0


3.3.4 Challenges Facing the Water Sector

Water Availability and Water Demand

The biggest challenge facing the potable water sector in Mauritius is the seasonal water
availability. Though 99.6 % of the population of the island is benefits from piped water,
seasonal water availability dictates the hours of supply as shown in Section 3.3.3 above.

                                                                                           18
The Corporate Plan (2004) reports that “Increases in the demand for water are driven by the
continued economic growth of Mauritius and the need to provide water to upcoming mega-
projects including the CyberCity at Ebène and the resultant development in the adjoining
areas of Highlands, the Integrated Resort Schemes and the new hotel developments on the
South West coast. New supplies will also be required for the NHDC Housing complexes, the
Sugar Employees VRS Scheme and supplies to squatters on selected State Land sites.”

Pollution Threats

Both the surface and ground water resource is under pollution threat from agricultural,
residential and industrial activities. About 50 % of the island, equivalent to 77 hectares, is
under agricultural activities, mainly sugarcane. Annually about 900 kg of nitrogeneous
fertilisers are used per hectare of land cultivated, and this contributes to 150 kg of nitrogen per
hectare cultivated (CSO, 1999). Hence, both the surface and the groundwater resources of the
island are exposed to this diffused source of agricultural pollution. Similarly, wastes from
cattle breeding activities eventually find their ways into our water resources. Studies carried
out by the MSIRI shows that nitrate mobility is restricted to the top 45 cm of soil but a large
amount of nitrate is unaccounted for.

As for residential contaminants, presently only 20 % of the whole island is served by sewer
networks, the remaining 80 % either disposing of their liquid wastes in absorption pits or via
septic tanks. The island of Mauritius being volcanic in nature, its geology is characterised by
highly fissured lava flows, with relatively high permeability. Hence, leachates can easily find
their way into the island’s water bodies, in case the absorption pits are not well located.

Pollution threat exists from wet textile factories as well though by law they have to pre-treat
their waste prior to disposal into a water course.

Non-Revenue Water

Another challenge facing the CWA is the loss in terms on non-revenue water which is
presently at an alarming 50 %. A Non-Revenue Water Cell will be created within the CWA
and by 2008, it is expected that this figure will be brought down to 25 % (CWA, 2004).

Furthermore the concern of the CWA is to maintain a high quality of service ad ensures
sustainability in the potable water sector.

3.4   THE WATER SECTOR – FUTURE

Through its Corporate Plan for 2004 to 2008 (CWA, 2004), the CWA has earmarked priority
areas that needs to be addressed in line with its mission. The CWA will launch its Masterplan
for the island-wide Distribution and Transmission System and its capacity to meet water
demand up to 2025. The “CWA aims at providing an uninterrupted supply of potable water,
under normal conditions, by implementing major water supply works and rehabilitating/
renewing old and deficient storage reservoirs, trunk and distribution network.”

In terms of water quality, the CWA is already providing potable water that meets the WHO
Standards for Drinking water. It intends to “sustain improvement in the level of quality of
potable water supply by improving treatment facilities and stepping up monitoring of quality
of water supply in the various distribution zones.”

Among others, the CWA intends to upgrade infrastructure at its customer service centres,
reengineer its organisation structure, manage its relation with the media, implement an Asset

                                                                                                19
Management Unit to manage its MUR 6.6 billion assets and optimise its revenue from the
services being provided so as to ensure its financial viability and sustainability.




                                                                                   20
          4 FOOD SECURITY AND IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT -
              PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROGRAMME

Mr N. Toolsee, General Manager, Irrigation Authority and SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.

4.1     INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is the biggest consumer of water, consuming about 48 % of the total water
resources of the island. In Mauritius, food security is highly dependent on irrigation
development and security of planters’ community.

Presently, the average annual demand is of the order of 425 Mm3/year.

The Irrigation Authority (IA) has developed a strategic plan for the sugar sector and a
complementary strategic plan for the non-sugar sector, outlining the future strategies for the
development of sugarcane and vegetables. The key areas of the strategic plans include:
        Derocking
        Mechanisation
        Irrigation technology
        Status of Irrigated Areas

For irrigation purposes, the island has been divided into 5 zones and the status of irrigated in
the different areas as well as potential for irrigable areas are as shown in Table 4-1 below.
Table 4-1: Irrigated areas and potential irrigable areas

                                    Irrigated Areas             Potential Irrigable Areas
                                           ha                               ha

North                                   6,941                            12,500

South                                   5,325                             6,400

East                                    3,189                             4,800

West                                    5,347                             8,350

Centre                                   817                               950

Total                                  21, 619                           33, 000

Irrigated zones cover a total extent of 21,619 ha, i.e. approximately 12 % of island coverage
and it is expected to increase in to 33, 000 ha, i.e. 18 % in the future.

The northern and southern areas of the island hold the greatest share of irrigated areas because
theses regions are the driest ones of the island.




                                                                                             21
4.2    SYSTEMS OF IRRIGATION

Methods of irrigation used in Mauritius can be classified into 3 broad categories, namely:
       Overhead irrigation: centre pivot, high pressure sprinkler, drag line
       Drip irrigation
       Surface irrigation




                         Figure 4-1: Irrigation systems in use in Mauritius
                           (high pressure, pivot & low pressure systems)
Table 4-2: Method of irrigation and irrigated areas

                      Method of Irrigation                               Irrigated Areas
                                                                                ha

Overhead                                                                       17,706

       Centre Pivot                                                            5,146

       High Pressure Sprinkler                                                 7,096

       Dragline/Low Pressure Sprinkler                                         5,464

Drip                                                                           1,881

Surface                                                                        2,032

Overhead irrigation is the most extensively used and covers an irrigated area of 17, 706 ha,
followed by surface irrigation.


                                                                                             22
As strategy towards more judicious utilisation of water resources, surface irrigation is being
more and more replaced by other forms of irrigation.

4.3   OPERATING SCHEME OF IRRIGATION AUTHORITY

The operating scheme of the Irrigation Authority is shown in Table 4-3 below.
Table 4-3: Operating scheme of the Irrigation Authority

                           Area     No of      Year of        System of
  Irrigation Projects                                                             Main Crop
                            ha     Planters   Operation       Irrigation

Northern Plain             1895     1700        1982      Overhead High         Sugarcane
Irrigation Project -                                      Pressure Sprinkler
Stage 1                                                   & Drip

Belle Mare Small Scale     217       465        1987      Low Pressure          Onion &
Irrigation Project                                        Sprinkler             Vegetables

Souvenir Drip              162       184        1988      Drip                  Sugarcane
Irrigation Project

Palma Small Scale          137       125        1987      Low Pressure          Sugarcane
Irrigation Project                                        Sprinkler (Drag
                                                          Line System)

Plaisance Small Scale       66       132        1982      Low Pressure          Onion,
Irrigation Project                                        Sprinkler (Drag       Vegetables &
                                                          Line System)          Food crops

Bel Ombre Small Scale       32       68         1989      Low Pressure          Vegetables &
Irrigation Project                                        Sprinkler (Drag       Food crops
                                                          Line System)

Trou D’Eau Douce            15       64         1983      Low Pressure          Onion &
Small Scale Irrigation                                    Sprinkler             Vegetables
Project

Arsenal Litchi Small        11       25         1990      Low Pressure          Litchi,
Scale Irrigation Project                                  Sprinkler             Vegetables &
                                                                                Food crops

Riche Terre Small           95       215        1990      Low Pressure          Vegetables &
Scale Irrigation Project                                  Sprinkler             Food Crop

Western Coast              1238      66        1992/      Surface/Drip/         Sugarcane
Irrigation Project                             1996       Sprinkler

Solitude Small Scale        95       141        1993      Drip                  Sugarcane
Irrigation Project

Cressonville Small           9       28         1996      Low Pressure          Litchi,
Scale Irrigation Project                                  Sprinkler             Vegetables &
                                                                                Food Crops

                                                                                             23
                              Area    No of      Year of        System of
  Irrigation Projects                                                              Main Crop
                               ha    Planters   Operation       Irrigation

Riviere du Rempart            179      320        1996      Semi-solid Low       Sugarcane
Small Scale Irrigation                                      Pressure Sprinkler
Project

St Felix LAMU Small            95      141        1997      High Pressure        Sugarcane
Scale Irrigation Project                                    Sprinkler/Solid
                                                            Set

Solitude II Small Scale        70      117        2000      Drip                 Sugarcane
Irrigation Project

Western Coast Tunkey          230      46         2000      Drip                 Sugarcane
Drip Project

Pointe aux Piments             42      90         2001      Centre Pivot         Sugarcane
Small Scale Irrigation
Project

Northern Plains               780      850        2004      Centre Pivot &       Sugarcane
Irrigation Project-Phase                                    Solid Set High
II- Block 2 & Block 3                                       Pressure System

Total                        5,368    4,773

Figure 4-2 below shows the region over Mauritius where the 18 irrigation projects have been
implemented.




                           Figure 4-2: Irrigation projects implemented

                                                                                             24
Water regime varies according to food crops and also at different stages of sugarcane crops,
consequently, the irrigation system should be adapted. For example, drip irrigation is used for
growing sugarcane, vegetables and in interline cropping as shown in Figure 4-3 below.




                            Figure 4-3: Drip irrigation systems

4.4   SUPPORT MEASURES

The support measures offered by the Irrigation Authority are:
      Water users association where there is participatory irrigation management
      Market Information System where information about what and when to plant is
      provided
      Creation of small planters welfare fund
      Sound water tariff for irrigation which emphasizes that water is an economic as well as
      a social good




                                                                                            25
              5 ENERGY - PRESENT SCENARIO AND FUTURE
                    STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMME

Mr S. Mukoon, Senior Generation Planner Engineer, Central Electricity Board

Abstract

One of the eight sub vision statements “Energy security for all households” is in line with
the goals of the Central Electricity Board (CEB), sole parastatal organization responsible for
the production, transmission and commercialization of electricity except. With a ten year
rolling electricity plan the CEB handles the challenges of meeting demand throughout the
islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues at least cost, while at the same time making the most of
renewable sources of fuel, where the sub vision statement “A sustainable Environment” is
also addressed.

The electricity sector is defined and the role of the CEB looked at. The picture of the actual
situation and future discussed. Horizon 2025 will be addressed in the next long-term
electricity plan.

5.1   SUBJECT MATTER

CEB Corporate situation

The Central Electricity Board (CEB) is a parastatal body wholly owned by the Government of
Mauritius and reporting to the Ministry of Public Utilities. Established on 8th December 1952
and empowered by the Central Electricity Board Act of 25 January 1964, CEB’s business is to
“prepare and carry out development schemes with the general object of promoting,
coordinating and improving the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity”
in Mauritius.

In the context of major changes and within the perspective of the ongoing power sector
reform the CEB released its Corporate Plan in April 2003. The Corporate Plan (available at
www.ceb.intnet.mu) sets out the overall business strategy for the utility, established priorities
and objectives, which provides direction and unity of purpose throughout the organization. It
assists in achieving the strategic goals of the organization.

In meeting the social obligations of electricity provider to a rapidly growing island nation, the
Central Electricity Board has not always been able to operate on commercial principles. This
has contributed to its weak financial position in recent years. Given that the country is now
completely electrified and the standard of living has risen for a majority of the population,
CEB can now begin to balance social obligations with operations as a commercial entity. This
is in harmony with Government’s long term plan for the power sector, which aims to create a
financially sound and self-sustaining electricity sector; a transparent and fair regulatory
environment that appropriately balances the interests of consumers, shareholders and
suppliers; and a modern power sector responsive to customers’ expectations of a high quality
of service and supply reliability. The Electricity Act of 1981 generally provides the regulatory
framework for the present electricity sector. In the near future, Government will establish a
transparent regulatory framework and will enact the appropriate enabling legislation. The
regulatory framework will provide a basis for the establishment of the power sector economic,
financial, environmental, and service policies.

                                                                                              26
To realise its plans for the sector, the Government of Mauritius committed in October 2000 to
improve the financial condition of the sector through improvements in efficiency, reductions
in system expansion costs, and injection of fresh capital through private participation by
taking the following distinct steps:
        Corporatise the CEB as a vertically-integrated utility;
        Set up an independent, multi-sectoral regulator; and
        Invite a strategic partner to assist in the management of CEB.

As at today CEB has established its Vision and Mission in line with the new Government
policies in the electricity sector.



                                              VISION
        A world class, commercial electricity utility enabling the social and economic
        development of the region.



                                             MISSION
        Meet the expectations of its customers and stakeholders by:
              Delivering prompt and efficient customer services
              Developing our employees and providing them with incentives
              Providing an affordable, safe, and reliable electricity supply
              Undertaking our business in an environmentally responsible manner
              Being the preferred employer in the region


5.1.1    Electricity Sector

From a humble sales figure of 98 million kWh and a maximum demand of 31 MW at the time
of the country’s independence in 1968, the Central Electricity Board has focused its efforts on
the supply of electricity to all sectors of the society, thereby contributing to the social and
economic development of the country over the years. At the same time as completing the
national rural electrification programmed in 1981, extending its networks to supply new
industries following the setting up of the export processing zones and the needs of a growing
tourism sector and textile industry. Conscious of the country’s heavy dependence on an
uninterrupted and stable electricity supply, CEB has invested massively in building up
generation capacity, mainly in heavy fuel oil-fired power stations. All hydro potential had
been exploited as of 1983 when the Diamamouve Dam was completed, supplying water to the
Champagne hydroelectric power station. In 2004, electricity sales totalled 1,721 million kWh.
CEB itself produced about 1,075 million kWh of energy – some 56 percent of the country’s
requirements – from its four thermal power stations and eight hydroelectric plants, which
have a about combined capacity of 350 MW. The remaining 44 percent of energy
requirements was purchased from independent power producers, which have a total firm
capacity of 111 MW and produce electricity mainly from coal and bagasse. With a workforce
of approximately 1,800 employees, CEB safely and dependably delivers electricity to more
than 349,000 customers through 7,300 km of distribution network.

                                                                                            27
5.1.2 Electricity Plan

Electrical energy is a vital part of our daily lives. We depend on electricity to run our
appliances, communities, and businesses. The production and delivery of electricity is itself a
source of economic activity for Mauritius, employing thousands of people directly and
indirectly. In Mauritius, we do not have an abundant supply of natural energy resources;
therefore we must plan carefully to ensure a reliable electricity supply that is also affordable
and sustainable.

An Integrated Electricity Plan (available at www.ceb.intnet.mu) the first of its kind was
produced in-house at the CEB and has been prepared to guide Mauritius to a more stable
electricity future.

Its cornerstones are to optimise the use of the existing power system, to keep electricity prices
as low as possible through least-cost capacity expansion, to encourage its customers to
participate in energy efficiency and conservation, and to provide for continued private sector
opportunities in the electricity sector.

The Integrated Electricity Plan (the Plan, or IEP) constitutes CEB’s master plan and
framework for the rational and successful development of generation, transmission, and
distribution resources required to meet the forecasted demand for electricity. As such, the IEP
focuses on the obligation to provide reliable and secure electricity service to Mauritius at a
reasonable cost and in a socially responsible manner. In this way, the IEP is fundamentally
linked with the Vision of being a world class, commercial electricity utility enabling the social
and economic development of the region.

The purpose of the Integrated Electricity Plan is to present CEB’s current estimate of the
evolution of demand for electricity over the next decade and its perspective on the options
available to meet that demand. Recognising that it is not possible to know the precise
conditions that will set electricity demand or the options to meet it in the future. Nevertheless
the Plan presents a way forward that hinges on optimising the use of the existing power
system, keeping electricity prices as low as possible through least-cost capacity expansion,
encouraging our customers to participate in energy efficiency and conservation, and providing
for continued private sector opportunities in the electricity sector. The “integrated” approach
used to develop this Plan is to include simultaneous consideration of demand and supply.

5.1.3 Current Situation

Demand for electric energy as per the 2002 plan is projected to grow to about 1.6 times its
2002 level in Mauritius and two times its 2002 level in Rodrigues by the end of the planning
horizon in 2012. At the same time, the capability of existing generating resources will
diminish as CEB retires some older generating units in both Mauritius and Rodrigues. We
estimate that capital expenditures on the order of Rs 12 billion will be required to cover the
electricity supply infrastructure needed over the 10-year horizon covered by this Integrated
Electricity Plan. Approximately 60 percent of this amount will go to new sources of electricity
generation, with investments in generation coming from both the private sector and CEB, and
the remaining 40 percent will be devoted to expanding and enhancing the electricity delivery
network. The plan has been recently updated to address the 2004 – 2013 outlook.

5.1.4 Demand Forecast

Demand forecast for electricity in Mauritius, as exemplified by electricity sales, is expected to
rise from 1,722 GWh in 2004 to 2,844 GWh in 2013. This represents an average cumulative

                                                                                              28
annual growth rate of 5.58 percent. While capacity demand is expected to rise from 317 MW
in 2003 to 503 MW in 2013, representing about 4.73 percent annually.
Table 5-1: Demand forecast for 2004 and 2005

                    Sales                         %
                   Forecast       Increase    Increase
Category            GWh
                                    GWh
                 2004     2005

Residential       583     607        24          4.1

Commercial        523     570        47          9.0

Industrial        556     590        34          6.1

Irrigation        30       31         1          3.3

Street Light      30       33         3         10.0

Total            1722     1831      109          6.3           Figure 5-1: Demand per sector


5.1.5 Current Trends
        Agricultural land conversion to real estate and Integrated Resort Schemes (IRS), with
        the support of Government; Several IRS projects in the pipeline;
        Textile industry facing difficulty (2004: Novel, Floreal, Grove, Arvind, 2005: Sinotex,
        Southern Textile, Noblesse);
        There are fewer Spinning Mills than announced initially; moreover, existing spinning
        mills are consuming less electricity than announced;
        Manufacturing sector in the foreseeable future will not be energy intensive; Light
        industries are being promoted, through business parks for example;
        There are limitations on exports, Mauritius being far from Europe, and African market
        being still relatively poor;
        Light Railway Transport is still uncertain due to uncertainty as to its financing;
        By end 2006, there will be 3200 new hotel rooms;
        Decline in tourist arrival recorded in the first half of 2004 compared to the same period
        in 2003; Catching up in 2005;
        Forecast economic growth for 2005 is 5 %;
        Reduction in exports in the Export Processing Zone;
        Sea Food Hub; Boost to services sector;
        Second Cyber tower in pipeline; ICT sector looks promising;
        Household appliances are more readily available than ever with generic trade names
        being commercialised at low prices;




                                                                                               29
5.2   DEMAND-SUPPLY

5.2.1 Capacity Balance

       Today’s need for new generation is driven primarily by capacity requirements.

