Criminal Prosecution by gyvwpsjkko

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									 LIABILITY FOR GROSS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS: FROM
             CRIMINAL TO CIVIL REMEDIES

DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
SUMMARY/OPSOMMING
ABBREVATIONS
CONTENTS
________________________________________________________________________
                                  PART A
PRESENT SYSTEMS OF MONITORING AND PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS


INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW                                              1


CHAPTER 1
THE UN SYSTEM OF HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION                               4
1. THE (abolished) UN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS                      5
1.1. Overview                                                          5
1.2. The CHR and its Sub-Organs                                       5
1.3. Evaluation                                                        8
2. THE UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS                         11
2.1. Overview                                                         11
2.2. Assessment                                                       12
3. THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL                                          12
4. TREATY BASED HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEES                              14
4.1. THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE                                       14
4.1.1. Overview                                                      14
4.1.2. Evaluation                                                    15
4.2. THE COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE (CAT)                              17
4.3. THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS
OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION (CERD)                                       19
4.4. THE COMMITTEE ON MIGRANT WORKERS (CMW)                          20
4.5. Conclusion                                                           22
5. THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL                                                22
5.1. Overview                                                             22
5.2. The present composition of the SC as an obstacle to its efficiency   25
5.3. The problematic mandate of peacekeeping                              26
5.4. Sanctions as tools of human rights protection                        27
5.5. Evaluating the SC’s role in the protection of human rights           28
6. Conclusion                                                             29


CHAPTER 2
THE PROTECTION OF
HUMAN RIGHTS AT THE REGIONAL TREATY LEVEL                                 32
1. THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN EUROPE                               32
1.1. HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION UNDER THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE
REGIME                                                                    33
1.1.1. Overview                                                           33
1.1.2. CoE human rights protection prior 1994                             33
1.1.3. CoE human rights protection after 1994                             34
1.1.4. Evaluation of the CoE human rights protection                      35
1.2. THE ORGANIZATION FOR
SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE AND HUMAN RIGHTS                       37
1.2.1. Overview                                                           37
1.2.2. Evaluation of human rights protection under the OSCE               38
1.3. HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE EUROPEAN UNION                                  39
1.4. Conclusion                                                           42
2. THE INTER-AMERICAN HUMAN RIGHTS SYSTEM                                 44
2.1. Introduction                                                         44
2.2. THE INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS                        44
2.2.1. Overview                                                           44
2.2.2. Shortcomings                                                       45
2.2.2.1. Financial dependency                                             45
2.2.2.2. Lack of efficiency and enforcement measures                           46
2.2.2.3. Impartiality and rivalry                                              46
2.3. THE INTER-AMERICAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS                                  47
2.3.1. Overview                                                                47
2.3.2. Shortcomings                                                            47
2.3.2.1. Lack of an effective enforcement regime                               47
2.3.2.2. Principal deficits of the Inter-American contentious case mechanism   48
2.3.2.3. Insufficient financing                                                49
2.4. Evaluation of human rights protection under the Inter-American system     49
3. THE AFRICAN HUMAN RIGHTS SYSTEM                                             51
3.1. Introduction                                                              51
3.2. THE AFRICAN CHARTER ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES’ RIGHTS                          51
3.2.1. Overview                                                                51
3.2.2. Shortcomings                                                            52
3.2.2.1. Rights v. duties                                                      52
3.2.2.2. Domestic limitations of the scope of human rights                     53
3.2.2.3. A weak enforcement regime                                             54
3.3. THE AFRICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES’ RIGHTS                       55
3.3.1. Overview                                                                55
3.3.2. Shortcomings                                                            55
3.3.2.1. Questionable impartiality                                             55
3.3.2.2. Lack of independence and conflict of interest scenarios               56
3.3.2.3. Lack of confidentiality                                               56
3.3.2.4. Confidentiality v. promotion of human rights                          58
3.3.2.5. A weak reporting system                                               58
3.3.2.6. The absence of a mandatory amicable settlement option                 59
3.3.3. Evaluation of human rights protection by the ACHPR                      59
3.4. THE (future) AFRICAN COURT ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES’ RIGHTS                   61
3.4.1. Overview                                                                61
3.4.2. Shortcomings                                                            62
3.4.2.1. Independence and funding                                              62
3.4.2.2. Limited admissibility                                                     63
3.4.2.3. Enforcement of judgments                                                  64
3.4.2.4. The wide choice of applicable law and mechanisms
may weaken the court’s effectiveness                                               65
3.5. Evaluation of human rights protection under the African human rights system   66


