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A HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN FORCES POSTAL SERVICES

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A HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN FORCES POSTAL SERVICES Powered By Docstoc
					           A HISTORY OF
       THE CANADIAN FORCES
         POSTAL SERVICES




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                                PREFACE

      This History of the Canadian Forces Postal Service is
incomplete. The purpose was to get all available information up to
our 75th Anniversary ,1986, together under one cover. Hopefully
this will be used as a guide as more data is obtained. It's hoped
that this book will be amended and expanded upon as this
information is acquired. What's lacking is complete lists of names
of all those posties who served on UN tours, including Korea. As
time passes these names get lost, it would be nice to have a
complete list in existence, especially here at the Museum.

      John Goyette started this project during 1986. Some of his
notes were used, along with original sources here at CFPU and the
three volumes of Postal History written by Mr W.J. Bailey and E.R.
Toop.

      All comments and observations expressed in this narrative
are those of the author, and in no way indicate official policy of
either the Canadian Forces or the Postal Service.

      I hope readers will find this thin volume interesting. I
enjoyed compiling the information and writing it, I hope you enjoy
reading it.


                                                     L. Dawson
                                                         WO
                                                      23 Mar 92




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                   TABLE OF CONTENTS


       CHAPTER I..............HISTORIC BACKGROUND

       CHAPTER II.............THE BOER WAR   1899-1901

       CHAPTER III............THE FOUNDING OF THE CANADIAN
                               POSTAL CORPS

       CHAPTER IV.............THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1914-1918

       CHAPTER V..............SIBERIA 1918-1919

       CHAPTER VI.............THE YEARS BETWEEN, 1919-1939

       CHAPTER VII............WORLD WAR II 1939-1945
       CHAPTER VIII...........THE KOREAN CONFLICT 1950-1953

       CHAPTER IX.............THE POST WAR ERA 1946-1986

       CHAPTER X..............POSTAL UN OPERATIONS
       CHAPTER XI.............POSTAL OPERATIONS OTHER THAN UN




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                   A HISTORY OF THE    CANADIAN POSTAL CORPS


MOTTO:     "QUO OFFICIUM COMPELLIT"
           (Where Duty Calls)
MARCH:     FIRST POST


I.       HISTORIC BACKGROUND

      Official despatches of mail have been sent between forces in the
field and authorities at home for almost as long as armies have
campaigned. Personal mail for the common soldier, however, received
little consideration until the late 18th century. When France ceded
Canada to Great Britain under the Treaty of Paris in 1763, there was no
military postal service. Letters to and from the troops were carried by
couriers and travellers, or by civilian postal carriers. All of these
methods were very expensive for the poorly paid soldier.

      In 1795 England passed an act to allow British soldiers a postage
rate of 1 penny on letters to and from the United Kingdom or any Colony
serviced by a British packet boat. The letters were to pertain to
private or family affairs only, and not to exceed   ounce. Officers
were excluded from this special rate.NOTE 1

      During the war of 1812, the Governor General received a petition
from officers stationed at Stanley Creek which stated: "as the nearest
post office was at York [Toronto], 50 miles away, these men find that
they could not write home to England having neither agents or
acquaintance at Montreal or Quebec who would pay the postage to Halifax
and no post office in this part of the country to receive letters; and
if letters are sent to Montreal and the inland postage not paid they
remain there and are never forwarded, and consequently your friends will
not know whether they are dead or alive. Your Excellency must be
sensible to the anxiety of parents when their children are away from
them and particularly in these critical times. "1

      Whether or not this had any affect is not known, but sometime
later in the war Daniel Sutherland, a postmaster at Montreal, was
appointed Military Postmaster for the Forces in Canada, with the pay of
a subaltern. There was a military post office at Fort Chambly,


in operation from       August 25, 1812 until December 28, 1815.

      "By the time the first adhesive stamps came into use in
Canada in 1851, the United Provinces had a Post Office Act and a
Militia Act. The Post Office Act included authority for
continuation of the soldiers rate on letters sent to and from
British troops. In 1864, a 2 cent rose Queen Victoria stamp was
issued for the use on soldiers letters entitled to transmission at
the privileged rate.
      On July 1st, 1867, the new Dominion of Canada assumed
responsibility for the militia, military and naval service and the
defence of what are now the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New
Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The Department of Militia and Defence
in Ottawa could call upon the Royal Navy stationed in Halifax, and




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on British Army units which still made up the garrisons in the
major towns of the new nation."2

      Following Confederation, in 1869, the first Dominion Militia
Act was promulgated. New units of a permanent Canadian Militia
were formed. These units and their successors used the normal
civil post except during training at summer camps and while
serving on active service.

      The two successive movements of resistance by the Métis to
the coming of large scale settlement of the west are generally
referred to as the Northwest Rebellions. The first of these, The
Red River Rebellion, occurred in 1869. The Canadian Government
mounted military forces against the rebels in both rebellions.