         Capacity balance 2005-2013


                                                     Maintenance
                                                     Failure
                                                     Existing Capacity
         700
                                                     Addition
                                                     Peak Demand
                                                     Peak +Spinning Reserve
         600


         500


         400


         300


         200


         100


           0
               2005     2006   2007        2008   2009      2010         2011   2012   2013



                          Figure 5-2: Capacity balance 2005 - 2013

The demand pattern shows a peak that is about three times the minimum. This constrains the
system to fire on and off two thirds of the peak capacity daily.

Above capacity balance indicates the need of new addition of 30 MW on 2005 to 290 MW in
2013 corresponding to 350 MW in 2005 to 503 MW in 2013. The addition caters for the
increase in demand and planned retirement of old plants.

5.2.2 Energy Mix

Current Generation Fuel Mix in Mauritius is based on a diversity of fuels, as shown in Figure
below for the Year 2004.

                                                            Coal
                                                             Coal
                                                              Coal
                                                            22%
                                                             22%
                                                              22%



                               Fuel Oil
                                Fuel Oil
                                 Fuel
                                56% Oil
                                 56%
                                  56%
                                                                   Bagasse
                                                                    Bagasse
                                                                     Bagasse
                                                                     16%
                                                                      16%
                                                                       16%



                                                         Hydro
                                                          Hydro
                                                           Hydro
                                                          6%
                                                           6%
                                                            6%




                      Figure 5-3: Generation fuel mix for the year 2004

                                                                                              30
The generation fuel mix in Mauritius has been evolving over time, with the biggest changes
being the substitution of coal for diesel in recent years and the increasing contribution of
bagasse. This evolution in the relative amounts of fuels for generation is shown in Figure 5-4
below.

                                                                    F u e l M ix



         2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0


         1 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0


         1 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0


         1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0


         1 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

                                                                                                                     B agasse
 k w h 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
                                                                                                                     C oal
                                                                                                                     F u e l o il
           8 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0                                                                                       H yd ro


           6 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0


           4 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0


           2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0


                             0
                                  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
                                                                        ye a r




                                                     Figure 5-4: Fuel mix

Bagasse indigenous fuel will contribute more in the future, it is subject to availability of sugar
cane area under cultivation. Given the price of sugar on the international market is declining,
sugar factories are forced to centralize their activities bringing about efficiency in the sugar
process and at the same time delivering more energy from the same amount of bagasse. They
use high-pressure boilers, the oldest unit of 18 MW operating at 42 bars and the most recent
one at 82 bars, and use condensing turbines operating typically at 525 oC.

Hydropower contributes to only about 90 to 130 GWh every year with 8 hydro plants of 53
MW installed capacity. All large hydro potential has been exhausted. Two experts from the
UNDP carried out an investigation into Small Hydro Power Development in 1982. Proposals
at Midlands Dam and the La Nicoliere feeder canal were found to be uneconomical. Today
two projects namely, Baie du Cap/Chamarel dam and Reduit/Bagatelle dam are under study
that may incorporate micro hydro units. With the commissioning of the New Midlands dam, a
large amount of the water previously feeding our main hydro plant has been diverted for
potable/irrigation uses. No significant contribution is therefore expected from hydro.

Other renewable energy technologies are now being reexamined in the context of high fossil
fuel prices prevailing and increasing environmental concern. For Mauritius and its islands,
there is a strong need to investigate the full potential of making use of renewable energy
resources (RER). Incorporation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) into an existing
grid, or even as standalone application, requires an accurate assessment. This may involve
short-time step recording (e.g. hourly) over many years. For instance, the assessment of

                                                                                                                31
marine RER in our region is insufficient in quality to warrant the introduction of marine RETs
such as Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). It is most likely that RETs will remain
on a small scale over the short to medium term.

5.2.3 Biomass other than Bagasse

Generating electricity from a biogas such as methane produced at landfill sites is feasible.
Presently, the gas being produced at the only landfill is being flared. The electricity-
generating potential is small, of the order of 2 to 4 MW, and limited to about 5 to 10 years.

Waste treatment plants also offer high scope for electricity production from biogas. One such
plant is presently under construction and will include a Combined Heat and Power plant of
capacity 0.35 MW. The rate of gas production is expected to reach maximum after 3 years of
full operation.

5.2.4 Solar

Mauritius, being a tropical country, has good potential to make use of its solar regime, of
some 6 kWh/m2 as an energy resource. Solar water heating is already being exploited.
However, the easy access to the electricity a reliable grid and power supply combined with
relatively high prices of solar water heaters, approx 900 US$ per unit, have restrained the
adoption rate. Incentive in terms of low interest loans exists for the purchase of solar water
heaters.

Government implemented a pilot project in 1999 and 125 solar-powered street lighting units
were installed. A 76.8 kW distributed photovoltaic (PV) system was installed on the roof of
the New Government Centre in 2000 and is still in operation. The cost of the PV system
amounted to US$ 7/W.

5.2.5 Wind Power

The wind regime in Mauritius and Rodrigues is suitable for power generation with an annual
average speed of 8.1 m/s at 30 m above ground level. Past wind energy initiatives are
summarized below:
     1981: The installation of a wind pump of 2.2 kW in Rodrigues Island under the UNDP
     programme. The plant was damaged beyond repair during a cyclone.
     1987–1989: A 100 kW grid-connected wind turbine and 4 x 30 kW units were installed
     in Mauritius and Rodrigues respectively. Generation from the latter yielded satisfactory
     results in the first year of operation when 392,000 kWh were generated and accounted
     for 8.4 % of the total energy demand of Rodrigues.
     1990: Phasing out of the 100 kW units in Mauritius as it was damaged beyond repair
     during a cyclone.
     1995: Phasing out of the 120 kW wind park in Rodrigues due to technical constraints
     during cyclones.

In 2001 the CEB invited a tender for the setting up of a Wind Farm of 400 kW in Rodrigues
Island. Due to lack of financing, the CEB commissioned only three units of 60 kW at a
project value of about MUR 13 m. These units are operational since December 2003 at an
average of 22 % utilisation factor.



                                                                                           32
Presently the CEB is examining a proposal from a foreign company to set up a 25 MW wind
farm in the south of Mauritius. Should this be successful, some 53 GWH of energy is
expected from the farm in 2007.

5.2.6 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is an energy technology that converts solar
radiation to electric power. OTEC system uses the ocean's natural thermal gradient - the
ocean's layers of water have different temperatures - to drive a power producing cycle. As
long as the temperature between the warm surface water and the cold deep water differs by
about 20 oC (36 oF), an OTEC system can produce a significant amount of power, with little
impact on the surrounding environment. The oceans are thus a vast renewable resource, with
the potential to help to produce billions of watts of electric power. This potential is estimated
to be about 10 MW of base load power generation, according to some experts.

The distinctive feature of OTEC energy systems is that the end products include not only
energy in the form of electricity, but also several other synergistic products. However, out of
20 projects on OTEC in various countries, 12 have failed and the rest are still uncertain.
Consideration will be given to this technology after an in-depth feasibility study of its
suitability within the local context.

Currently the Government is considering a pilot OTEC plant of 4MW in collaboration with
the Japanese Government and the SAGA University of Japan.

5.3   THE SITUATION IN THE ISLAND OF RODRIGUES

The island of Rodrigues has no electricity interconnection with Mauritius. CEB is the sole
producer and distributor of electricity for the island. Although lagging somewhat behind
Mauritius in terms of economic development, Rodrigues is expected to quickly catch up. The
island has been targeted for significant development in the short term, with aid and incentives
that will promote more rapid economic growth and, as a consequence, encourage electricity
consumption. As a complement to the recent setting up of the Regional Assembly to
administer the island, the time is right to give separate and focused attention to an electricity
plan for Rodrigues.

Energy generation to meet demand in Rodrigues is expected to roughly double, rising from 23
GWh in 2002 to 42 GWh in 2012, or to 50 GWh in 2012 if the proposed seawater
desalination project is implemented in the near future. Peak demand of 4.5 MW in 2002 will
grow at an average cumulative annual rate of 5.4 percent, or about 300 kW per year over the
same period. Two new generating units of 1.9 MW capacity each are scheduled to come into
service at a new power station at Pointe Monnier by the end of 2004. A third unit of the same
size will be required in December 2005 to meet demand growth and allow for the retirement
of the older units at Port Mathurin. A fourth new generating unit will be required at the time
the proposed seawater desalination project is implemented.

5.3.1 Residential Development

Recent land parceling projects are an indication of the expected sustained population growth.
Construction of about 600 houses annually is expected over the coming years, with a direct
impact on the contribution of the residential sector to the peak demand. Penetration of
computers and air conditioners in Rodriguan households has begun and will grow over time.


                                                                                              33
5.3.2 Access to Water and the Desalination Project

Presently, the restricted supply of water is one of the main factors limiting the economic
development of Rodrigues Island. In the residential sector, low water pressure in pipes
combined with an irregular supply makes it unattractive for people to buy appliances, such as
electric showers and washing machines that run on water. In the industrial and services
sectors, activities that require significant amounts of water are unlikely to be undertaken
unless the investors provide their own water supplies, which is a costly disincentive.
Therefore, unless viable surface reservoirs are constructed or desalination plants set up on a
sufficiently large scale, the economic growth of Rodrigues is expected to continue to be
curtailed.

5.3.3 Other Islands

No more islands are electrified constantly. There is a study being carried out to electrify the
Agalega main islands. The government of Mauritius has undertaken to foster sustainable
development to our overseas islands and to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by
providing amongst others a reliable electricity supply. Currently the electricity supply on
Agalega Islands is free of charge for end-users and is provided by stand-alone diesel/petrol
standby generators put at their disposal by the OIDC for limited duration, from 7.00 am to
11.00 am and 4.00 pm to 10.00 pm for the houses and supporting services. A combination of
possibilities with different scenarios of demand, generation and distribution modes are being
considered. Their costs, benefits and feasibility assessed.

5.4   FURTHER ACTIONS

5.4.1 Demand Side Management

Nowadays, integrated electricity planning includes explicit consideration of demand-side
approaches, whereby electricity consumers participate with utilities in meeting their electricity
needs by managing both the level and timing of their demand. Such an approach is referred to
as demand-side management (DSM). The main benefit of DSM is burning less fossil fuel to
produce electricity, thus conserving non-renewable resources and improving the environment.

However, the planning process can no longer be limited to a supply-side approach, as this has
proved to be not only costly to the environment and to the electricity consumers, but also
unsustainable. The CEB is thus committed to implement a DSM program, with emphasis on
the following initiatives.

5.4.2 Energy Saving Lamps

There is currently some effort undertaken by the Government to promote utilization of energy
saving lamps. The CEB is also intent upon promoting widespread use of good quality energy
saving lamps, and in this connection is working towards a customer sensitisation campaign.

5.4.3 Energy Efficient Household Appliances

The sensitisation campaign of the CEB will also target customer education regarding the long-
term benefits of energy-efficient appliances. However, the appliance sellers will have to play
their role by meeting customer expectations once the latter start to look for energy efficient-
products. There will also be a need to regulate the market to prevent customers from being
misled as to the quality of products.

                                                                                              34
5.4.4 Energy Efficient Industrial Equipment

Latest technologies for industrial applications to offer very good value for money in terms of
quality, reliability and performance characteristics that include energy efficiency aspects.
There is plenty of scope to save on electricity consumption through systematic adoption of
energy efficient drives and corresponding control technologies, whether for new or existing
installations.

5.4.5 Energy Efficient Building Design

This is a new field, which is gaining increasing acceptance. There is currently a project to be
financed by the UNDP whose overall objective is to facilitate the implementation of measures
that will promote energy efficiency and energy conservation in buildings (new & existing
residential, commercial, industrial, both in the public and the private sectors) and ultimately
contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions related to energy needs (lighting, cooling,
amongst others) in buildings through a comprehensive assessment and removal of barriers as
related to energy efficiency and energy conservation in buildings and construction sectors in
Mauritius. This project is expected to lay the basis for new construction standards in
Mauritius with respect to energy efficiency.

5.4.6 Time of Use Pricing

Time-of-use (TOU) pricing will give customers a more accurate picture of the different costs
of electricity at different times of the day, thereby giving them an incentive to adjust their
usage pattern if they so wish. The utility will also be able to improve its system load factor
and make better use of its infrastructure as more customers switch to TOU. It may be
introduced on a pilot basis to residential customers. Time-of-use to non-residential consumers
exists already but will have to be gradually extended to the majority of such consumers.

5.5   KEY PLAYERS
      The Ministry of Public Utilities (MPU) oversees the Electricity sector and is responsible
      for energy policy formulation. The CEB, operating under the Ministry of Public
      Utilities, has the responsibility for the full range of electricity services, including
      generation, transmission, distribution and customer services.
      The State Trading Corporation (STC) is responsible, under the aegis of the Ministry of
      Foreign Affairs and International Trade for the import of all petroleum products. Coal,
      imported by the private sector, is used mainly for electricity generation by the IPPs.
      The Ministry of Finance needs to address incentives to promote renewable.
      The Ministry of Trade should ensure that energy efficient equipment corresponding to
      minimum specifications be allowed for import.
      Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are active in safeguarding the interests of the
      public relative to pricing and quality of services.

5.6   ONGOING ACTIVITIES

Four major power projects are in the pipeline. A 41 MW medium speed diesel plant at St
Louis is under erection and will be commissioned in Jan 2006. A coal-fired plant (CTDS) is
nearing commissioning and will be connected to grid this June. A power purchase agreement
has just been signed between the CEB and Centrale Thermique de Savannah to acquire 74

                                                                                            35
MW from coal/bagasse due in April 2007. And a proposal for 25 MW of wind power in the
south of the island is being discussed. Moreover the CEB has hired an international consultant
to study the redevelopment of its existing old medium Fort Victoria power plant due to be
retired by 2006.

Transmission lines and substations enhanced and soon the transmission voltage will be
uplifted from 66 kV to 132 kV.

A new Consumer service department will be created to enhance the quality of service to
customers.

DSM implementation plan, and the tasks stated therein will be carried out in conjunction with
all stakeholders. With regard to renewable technologies, a considerable amount of research
remains to be done. On the other hand, the basis has already been set for the preparation of a
DSM programme. A load and market research is in progress and a new tariff strategy is being
prepared.

5.7   CONCLUSION

A number of major energy-related challenges face Mauritius. Our dependence on imported oil
is growing, increasing the nation’s vulnerability to supply and price disruptions. We cannot
therefore neglect the spectre of electricity outages and price spikes as it threatens the
productivity of our manufacturing sector as well as the rapidly growing Information and
Communication Technologies sector. Due to the paramount importance and role of the energy
sector, namely electricity in the socio-economic development of the Republic, we must
identify and promote technologies sustainable with an in depth analysis of the long-term
situation. Realistic targets must be set and policies laid to support the initiatives in the long
term with the Government as coordinator and major stakeholder. From the foregoing, the sub
visions are met to a large extent. Mauritius can share its wealth of experience in the electricity
sector with SADC members.




                                                                                               36
                       6 ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES
                              AND PROGRAMME

Mr S. Mooloo, Department of Environment, Ministry of Environment

Abstract

Despite shortage of water for the growing population, safe water and sanitation for all has
been a key feature of development in Mauritius. Strategies and plans have included:
improving integrated management to ensure better supply and more effective water use,
especially in agriculture and industry - the heaviest consumers. The Ministry of Environment
and National Development Unit, in its National Environmental Strategies and through its
Environmental Investment Programmes has been and is implementing a number of projects
related to the improvement of water resources management and the conservation of water
resources.

Keywords: environment, environmental strategy, environment investment programme,
integrated approach

6.1   INTRODUCTION

Of all natural resources, water is the one that is essential to sustainable development,
including economic growth, social stability and poverty alleviation. However, one sixth of the
world’s population, roughly 1 billion people, are still without access to a safe water supply.
To make matters worse, the increase in global water demand is putting unprecedented
pressure on this resource.

Like all small island states, Mauritius has got a fragile ecology and limited natural resources,
which therefore call for their conservation and protection. Haphazard developments have
encroached on the environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) such as water catchments and
ground water recharge areas, wetlands, erodable hillsides, mountain areas, lakes, fish and
wildlife habitats, and areas of high biodiversity and social significance.

Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 quotes the following: “The widespread scarcity, gradual
destruction and aggravated pollution of freshwater resources in many world regions, along
with the progressive encroachment of incompatible activities, demand integrated water
resources planning and management. Such integration must cover all types of interrelated
freshwater bodies, including both surface water and groundwater and duly consider water
quantity and quality aspects”.

Furthermore, in the 1994 Barbados Programme of Action (BPoA), the blueprint for
sustainable development for SIDS, it was recognised that SIDS face severe constraints in
terms of both quality and quantity of freshwater. It was then highlighted that inadequate
action to safeguard watershed areas and groundwater resources posed a serious threat and
sound long term management strategies for water catchment and storage areas, including the
treatment and distribution of limited water supplies were of particular economic and
environmental importance.

