Advertising by gyvwpsjkko

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									  English                                                               Teacher Guide

  Advertising                                                                               Teacher Guide



     Series overview
In this series of lessons we teach the techniques that advertisers use to attract attention, keep interest, create
desire for products, and get people to take action. Each of these techniques is discussed in detail and then
examples of real advertisements are discussed to demonstrate how the techniques work in the real world.
As advertisements are a rich source of interesting language use and vibrant visual elements, they are an ideal
text for study in the English classroom. Beyond the classroom, we hope that knowing how advertisements work
will help learners to become more informed consumers and, possibly, effective marketers or entrepreneurs.

     Curriculum links
The lessons in this series link to the following Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards of the National
   Curriculum Statement:
Lessons one and two support:
Learning Outcome 2: Reading and Viewing
• explain the meaning of a wide range of written, visual, audio and audio-visual texts
• explore and explain key features of texts and how they contribute to meaning
Lessons three to eight support:
Learning Outcome 4: Language
• develop critical language awareness
• explore how language positions the learner by implicit and explicit messages, values and attitudes

 E Educational approach
In this series of lessons we alternate between lessons that teach learners about different advertising techniques
and lessons that demonstrate how a range of techniques work in a single advert. This combination of
approaches equips learners with the theory of advertising and demonstrates a practical approach to analysing
adverts.
In our lessons we describe each step of the advertising process and discuss the most common techniques that
are used, for example, to attract attention. Obviously, there will be some techniques that are not discussed, and
you should encourage your learners to think of other strategies that advertisers can use, and to cite current
examples that demonstrate the technique. This will help learners to develop confidence in stating their own
views and supporting these with examples. It will also help to demonstrate the dynamic nature of advertising
which involves continually coming up with new marketing strategies.
It is worthwhile to show learners our analysis lessons because we use the terminology and theory that have
been learnt to model how adverts can be analysed. They also demonstrate the need to analyse an advert
critically rather than only describe it. In addition, they indicate the level of detail that a well-constructed analysis
should have.
Stress to your learners that it is unlikely that they will ever be given the same adverts to analyse in a test that
we analyse in this series. However, the analyses that we provide model a process for learners to follow because
they demonstrate how to use the terminology and support findings with evidence.
Learners will enjoy this section if current adverts are used, especially if they advertise products that are
designed to appeal to teenagers. After viewing these lessons, encourage learners to analyse contemporary
adverts or to find examples in newspaper and magazine adverts of the different techniques that were taught. To
be able to do this, ask learners to bring old magazines to class. In these lessons, we have used only print based
advertisements. If you have access to a television set and video recorder, you could extend the lessons by
showing how the same features occur in televised advertisements.
Studying adverts does not need to be confined to a few lessons on advertising. You could use advertisements
to teach other aspects of the English syllabus, such as diction and figures of speech. Learners may find adverts
less threatening than literature when they are learning about different language devices. You could also use an
advert as a text for a comprehension exercise. Many of the skills learners are taught to give meaning to a text
can be applied just as effectively to an advert as to a longer passage. You could also use this as an opportunity
to revise and test some of the advertising terminology that is taught in this series, such as logo and slogan.




 112
English                                                 Teacher Guide

Advertising                                                                 Teacher Guide



  Series at a glance

                          Lesson Outcomes
Lesson title              By the end of this lesson learners should be able to:

Lesson 1
                          •   recognise the main aims of an advert
Adverts that attract
                          •   identify techniques used in an advert to attract a reader’s attention
attention

Lesson 2
                              identify and comment on techniques used in an advert to attract a
More about adverts that   •
                              reader’s attention
attract attention

Lesson 3
Adverts that keep your    •   identify techniques used in adverts to keep a reader’s interest
interest

Lesson 4
                              identify and comment on techniques used in adverts to keep a
Adverts that keep your    •
                              reader’s interest
interest

Lesson 5
                              identify techniques that advertisers use to create desire for their
Adverts that create       •
                              products
desire

Lesson 6
                              identify techniques that advertisers use to create desire for their
More about adverts that   •
                              products
create desire

Lesson 7
                              identify techniques that are used in adverts to persuade a reader or
Adverts that inspire      •
                              viewer to take action
action

Lesson 8
                              identify techniques that are used in adverts to persuade a reader or
More about adverts that   •
                              viewer to take action
inspire action




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  English                                                           Teacher Guide

  Advertising                                                                           Teacher Guide


