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					Oakville'sGairloch Gardens                          that have establishedpolicies and programs
                                                   to bring the water's edge into public own-
open spaceand vistas, even in places where         ership. Their programs are commendable
the city touches the waterfront. Implicit in       and should be explored by othermunicipali-
this desirefor an open waterfrontis the desire     ties. However, it should be rememberedthat
to createand protectviews to the water from                                 not
                                                   the goal is public access, necessarily  pub-
adjacent streets or activity areas.                lic ownership -for example, in situations
    In a few cases,waterfront lands that are       where easementsor accessagreements for
 actually public have, in effect, been priva-      private or institutional lands can provide
tized by design features that obscure access       appropriate        at
                                                                access muchlower costs.What-
 or make the public feel unwelcome. For            ever the methods, redevelopment activities
example,many people are not aware that the         along the waterfront should provide all pos-
land at the foot of Bay Street, which has the      sible opportunities for people to gain public
look and feel of a private spacefor residents      accessalong the water's edge.
only, is actually public land and free for their
use.The designof public lands on the water
nearlargewban redevelopment      projects,such     Accessible
as the Etobicoke Motel Strip, must be care-
fully reviewed to ensurethat they are visible      ,   All waterfront activity nodes and com-
and welcoming.                                         munities should be accessibleby public
    Being able to walk along the water's               transitas well as by road,with increasing
edge is one measureof how openthe water-               emphasis on transit.
front feels. The City of Toronto and the           ,   The waterfront should be easily acces-
Town of Oakville are among municipalities              sible by foot or bicycle, with major



66
     sailboardingon Kelso Lake,KelsoConservation
Summer                                         Area,Milton



                                                             67
        improvementswherenecessary over-  to               ,   explore suchinnovative facilities as
                                      by
        come the baITierspresented road and                    waterborne passengertransportation.
        rail corridors.
        The waterfront should be safe, and                Green space along the Greater Toronto
        accessibleto the disabled as well as all      Waterfront takes its form within an essen-
        other sectors of society.                     tially urban context; as Bill McLean of the
        Transportation planning in the water-         Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conserva-
        front area should:                            tion Authority pointedout to the Commission,
        ,..., take into accountthe impactof auto-     the conceptof greenspaceitself is essentially
              motive traffic on the environment;      an urban one.
        ,..., establish an appropriate balance            Within this context, and from a broader
              among rapid transit, surface transit,   environmental perspective, developing
              road transportation, and passenger      attractionsfor large numbersof people with-
            rail;                                     out providing effective public transit would
        ,..., relate waterfront, environmental,       be short-sighted at best. Public transit to
              and land-use objectives to trans-       waterfront sites not only relieves the pollu-
              portation capacity priorities;          tion and congestionassociatedwith vehicle
        ,..., strengthen commuter, freight, and       traffic, it also makes the waterfront more
              inter-city rail and air services, as    accessible to people of all incomes and
            appropriate;                              reduces the amount of open spaceused for
                                                      parking lots.
                                                          One of the key elements of accessibility
                                                      to the waterfront is the way in which smaller
                                                      parcels of waterfront green space are inte-
                                                      grated into the community. Areas within
                                                      reach of foot and bicycle traffic reduce the
                                                      need for car travel and parking. Some com-
   I'm truly sorry man's dominion                      munities, including Toronto, Oshawa, and
   has broken nature'ssocial union                     Ajax, have made considerable progress in
   an' justifiesthat ill opinion,                     linking waterfront parks to the community,
   which makes thee startle                           using valley trails, formal walkways, and
   at me, thy poor, earth-born                        related greenspaces;others should consider
   companion,                                          such links.
   an' fellow mortal!                                     Integration is sometimes more difficult.
                                                      For example,Toronto's Parkdalecommunity
   Bums,R. 1969."To a Mouse,on TurningHer Up          is effectively cut off from the waterfront by
   in Her Nest,with a Plough,November1785",In
   Burns' poemsand songs, Kingsley.London:
                           J.                         expresswayand train corridors. One poten-
   Oxford UniversityPress.                            tial solution is construction of a Parkdale




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   68
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          Deck, which would extend the urban area                    TheMartin GoodmanTrail, CherryBeach
          across these barriers towards the water. In
          much of Scarborough,accessto the water's                   lenged. In recent years, some Harbourfront
          edge is restricted by the steepbluffs there.               programs have made real attempts to reach
          Ongoing erosion control work by MTRCA,                     out to these groups, but much more could
          coupled with development of stairways in                   be done.
          some locations, should gradually improve                       Accessibility to the waterfront is reduced
           access.                                                    for women by concerns about their physical
              Concerns about the accessibility of the                safety. For example,the desolate,confusing
           waterfront are particularly crucial for chil-             pedestrianapproaches    createdby the railway
           dren, the elderly, and the physically chal-               underpassesand the Gardiner/Lake Shore



                                                                                                                       69
~
;;~I!
':,.4",
                to
YorkStreetaccess the Waterfront

Corridor are obstacles in the Central          enhancedwhen facilities are well used, well
Waterfront.                                    lit, and clearly visible. Attractive designs,a
    Any future study on improved facilities    rich palette of textures and colours, inviting
should incorporate the need to ensure that     fragrancesand soundscan do a greatdeal to
the waterfront is physically and psycholog-    make the waterfront attractive to everyone.
ically accessible to all groups, not just to        Many sectionsof the waterfront have the
some. Fear for personal safety must not be     regional roads and railways necessary to
allowed to become a barrier to full use and    move people and goods between commu-
enjoyment of the waterfront. Safety is         nities. In some cases,the routes are linked