The validity of this statement was retained in the Mauritius Strategy following the full review
of the BPoA in January 2005 in Mauritius. Indeed, it was emphasised that SIDS continue to

                                                                                             37
face water management and water access challenges, caused in part by deficiencies in water
availability, water catchment and storage, pollution of water resources, saline intrusion (which
may be exacerbated, inter alia, by sea level rise, unsustainable management of water
resources and climate variability and climate change) and leakage in the delivery system.
Furthermore, it was also stressed that access to safe drinking water, the provision of sanitation
and the promotion of hygiene are the foundations of human dignity, public health and
economic and social development and that these are among the priorities of most SIDS.

In Mauritius, the management of freshwater resources has been a top priority in the
development agenda of Government. Political will as well as citizen stewardship have been
pivotal for water management in the country. In addressing the challenge of balancing
increasing water needs with other basic requirements, Mauritius has reviewed its policies and
strategies to include more effective governance, improved legislative and institutional
capacities.

6.2   NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY

Despite high annual rainfall, rapid runoff, high population density and extensive use of water
for irrigation, place significant stress on water resources in Mauritius. In 1991, the first
National Environment Action Plan identified effective water resources management as the
most urgent action for the next 50 years to reduce the threat of demand outstripping supply.
At the same time, attention was also focused on water quality. Indeed, it was observed that the
quality of water was deteriorating mainly due to polluting effluents associated with textile
factories and other industry and also due to sewage pollution around urban areas.
Additionally, agrochemicals applied to sugar cane fields and to other high input crops were
also identified as the sources of localized water pollution.

Since 1991, the Ministry of Environment has strongly supported measures that have
contributed to the alleviation of the immediate pressures on water management. These have
included increasing the capacity of water supply systems to meet predicted demand and
providing sewerage systems in priority areas. In addition, the Ministry of Environment and
National Development Unit (MoE & NDU) is the authority responsible for the preparation
and promulgation of guidelines, standards and regulations on water quality and effluent
limitations.

In 1997, the policy context for water resources management was articulated in Vision 2020
and emphasized the following improvements:
      Improving the efficiency of water supply;
      Cost recovery for water; and
      Wastewater services to be improved through the implementation of the National
      Sewerage Master Plan

Furthermore, even though, the prime institutional responsibility for water resource
management lies with the Ministry of Public Utilities through its different agencies, the MoE
and NDU provides for the protection and management of the environmental assets of the
country, one of which being water resources for the purpose of sustainable development.

6.2.1 Activities under National Environmental Action Plans I & II

In 1991, NEAP I had recognized that water quality was being threatened and consequently the
following projects were undertaken for improvement:

                                                                                              38
     A National Sewerage Master Plan was prepared in 1994 for the comprehensive
     development of wastewater facilities to abate and control wastewater pollution. The
     Master Plan recommended that sewered area be extended and existing short sea outfalls
     be eliminated.
     The development of an Integrated Pest Management for the controlled use of
     pesticides and use of organic and biofertilisers.
     The identification of pollutants in the manufacture of sugar and formulation of
     remedial actions to be undertaken.

In 1999, the second National Environment Strategies for Mauritius recommended that the
goal of a strategic water management should be an integrated, cost effective and
sustainable. The subsequent NEAP II sets out an environmental strategy for Mauritius for the
next 10 year period, which is: “To follow the principles of sustainable development by
providing environmental services, encouraging responsible environmental practices and
enforcing appropriate environmental standards in order to safeguard the health and welfare,
conserve the heritage and enhance the quality of life of all the people of Mauritius”

Consequently, in NEAP 2, policies were elaborated to set a strong water resource
management framework for the future, and improve efficiency in water supply. The main
elements of the programme focus on the following:
     Improve efficiency in water supply and waste water treatment by ensuring that demand
     side management options are used in concert with supply side investments;
     Enhancing the capacity to manage the resource by making more information available,
     institutional reform and capacity building
     Making resources available for investment and maintenance by cost recovery charging.

In order to implement the above recommendations, it was important to strengthen institutional
capacities and enhance collaboration among all stakeholders. The Ministry of Environment &
NDU has undergone institutional and legislative strengthening in year 2000 to meet the new
challenges of water and waste water management.

6.2.2 Environment Investment Programmes

Environment Investment Programme (EIP) I, which covered the period 1988 – 1998, was
established under the first NES and was designed to establish a policy, legislative and
institutional framework for environmental management as well as to execute several
infrastructural works. Projects under EIP I have strongly supported measures that have
contributed to the management of the immediate pressures on water resources, namely by
increasing the capacity of water supply systems to meet predicted demand and by giving
sewerage systems in priority areas.

EIP II, developed under NES 1999, consists of 72 projects grouped under 4 main sectors: the
management and coordination programme, the resource management programme, the sector
programme and the Rodrigues programme.
     The Management and Coordination Programme - Aims at increasing the capacity of
     the Ministry to enable it to better manage and coordinate the whole issue of protection
     and preservation of the environment in Mauritius
     The Resource Management Programme - Provides for the protection and
     presentation of the various resources of the country, namely land resources, water
     resources and coastal and marine resources

                                                                                          39
     The Sector Programme - Aims at maintaining a balance between the environment and
     development and deals with the mitigation of negative impacts of various activities in
     the country
     The Rodrigues Programme - Meant for the promotion of protection and conservation
     of the environment in Rodrigues

Projects Related to the Protection & Preservation of Water Resources

The Ministry of Environment & NDU is currently implementing a range of initiatives to
address the protection and preservation of water resources.
Table 6-1: Programmes and component projects implemented or being implemented
under EIP II

Projects for Mauritius

Development of environmental indicators   32 environmental indicators have been identified

Assisting planning in tourism zones, using Review of coastal zone outline plans
site specific capacity studies where       Identify and commission carrying capacity
appropriate                                studies

Strengthen policy and strategic land      Review of NPDP
planning at central level                 Identification of hotspots

Environmental Assessment                  Improve stakeholder involvement
                                          Coordinate strategic environmental review and
                                          assessment

Develop environmental standards and       Develop environmental standards and quality
quality objectives                        objectives across all sectors

Environment Information System            Centralise all information related to
                                          environmental matters

NEL Capacity Building & Accreditation     Develop water quality guidelines, sampling and
                                          analytical protocols

Education & Awareness Training            Organise awareness raising events, support
                                          NGOs

Water demand monitoring programme         Monitor demand sector-wise, revision of tariffs
                                          especially in the agricultural sector,
                                          development of a demand management plan

Water resources monitoring programme      Monitoring, analysis and reporting plan, water
                                          resource information system, inventory of
                                          polluting sources, develop land planning
                                          guidelines and review plans




                                                                                           40
Projects for Rodrigues

Invest in improvements in water resources Measures taken to implement recommendations
                                          of UNDP study

Improve wastewater management                Design and build treatment facilities, and
                                             preparation of guidelines for on-site wastewater
                                             facility, implementation of wastewater strategy

Water resources monitoring programme         Setting up a mini-laboratory
                                             Pilot programmes leading to full monitoring

Moreover, several projects having indirect benefits on the water resources have also been
implemented. The closure of open-air dump sites, upgrading of dump sites to transfer stations
and the construction of Mare Chicose Sanitary Landfill have for example reduced
considerably the risk of underground water contamination.

Policy Context – The National Development Strategy

Within EIP II, the National Physical Development Plan was reviewed and re-titled the
National Development Strategy (NDS). The principal objectives of the NDS were the
provision of strategic guidance, sustainable development opportunities and for the
strengthening of institutional/legal framework for physical planning.

With regard to environmental management, a range of mechanisms exists to protect the
environment. In the NDS, many of the policies involve environmental protection of
Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) rather than the environmental management of ESAs.
ESAs represent natural and environmental assets of the nation and their on-going
management and protection in vital if sustainable goals are to be achieved.

Policy ENV1 of the NDS defines ESA as follows: State lands, habitats for endemic flora and
fauna, mountain slopes and range peaks, coastal features, geological features and water
resources (major aquifers, surface water catchement areas, existing, proposed and identified
reservoirs and boreholes, existing weirs and designation for river reserves) and reinforces the
general presumption against major developments in identified ESAs.

Consequently, the adoption of the precautionary approach is considered the most appropriate.
For instance, management of the ESA forms part of the Environment Impact Assessment
process prior to seeking a development permit, as spelt out under the Environment Protection
Act 2002.

6.2.3 Conventions

Mauritius is party to at least 36 multilateral environmental agreements and as a party to a
convention, Mauritius is fully conscious of the fact that action towards sustainable
development can only work as part of a coordinated approach. Below is listed the conventions
related directly or indirectly to the conservation and management to water resources to which
Mauritius is party.
     Rio Convention
     United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


                                                                                            41
      International Convention to Combat Drought and Desertification
      Convention on Biological Diversity
      Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat
      (RAMSAR)
      Waste related Conventions: MARPOL convention, Basel Convention, Stockholm
      Convention, Bamako Convention

6.3   INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT AND LEGISLATION

The prime institutional responsibility for water resource management lies with the Ministry of
Public Utilities through its different agencies (Central Water Authority, Wastewater
Management Authority and Water Resources Unit). However, the Ministry of Environment &
NDU provides for the protection and management of the environmental assets of the country
for the purpose of sustainable development. This is clearly described in the preamble to the
Environment Protection Act (EPA) 2002 –



                             Environment Protection Act 2002
      An Act - To provide for the protection and management of the environmental
      assets of Mauritius so that their capacity to sustain the society and its
      development remains unimpaired and to foster harmony between quality of
      life, environmental protection and sustainable development for the present and
      future generations; more specifically to provide for the legal framework and the
      mechanism to protect the natural environment, to plan for environmental
      management and to coordinate the inter-relations of environmental issues,
      and to ensure the proper implementation of governmental policies and
      enforcement provisions necessary for the protection of human health and the
      environment of Mauritius.


6.3.1 Provisions under the Environment Protection Act 2002

Environmental Assessment

The EPA 2002 includes various provisions to address the adverse impacts of new and existing
activities on the environment and in particular on our receiving water bodies. Part IV of the
Act provides for a proponent to submit to the Director of Environment either a preliminary
environmental report or an application for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
licence or a strategic environmental impact assessment (SEIA) depending on the nature and
category of the undertaking. For example, new activities such as poultry or food processing
which can adversely impact on the quality of ground water or a watercourse require approval
of a PER before it can operate. Bigger undertakings such as sewage treatment plant or
development on a wetland would require an EIA licence. National Master Plans such as the
Sewerage Plan of the National Physical Development Plan would require the submission of
an SEIA.




                                                                                           42
6.3.2 Environmental Standards, Guidelines and Regulations

In order to stop the bad practices of industries and to prevent further degradation of the
environment, Ministry of Environment & NDU has enacted a number of legal instruments
which spell out in clear terms specific offences, requirements and penalties for contravention.
Standards and regulations are the instruments of intervention in pollution control. Under Part
VI of EPA 2002, the Minister of Environment is empowered to prescribe standards and
guidelines in relation to air, noise, water, effluent limitations, pesticides residues, hazardous
and non-hazardous wastes, etc. In addition, the Minister may make regulations to provide for
industrial pollution control by means of an industrial waste audit.

In relation to water and effluent limitations, the Act provides respectively under sections 38
and 39, for the following –

Standards for Water
(i)    The Minister shall prescribe standards for water quality to protect the public health,
       welfare and the environment, and to provide adequate safeguard for the quality of water.
(ii)   Any regulations made under subsection (1) may provide for different standards for
       water quality, having regard to the use and value of water for domestic supply,
       propagation of fish, flora, fauna, and wildlife, recreational purpose, agricultural,
       industrial and other uses.

Effluent Limitations

The Minister shall establish -
(i)    Effluent limitations for sources of pollution by effluents in accordance with the
       applicable pollution control technology, having regard to existing and to new sources of
       pollution;
(ii)   Time schedule for installation and operation of applicable pollution control technology.

To date MoE & NDU have issued the following standards/guidelines and regulations relevant
to the water sector (copies of same could be downloaded from the Ministry’s website
http://environment.gov.mu)
       Drinking Water Standards (GN No. 55 of 1996 - in force since 1 July 1996)
       Effluent Limitations for the Sugar Industry (GN No. 34 of 1997 – in force since 1
       October 1999)
       Standards for hazardous wastes (GN No. 157 of 2001)
       Effluent discharge permit regulations (GN. No. 43 of 2003, Amended GN No. 43 of
       2004)
       Standards for effluent discharge (on land, underground and into surface watercourses
       not meant for potable water supply) (GN. No. 44 of 2003)
       Standards for effluent discharge into the ocean (GN. No. 45 of 2003)
       Standards for effluent for use in irrigation (GN. No. 46 of 2003)
       Environment Protection (Collection, Storage, Treatment, Use and disposal of used oil)
       Regulations 2005.
       Guidelines for Inland Surface Water Quality (GN No. 188 of 1998)
       Guidelines for coastal water quality (GN No. 620 of 1999)

                                                                                              43
     Guidelines for irrigation water quality (GN No.617 of 1999)

Part V of the EPA 2002 makes provision for emergency measures, clean-up and removal
operations, and powers in case of a spill or an environmental emergency. A spill is defined,
under the Act, as the discharge of a pollutant into the environment from or out of a structure,
vehicle, vessel, craft, or other carrier or container, which -
     Is abnormal having regards to all the circumstances of the discharge; and
     Poses a serious threat to the environment;

This Part of the Act also provides for liability for spill (the right to damages from the owner
of a pollutant by a person affected by a spill), the recovery of expenses by the Director of
Environment incurred as a result of any clean-up or removal operation, and general provision
for the Minister of Environment to make regulations providing for a contingency plan in
respect of any activity which may cause a spill.

6.3.3 Enforcement

The Fourth Schedule to EPA 2002 empowers other Ministries and Authorities to act as
Enforcing Agencies in relation to their respective medium or pollutant. For instance, the
Ministry of Health and Quality of Life is responsible for quality control of drinking water and
the Ministry of Public Utilities is assigned the responsibility to enforce inland waters and
effluent. In addition, an Enforcing Agency is given all enforcement powers as provided for
under Part XI of the Act, except for the issue of a Prohibition Notice or a Stop Order.

The Act also provides for the Department of Environment to act as a “Co-Enforcing Agency”
in respect to any medium or pollutant.

6.3.4 Coordination Role of the Ministry of Environment & NDU

The Act gives the Ministry a pivotal role in terms of coordination with other Ministries and
Authorities through the setting up of various coordination committees. The National
Environment Commission (NEC), chaired by the Prime Minister and comprising all Ministers
concerned, is the highest instance where environment policy decisions are taken.

The Environment Coordination Committee (ECC), chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the
Ministry and comprising high officials of the other Ministries/Authorities, implements
policies emanating from the NEC. The Environment Liaison Officers (ELO) Committee is a
sub-committee of the ECC and comprises enforcement officers all Enforcing Agencies. The
Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Committee groups all relevant stakeholders
(Ministries, Local Authorities and NGOs) is mandated to develop inter alia integrated
management plans, undertake projects and studies, etc. in relation to the coastal zone.

Besides playing its role as a coordinating body, the Ministry also often acts as a “watchdog”
and ensures that the principal Enforcing Agency is discharging fully its functions and
responsibilities under the Act.

6.3.5 Technical Advisory Committee on Rivers and Canals

The Act also empowers the Minister to set up under section 12 a Technical Advisory
Committee (TAC) to advise him on matters pertaining to the scientific and technical aspects
of environmental protection and management.


                                                                                            44
Following a survey on the state of our watercourses by the Ministry of Environment & NDU
in collaboration with the Police de L’Environnement and local authorities in May 2003, it has
been observed that the water quality in many rivers and streams has deteriorated mostly due to
illegal discharge of liquid and solid wastes in our watercourses. Though Government together
with local authorities have initiated various actions on an ad-hoc basis to prevent our state of
rivers from deteriorating namely by cleaning/maintenance of water courses, landscaping and
upgrading river banks, much remains to be done to revitalize our rivers so that they become
fully functional.

With a view to sustainably manage our rivers in line with the provision of Chapter 18 of
Agenda 21 regarding the Protection of the Quality and Supply of Freshwater Resources, a
Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), comprising all relevant stakeholders, was set up in
November 2003 with the following terms of reference –
      To undertake a comprehensive review of the state of rivers, streams and canals of
      Mauritius, including their present and potential uses and values;
      To examine legislation pertaining to rivers, streams and canals and propose
      amendments, where necessary
      To prepare an urgent action plan for the cleaning of rivers, streams and canals by
      appropriate authorities
      To make recommendations including restoration works for the enhancement of the
      water quality, natural scenic cultural and recreational values of rivers;
      To prepare a comprehensive management plan for rivers, streams and canals of
      Mauritius; and
      To make recommendations with regard to awareness campaigns and increased public
      participation for the sound management of rivers, streams and canals.

The main objective of the TAC was to make recommendations on restoring our rivers. The
TAC is presently finalising the recommendations for ecological restoration and management
of rivers and canals. However, given the state of degradation of our watercourses, it is
recommended that immediate action be taken to entrust the responsibility of cleaning and
maintenance of watercourses to local authorities. At the last National Environment
Commission held on 28 February 2005, it was agreed in principle to proceed with the
amendment of the Local Government Act 2003 so as to give this mandate to the local
authorities.




                                                                                             45
           7 WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT - PRESENT STATUS
                    AND FUTURE PROGRAMME

Mr M. Kerof, General Manager, Wastewater Management Authority

Abstract

This paper highlights the status of Wastewater Management in Mauritius. It describes the
WMA vision, mission and strategies in the context of changing scenario of the emerging
country, Mauritius. The details of the major capital projects in the recent past and the
associated success stories concerning the implementation of the National Sewerage Program
(NSP) are covered with the help of statistical data. The initiatives and the hard decisions that
need be taken to forge ahead to achieve the vision in order to protect the Mauritius
environment and tourism for sustainable development are discussed. The financial
implications and the future plans in order to achieve self-sufficiency in managing the
Wastewater Sector and to protect the fragile Water Environment of Mauritius are described.