 G Teaching guidelines
Lesson 1: Adverts that attract attention
In this lesson learners are introduced to the AIDA steps of advertising. We focus on the first aim of adverts,
that is, to attract attention. The three remaining steps of advertising are discussed in more detail in subsequent
lessons.
You may want to record an infomercial to show to your class after they have viewed this video lesson. These
adverts often contain very obvious examples of persuasive techniques that learners should be able to identify.
Analysing an infomercial would enable learners to identify how the AIDA steps have been used in a different
medium, and would present an opportunity to practice analysing an advert prior to completing the task.
Task
This task requires learners to analyse a newspaper or magazine advert in terms of how it incorporates the AIDA
steps. Learners are asked to present their analysis in the form of a poster. This task could be done as a group
activity as working with peers will help learners to develop confidence in analysing adverts.
Lesson 2: More about adverts that attract attention
In this lesson, we look at techniques that advertisers use to get you to notice their advertisements. As an
example, we focus on the advertisement for DStv.
If learners want to do well in this section of English, it is important that they understand what is being asked of
them. Many learners mistakenly describe elements of an advert, when, in fact, they are being asked to comment
on why a particular component has been selected and to describe the effect that it creates. For example, if they
were given the DStv advert in an exam, it is unlikely that they would be asked to describe a picture; instead they
may be asked what the picture symbolises or how the picture relates to the copy of the advert. If learners can
provide explanations similar to those used in the lesson, they will be able to successfully analyse any advert that
they are given.
Task
This task requires learners to find an advert that includes a logo, a slogan and a catch phrase, and to state how
each of these components helps to draw attention to the advert. To make a colourful wall display, you may want
to put up three sheets of cardboard or paper labelled “logo”, “slogan” and “catch phrase”. Learners could then
cut out the relevant components from their adverts and stick them on to the correct sheet.
Lesson 3: Adverts that keep your interest
In this lesson we look at techniques that advertisers use to keep readers sufficiently interested to read or view
the whole advert. In addition to the examples that are used in the lesson, you may want to source additional
examples of contemporary adverts that demonstrate the techniques that are discussed. Learners could also be
encouraged to think of strategies for keeping interest that are not listed in the lesson and to think of examples
that use these strategies.
Task
This task requires learners to design a cool drink advert that incorporates a range of strategies for maintaining
the audience’s attention. Instead of having learners produce a print advert, you could divide them into groups
and get them to make a radio advert. This would still use the techniques needed to keep interest, but would
encourage learners to think about how these techniques could be used in a different medium.
Lesson 4: Adverts that keep your interest
In this lesson, we discuss examples of techniques that advertisers use to get you to read the whole
advertisement by using an advert for Sunday Times as an example. Prior to showing this lesson to your
learners, you may want to give them copies of the same advert to analyse themselves. Learners can then
compare their observations and findings with those made by the teacher-presenter.
Even though this lesson models a comprehensive analysis, stress to learners that there will never be only one
correct way to analyse an advert. Different people have different views, and a range of views will be treated as
being valid provided they are substantiated with examples or evidence from the advert.
Task
To complete this task learners need to identify and comment on the way in which an advert uses each of the
AIDA steps. If your learners have watched all the lessons in the series thus far, you should expect a more
sophisticated and detailed analysis than was done in the task for the first lesson.




 114
  English                                                           Teacher Guide

  Advertising                                                                          Teacher Guide


Lesson 5: Adverts that create desire
In this lesson we focus on techniques that advertisers use to encourage you to want or desire their products. To
extend the lesson, find examples of adverts for luxury products (such as holidays, designer clothes and fancy
cars) and get learners to compare these to adverts for non-luxury items (such as grocery items).
Task
This task requires learners to find examples of newspaper or magazine advertisements that demonstrate each
of the techniques for creating desire that were taught in the lesson. You could make this a group activity and
provide a small reward for the first group to find a good example of each technique.
Lesson 6: Adverts that create desire
In this lesson you will learn techniques that advertisers use to encourage you to want or desire their products.
As an example, we focus on an advert used to promote Liberty Life.
A good way to analyse an advert is to divide it up and to consider the pictures or design elements first and
then the words that have been used. This is the approach that we use in this advert, and you could encourage
learners to use a similar approach when they are analysing other adverts.
Task
This task requires learners to complete a detailed analysis of an advert, focusing on how the words, pictures,
logo and slogan attempt to persuade the reader to buy the product. In addition to providing an opportunity to
analyse an advert, this task reinforces the terminology with which learners should now be familiar.
Lesson 7: Adverts that inspire action
In this lesson learners will learn about the ultimate goal of advertising – persuading consumers to purchase
products or use services.
If you showed your learners an infomercial after lesson one, it would be a good idea to show this infomercial
again now. Infomercials often include very obvious strategies for getting viewers to respond.
Task
To complete this task, learners are asked to design their own advertisement using a range of techniques to
persuade a reader to take action. Getting learners to create their own adverts allows for creativity and reinforces
the concepts that have been covered in this series of lessons.
Instead of asking your learners to design a print advert, they could dramatise an infomercial for the rest of the
class.
Lesson 8: More about adverts that inspire action
In this lesson we focus on an advert for Standard Bank as an example that encourages learners to take action.
Again, you could provide learners with copies of this advert to analyse prior to showing them the lesson. They
could then compare their analysis to the analysis given in the lesson.
Task
This task asks learners to answer three questions about an advert of their choice. The questions that are asked
are similar to those posed and answered in the lesson. Learners should try to model their answers on those
given in the lesson as these are well supported with evidence and use the terminology appropriately.




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