CHAPTER 3
THE NATURE OF AVAILABLE REMEDIES                                                   68
1. INDIVIDUAL COMPLAINTS                                                           68
2. FINANCIAL REMEDIES                                                              70


CONCLUSION PART A                                                                  73
________________________________________________________________________


                                       PART B
     CRIMINAL ACCOUNTABILITY FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ATROCITIES


INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW                                                          75


CHAPTER 1
INTERNATIONAL CRIMES                                                               77
1. DEFINING INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW                                             77
2. SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW                                           79
3. INTERNATIONAL CRIMES                                                            81
3.1. Overview                                                                      81
3.2. The core crimes                                                               81
3.3. The legal development of the core crimes                                      83
3.3.1. Genocide                                                                    83
3.3.2. Crimes against humanity                                                     84
3.3.3. War crimes                                                                  86
3.3.4. Aggression                                                                  89
3.3.5. The crime of torture                                         93
3.3.6. The crime of international terrorism                         94
4. FORMS OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY                                 97
4.1. State criminal responsibility                                  97
4.2. Individual criminal responsibility                            101
4.3. Corporate criminal responsibility                             104
5. Conclusion                                                      105


CHAPTER 2
THE PROSECUTION OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES                            107
1. THE CHOICE OF FORUM                                             107
1.1. International Courts                                          107
1.2. National Courts                                               108
1.3. Choosing the appropriate judicial forum                       110
2. CRIMINAL PROSECUTION BEFORE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNALS             112
2.1. TEMPORARY “AD-HOC” TRIBUNALS                                  112
2.1.1. THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL OF NUREMBERG            112
2.1.1.1. Introduction                                              112
2.1.1.2. Jurisdiction and sentencing                               113
2.1.1.2.1. Crimes against peace                                    114
2.1.1.2.2. War crimes                                              114
2.1.1.2.3. Crimes against humanity                                 115
2.1.1.2.4. Sentencing                                              116
2.1.1.3. The IMT and the criticism of retroactive law              116
2.1.1.3.1. Overview                                                116
2.1.1.3.2. The legal nature of the different crimes under the NC   117
2.1.1.3.2.1. Crimes against peace                                  117
2.1.1.3.2.2. War crimes                                            119
2.1.1.3.2.3. Crimes against humanity                               120
2.1.1.4. The Prosecution of war criminals after 1949
under domestic German criminal law as an alternative.              122
2.1.1.4.1. Overview                                                 122
2.1.1.4.2. The applicable law                                       123
2.1.1.5. The IMT’s limitations of other defences of criminal law    126
2.1.1.5.1. Superior orders                                          127
2.1.1.5.2. Duress                                                   128
2.1.1.5.3. Mistake of law                                           129
2.1.1.6. Conclusion                                                 131
2.1.2. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER
YUGOSLAVIA –(ICTY)                                                  134
2.1.2.1. Jurisdiction and sentencing                                134
2.1.2.2. Evaluation                                                 136
2.1.3. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA
(ICTR)                                                              141
2.1.3.1. Jurisdiction and sentencing                                141
2.1.3.2. Evaluation                                                 142
2.1.4. THE SPECIAL COURT FOR SIERRA LEONE (SCSL)                    145
2.1.4.1. Jurisdiction and sentencing                                145
2.1.4.2. Addressing jurisdictional immunity and amnesty             146
2.1.4.3. Evaluation                                                 149
2.1.5. THE SUPREME IRAQI CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL (SICT)                   149
2.1.5.1. Jurisdiction and sentencing                                150
2.1.5.2. Evaluation                                                 152
2.2. THE PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC)               153
2.2.1. Introduction                                                 153
2.2.2. Jurisdiction and sentencing                                  155
2.2.3. Shortcomings and present difficulties                        156
2.2.3.1. Restrictions and limitations to the court’s jurisdiction   156
2.2.3.2. The notorious opposition of the USA                        157
2.2.4. Conclusion                                                   159
3. CRIMINAL PROSECUTION OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES BEFORE
NATIONAL COURTS                                                     159
3.1. Israel                                                                   160
3.2. Belgium                                                                  161
3.3. Germany                                                                  163
3.3.1. Overview                                                               163
3.3.2. The prosecution of international crimes before German courts           163
3.3.2.1. Criminal Prosecutions of serious international crimes
before the introduction of the CCAIL                                          164
3.3.2.2. Criminal Prosecution of international crimes under the new CCAIL     165
3.4. Canada                                                                   165
3.5. United Kingdom                                                           166
3.6. Conclusion                                                               166