Key words: Wastewater management, Mauritius, action plan, challenges in wastewater,
WMA vision, National Sewerage Program (NSP).

7.1     INTRODUCTION

7.1.1   Mauritius

The Republic of Mauritius consists of several islands in the Indian Ocean, among which
Mauritius and Rodrigues are the main islands. The total surface area of Mauritius is
approximately 1865 square km. The climate is tropical. Mauritius has an annual average
rainfall of 2100 mm and Rodrigues of 1190 mm.

The population of Mauritius for 2004 has been estimated at 1,300,000 of which about 45 %
live in the urban conurbations of the districts of Plaines Wilhems and Port Louis. Besides, the
number of tourists visiting the islands makes up the temporary residents; more than 700,000
tourists visited the island in 2004 with an average length of stay of 10.5 nights per tourist.

The Mauritian economy is considered strong, especially within the context of nearby Africa
and Central Asia. Mauritius is a middle income country. The real growth rate of Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) has been averaging around 5 % over the last two decades. GDP
stood at an equivalent 5.4 billion US$ in 2003, while the per capita income stood at US$
4500. Inflation was at a single-digit figure of 3.9 % while unemployment turned around 10 %.
The main pillars of economic growth include export-oriented textiles and other light
manufacturing, sugar, and tourism. Banking, financial, and business services, including
consulting services and ICT are growing rapidly.

7.1.2 Government of Mauritius Vision for Water, Life, and Environment

The toughest challenge any management has to deal with is to provide service to the needy.
The Government of any country gives top priority to the basic needs of its population.
Managing wastewater of a country is a mammoth task. The environmental management and


                                                                                             46
protection in Mauritius stems principally from the first National Environmental Action Plan
(NEAP1) developed in 1988.

The Government of Mauritius committed itself to sustainable economic development at the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
in June 1992. The Government priority is to increase efforts to mitigate the adverse effects of
environmental degradation, monitor performance of industries to protect environmental
concerns and to take strong and pro-active action on emerging environmental issues facing the
nation.

7.1.3 The National Environmental Policy

The Government has adopted a National Environmental Policy (NEP). The overall objectives
of the NEP are “to foster harmony between quality of life, environmental protection and
sustainable development for the present and future generations. The Government recognizes
that a high quality environment is essential for the sustained development of the country’s
economy and for the health and welfare of its people.

The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) markedly identified inadequate disposal of
urban wastewater as a growing threat to the quality of groundwater the principal source of
domestic water supply of the country, as well as to marine and coastal zone ecosystems.

As a follow-up on the NEAP recommendations, the Government launched the Sewerage
Master Plan Study (financed by the African Development Bank) to elaborate a Master Plan
for the comprehensive development of wastewater facilities and provide an orderly guide for
implementation over a plan period of 20 years.

7.1.4 The Sewerage Master Plan/National Sewerage Program

The Sewerage Master Plan (SMP), was completed in early 1994, and provides a global
framework for long-term commitments to sound financial policy and operational management
to establish and maintain water quality goals. In the framework of the Sewerage Master Plan –
1994, the National Sewerage Program (NSP) comprising priority projects to be implemented
over a decade was prepared. To ensure the smooth implementation of the NSP, an
Institutional study was commissioned in 1997. This study identified the technical,
institutional, organizational, legislative, and financial constraints of the sector. In line with the
NSP, the Wastewater Sector Policy was finalized in 1998 and funding was secured with
various funding agencies.

The revised second National Environmental Action plan, or NEAP2, was produced in 1999.
This comprehensive plan provides the Government strategy and sets out the second
Environmental Investment Program for the Republic of Mauritius.

7.2   WMA LEGAL FRAMEWORK

The Wastewater Management Authority (WMA) is a parastatal organization operating under
the aegis of the Ministry of Public Utilities (MPU). It has been established as a corporate
body by the WMA Act of 2000 which was proclaimed on 30th August 2001.

The Authority operates under two legal instruments/contracts signed on 31st August 2001
between WMA and MPU, vis:
(i)   Convention de Maitrise d’Ouvrage Deleguée (for the construction of new works).

                                                                                                  47
(ii)   Contract de Delegation (for the Operation & Maintenance of the Public Wastewater
       Systems).

Under the first contract, Government has entrusted to the WMA the overall responsibility for
the implementation of all projects under the National Sewerage Plan (N.S.P). This plan seeks
to connect 50 % of the population to the public sewer system by 2010 / 2012. Under the
second contract the WMA is responsible to the Government for the Operation and
Maintenance of all the assets used in the Public Sewerage Systems.

7.3    WMA MISSION AND VISION

To define present strategies and plan for future challenges WMA established its new mission,
vision and values statements as indicated below.



                                          VISION
            To protect Water & Marine Environment of Mauritius and ensure water
            resources sustainability.
            To be a reliable and high quality Wastewater Service provider for
            Mauritius.
            To train, develop and ensure a committed and highly effective human
            resources.
            To forge sustainable partnership with all stakeholders sensitive to the
            environment.



                                         MISSION
            We are committed to protection of Mauritius Water Resources & Marine
            Environment.
            We are committed to customer satisfaction.
            We will achieve sustainable financial self-sufficiency.
            We will motivate and train employees for future growth and delivery of
            excellence.



                                         VALUES
            We are committed to learn from each other and maximize use of resources
            through team work.
            We are committed to Personnel development.
            We are committed to go the extra mile for our customer.




                                                                                         48
7.4   WASTEWATER SECTOR POLICY AND MAJOR OBJECTIVES

7.4.1 Wastewater Sector Policy

Government of Mauritius (GoM) against the backdrop of inadequate disposal of wastewater
and its potential threats on the environment has formulated a wastewater sector policy in 1998
and an associated investment program with the objective to connect 50 % of the population to
a sewerage system by the year 2010.

7.4.2 Objectives/Strategies

The overall objective of the wastewater sector development program is to contribute to
sustainable development for preserving the fragile environment and public health.

The following specific objectives are identified:
      To protect both fresh and coastal water of Mauritius.
      Halt and reverse the trend of wastewater pollution on the island and its coastal zone.
      Improve health and sanitary conditions of the population.
      Provide the technical, legal, institutional and financial framework necessary for
      sustainable development of the sector.

7.4.3 Expected Results

The sector program has the following expected results at wastewater sector level:
      Infrastructure needs, to be expanded to connect 50 % of the population to a public
      wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems.
      Strengthening of the WMA, with adequate legal status, human resources and tariff
      structure.
      Cost recovery to be linked to affordability of service.
      Integrated vision of water supply and wastewater sectors.
      Improved environmental and Customer Services Standards.

7.5   ORGANISATION STRUCTURE

WMA inherited the organization structure of the Wastewater Authority (WWA) in 2001 and it
was not wholly suited to the needs of a customer-focused entity. A new organization structure
was defined by consultants in the WMA Corporate Plan 2002-2007, which was published in
November 2001. It relied heavily on a highly qualified and skilled Executive Team and key
posts at the top level of the organization filled by skilled personnel. The organization structure
is presented in Figure 7-1 below.




                                                                                               49
                                                                                        Go


                                                                                        MP
                                                                         1-PART
                                                                                   WMA Board

                                                        Sec. to
                                                                                                   Internal Audit
                                                        Board
                                                                                      General
                                                                                      Manager

                                                                                                   Quality Control
                                   DGM (Tech)
                                        (A1.1)                    Confi Sec.                    Admin Asst.           DGM (Admin)

                                       Technical                                                                       Admin&
                                                                         1-PART A : Executive Management


                                          DGM                                                     3-PART              DGM
                  2-PART B                                                                                                          C    fi S
                                                                     C    fi S

            Div. Manager                       Div.                        Div.                       Finance            Admin/           Doc.      IT
             New works                        Manager                     Manager                     Manager             HR            Centre &   Unit

                               HC                                                                                            HR         Admin/
    Planning &       Works                                            Custo       O &M Unit     Finance       Store         C.2.1       Registry
    PMU B.1.1        Unit       &            PCU        Laborat        mer           B.3.2      Section       C.1.2
                              MapUni         B.2.1        ory                                                                            C22
                                                                      C
                 2-PART B: Technical Department                                   Workmen's                3-PART C :Administrative Department
                                                                                    class


                              Figure 7-1: Analysis of WMA organization structure

7.5.1 Training and Development

The WMA is conscious of the need to provide continuous, training to the staff for upgrading
their skills and attitude at work, the WMA has regularly been sending officers for training,
both locally and overseas. Table 7-1 below provides the details of training courses in
Mauritius and abroad attended by the WMA staff during the year 2004.

An organized/planned training and development program is planned under the European
Union Technical assistance program.
Table 7-1: Training and development of the WMA Staff

Period                                   Training Courses                                                        Staff Trained

Training Course Abroad

Jan/Feb 2004                             Training in Laboratory Information                                      Lab Manager
                                         Management System UK

May 2004                                 World Bank Aided Projects – Training                                    Accountant
                                         course on Performance Indicators and
                                         Project Monitoring System - Casablanca

Aug/Oct 2004                             Courses in Operation and Maintenance                                    2 Engineers
                                         of Sewerage facilities II Japanese
                                         International Corporation Agencies
                                         (JICA) – Japan

Aug/Nov 2004                             Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant                                     1 Engineer
                                         Japan


                                                                                                                                                   50
Period               Training Courses                           Staff Trained

Training Courses – Mauritius

Jan 2004             Training in Pension Business               1 Exe. Offices and
                                                                Senior Finance Officer

March 2004           Courses in Registry                        5 Clerks and 2 Executive
                                                                Officers

March 2004           Traitement des eaux usées et de            2 Engineers
                     l’effluent industriel – Technical School
                     Management Trust Fund

March 2004           Seminar on Arbitration and Mediation –     2 Project Managers
                     Mauritius Association of Quality
                     Surveyors

April 2004           Workshop on IAS 1, 27, 28 Association      2 Accountants and 1
                     of Chartered Certified Accountants         Senior Finance Officer

April 2004           Effective Management and Total Project     10 Managers
                     Management Control Sotratech Ltd

May 2004             Training Internal Audit for International Lab Manager
                     Standard ISO / IEC 17025 Mauritas Min.
                     of Industry

March 2004           IT Course offered by NIIT                  43 Officers
                                                                clerical/Executive Level

May/June 2004        In House training on PR and                All Staff
                     Communication

June 2004            Seminar on Occupational Health and         Officer Superintendent
                     Safety

Aug 2004             Part Time Course Diploma in Public         Admin Assistant
                     Admin and Mgt (UOM)

Aug/Sept 2004        Integrated Farming and Waste               1 Technical Officer
                     Management System – National
                     Corporative Training Centre

Sept / Oct 2004      Training in First aid                      Representatives of all
                                                                grades

Nov 2004             Construction Law Seminar 2004 Hilton       1 Works Manager
                     Hotel Wolmar

Dec 2004             Public Private Partnership capacity        Deputy General
                     Building Workshop UoM                      Managers Technical &
                                                                Administration


                                                                                         51
7.6   CURRENT STATUS OF WASTEWATER/SEWERAGE FACILITIES

7.6.1 History

The first sewer pipes were laid in Port Louis in the late 19th century, and since then, until the
mid 20th century, development of the sector has been very slow. The present Plaines Wilhems
system was developed in the 60’s and major improvements were made to the Port Louis
system in the late sixties and early seventies. The operation of these systems was regulated by
the Port Louis Sewerage Act and the Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Ordinance of 1904 and 1959
respectively. The responsibility for sewerage lay with the Ministry of Works, until its transfer
to the Ministry for Energy in 1991. The responsibility for the wastewater sector has come
under the jurisdiction of several Ministries, such as: Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and
Postal Services (Up to 1995), Ministry of Public Infrastructure (1995 – 1996), Ministry of
Public Utilities (1996 – 1997), Ministry of Environment (1997 – 1998) and Ministry of Public
Utilities (1998 to Date)

7.6.2 Current Status

The WMA is presently responsible to the Government for the Operation and Maintenance of
500 km of sewer network, 9,100 manholes, 48 wastewater pumping stations and 18
wastewater treatment plants.

At present approximately 252,000 or 21 % of the country’s population is served by Public
wastewater collection, treatment and disposal system through 54,300 house connections
(domestic & non- domestic). Figure 7-2 below indicates the June 2004 and projected sewered
areas by 2010 – 11.
         Year 2003-04                                    Year 2010-11




             21% sewered                                    50% sewered
             79% unsewered                                  50% unsewered

                       Figure 7-2: Current and future sewered areas

The glimpse of key Operation & Maintenance data, based on the July 2004 to December 2004
are given below:

Total domestic & Non domestic House Connections                           54,300 (approx.)

Average daily Volume of Wastewater Collected & treated                    55,000 m3/day

Average sewer Blockages cleared per month                                 1,300/month

Average length of sewer jetted per month                                  4,700 m/month

Average number of tankers deployed for Cesspool/Septic tank 80 tanker/month
emptying per month – by the WMA

                                                                                              52
Average number of tankers deployed for Septage/Industrial emptying 4,500 tanker/month
per month – by the Private Operators

Average of Septage/Industrial Wastewater discharge into Public approx. 1,374 m3/day
Wastewater systems

Average volume of septage/ Industrial Wastewater per trip                approx. 9.0 m3/tanker

Number of Wastewater carriers licenses issued by the WMA up to 65
December 2004


7.7   NSP AND CAPITAL PROJECTS UNDER PROGRESS

7.7.1 National Sewerage Program

The basis of the NSP is the National Sewerage Master Plan (NSMP) prepared in 1994. The
NSMP includes a critical review of legislative, institutional, technical and financial aspect of
the wastewater sector. It also identified and prioritized a number of significant projects and
incorporated them into an implementation plan for the development of the required
wastewater facilities within the framework of the twenty-year planning period. It was
envisaged that the NSP would be implemented by the Waste Water Authority.

Implementation of the projects for the urgent works in Plaines Wilhems and Port Louis South-
Lower Beau Bassin and the rehabilitation of the M&E components of the St Martin
Wastewater Treatment Works have already been completed. Similarly, Phases I and II of the
CHA Housing Estates Upgrading projects have also been completed. These projects no longer
form part of the current NSP.

Implementation of other identified priority sewerage projects is under progress, with some
revisions in the scope of works as envisaged in the original Master Plan. The only significant
amendment to the foregoing list of priorities is the inclusion of the West Coast Sewerage
Project in the National Sewerage Program earlier than other project areas such as Mahebourg.

A summary of the Status of the Projects up to February 2005 under NSP is presented in Table
7-2 below.




                                                                                             53
Table 7-2: A summary of the status of the national sewerage projects – February 2005

      Project Title
                                                                                       Completion/
                                                                                                                Estimated Project
Ref   Project Description                                                      Start   Estimated                                  Status Works
                                                                                                                Cost
                                                                                       Completion
      Project Funding
  1   Urgent Works                                                             1996    1998                     MUR 100 million         Completed
      Construction/Rehabilitation in Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis South & B.
      Bassin
      Nordic Investment Bank

  2   Urgent Works                                                             1996    1998                     MUR 60 million          Completed
      Improvement of St Martin Treatment works (Phase 1)
      Government of Mauritius

  3   Grand Baie Sewerage Works                                                1996    April 2003 for           MUR 1042 million        Treatment Plant, Pumping Station and Network are completed.
      Const. of network, Pumping Station,T.P & House connection at Central             Treatment Plant          for Phase I A           2000 House Connection works awarded in July 2004, and are scheduled to
      Grand Baie and Merville, Pointe aux Cannonniers                                  March 2004 for                                   be completed in July 2005.
      Funding: 1. AFD                                                                  Network & Pumping        MUR Rs 1,000            Funding for Phase I-B need to be secured and finalized by end July 2005.
               2. GOM                                                                  Station                  million for Phase I B
                                                                                       July 2005 for House
                                                                                       Connections
  4   CHA Works Phase II                                                       1998    2001                     MUR 285 million         Completed
      Rehabilitation of Infrastructure on CHA Estates Phase II
      Funding: 1. BADEA (MUR 160 M)
               2. GOM (MUR 125 M)

  5   CHA Works Extension Phase II                                             2002    March 2004 for original MUR 218 million          Works completed
      Rehabilitation of Infrastructure on CHA Estates Extension of Phase II            scope of works
      including Consultancy Services
      Funding: 1. European Union                                                       Feb 2005 for variation
               2. GOM                                                                  order

  6   CHA & Low Cost Housing Works phase III                                   2003    August 2006              MUR 341 million         Project divided into 2 components – Immediate Works Program (IWP) and
      Rehabilitation of Infrastructure on CHA Low Cost Estates Phase III                                                                Normal Works Program (NWP). Works under IWP started in November
      including Consultancy Services                                                                                                    2004 and to be completed August 2005.
      GOM                                                                                                                               NWP works scheduled to start mid 2005.
  7   B. du Tombeau Sewerage Works                                             1996    November 2005            MUR 1118 million        Network, T.P and Pumping Station are completed. Contract for 2000
      Construction of network, P.S, T.P, long sea outfall & House connection           End 2006 for                                     House Connections (Contract 109A) awarded on 12 May 2004. Scheduled
      works in southern area approximately 3200 connections + sewer works              Additional works                                 completion November 2005.
      Funding: 1. KFW                                                                  (Contract 110A)                                  Funding for additional Sewerage Works and for some 1200 connections
               2. EIB                                                                                                                   (Contract 110A) is to be confirmed (Indian Loan).
               3. GOM


                                                                                                                                                                                                            54
      Project Title
                                                                                      Completion/
                                                                                                           Estimated Project
Ref   Project Description                                                     Start   Estimated                              Status Works
                                                                                                           Cost
                                                                                      Completion
      Project Funding
  8   St. Martin Sewerage Works \ Extension                                   1999    January 2005         Revised Rs 1128     Extension of time granted upto mid January 2005.
      Construction works at St. Martin T.P                                                                 million             Wastewater Treatment Plant presently undergoing commissioning test
      Funding: 1. European Union                                                                                               expected to be fully commissioned in March 2005.
               2. GOM

  9   Pl. Wilhems Sewerage Works                                              2003    2008                 MUR 3,700 million   Trunk Sewer construction – bids are at evaluation stage. Consultancy for
      Const. 27 km Trunk main, 235 km reticulation & 32,500 house                                                              Trunk Sewer awarded to Sogreah in September 2004.
      connection connections                                                                                                   Bids for Consultancy of Reticulation Works being evaluated.
      Funding: 1. E.U( Budgetary support)
               2. EIB
               3. ADB
               4. EXIM China
               5. GOM

 10   Montagne Jacquot Sewerage Works                                         1998    July 2006            MUR 2,000 million   Rising main has been completed in January 2004. Sea Outfall Contract,
      Const. Rising main, P.S, T.P to serve P/Louis south Lower B. Bassin &                                                    52D was awarded in May 2004, and is scheduled for completion in April
      Coromandel. Pilot House Connection Programme – 1,800 House                                                               2005. Treatment Plant, 51D, has been awarded on 30th November 2004.
      Connections (revised to 1,500 House Connections) based in August /                                                       Commencement on 1st March 2005. Contractual Completion in August
      September 2004 survey)                                                                                                   2006.
      Funding: 1. World Bank
                2. JBIC
                3. GOM

 11   West Coast Sewerage Project                                             2002    Feasibility Study    MUR 389 million     Feasibility Study completed. Discussion with MPU and hotels ongoing for
      The project aims to sewer mainly Flic en Flac, Bambous & Tamarin                completed Dec 2003                       next phase with reference to options for design.
      regions
      Funding: 1. European Union
                2. GOM


TOTAL                                                                                                       MUR 11,381 million




                                                                                                                                                                                                     55
7.7.2 Capital Projects under Progress

A brief description, financing and current status of the major capital projects under NSP are
given below.