70
to waterfront industry or activity centres,but   Natural shoreline in Darlington Provincial
most transportation facilities simply pass       Park, Newcastle
through the waterfront area, with little rela-
tion to land uses there.                         swath of railway lines and the Lake Shore/
                                 of
    In the past,the development thesefacil-      Gardiner Corridor.
ities has beenbased almost solely on trans-         The ecosystem approach to waterfront
portation needs, with little consideration of    transportationissuesmeansrecognizing the
their effects on the waterfront, the quality     way various aspects affect each other -
of the environment or surroundingland uses.      traffic congestion,the balanceof transporta-
The results in the Central Waterfront have       tion types, the need to renew the existing
beendetrimentaland long-lasting,with access      system, the quality of the waterfront envi-
to the lake severely constrained by a broad                       to
                                                 ronment,access the waterfront,and major



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land-use decisions in the sun-ounding area.         cipal trails connect at the boundaries or that
Therefore, decisions on the future of Toronto's     all municipalities   embrace the concept of a
transportation system cannot be made on the         continuous trail.
basis of projected vehicle counts and road             A waterfront trail does not always have
capacities alone -they       must be based on       to be located right along the water's edge,
broader considerations.                             although      that should usually be the first
    At the same time, firm decisions on the         choice. A trail could occasionally leave the
future of key transportation facilities -most       shore where it was necessary to bypass
notably the Lake Shore/Gardiner Corridor -          obstacles or where it was possible to incor-
are vital to a host of other planning issues.       porate such features of interest as historic
All along the Gardiner Expressway, from             neighbourhoods.      In places, the trail might
Exhibition    Place in the west through Har-        follow     quiet residential streets. However,
bourfront and the Railway Lands in the core         every effort should be made to separate the
to Ataratiri and the proposed St. Lawrence          waterfront     trail from busy arterial roads.
Park development in the east, there are major          The pedestrian and cycling components
redevelopment       proposals   that would    be    of the trail should be separate. Where that
affected, even reshaped, by a decision on the       is not possible,     special efforts should be
Gardiner. In this context, procrastination could    made to create safe and complementary
mean higher costs and fewer opportunities           shared trails.
in future to create a green and healthy city.          To be successful, a Waterfront Trail must
   There have been suggestions          that the    have considerable public support and involve-
Greater Toronto Area could take advantage           ment. A Waterfront Trail membership asso-
of its waterfront to provide waterborne pas-        ciation     could become a driving       force in
senger services along the Lake Ontario shore.       advocating and planning the trail, and could
While the feasibility of this concept is uncer-     play an important role in its development,
tain, it is an additional form of public transit,   maintenance,      and promotion.      Unlike   the
the development of which should be encour-          existing long-distance trails in rural parts of
aged where appropriate.                             Ontario, however, a Waterfront          Trail in a
                                                    mostly urban landscape would probably not
                                                    be feasible unless there were direct provin-
Connected                                           cial and municipal involvement.
                                                       As noted previously, the health and qual-
     The waterfront should be linked by             ity of the waterfront are closely linked to its
     continuous pedestrianand bicycle trails        adjacent watersheds. Yet in some areas, the
     from Burlington to Newcastle.                  intrusions of the city have pinched off the
     Major green corridors should connect           natural connections     between the lakefront
     the waterfront, valley systems,and the         and the hinterland, which most often occur
     Oak Ridges Moraine.                            through river valleys. In order to maintain
     Waterfront planning should emphasize           ecological     and recreational     connections,
     connections to the waterfront's natural        special attention should be paid to major
     and cultural heritage.                         corridors     up the valleys      of Grindstone
                                                    Creek, Bronte Creek, Sixteen Mile Creek, the
   The concept of a continuous Waterfront           Credit, the Humber, the Don, the Rouge,
Trnil has ~    put fOlWard aspart of MlRCA's        Duffm Creek, Lynde Creek, Oshawa Creek,
Greenspace     Plan, and is incorporated       in   Bowmanville/Soper         Creek, and Wilmot
several municipal     waterfront plans. How-        Creek. As well, local initiatives to create or
ever, there is currently no mechanism for co-       maintain     natural corridors     in other areas
ordination, to ensure, for example, that muni-      should be fully supported.




72
    In most cases, these valleys serve as          rivers.Man's greedwill notbe satis-
connectors between the waterfront and the          fied until the Duffin runsas blackas
natural habitats associated with the Oak           the Don.
Ridges Moraine. As well, the City of
                                                    If that future is to be avoided, strategies
                           to
Burlington's presentation the Commission
                                                must be conceived to protect the entire
pointed out that its staff will be developing
                                                cross-section of the valley from develop-
a "green linkages policy" that will "consider
                                                ment, and to establish a top-of-bank buffer
opportunities to link natural features such
                                                at key parts of the headwaters.Bill McLean
as the Escarpment to the waterfront".
                                                of the MTRCA outlined its efforts to inter-
    Ecological and recreational links across
                                                pret the "conservation of land" sectionof its
                              in
the GTA mustbe considered two categories:




Gakville wateifrontpromenade                    regulationsmore broadly,to include the eco-
                                                logical significance of valleylands. This is
maintenance and restoration. While some
                                                in contrastto the presentpractice of consid-
streamsand valleylands are still of excellent
                                                ering only erosionproblems which, in many
quality, the pressures for development are
                                                       can
                                                cases, be "engineered"to allow develop-
unrelenting. After praising the cultural and
                                                ment to proceed on valley slopes, thereby
natural values of the Duffin Creek corridor,
                                                interrupting the integrity of the green cor-
Jim Wiseman of the Pickering Ajax Citizens
                                                ridor. Broadening MTRCA regulations to
Together (PACT) painted a bleak picture of
                                                reflect current ecological values would be
its possible future:
                                                an extremely useful step.
   The herons will be the first to go, then          Restoration of connecting corridors
   the trees, then the farmlands, then the       will require considerable time and public




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