CHAPTER 3
IMMUNITIES AND DOMESTIC AMNESTIES AS
KEY OBSTACLES TO AN EFFECTIVE CRIMINAL PROSECUTION                            168
1. IMMUNITY                                                                   168
1.1. Introduction                                                             168
1.2. The present concept and practice of immunity from criminal prosecution
in respect to human rights atrocities                                         169
1.2.1 The House of Lords’ Pinochet decision                                   170
1.2.1.1. Overview                                                             170
1.2.1.2. Facts of the case                                                    170
1.2.1.3. The legal findings                                                   171
1.2.1.4. Comment                                                              172
1.2.2. The ICJ’ s DRC v. Belgium decision                                     173
1.2.2.1. Overview                                                             173
1.2.2.2. Facts of the case                                                    173
1.2.2.3. Legal findings                                                       174
1.2.2.4. Comment                                                              174
1.2.3. Conclusion                                                             175
2. OTHER OBSTACLES                                                            176
2.1. Pardoning and amnesty                                            176
2.2. Lack of will and means to prosecute                              177


CONCLUSION PART B                                                     178
________________________________________________________________________


                                           PART C
   CIVIL ACCOUNTABILITY FOR GROSS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
                UNDER INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC LAW


INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW                                             180


CHAPTER 1
CIVIL RESPONSIBILITY OF STATES FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
ATROCITIES UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW                                    182
1. The concept of state responsibility                                182
2. State responsibility for human rights violations                   184
3. The individual as claims holder in cases of state responsibility
for human rights violations                                           186
3.1. Situation under international law                                186
3.2. Situation under regional treaty law                              189
3.3. Shortcomings                                                     190
4. Conclusion                                                         193


CHAPTER 2
ADJUDICATING HUMAN RIGHTS ATROCITIES
IN DOMESTIC JURISDICTIONS                                             195
1. INTRODUCTION                                                       195
2. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ATROCITIES
BEFORE US COURTS                                                      195
2.1. Overview                                                         195
2.2. The Law                                                                   196
2.2.1. The Alien Torts Claims Act (ATCA)                                       196
2.2.2. The Torture Victim Protection Act (TVPA)                                198
2.2.3. The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA)               198
2.3. Limitations of the U.S. human rights litigation and their exceptions      199
2.3.1. The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)                             199
2.3.2. The Head-of-State doctrine                                              200
2.3.3. The “political question” doctrine                                       202
2.3.4. The Act-of-State doctrine                                               203
2.3.5. The objection of forum non conveniens                                   204
2.3.6. Further limitations to US human rights litigation                       204
2.4. The development of human rights litigation in the USA                     206
2.4.1. The individual human rights perpetrator: Filartiga v. Pena-Irala        206
2.4.2. The non-state actor: Kadic v. Karadzic                                  207
2.4.3. States as defendants                                                    208
2.4.4. The corporate defendant: Doe v. Unocal, Wiwa v. Royal Dutch Petroleum
Company and other cases                                                        210
2.4.5. Mass torts and class actions                                            213
2.5. Conclusion                                                                217
3. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ATROCITIES IN OTHER DOMESTIC
LEGAL SYSTEMS                                                                  218
3.1. South Africa and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission                  218
3.2. United Kingdom                                                            220
3.3. The Federal Republic of Germany                                           221


CHAPTER 3
HUMAN RIGHTS LITIGATION AS A DETERRENT TO THE PERPETRATOR
OF FUTURE HUMAN RIGHTS ATROCITIES-THE BALANCE SHEET                            225
1. JUS COGENS VIOLATIONS AS PART OF DOMESTIC TORTS LAW                         225
2. THE ADVANTAGE OF CIVIL REMEDIES IN THE QUEST
FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS                                             226
3. THE BENEFITS OF HUMAN RIGHTS LITIGATION                          226


CONCLUSION PART C                                                    228
________________________________________________________________________


                                PART D
DRAFT STATUTE ON A CONVENTION ON INDIVIDUAL CIVIL LIABILITY
                   FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ATROCITIES


INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW                                            229


CHAPTER 1
THE DRAFT – ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COURT                               230


CHAPTER 2
THE DRAFT – SUBSTANTIAL RULES                                        240


CHAPTER 3
THE DRAFT – PROCEDURAL RULES                                        250


CHAPTER 4
THE DRAFT – REMEDIES AND THE ENFORCEMENT OF VERDICTS                259
________________________________________________________________________


BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                         264

								
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