Grand Baie Sewerage Project

Description: The Grand Baie Sewerage Project aims at remedying the deterioration of the
environment by collecting all wastewater in the region of Grand Baie under the contract for
the construction of Network and Pumping Stations which was awarded in July 2001 and
completed in March 2004. A contract for the construction of a treatment plant of capacity
3,500 m3/day to treat the wastewater at tertiary level was awarded in July 2001 and completed
in April 2003. The treated effluent will be disposed in safe environmental manner through
irrigation of cane field and through ground water recharge. Two contracts for the construction
of a total of 2,000 house connections were awarded in July 2004 and works are on-going and
expected to be completed in July 2005. The project serves a population of 10,000.

Financing: The project is partly funded from the proceeds of a loan from the Agence
Française de Developpement (AFD) and partly from the resources of the Government of
Mauritius (GoM). Details are as follows:
        75 M FF loan from Agence Française de Developpement (AFD)
        MUR 500 Million from the Government of Mauritius (GoM)

Status: The construction of Treatment Plant was completed in April 2003.The construction of
Network and Pumping Stations was completed in March 2004.The constructions of 2000
house connections are on-going and expected to be completed in July 2005.

Rehabilitation of Infrastructure on CHA and Low Cost Housing Estates – Extension to
Phase II and Phase III

Description: The project is a continuation of the program for Rehabilitation of Sewerage
Infrastructure in Low Cost Housing Estates. The Phase I and II executed during 1990 to 1998,
improved the sanitary conditions on 27 estates. The present project comprises the
Provision/rehabilitation of sewerage and disposal facilities on seven Estates in the extension
of Phase II and nine estates in the Phase III project.

Financing: Grant from the 8th EDF and GoM. The project cost is in the order of MUR 220 M
for extension of Phase II and approximately MUR 300 M for Phase III.

Status: Substantial progress has been achieved within the program for the rehabilitation of
sewerage facilities on Low Cost Housing Estates.Under Extension of CHA Phase II for the
Rehabilitation of Sewerage Infrastructure Program, works on the following sites were
completed during Financial Year 2004-2005.
Table 7-3:Status of rehabilitation works on CHA housing estates

Sites                        Date Completed                   No. of Houses Connected

La Caverne CHA Estate        Dec 2004                                      420

V. Pitot squatter area       Dec 2004                                      405



                                                                                           56
Sites                        Date Completed                  No. of Houses Connected

Batterie Cassée              Dec 2004                                      195

Roche Bois                   Dec 2004                                      395

La Cure                      Dec 2004                                      440

Mangalkhan                   Dec 2004                                      555

Pointe aux Sables            Dec 2004                                      220

Quartier Shell               Feb 2005                                      75

Cité Bassin                  Feb 2005                                      84

NHDC La Caverne              Feb 2005                                      137

Contracts for sewer reticulation of Cité La Brasserie (230 houses), Cité Chebel (480 houses)
and Cité Cassis (60 houses) were awarded in October 2004 and works are expected to be
completed by October 2005. The construction cost is in the order of MUR 130 M.

Furthermore, the WMA is also speeding up on the finalization of tender documents for
implementing sewerage network projects in Cité Stanley, Cité Boolaky (Riv. Du Rempart),
Cité Cinquante (Highlands), Cité Vallijee, Cité Borstal, Cité Les Casernes. The contracts for
these sites are expected to be awarded by July/August 2005.

The housing estates that are being considered are densely populated areas concerning the low-
income group. The provision of sewerage facilities has greatly contributed to the
improvements of living conditions in such low cost housing estates.

Baie du Tombeau Sewerage Project

Description: The above project consists of the Construction of sewerage reticulation for Port
Louis North and Baie du Tombeau, pumping stations, long sea outfall and upgrading of
wastewater treatment plant. The wastewater treatment plant of capacity 15,000 m3 per day is
presently being used for primary treatment only.

Financing: The Government of Mauritius has received a loan from the European Investment
Bank (EIB) as well as a grant along with a small loan component from Kreditanstalt für
Wiederaufbau (KfW) of Germany for the implementation of the Phase I, Stages 1&2 Works.
Part of the Works is funded from the resources of the Government of Mauritius. Details are as
follows:
        16 M EURO loan from EIB
        5.7 M DEM grant and 0.5 M DEM loan from KfW of Germany
        MUR 300 Million from Government of Mauritius (approx.)

Status: The construction of the Sea Outfall (Contract WW 30A) was awarded in May 1999 to
Contractor Jan de Nul for a Contract sum of MUR 355 Million. The works were completed in
March 2002.



                                                                                          57
The construction of main sewers, Civil Works for treatment plant and pumping station
(Contract WW 25A) was awarded to contractor General Construction Ltd in November 1998
for a contract sum of MUR 121 Million. The works were completed in June 2002.

The supply and installation of electrical and mechanical equipment (Contract WW 24A) was
awarded to Contractor ABB Roediger in January 2000 for a contract sum of MUR 121
Million. The works were completed in December 2001.

The construction of 18 km of secondary sewers and provision for house connections (Contract
WW 62A) was awarded to contractor SDR/United Engineers in November 1999 for a contract
sum of MUR 100 Million. The works were completed in October 2003.

Under the Phase I of the Baie du Tombeau Project – Additional Works (Contract WW 109A),
a contract for the construction of 5 km of sewers and 2000 House Connections was awarded
in June 2004 at a cost of Rs 99 M. The works are presently in progress, and about 600 new
House Connections have already been effected.

A loan from Indian Government is to be finalized for implementing the extension of 21 km of
sewers and 1200 House Connections in Baie du Tombeau in 2005-2006 (Contract WW
110A).

St. Martin Wastewater Treatment Plant

Description: Contract WW 63F consist of the extension of the existing St. Martin Sewage
Treatment Plant to treat sewage up to the year 2010 from the Plaines Wilhems area. The Plant
has been designed to serve 223,000 populations and treat flows up to 69,000 m3/day in the
first stage and to serve 323,000 population and flows up to 87,000 m3/day in the second stage.
The sewage is to be treated to tertiary level such that effluent from the plant can be used for
sugar cane irrigation. The contract includes the provisions of inlet works, primary
sedimentation, biological treatment, final sedimentation and activated sludge, tertiary
treatment, storm storage ponds and storm return, preliminary sludge treatment, sludge
digestion plant, sludge dewatering units, sludge liquor treatment, power generation from
digester gas and building and ancillary works.

Financing: European Union & Government of Mauritius

Contract sum:Capital Works               : MUR 893 000 000 (USD 30 M)

Operation & Maintenance                  : MUR140 000 000 (USD 4.7 M)

Total                                    : MUR 1 033 000 000 (USD 34.7)

Status: Contract WW 63F St. Martin Wastewater Treatment Plant was awarded to
Consortium (Degrémont, Ireland Blyth Limited, General Construction Co. Ltd, Group Five
Ltd) in January 2001. The consultants on the project are MWH UK Ltd in association with
GIBB (Mauritius) Ltd. The most of the work on the treatment plant has been completed and
the plant is presently being commissioned. The treatment plant is expected to be completely
commissioned in March 2005. The agreement with the Irrigation Authority for the sale of
effluent for sugar cane farming is expected to be signed shortly.

Montagne Jacquot Sewerage Project

Description: Construction of sewerage networks, pumping stations and wastewater treatment
plant of capacity 48,000 m3 per day to serve the residential, commercial and industrial areas

                                                                                            58
of Port Louis South, Lower Beau basin, and Corromandel. The project also has support
components in the fields of institutional strengthening (setting up of WMA) and capacity
building, implementing cost recovery procedures, and public information campaigns.

Financing: World Bank (12.4 Million USD), JBIC (Japan) (4,538 Million Japanese Yen) and
GoM

Status: One of the components of the Montagne Jacquot Environmental Sewerage and
Sanitation Project, namely, the Construction of the Rising Mains (Funding Agency World
Bank), was completed in January 2002 at the cost of Rs 124 M. Two other major components
of this project were awarded in 2004.

The Construction of the Sea Outfall (835 m long) was awarded in May 2004 for a sum of
EURO 13.9 M and is expected to be completed in April/May 2005 (Funding Agency JBIC).
The construction of the Wastewater Treatment Plant at Montagne Jacquot was awarded in
November 2004 for a sum of Rs 578 M and is expected to be completed in August 2006
(Funding Agency JBIC).

Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project Phase I

Description: The Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project has the biggest investment component
of the National Sewerage Program (NSP), with an estimate project cost of sum Rs 4.2 Billion.
It consists of the construction of 27 km of trunk sewer and 275 km of reticulation including
approximately 29,000 new house connections and replacement of 130 km of CWA pipes
extended over a four year construction period.

Construction of Trunk Sewer

Description: This project comprises the construction of 27 km of trunk sewer from St. Martin
treatment plant to Glenpark and Hollywood. It also includes two major interceptors that will
connect to the existing trunk sewer at Pont Fer and Curepipe.

Financing: The project is funded by the EU through 9th EDF Budgetary Support mechanism
and Government of Mauritius – Estimated cost of contract is Rs 886 Million.

Status: The project is expected to start in April 2005.

Construction of Reticulation Networks for Lot 1A

Description: This project consists of the construction of approximately 103 km of reticulation
sewer network and approximately 12,175 house connections including replacement of 60 km
of CWA pipes. The project area covers the region of South West Quatre Bornes and Central
Quatre Bornes.

Financing: The project is co-financed by EIB and GoM – Estimated cost is Rs 1.2 Billion.

Status: The project is expected to start by August 2006.

Construction of Reticulation Network for Lot 1B

Description: This project consists of the construction of 41 km of reticulation networks and
approximately 3,957 house connections – including replacement of 14 km of CWA pipes in
the region of West Rose Hill.


                                                                                           59
Financing: The project is expected to be financed under top-up fund of EUR 10 M subject to
approval of EU – Estimated cost Rs 375 Million.

Status: The project is expected to start in June 2006.

Construction of Reticulation Network for Lot 2

Description: This project consists of the construction of 91 km of reticulation sewer networks
and approximately 12,956 house connections in the region of Central Quatre Bornes and
Sodnac. About 56 km of CWA pipe network will be replaced under this contract.

Financing: The project is co-financed by EXIM Bank of China and GoM – Estimated cost Rs
1.2 Billion.

Status: The project is expected to start in April 2006.

House Connection Projects

Description: To ensure maximum use of, and benefit from, the National Sewerage program,
GoM policy is to provide connections to the sewerage system without cost to the residential
properties under the Government free House Connections Program. A feasibility study was
carried out at the end of 2001 to prepare a strategy for developing the number of house
connections to the public sewers. A significant finding of the study was that within the area
covered by the NSP, some 65,000 properties need to be connected to the sewerage systems,
either existing or still to be constructed.

Unit Rate House Connection Contract

Description: Contract WW 95Z is a unit rate contract and pertains to the Construction,
Repairs, Replacement of Sewers, Building Connections, Raising of Manhole Covers.

Financing: GoM

Status: Contract WW 95Z was awarded in January 2003 and to date 950 house connections
have been carried out.

Montagne Jacquot House Connection Contract

Description: Contract WW 88X is an important component of the Montagne Jacquot
Environmental Sewerage of Sanitation Project is the design and construction of sewer
reticulation and 1,800 house connections. The project aims are extending the wastewater
network to cover unsewered areas and provide House Connections in already sewered areas of
Port Louis and Plaines Wilhems.

Financing: Rs 231 M (45 % GoM + 55 % IBRD)

Status: The project was awarded in April 2004 and the project is still on-going.

Table 7-4 below provides yearly House Connections target from the year 2003/04 to 2005/06
and projection for 2006/11




                                                                                           60
West Coast Sewerage Project

Description: A consultancy contract was awarded to effect a feasibility study for the
provision of sewerage facilities, including treatment and disposal facilities, for the region of
Flic en Flac, Bambous and Tamarin on the west coast of the island.

Status: A proposal has been made to the Kuwait Funding with respect to the funding of the
West Coast Sewerage Project. This project aims at implementing a sewerage network system
for the collection, treatment and disposal of sewerage in the Bambous, Flic en Flac and
surrounding areas of the West Coast region.
Table 7-4: House connection targets

                 PROJECTS                             2003-04      2004-05      2005-06      2006-07 Total 2003-07 2007-11          Total 2003-11
House Connections Contracts
WW 101X (completed)                                         0             0            0            0             0          0                 0
WW 95Z (Unit rate)                                        360           270            0            0           630          0               630
WW 88X (Mont. Jacquot)                                      0         2,200            0            0         2,200          0             2,200
New HC contracts (*)                                        0           575          900        1,200         2,675      4,800             7,475
HC Illegal HC regularization (*)                            0         1,000        1,000          500         2,500        500             3,000

    Total HC Contracts (domestic)                         360         4,045        1,900        1,700         8,005      5,300            13,305


Main Capital works Contracts
Grand Baie
Lot 1A                                                         0      2,012              0            0       2,012          0             2,012
Lot 1B                                                         0          0              0            0           0      2,000             2,000
Baie du Tombeau
Contract WW 109A                                               0      1,240          715            0         1,955          0             1,955
Contract WW 110A (*)                                           0          0          275          575           850        350             1,200
Plaine Wilhems
Lot 1A                                                         0            0            0        400           400     11,774            12,174
Lot 1B                                                         0            0            0        319           319      3,639             3,958
Lot 2                                                          0            0            0          0             0     12,956            12,956
Additional House Con.(*)                                       0            0            0      2,406         2,406      1,094             3,500
Mont. Jacquot
Pailles Guibies (*)                                            0            0            0      1,238         1,238      1,162             2,400
CHA
Exte. Phase 2                                             884          622             0            0         1,506             0          1,506
CHA Phase 3 (*)                                             0          176         1,262          235         1,673             0          1,673
West Coast
Works incl. Connections (*)                                    0            0            0            0            0     3,200             3,200
Total Main Capital Works (domestic)                       884         4,050        2,252        5,173       12,359      36,175            48,534

Grand Total Domestic (Yearly)                           1,244         8,095        4,152        6,873       20,364      41,475            61,839



RECAPITULATION                                        Jun-03       Jun-04       Jun-05       Jun-06       Jun-07       Jun-10          Jun-11
Cumulated Domestic connections                         47,057       48,301        56,396       60,548       67,421     105,454           108,896
Cumulated industry/commercial                           3,100        3,200        3,300        3,400         3,500       3,800             3,900
Total Cumul. House Connections                         50,157       51,501       59,696       63,948        70,921     109,254          112,796

        House Connection Plan (december 2003)                        51,661        60,120       66,955       74,908     111,495
                           Difference with the Plan                    -160          -424       -3,007        -3,987      -2,241


              9 th EDF Agreement sector target :                     54,011        61,431       66,221       79,185     110,592 ( For memory)
                        Difference with EDF target                    -2,510       -1,735       -2,273        -8,264     -1,338 (Low Scenario)
Notes
(*) : Subject to funding (not yet secured)




                                                                                                                                                61
7.8    WMA FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY

7.8.1 Tariff

The structure of the new tariffs, effective since January 2000 is in accordance with the
commitments spelled out in the 1998 Sector Policy Letter (SPL).

However, the implementation of the tariff was delayed by a year and six months.

Table 7-5 below illustrates the wastewater tariffs agreed by GoM for the domestic and non-
domestic customers under the 1998 SPL and Tariffs implemented over the period 2000 to
2004:-
Table 7-5: Sector policy tariffs and tariffs implemented over period 2000-2004

                                                           Wastewater Tariffs MUR/m3

FINANCIAL YEAR                              98/99       99/00       00/01       01/02       02/03         03/04

DOMESTIC TARIFF

Domestic Tariff as per SPL                   2.80        2.80        4.40        6.40        7.50         9.10

Domestic Tariff Implemented                              2.30        4.40        6.00        6.90         6.90

Date Implemented                                        Jan-00      Jan-01     Jan -02 Aug-03

NON DOMESTIC TARIFF

Non-Domestic Tariff as per SPL              13.00       13.60       14.20       14.90       15.50         16.20

Non-Domestic Tariff Implemented                                                             15.50
                                                         6.00        8.60       12.00                     15.50
                                                                                           12.00*

Date Implemented:                                       Jan-00      Jan-01     Jan-02      Aug-03         Jan 04
* Textile and clothing companies that had been granted a certificate under section 15 of the investment
promotion Act. paid Rs 12.00/m3 during the period 1 August 2003 to 31 December 2003.


7.8.2 Joint Billing

The joint billing system has been introduced successfully in January 2004. The service fee
that is being paid to the CWA by the WMA for the collection of wastewater bills has been
maintained at 5 % under the new agreement. It resulted in important administrative
advantages such as, costs savings in printing of Bills, easy to reconcile, lower customer
complaints for not receiving wastewater bill whilst receiving water bill, improvement in the
collection performance of non-domestic revenue, and no negative impact seen on domestic
collection.

7.8.3 Cost Recovery – Financial Sustainability

The aim of implementing the tariff increases is to improve the financial sustainability of the
WMA in terms of recovery of Operation & Maintenance costs and Depreciation Costs.



                                                                                                              62
The cost recovery system in the new sector policy statement prescribes annual increases in
tariff for the period 2005-2010 in the expectation that costs would be recovered in the long
term for the WMA to achieve the financial sustainability.

The current average sector policy tariff implemented under the 1998 sector policy letter for
the financial year 2004/2005 (Domestic Rs 6.90 and Non Domestic Rs 15.50) only covers for
the O&M costs for the financial year 2004/05.

7.9   IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL
      PROGRAMME

The WMA, by virtue of the Environment Protection Act (EPA) 2002, is responsible for the
quality of effluent discharged into sewers. Listed below are actions taken and on-going
activities / targets.
      A Draft Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with JEC was signed in 2000.
      Waste water Standards for Discharge of Industrial Effluent into a Waste Water System.
      These regulations were gazetted in November 2004.
      The WMA intends to make 50 agreements every year with the industries for the
      Discharge Permit starting January 2005 subject to the regulation coming into the effect
      as expected from 1st January 2005.
      The WMA needs technical assistance in the field of Pollution Control and effluent
      monitoring. Efforts are being made to obtain an expert under the technical assistance
      program.

7.10 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS AND TARGETS

For successful implementation of the projects it is essential to establish key measurable
targets and progress monitoring through Key Capital Performance Indicators. The appropriate
indicators selected by the WMA are shown in Table 7-6 below. These Key Performance
Indicators are applicable to all Projects under NSP and have been agreed by the EU and other
donors.

Under the 9th EDF, the European Commission, for the first time, is making available Euro 28
million in the form of budgetary support to implement the Wastewater Sector Policy Support
Program (WSPSP). The budget support will be provided over a period of three financial years
(2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) in both variable and fixed tranches and disbursement will be
determined by a results-oriented approach focusing on the performance of the wastewater
sector.

The status of the five Performance Indicators, for the financial Year 2003/04, as per the 9th
EDF Financing Agreement, is presented in Table 7-6 below.




                                                                                          63
Table 7-6: Status of the key performance indicators and targets for financial year
2003/04

Performance Indicator for             Base             Target              Remark
the Wastewater Sector                 Line
                                      2003    03/04     04/05     05/06
1. Project Capital Expenditure    900m*                                    Lower expenditure due
under NSP (Yearly):               Baseline                                 to:
                                                                           • Delay in the award
• Budget Approved                 812m       874.7 m   1021 m    1269 m        of Grand Baie and
• EU Target                         -        1,100 m   1,160 m   1,500 m       Baie du Tombeau
• Actual                          841m         700 m                           House
                                                                               Connections
                                                                               Contracts.
                                                                           • Funding not
                                                                               finalized.
2. Increase Domestic and Non-                                               • 2003/04 Target
Domestic House Connections                                                      over achieved.
(- Living Quarters                                                          • 300 more house
 - Cumulative)                                                                  connections.
• Revised Target – Sept 2004                           59,000    63,000     • 2004/05 and
• EU Target – June 2003           50,100     54,000    61,400    66,200         2005/06 Target
• Actual                                     54,300                             need to be revised
                                                                                based on the
                                                                                review.
3. WMA financial sustainability                                            • Target over
Revenue Collection – Tariff                                                    achieved.
Collection Ratio                  70 %       80 %      85 %      88 %      • Tariff collection
• Target                                     85 %                              ratio 5 % above
• Actual                                                                       the target.

4.Implementation of industrial                                             * Due to the inordinate
pollution control programme                                                delays in the
• Target                          0          50        50**      50        proclamation of the
                                                                           standards for discharge
                                                                           of industrial effluents
• Actual                                     0*                            into the public sewer.
                                                                           ** To be revised based
                                                                           on the effective
                                                                           enforcement date of
                                                                           the Regulation
                                                                           expected in January
                                                                           2005.
6. Improvement of access of the                                            • Target over
poor to suitable sanitation:                                                    achieved.
• Target                          7,800      9,100     10,400    11,400    • 147 more family
• Actual                                     9,147                              benefited.



7.11 FUTURE ACTIONS

Government of Mauritius has taken steps for continuous improvement of Wastewater Sector.
Listed below are some of the important actions taken to deal with the future challenges facing
the sector for sustained growth, better sanitation and to protect the water environment.


                                                                                                64
7.11.1 New Wastewater Sector Policy

The Government of Mauritius has re-visited the Sector Policy 1998 ending in June 2005. The
Wastewater Sector Policy 2005-2010 report was discussed during November 2004 Donors’
Meetings. This report was subsequently revised / updated to incorporate the comments of the
development partners made during the Technical and Inter-Ministerial meetings held in
November 2004 with Donors. The policy for 2005-2010 is presently being finalized by the
Government in consultation with all the Stakeholders.

7.11.2 Technical Assistance Back Up Facility – 9th EDF

Under the 9th EDF, the following 6 main areas have been identified for the Technical
Assistance Back-up Facility at the budgeted amount of EURO 1.1 million out of EURO 1.8
million under the Program.
     Update of the National Sewerage Master Plan.
     Technical Assistance to WMA relating to Operation and Maintenance of the
     Wastewater Systems.
     Technical Assistance to pollution Control Unit of WMA.
     Strengthening capacity to carry out Internal Audit Control.
      Strengthening preparation for the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) for
     the wastewater and other environment related sectors.
     Building capacity for Monitoring and Evaluation.

Existing BCEOM Contract – EU Technical Assistance Program

The BCEOM Contract started in Jan / Feb 2003 with two full time experts for 26 months
(Project Management and O& M experts) and one part time Financial expert for 6 months.

The work of BCEOM Team under the existing EU Technical Assistance Program is ongoing
satisfactorily with some minor delays in the agreed upon action plan and targets.

7.11.3 Private Sector Participation in the Water & Wastewater Sector – Brief Summary of
       the IFC Study

Government has taken steps to reform the water and sanitation sectors to improve
performance of the utilities and enlist Private Sector Participation (PSP). The International
Finance Corporation (IFC) was appointed as Lead Advisor to the transaction(s) in 2003.

Based on the due diligence results IFC concluded that an enhanced affermage or concession
contract would, solely from a financial perspective, are feasible options for the water sector.
The best option for the wastewater sector would be a management contract, to be entered into
between WMA/Government and the private sector operator (PSO) for the water sector.
However, given the depressed global market conditions and reduced appetite among
international operators for water concessions, the IFC has recommended the implementation
of a management contract for CWA as a short to medium term solution.

The study has also concluded that a joint management contract for the water and wastewater
sectors could be feasible, if it balances risks and responsibilities in a way that they become
manageable for a PSO. It will be consistent with the world’s trend of integrating water and
sanitation services. There are a number of economies of scope and scale that could be

                                                                                            65
achieved, from the pure technical operations (surveying, design, planning and) to savings
from joint administrative departments. Accordingly, the IFC has recommended that the PSO
for the Management Contract for the water sector be also entrusted a management contract for
the wastewater sector. Government has agreed that the management contract for the
wastewater sector should imperatively include project management of new works to be
undertaken by the WMA.

The IFC has been requested to assist in the activities for the next phase of the reform process,
that is, the implementation of the retained option of management contract for the water and
wastewater sectors.

7.11.4 Regulation of the Wastewater Sector

In the context of the reforms in the utilities sector, a multi-sectoral regulatory body will be set
up soon to regulate the wastewater sector. The Regulatory Body would facilitate the
implementation of the PSP option in the short to medium term.

7.11.5 Updating of Sewerage Master Plan and National Sewerage Plan to cover period
       2010-2030

The objective of the ongoing NSP is to achieve 50 % connection by the year 2010. The
Government will shortly commission a study to update the National Sewerage Master Plan for
the period 2010 onwards with a view to identifying projects to achieve the acceptance level of
above 70 % connections by the year 2030.

7.11.6 Implementation of Medium Term Expenditure Framework

In June 2001, Government announced its economic strategy and policy orientation for the
next five years in its Economic Agenda for the Millennium. A comprehensive budget reform
with the centerpiece being the introduction of the Medium Term Expenditure Framework
(MTEF).

In November 2003, Government decided to introduce MTEF for the budgetary exercise for
the financial year 2004/2005. In this regard, a central MTEF Unit (CMU) was setup to initiate
the preparation of the new system and start the implementation process in a phased manner.

In accordance with the implementation plan, the MTEF is to be introduced on a phased basis
to cover, in the first instance, five sectors including the wastewater sector.

The CMU is presently working on the implementation plan, which involves future budget
allocations of the wastewater sector on an MTEF basis. The whole MTEF process is expected
to be introduced in the 2005/2006 Budget.

7.12 CONCLUSION

In order for Water and Environmental tourism based economy to flourish in Mauritius, it is
essential to manage the Wastewater collection, treatment and safe disposal effectively.
Mauritius is forgoing ahead with the National Environmental Action Plans (NEAP) since
1988. The National Sewerage Program (NSP) is being implemented with the full support of
Government of Mauritius and Donors since 1998. Most of the projects planned under the NSP
are progressing to achieve the set target of 50 % National Coverage by 2011/12. The Sector
Policy tariffs were implemented though with some delay. As for continuous improvement the

                                                                                                66
Wastewater Sector Policy for the period of 2005 -2010 is presently being finalized by the
Government in consultation with the Donors and other Stakeholders to achieve financial
viability and sustainability. The key performance indicators are mostly in line with the targets
agreed with the funding agencies (EU and other Donors) with a few exceptions. Future plans
for technical assistance in important areas have been identified.

7.13 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In order to achieve the vision of Wastewater Sector to protect the Water Environment of
Mauritius the Government of Mauritius and the all financing agencies involved (Donors) are
playing a very important role. The Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Ministry
of Public Utilities and the Wastewater Management Authority are playing a major role in the
implementation of the National Sewerage Program. The staff of the newly formed Wastewater
Management Authority continues to play a critical role in managing WMA irrespective of
constraints like inadequate skilled/professionals, appropriate accommodation, Information
Technology, etc. We gratefully acknowledge the support of all WMA Stakeholders.




                                                                                             67
                           8 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
                               & CLIMATE CHANGE

Dr B. M. Pathack, Deputy Director, Meteorological Services and SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.

8.1   INTRODUCTION

Disasters can be either of natural or can be of unnatural origin, ranging from storms,
earthquakes , diseases to terrorism, fire and many more.

Throughout the years, man has tried to be prepared to face such calamities because their
aftermaths are frightening: loss of property and life, ecomonic setback, poverty, displacement,
environmental degradation, erosion, land loss. The 26th December 2004 tsunami in South East
Asia is a recent example which will be forever memorable as more than 250,000 people died
and thousands of others lost their properties as the devastating tsunami struck southern Asia.

8.2   DEFINITIONS

Weather is defined as a daily, fluctuating state of the atmosphere, characterized by
temperature, wind precipitation and other meteorological elements.

Climate is the average of weather in terms of the mean and the variability over certain time
span and certain area. Climate varies from place to place depending on latitude, distance from
sea, vegetation, mountains, topography and other geographical characteristics.

Climate Variability is the variation in the mean state and other statistics of the climate on all
temporal and spatial scales beyond that of the individual events.

Climate Change is the statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate
or in its variability persisting for an extended period of time (of the order of decades or
longer). The climate system is as shown in Figure 8-1 below.




                                 Figure 8-1: Climate system



                                                                                              68
8.3   EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY

The main sectors upon which small changes in climate may bring about important negative
impacts are:
      Agriculture
      Energy
      Environment
      Health
      Sport
      Tourism




Figure 8-2: Effects of floods on property and agriculture and sea-level rise on the beach

8.4   GLOBAL WARMING: RADIATIVE FORCING

The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon: the sun emits light and heat. The infrared
energy i.e. heat from the sun is radiated by the warmed earth surface. Some heat escapes into
space through the infrared window while some heat is absorbed by the greenhouse gases,
primarily Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour and is reradiated back towards the earth,
keeping the air and surface of the planet comfortably warm. Through processes such as
photosynthesis and respiration, a fairly stable amount of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour is
maintained in the atmosphere. Figure 8-3 below depicts the greenhouse effect.




                                                                                          69
                             Figure 8-3: The greenhouse effect

However, human activities such as burning of fossil fuels, industry, agriculture and
deforestation arising all over the planet have increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide and
other greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons,
sulphur hexafluoride) in the atmosphere. This increased amount of greenhouse gases absorbs
more of the heat radiated by the earth’s surface. As less heat energy escapes into space due to
“dirtying” of the infrared window and more heat energy is reradiated back towards earth, this
accentuates greenhouse effect, causing air and surface temperature to rise, consequently
bringing global warming.




           Figure 8-4: The impact of human activities on the greenhouse effect

8.4.1 Effect of Global Warming at Local Scale

Changes at global scale are mostly felt by small islands like Mauritius. At local scale, the
maximum and minimum temperatures registered in Vacoas over the 10 years moving 1951-
2002 are as shown in Figure 8-5 below.




                                                                                            70
                                  MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES - VACOAS
                                   MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES - VACOAS
                                    MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES - VACOAS                               MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES - -VACOAS
                                                                                                          MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES -VACOAS
                                     10 - YEAR MOVING AVERAGE - 1951 to 2002                               MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES 2002
                                      10 - YEAR MOVING AVERAGE - 1951 to 2002
                                       10 - YEAR MOVING AVERAGE - 1951 to 2002                              10 - -YEAR MOVING AVERAGE - -1951 to VACOAS
                                                                                                             10 -YEAR MOVING AVERAGE -1951 to 2002
                                        Annual Anomalies
                                       Annual Anomalies                                                       10 YEAR MOVING AVERAGE 1951 to 2002
                                        Annual Anomalies
                                      10 per. Mov. Avg. (Annual Anomalies)
                                       10 per. Mov. Avg. (Annual Anomalies)
          0.8
            0.8                         10 per. Mov. Avg. (Annual Anomalies)                                  Annual Anomalies
                                                                                                               Annual Anomalies
              0.8
                                                                                                                Annual Anomalies
                                                                                                              10 per. Mov. Avg. (Annual Anomalies)
   DEPARTURE 1FROM AVERAGE ('C)



                                                                                                               10 per. Mov. Avg. (Annual Anomalies)
          0.6
  DEPARTURE 1FROM AVERAGE ('C)



                                                                                                                10 per. Mov. Avg. (Annual Anomalies)
            0.6
 DEPARTURE 1FROM AVERAGE ('C)


              0.6
                                                                                         1.5
          0.4                                                                              1.5
            0.4                                                                              1.5
              0.4

          0.2                                                                              1




                                                                                   DEPARTURE FROM
            0.2                                                                                1




                                                                                  DEPARTURE FROM
              0.2                                                                                   1




                                                                                 DEPARTURE FROM
                                                                                     AVERAGE ('C)
                                                                                    AVERAGE ('C)
               0                                                                         0.5




                                                                                   AVERAGE ('C)
                      0                                                                    0.5
                            0                                                                0.5
             95 1
                           119 53

                             9 5

                             9 7

                             9 9
                           19 1

                             9 3

                             9 5

                             9 7

                             9 9

                             9 1

                             9 3
                           19 5

                             9 7

                             9 9

                             9 1

                             9 3

                             9 5
                           19 7

                             9 9

                             9 1

                             9 3

                             9 5

                             9 7

                             99 9
                           20 1
                95



                          513 95

                          515 95

                          517 95

                          59 9 6

                          611 96

                          613 96

                          615 96

                          617 96

                          619 97

                          711 97

                          73 9 7

                          715 97

                          717 97

                          719 98

                          811 98

                          813 98

                          85 9 8

                          817 98

                          819 99

                          911 99

                          913 99

                          915 99

                          917 99

                          99 0 0
               1         95 1 9
                        19 513

                        19 515

                        19 517

                        19 519

                        19 611

                        19 613

                        19 615

                        19 617

                        19 619

                        19 711

                        19 713

                        19 715

                        19 717

                        19 719

                        19 811

                        19 813

                        19 815

                        19 817

                        19 819

                        19 911

                        19 913

                        19 915

                        19 917

                        19 29

                        20 01
        -0.2                                                                               0




                          01
          -0.2                                                                                 0
             -0.2                                                                                   0




                                                                                       19 51

                                                                                                   19 53

                                                                                                   19 55

                                                                                                   19 57

                                                                                                   19 9

                                                                                                   19 61

                                                                                                   19 3

                                                                                                   19 65

                                                                                                   19 67

                                                                                                   19 9

                                                                                                   19 71

                                                                                                   19 3

                                                                                                   19 5

                                                                                                   19 77

                                                                                                   19 9

                                                                                                   19 81

                                                                                                   19 3

                                                                                                   19 5

                                                                                                   19 87

                                                                                                   19 9

                                                                                                   19 91

                                                                                                   19 3

                                                                                                   19 5

                                                                                                   19 97

                                                                                                   19 9

                                                                                                   20 01
                                                                                                  57 195




                                                                                                  61 196




                                                                                                  67 196




                                                                                                  71 197

                                                                                                  73 197




                                                                                                  77 197




                                                                                                  81 198

                                                                                                  83 198




                                                                                                  87 198




                                                                                                  91 199

                                                                                                  93 199




                                                                                                  97 199
                                                                                         19

                                                                                                 95 19

                                                                                                  53 19

                                                                                                  55 9




                                                                                                  59 19




                                                                                                  63 19

                                                                                                  65 19




                                                                                                  69 19




                                                                                                  75 19




                                                                                                  79 19




                                                                                                  85 19




                                                                                                  89 19




                                                                                                  95 19




                                                                                                  99 0
                                                                                      1 51

                                                                                                19 53

                                                                                                     5

                                                                                                19 57

                                                                                                19 59

                                                                                                19 61

                                                                                                19 63

                                                                                                19 65

                                                                                                19 67

                                                                                                19 69

                                                                                                19 71

                                                                                                19 73

                                                                                                19 75

                                                                                                19 77

                                                                                                19 79

                                                                                                19 81

                                                                                                19 83

                                                                                                19 85

                                                                                                19 87

                                                                                                19 89

                                                                                                19 91

                                                                                                19 93

                                                                                                19 95

                                                                                                19 97

                                                                                                     9

                                                                                                20 01
                                                                                                19 51




                                                                                                19 92
                                                                                        -0.5




                                                                                                   1




                                                                                                  01
        -0.4
          -0.4                                                                            -0.5
             -0.4                                                                            -0.5

        -0.6                                                                              -1
          -0.6                                                                                 -1
             -0.6                                                                                   -1

        -0.8                                                                            -1.5
          -0.8                                                                            -1.5
             -0.8                                                                            -1.5




                                     Figure 8-5: Maximum and minimum temperatures registered in Vacoas

8.5                               NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

Several models have bee developed for the prediction of temperature and sea level changes.
Simulations have shown that both temperature and sea-level are expected to rise in the next
years. The graphs in Figure 8-6 below show the results for 1990 to 2100. These predictions
are relative to the 1990 figures.




                                   Figure 8-6: Numerical model predictions for temperature and sea level rise

Global average sea level rise 1990 to 2100 for the SRES scenarios. Thermal expansion and
land ice changes were calculated using a simple climate model calibrated separately for each
of the seven AOGCMs, and contributions from changes in permafrost, the effect of sediment
deposition and the long-term adjustment of the ice sheets to past climate change were added.
Each of the six lines appearing in the key is the average of AOGCMs for one of the six
scenarios. The region in dark shading shows the range of the average of AOGCMs for all 35
SRES scenarios. The region in the light shading shows the range of all AOGCMs for all 35
scenarios. The region delimited by the outermost lines shows the range of all AOGMMs and
scenarios including uncertainty in land-ice changes, permafrost changes and sediment
deposition. Note that this range does not allow for uncertainty relating to ice-dynamical
changes in the west Antarctic ice sheet. The bars show the range in 2100 of all AOGCMs for
the six illustrative scenarios

8.6                               DISASTER PREPAREDNESS

In order to minimize impacts of disasters, there should be an elaborate preparedness system
consisting of:
                                  Identification of most vulnerable sectors

                                                                                                                                                          71
      Timely assessment of events in terms of intensity, frequency and probability
      Early warning and alert system and spatial distribution
      Set-up relevant units which need to intervene in case of disasters and have in place the
      necessary contingency plans in the eventuality of outbreak of a specific disaster
      Have all infrastructure and training necessary
      Effective communication: what, when, to whom, how to communicate
      Quality research and advancement in scientific ways of monitoring

Mauritius has already set-up an early warning system in case of cyclones. The Mauritius
model is based on the intensity and probability that the cyclone represents a potential threat, is
approaching, will be an imminent danger and is an actual threat. This is communicated to the
nation in terms of cyclonic warning systems of Class I, II, III, IV and termination.

8.7   PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR SIDS

The United Nations International Meeting on the Review of the Programme of Action for
Sustainable Development of SIDS meeting held in Mauritius in January 2005 came up with
the following recommendations for the small island developing states in respect to disaster
preparedness and management.
      There should be more effective disaster management
      Interdisciplinary and intercoastal partnership should be stimulated
      There should be mainstreaming of risk management into the national planning processes
      There should be insurance and re-assurance arrangement
      It is of necessity to augment the capacity of small islands to address disasters




                                                                                               72
                           9 FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

In order to achieve the objective set for the workshop, i.e. the “Development of a Mauritius
Country Framework for Action within the Southern African Vision for Water, Life and
Environment in the 21st Century”, two technical sessions were held, whereby further
clarifications were asked by the stakeholders and one concluding session whereby a
Framework for Action was proposed and considered.

The discussions held and proposed Framework for Action are reproduced hereunder.

9.1   DISCUSSION – TECHNICAL SESSION 1
From:        Mr R. Awotar - MCDESC
To:          Mr S. Mukoon - Senior Generation Planner Engineer, Central Electricity Board
Question 1
Why should Mauritius use coal to generate electricity when taking account the fact that
Mauritius is a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, whereby it is committed to reduce
environmental stress and remembering that coal burning causes important air emissions?
Question 2
Has the potential of using water from Midlands Dam as source of energy been investigated?
Answer to Question 1
Energy produced from different types of thermal stations is polluting as there is the release of
several greenhouse gases among others. Mauritius now encourages the production of energy
from bagasse. However, this resource is available for only 6 months over a year.
Consequently, it is necessary to invest in other sources, hence the dual use of coal and bagasse
to produce electricity. The use of coal associated with bagasse reduces dependency on fuel oil
and is also more stable with respect to price. Therefore, it is a more economical option to use
coal and bagasse for electricity generation with respect to demand.
Answer to Question 2
Midlands Dams was initially planned to produce electricity but the economics shows that the
capital investment will be in excess of the profitability as regards the amount of electricity
that cane be produced. Moreover, the demand is much higher than the total electricity that can
be generated. Provision for hydropower has been made in the construction of the Midlands
dam and may be use if the prices for oil rise in the next 10 to 15 years. Nevertheless,
investigation from micro-hydropower plants is currently underway.
Intervention
Mr S. Mooloo - Department of Environment, Ministry of Environment on Question 1
Clarification on Kyoto Protocol
Mauritius is a non-Annex 1 listed country; therefore it is not compelled to abide by all Kyoto
Protocol rules. Mauritius is mainly concerned with carbon dioxide emissions and coal is a
much cheaper resource compared to others. Furthermore, there is a stock of coal for the next
200-300 years while the supply of petrol will be over in the next 50 years. Coal is a
guaranteed resource and even though coal burning produces carbon dioxide, the actual


                                                                                             73
emissions load is not a problem for the time being, but Mauritius should try to reduce its
carbon dioxide emissions in the future.


From:        Mr R. Awotar - MCDESC
To:          Mr D. Deepchand - Head, Water Resources Unit
Question 1
There is a concern that nowadays, groundwater/boreholes supply tends to dry earlier
compared to past – Has there been any investigation about that?
Question 2
The water extracted from boreholes being of very good quality, requiring no chlorination,,
why is it that this underground water is not used solely for domestic consumption?
Answer to Question 1
Presently, water usage is of 150 Mm3/year and according to projections, the demand is still
expected to increase. We have already reached limit for groundwater exploitation in the East
and West, and it is planned there would be no further exploitation of groundwater in the
North.
Construction of additional dams in the future will certainly lessen the stress on groundwater
resources.
Intervention
Dr H. Sharma - Chairperson
The potential for groundwater is fixed but demand increases with time.
Groundwater is used for both domestic and industrial use: industrial use accounts for 10 Mm3.
Groundwater is also used for agricultural purpose because the groundwater source is situated
close to the field and is therefore most accessible to planters


From:        Mr R. Awotar - MCDESC
To:          Mr N. Toolsee - General Manager, Irrigation Authority
Question
Surface Irrigation is in many cases related to Water Rights. There is a need to sort this out
with respect to sugar industries – What is being done?
Answer
About 60 % of total water from the Midlands Dam is diverted to the North for use in
agriculture. Surface irrigation is used where networks are in place. At the Irrigation Authority,
advantage is taken of hydrological studies; this is why development is still being made in
southern and eastern belt of Mauritius because the hydrological studies have revealed
potential use of groundwater. It is important to encourage local micro-scheme where projects
are earmarked.
A task force has been set-up and together with the Water Resources Unit, an audit has been
launched to investigate on Water Rights in rivers/canals. There is a need to rationalise the
water resources and there should be a complete review of Water Rights to ensure that
irrigation is attached to lands and if the water is not use for irrigation, this should be
immediately reported.


                                                                                              74
From:       Mr C. P. Khedun - University of Mauritius
To:         Mr N. Toolsee – General Manager, Irrigation Authority
Question
Now that St Martin Sewerage Plant is operational, how is the treated effluent being used for
irrigation and how will this alleviate the pressure on raw water?
Answer from Dr H. Sharma – Chairperson
The treated water can be used for overhead irrigation, thus replacing the need for fresh water.
Answer from Mr N. Toolsee
Treated effluent should be diluted with freshwater prior to use for irrigation. In this way,
freshwater is still required. This water will in fact help in meeting the shortfall in irrigation.
The treated wastewater will help in consolidating the water regime in the west and thus new
areas can be added to the present irrigated zones.
Intervention
Mr R. Mungra - General Manager, Central Water Authority
Mauritius is already a water-stressed country and is expected to even become water-scarce in
the future. There is a serious competition for water in Mauritius. The demand for underground
water is increasing because of its good quality and the Central Water Authority is in constant
competition with other users, e.g. factories etc. As demand increases, the groundwater table
depletes at a faster pace. Actually, water is also drawn from the end of Grande-River North-
West, and the river runs dry in drier months as everyone taps water from there. It is hoped that
soon with the launching of “Water Act”, the issue of competition will be solved, as a
structured decision-mechanism will be included in the Act.


From:       Mr J. R. Boroto - Representative of GWP (Southern Africa)
To:         Mr N. Toolsee - General Manager, Irrigation Authority
Question
Would you say (apart from sugar cultivation) that Mauritius has got enough water for food
crop cultivation?
Answer from Dr H. Sharma
Mauritius is committed to food crop diversification to reduce imports. It should be forgotten
that food production is directly linked with water availability and the rationalization of
irrigation techniques involving best suited irrigation methods making optimum use of water
available is needed.


From:       Mr J. R. Boroto - Representative of GWP (Southern Africa)
To:         Mr R. Mungra - General Manager, Central Water Authority
Question
How come Mauritius has succeeded in reaching a potable water supply coverage of 99.4 %?
Answer
The 99.4 % coverage has been possible thanks to gradual effort and policy decision of
different organisations to invest in water supply. It has been realised that water is related to

                                                                                               75
essential components such as health, social and energy. Everything grows around water and
unless these essential elements of life reach everyone, no development is possible. Policy and
the Mauritian drive have been the key ingredients for good potable water coverage.


From:        One NGO
To:          Mr R. Mungra - General Manager, Central Water Authority
Question
In 10 years time, Mauritius will be a water-scarce country. What is the strategy adopted by
the CWA to diminish wastage and increase water-conservation? Is the CWA envisaging any
partnership with stakeholders such as women or consumer organisation?
Answer
The CWA is targeting young people through seminars, essay competition etc. in order to
promote ideas of water conservation and increase public awareness. More active, aggressive
campaigns are required. The CWA has started to raise public awareness by printing pledges,
e.g. “Use water with care.” on water bills. It is usually towards the end of year period,
corresponding to dry seasons, that competition with other users becomes even fiercer and
during such periods of the year, priorities are given to certain issues.
What needs to be done is:
      the Irrigation Authority should make an effort to use raw water in an efficient way,
      the CWA has to develop more direct contact with public,
      at global level, there should be concerted action with others.


From:        Mr Y. Mungroo - National Parks & Conservation Service
To:          Mr D. Deepchand - Head, Water Resources Unit
Question
What about the quality of water? – What are the precautions taken in order to prevent
pollution of wetlands and catchments areas?
Answer
Environmental Impact Assessment for catchments areas is now compulsory. Furthermore,
there are new clauses in the River and Canal Act which stipulates that industrial effluent
should be not be discharged overland so as to protect the water resources. Moreover an
effluent discharge permit from the Ministry of Public Utilities is required. This issue will be
later discussed by the presenter on “Environmental Strategies and Programme”.

9.2   DISCUSSION – TECHNICAL SESSION 2
From:        Dr H. Sharma - Ministry of Public Utilities
To:          Dr B. M Pathack - Deputy Director, Meteorological Services
Question1
Is there any study to predict the likely average rainfall?
Question 2
Is there any scientific way of analysing data?


                                                                                             76
Answer to Question 1
Assuming average rainfall to be less than 1,900 mm, considering this trend, we can predict
average rainfall but statistically speaking, there has been no study on water-side.
Answer to Question 2
In science, numerical weather prediction is used and from there its plausibility is investigated.
There exists large-scale numerical simulation but downscaling it to the size of the island
would result in too much reduction in the resolution of the model. Nevertheless, there exist
methods to downscale model to region size so as to predict average rainfall on a region-wide
basis.
Intervention
Mr Kerof - General Mananger, Wastewater Management Authority
There are more than 150 rain collecting stations over the island.
Intervention
Mr P. Baissac – Mauritius Wildlife Foundation
Decrease in rainfall is directly linked to deforestation. Forests having huge water-retention
capacity are replaced with tea and sugarcane cultivation. This eventually cause soil exposure
to sun radiation, hence resulting in warming and other compounding effects. The only way to
reverse the problem is by adopting a replanting approach.


From:        Dr H. Sharma - Ministry of Public Utilities
To:          Dr B. M Pathack - Deputy Director, Meteorological Services
Question
Can any structure be constructed in order to allow Mauritian agencies to monitor rise in
mean sea-level?
Answer
We are looking for changes in the mean sea level in the order of millimetres, and as such
actual measurements become difficult.


From:        Miss H. Rughoonundun - University of Mauritius
To:          Mr M. Kerof - General Manager, Wastewater Management Authority
Question 1
In the newly built wastewater treatment plants, what proposal would be envisaged for sludge
treatment?
Question 2
To what extent will the sewage in the North be treated?
Question 3
Would the coral ecosystem not be further affected by the creation of outfalls?
Question 4
What about pathogen content and colour of treated sewage?



                                                                                              77
Answer to Question 1
Sludge is carted away at landfill site and sometimes the stabilised sludge is used by people as
fertilizers. Sludge from newly built plants are of much better quality for sugarcane farming as
they contain as much as 13 % nitrogen content.
Answer to Question 2
The Baie du Tombeau Treatment Plant has got primary and secondary treatment while at St
Martin treatment Plant, being a sophisticated plant, provides up to tertiary treatment by UV
radiation.
Answer to Question 3
The outfall has been located at a depth of 30 m below the seawater surface and it has got 21
diffusers which disperse the treated effluent in such a way that the necessary dilution is
achieved and the environment is not affected.
Answer to Question 4
Colour of treated sewage is within environmental standards; it is not objectionable.
Intervention
Mr R. Mungra - General Manager, Central Water Authority
Comment on Sludge
Nowadays, more and more effluents are being produced and there is no guidance over sludge
use. This represents an interesting area for work.
Wastewater treatment plants at Grand Baie and Montagne Jacquot are situated at lowest level,
i.e. sea level so as allow sewage to flow by gravity; otherwise the costs for pumping sewage
from households to treatment plant would be too costly.
Intervention
Mr M. Kerof - General Manager, Wastewater Management Authority
Comment on Treated Effluent
There are no foreseen problems associated with the utilisation of treated effluent from St
Martin and Grand Bay Treatment Plants because this effluent has been subjected to tertiary
treatment which renders it safe for agricultural use. There is a need for communication in near
future so as to reassure public and create an interest in the re-use of treated, stabilised effluent.


From:        Mr R. Awotar - MCDESC
To:          Mr S. Mooloo - Department of Environment
Question 1
You mentioned about poor location of industries with respect to environment. How come EIA
licences have been granted to such poorly located industries?
Question 2
What about filling of wetlands in Grand Bay?
Answer to Question 1
Poor location of industries occurred in the 1980’s and EIA procedures came into force in
September 1992. During the pre-EIA period, 400 textile industries have been set-up and EIA



                                                                                                  78
procedure not being retro-active, this explains the location of some industries in some
sensitive locations.
Answer to Question 2
The filling activities occurred in 1980-1990 at a time when land speculation was so high that
filling of wetlands was inevitable. Since then, in 1992, a Zoning Plan has been developed and
it outlines the zoning where development is not permitted. However, the district councils and
municipalities have not been able to implement and enforce it due to lack of manpower.
Furthermore, owing to loopholes and gaps in the law, there are lengthy judiciary processes in
cases of illegal filling of wetlands.
Intervention
Mr Y. Patel - Ministry of Environment
Comment on Wetlands
The problem lies more on the legal side than on the technical side. Wetlands are profitable to
the water quality and the awareness that filling causes degradation of sea-water quality has
recently cropped up in public mind. The EIA mechanism was promulgated in June 1991 but it
came into force in June 1993.
Intervention
Mrs S. Boodhoo - Water Resources Unit
Comment on National Action Plan
Two projects have been proposed under the UNEP agenda, namely:
      Impact of climate change on water resources
      Impact of sea-level rise on groundwater resources
These projects are in the pipeline and will be implemented in the near future.


From:       Miss H. Rughoonundun - University of Mauritius
To:         Mr S. Mooloo - Department of Environment
Question
What is the ecological impact of the proposed dams on environment? Are these dams not
modifying the downstream water system?
Answer by Dr H. Sharma
Dam studies have shown that 90 % of water impounding is acceptable, and 10 % water flow
is allowed and this is sufficient to prevent negative impacts on the environment.

9.3   PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

It should be recognised that Mauritius has moved a long way and is already working towards
the vision adopted by the Water Ministers of SADC and the Dublin principles. However,
there are still several areas that need to be further looked into to improve the water sector on
the island.

The stakeholders recognise the work of the Water Resources Unit in building up the water
balance for the island and the various hydrological studies that have been carried out to date.
However a more accurate determination of our water potential needs to be carried out. Further
studies are required for the determination of the groundwater potential, especially in the north
                                                                                             79
and west where groundwater exploitation seems to have reached its threshold. As regards,
surface water, more measuring stations need to be established to determine the flow regime of
our rivers and especially its variation during the wet and dry season.

The effects of climate change on the hydrological cycle are widely recognised. Some of the
effects predicted are a decrease in the annual rainfall and a rise in the sea level. Rainfall
intensity as well is expected to increase, which, due to the changing land use pattern, will
increase run-off thereby decreasing the ability for the water to infiltrate and recharge the
aquifers. In that sense, two studies have already been launched under the patronage of the
UNEP; namely the impact of climate change on the water resources and the impact of sea-
level rise on groundwater resources. Thus the present utilisable freshwater potential can be
established and changes in the quantity of water available can be predicted.

The Central Water Authority has already initiated a study on Unaccounted for Water (or non-
revenue water). It intends to reduce its UFW from the present 50 % level to a more reasonable
figure of 25 % over next four years. To reduce the wastage of potable water at the domestic
level, a ‘value based water education’ is required. School children, through visits to water
treatment facilities, are already being informed of the need to preserve water. This education
now has to reach the adults and more specially the women who, as stated in the Dublin
principle, “play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water” at
the household level.

At the onset of the dry season, the hours of supply tend to reduce and the population start to
feel concerned about the need to utilise water judiciously, but this interest easily dies out as
soon as the rainy season starts. There is thus a need to initiate a water demand management
campaign and to maintain it over the whole year. In that sense, the CWA has, on several
instances, made a request to the authorities for the waving of taxes on water saving devices
and intends to educate people on the benefits associated with such devices.

The island has a flourishing tourism industry and additional hotels are being constructed in
the southern part of the island. The number of tourists visiting the island is also on the rise
and so is the drinking water need of the hotels. To reduce the burden on the potable water
supply, beach hotels should be encouraged to install desalination plants.

The textile factories, especially dye houses, are also large consumers of water. They should be
given incentives to implement new, water efficient technology for their wet activities. In the
past the CWA has successfully advised the CEB to use sea water for the cooling of its thermal
engines in the St Louis power station. Other, factories and power stations having an easy
access to the sea can consider the use of sea water for activities which does not imperatively
necessitate potable water.

The Irrigation Authority should carry out an audit of those benefiting from the ‘water rights’.
This is a crucial task which will help in the rationalisation of surface and ground water
resources. More efficient metering methods have to be put in place to enable a more judicious
use of water for irrigation needs. Several large planters have already invested in more efficient
methods of irrigation. The Irrigation Authority is encouraging small planters to form
cooperatives to enable the implementation of large scale water efficient irrigation methods
like the drip irrigation.

The Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute has conducted several studies to determine
the optimum water requirement for sugar cane. Research has also been carried out on deficit
irrigation without reducing the sucrose content of sugar cane. Similar studies have to be
carried for other food crops.

                                                                                              80
The Wastewater Management Authority has already embarked on a number of projects in
order to meet the set target of 50 % sanitation coverage by the 2010. After 2010, 50 % of the
population will still have recourse to septic tanks and absorption pits for the disposal of their
liquid wastes. The need for updating the masterplan to look at the steps to be taken beyond
2010 to ensure at least 70 % coverage by the year 2030 is already being felt.

In the mean time, those who do not have access to a centralised sewerage system are still a
potential risk for groundwater pollution. To limit the damage from poorly maintained septic
tanks and absorption pits, the WMA intends to distribute information leaflets explaining the
appropriate maintenance procedure for on-site disposal systems and the need for regular
desludging. The maintenance and desludging of communal septic tanks, in large housing
communities (e.g. NHDC housing estates), should be entrusted to the WMA.

There is also a need to conduct research on the effect of these sources of pollution on the
quality of the groundwater. Baseline data on the quality of both surface and ground water has
to be collected and regular monitoring of these sources has to be carried out to see if there is
any deterioration of the raw water quality. The plume dispersion pattern and coastal water
quality should also be investigated to ensure that the beach, which is the main tourist
attraction, is not degraded. Current pattern and wave observation stations have to be
established in the outfalls’ area to enable the modelling of the plume dispersion pattern.

The reuse of treated effluent from wastewater treatment plant for irrigation purposes is
already being practised in hotels. The treated wastewater from the St Martin and Grand Bay
treatment plant will be used for irrigation purposes. However, the social acceptability of such
water for irrigation is feared. A campaign should be carried out to encourage farmers to use
treated effluents to meet their irrigation needs. In the same way, an efficient use of the sludge
being produced from the numerous treatment plants being constructed should be investigated.

The Central Electricity Board is another large consumer of raw surface water. It presently
utilises around 289 Mm3/year which represents 30 % of the available water resources to
generate only 6 % of the country’s need in electricity. To take maximum benefit of the
potential head available, hydropower stations are located at very low altitude, and once used,
this water cannot be put to other uses and is lost into the sea. The re-use of this tailrace water
should not be underestimated. The CEB is also considering the implementation of micro
hydropower projects to meet the demand of small communities as this will reduce the burden
on thermal plants thereby reducing the expenditure on oil and coal. Provision will be made,
as has been the case in the recently completed Midlands Dam project, for hydropower
generation in the upcoming dam projects.

It has been suggested that the water consumption per kWh of energy generated be calculated.
The cost of water for hydropower generation can thus be compared with the cost of providing
water to other socio-economic sectors as recommended in of the Dublin principle no. 3 which
states that “Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised
as an economic good.”.

Further studies, with the assistance of the University of Mauritius and the Mauritius Research
Council, can be undertaken to asses the possibility of using other renewable sources of energy
like solar, wind, OTEC etc. Mauritius is presently generating more than 1,000 tons of solid
waste daily. The energy potential from solid wastes (through incineration plant or the methane
generated from landfills) and of sludge from wastewater treatment plants should not be
ignored. These sources of energy will reduce the importation of non-renewable sources of
energy and may enable the reallocation of raw water for other uses.


                                                                                               81
The Ministry of Environment & NDU acknowledges principle no. 1 which states that “Fresh
water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the
environment.”. Mauritius, being a small island developing state, has a very fragile ecosystem
which needs to be preserved as the country goes through and the of its development economy.
The MoE has through the Environmental Protection Act (with its different guidelines and
regulations) already set up a mechanism for the safeguard of the island’s water resources. The
ecological and recreational value of water should not be forgotten in the whole water
management process.

Over the years, the quality of the rivers has seriously deteriorated due to uncontrolled human
activities, agricultural runoffs, discharge of liquid wastes from textile factories and changes in
the land use pattern which leads to soil erosion in the rainy seasons. A proper de-siltation
programme should be carried out to enable the regeneration of the aquatic flora and fauna in
those watercourses. Water right users should be responsible for the stretch of river running
through their property and should safeguard its water quality. They should also re-vegetate the
river banks to reduce soil erosion. An integrated pest management programme should also be
put in place to limit the application fertilisers and hence prevent the eutrophication of rivers.

The wetlands, especially those along the coastal region of island, have over the past decades
been unscrupulously filled and parcelled for housing and commercial development. There is
therefore no retention sink for the excess precipitation and the lagoon is slowly being
contaminated from agricultural runoffs and domestic wastewater. This practice has also
caused the flooding of several housing morcellements thereby leading to a loss in the value of
properties and an increase in health hazards and waterborne diseases. A complete inventory of
the occupied sites and the remaining wetlands should be carried out and a concerted action to
maintain the ecosystem in the remaining sites should be put in place. A public awareness
programme on the importance of the rivers, wetlands and coastal zone protection should also
be initiated.

A study should be carried out to see if the dams that have been set up on the watercourses are
allowing at least 10 % of the flow into the rivers and if this flow is enough to sustain aquatic
life in the dry seasons.

A system for the collection of baseline data in view of the setting up of an Environmental
Information System (EIS) should be set up. This will enable the monitoring of changes in the
environment arising out of economic activities and human interventions.

Finally, every stakeholder recognises the fact that “Water development and management
should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at
all levels.”. Competition for water exists in Mauritius. This is felt especially in the dry
seasons. Though the usual practice has been to satisfy potable water needs, followed by
agricultural and industrial water requirements in the dry period, there is no defined policy for
the allocation of water. Thus a mechanism has to be set up to look into the water resources
available throughout the year and for its allocation.




                                                                                               82
                                   10 REFERENCES

Central Electricity Board, (2003), Annual Report 2003, CEB Mauritius.

Central Electricity Board, (April 2003), Corporate Plan 2003/2004: A Summary of CEB’s
    Strategic Direction, CEB Mauritius.

Central Electricity Board, (November 2003), Integrated Electricity Plan 2003-2012, CEB
    Mauritius.

Chuong N. Phung Economic and Financial Management Consultant, (January 2002), First
   Targeted European Commission Budget support operation Wastewater Sector.

De Chazal Du Mée in conjunction with Severn Trent Water International, (November 2001),
   Wastewater Management Authority Corporate Plan 2002-2007.

Environmental Resources Management, (July 1999), National Environmental Strategies for
    the Republic of Mauritius – Review of Legal and Institutional Framework for
    Environmental Management in Mauritius

Ghzala, A., (June 2004), World Bank Mission Aide Memoire.

Kerof, M, (October 2002), Review & Analysis of Wastewater Sector and Development of
    Strategies for Management of WMA, WMA Mauritius.

Kerof, M., (December 2003), National Sewerage Program (NSP) Implementation, Monitoring
    report for the Wastewater Sector, Mini Donors Meeting

Kerof, M., (July 2003), Environmental Sewerage & Sanitation Project (Montagne Jacquot),
    Progress Report of WMA Actions & Initiatives, WMA Mauritius.

Kerof, M., (June 2003), Implementation of National Sewerage Plan (NSP), Status Report of
    WMA Actions & Initiatives, WMA Mauritius.

Kerof, M., (November 2004), Special report on Wastewater Sector Development - Joint
    Donors Technical & Ministerial Committee, WMA Mauritius.

Kerof, M., (October 2003), WMA Organization Structure, Review and Analysis of
    Institutional reform - Human Resources Needs & Adjusted WMA Organization Structure,
    WMA Mauritius.

Kerof, M., (October 2004), WMA Capacity Building, WMA Mauritius

Ministry of Public Utilities, (1998), Sector Policy Letter, MPU Mauritius.

Ministry of Public Utilities, Draft Wastewater Sector Policy Statement (2005-2010)

National Climate Committee, (September 2004), Technology needs assessment and
    maintenance and enhancement of capacities for climate change activities.




                                                                                     83
SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd. (2002), Water Demand Management – Mauritius Country Study
   Report.

WMA, (December 2004), WMA Second Quarterly Progress Report, WMA Mauritius

WMA, Mauritius Wastewater Sector Policy Support Program (2003-2006) European Union,
  WMA Mauritius.

World Commission on Water for the 21st Century, The Africa Water Vision for 2025:
   Equitable and Sustainable Use of Water for Socioeconomic Development.




                                                                                84
      Annex 1
THE PROGRAMME OF THE
           WORKSHOP
                                           Ministry of
                                          Public Utilities


    DEVELOPMENT OF A MAURITIUS COUNTRY FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION
        WITHIN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN VISION FOR WATER, LIFE AND
                        ENVIRONMENT IN THE 21st CENTURY

                                 PROGRAMME
0900 - 0930
Registration
0930 - 1010
Inaugural Session   Welcome Address
                    Brief Introduction (Background and Expectations) – Ms R. Beukman/
                    Mr J. Boroto, Global Water Partnership Southern Africa
                    Inaugural Address – Hon. A. Ganoo, Minister of Public Utilities
                    Vote of Thanks
1010 - 1030
COFFEE


                              TECHNICAL SESSION 1


Chairperson         Dr H. R. Sharma, Ministry of Public Utilities
Rapporteur          SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.
1030 - 1035
Opening Remarks by Chairperson
1035 - 1055
Water Resources Development and Management - Present Status and Future Programme
Mr D. Deepchand, Head, Water Resources Unit
1055 - 1115
Potable Water Supply - Present Status and Future Programme
Mr R. Mungra, General Manager, Central Water Authority
1115 - 1135
Food Security and Irrigation Development - Present Status and Future Programme
Mr N. Toolsee, General Manager, Irrigation Authority
1135 - 1155
Energy - Present Scenario and Future Strategies and Programme
Mr S. Mukoon, Senior Generation Planner Engineer, Central Electricity Board
1155 - 1230
Discussions
1230 - 1330
LUNCH

                                                                                        i
                              TECHNICAL SESSION 2


Chairperson         Mr R. Bikoo, Ministry of Public Utilities
Rapporteur          SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.
1330 - 1335
Opening Remarks by Chairperson
1335 - 1355
Environmental Strategies and Programme
Mr S. Mooloo, Department of Environment, Ministry of Environment
1355 - 1415
Wastewater Management - Present Status and Future Programme
Mr M. Kerof, General Manager, Wastewater Management Authority
1415 - 1435
Disaster Preparedness & Climate Change
Dr B. M. Pathack, Deputy Director, Meteorological Services
1435 - 1510
Discussions
1510 - 1530
TEA


                              CONCLUDING SESSION


Chairperson         Mr S. K. Pather, Ministry of Public Utilities
Rapporteur          SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.
1530 - 1535
Opening Remarks by Chairperson
1535 - 1550
Presentation of the Findings of the Technical Sessions
Mr E. Seenyen, Director, SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd.
1550 - 1610
Suggestions from the Floor for Framework for Action
1610 - 1625
Conclusions and Way Forward
Ms R. Beukman/Mr J. Boroto, Global Water Partnership Southern Africa
1625 - 1630
Concluding Remarks by Chairperson




                                                                       ii
          Annex 2
LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS WHO
 ATTENDED THE WORKSHOP
List of stakeholders who attended the Workshop

Name                          Organisation

Mrs. S. THACOOR               Albion Research Centre

Dr. BAGUANT                   Central Electricity Board

Mr. M. BOLAH                  Central Electricity Board

Mr. S. MUKOON                 Central Electricity Board

Mr. K. SOODARCHAND            Central Electricity Board

Mr. R. MUNGRA                 Central Water Authority

Mr. R. C. RAJCOOMAR           Central Water Authority

Mr. D. Y. BACHRAZ             Food & Agricultural Research Council

Ms. R. BEUKMAN                Global Water Partnership Southern Africa

Mr. J. BOROTO                 Global Water Partnership Southern Africa

Mr. K. KONG THOO LIN          Irrigation Authority

Mr. P. P. MOHABEER            Irrigation Authority

Mr. N. TOOLSEE                Irrigation Authority

Mr. F. MOWLABACUS             Luxconsult (Mtius) Ltd.

Mr. P. LESTE                  Mauritius Chamber of Agriculture

Prof. S. BHOOJEDHUR           Mauritius Research Council

Mrs. N. NOBEEN                Mauritius Standards Bureau

Mr. D. AH KOON                Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute

Dr. G. C. SOOPRAMANIEN        Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute

Mr. P. RIVET                  Mauritius Sugar Producers Association

Mr. R. AWOTAR                 Mauritius Council for Development, Environmental Studies and
                              Conservation

Mr. P. BAISSAC                Mauritius Wildlife Foundation

Mrs. S. AMMERALLY-NISTAR      MEPZA

Mr. R. MUNGRA                 Meteorological Services

Dr. B. M. R. PATHACK          Meteorological Services

Mr. D. REETOO                 Ministry of Agriculture, Food Technology and National
                              Resources

Mr. S. MOOLOO                 Ministry of Environment & National Development Unit
Mr. Y. Y. PATEL       Ministry of Environment & National Development Unit

Mr. A. BUSAWON        Ministry of Environment & National Development Unit

Mr. R. BIKOO          Ministry of Public Utilities

Dr. H. R. SHARMA      Ministry of Public Utilities

Mrs. S. GOOGOOLYE     Ministry of Women Rights, Child Development and Family
                      Welfare

Mr. Y. MUNGROO        National Parks & Conservation Service

Mrs. Y. PADARUTH      National Women Entrepreneur Council

Ms. N. BULRAMAYA      National Women Entrepreneur Council

Ms. C. SEENYEN        SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd

Mr J. E. SEENYEN      SCENE-RIES Consult Ltd

Mr. M. KIARIE         Sevansingh Jadav & Partners Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Mr. S. DABEESING      State Land Development Company

Mr C. P. KHEDUN       University of Mauritius

Ms. H. RUGHOONUNDUN   University of Mauritius

Mr. D. A. AUKLE       Wastewater Management Authority

Mr. M. KEROF          Wastewater Management Authority

Mr. A. NUNDLALL       Wastewater Management Authority

Mrs. S. BOODHOO       Water Resources Unit

Mr. D. DEEPCHAND      Water Resources Unit

Mr. R. JAGANNATH      Water Resources Unit

Mr. D. JAHAJEEAH      Water Resources Unit




                                                                              ii

				
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