      In the first, a military post office was created on May 25,
1870, with Mr. Stanner Green seconded to the army to look after
the mail. This mail was carried by lake steamer to Prince Arthur,
where Green sorted and despatched it to the army by whatever means
he could acquire at the time. The only reference to these postal
services was made in an official paper presented to Parliament in
1871,"..as there were no established means of communication along
the route, arrangements were made with the Hudson's Bay Company to
place Indians with light canoes at different points, and by them
the mails were regularly forwarded during August and September."3

      In 1885, the Government mobilized the North West Field Force
for the campaign against Louis Riél, in the Second Northwest
Rebellion. A line of mounted couriers with relays of ponies and
wagon teams carried mail for both the force and some civilians as
well. A report from the Commanding Officer of the line of
communication (Major General J. Wimburn Laurie) in 1885 states
that


he established a Military Post Office at Swift Current, where letters
for all portions of the field force were sorted "..and mails made up and
forwarded by every opportunity, and a line of carriers, with relays of
ponies was established.... and I was glad, as a small return for the
courtesy the militia received from Post Office authorities, to carry the
civil mail to Battleford with our military mail."4

      On April 6,1885, Major General Fred Middleton departed from Fort
Qu'Appelle with all available troops, and headed towards Clarkes'
Crossing and Batoche. After several skirmishes, Louis Riel surrendered
on May 15, followed by Chiefs Poundmaker on May 25th, and Big Bear on
July 2; thus ending the campaign. Altogether, over 5000 troops were in
the field under Middleton's command.
        By 1886 Canada was divided into several military districts. The
first military camp postmark appeared this year, when the Brigade Camp
held at Military District No 4 outside Brockville, Ontario, first used a
special cancel on July 19, for military mail.




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II.    THE BOER WAR 1899-1901
       Note 2




      War against South Africa, known as the Boer War, was declared by
Great Britain on October 10, 1899, and the Canadian Government
immediately offered a contingent of troops to assist the British Army.
The total number of Canadians who served in the various units in South
Africa was around 8,400 ; however , only about 3,100 of these were ever
actually members of the Canadian Contingent. The other 5,300 served
with the British Army.

      Canada sent troops in three contingents. The first, a total of
1,019 sailed from Quebec City on October 30, 1899, aboard the ship
"SCARDINIAN". The troops arrived at Cape Town on November 29, and
disembarked on the 30th.

      The Canadian Government had offered to send along a postal service
unit with the first contingent, but the offer was declined by the
British. For the second contingent, however, a Canadian Army Postal
Unit under the command of Lieutenant W.R. Ecclestone was organized and
sent with the troops. Other members of the unit were Sgt Rowen
Johnston, Pte Thomas B. Bedell, Pte Joseph Lallier and Pte Kenneth A.
Murray, all ex-Railway mail clerks. This unit departed on January 21,
1900, from Halifax, N.S., on board the "LAURENTIAN".

      On January 30 - 31, 1900, letters were exchanged at the Cape
Verde Islands, thus becoming the first mail despatched by a Canadian
Postal Unit. The ship arrived in Cape Town on February 17, 1900.

      On arrival at Cape Town, the Canadian Postal Unit was posted for
duty with the British Army Base Post Office, under Major G.W. Treble. A
few days later Lieut (now Capt) Ecclestone arranged that he and two
privates would remain at the Base Post Office in Cape Town to handle the
mail for the Canadians. Sgt Johnston and Pte Murray were sent up
country for duty with 19 Brigade based at Bloemfontein in the Orange
Free State. During the trip Sgt Johnston contracted enteric fever and
was returned to Cape Town, to be later repatriated to Canada. Pte Murray
remained at Bloemfontein, assisting the British Post Office Staff in the
handling of mail for the British forces in the area.




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      On February 26, 1900, the Canadian Mounted Rifles, consisting of
A, B, C and D squadrons, had arrived near Bloemfontein. Shortly after
this, Pte Murray received instructions from Capt Ecclestone to report
for duty with them as the postal orderly, with the rank of Sergeant.
He was supplied with a horse and accompanied the Rifles, which formed
part of the Colonial Mounted Infantry Brigade under General Hutton. In
April, Pte Bedell was sent to assist in the formation of a Field Post
Office (FPO) for the new Mounted Infantry Division, which contained
Canadian units.

      The newly promoted Sgt Murray went into Johannesburg to despatch
mail to the Postal Unit in Cape Town. On his return he found the Rifles
had left. Sgt Murray was able to discover that they had received orders
to proceed north on the left flank, to intercept the Boer force at a
point north of Pretoria.
      Early on the morning of June 4, Sgt Murray went alone into
Pretoria to find that the only troops in the town were from the Guards
Brigade. He wired the Canadian unit in Cape Town to forward mail for
the Canadian Infantry and the Rifles to Pretoria. This was the first
information received at Cape Town that British troops had entered
Pretoria.

      There were many difficulties and inconveniences to overcome in
providing mail service to the troops, which is not surprising
considering the enormously long line of communications. The Canadian
Force was provided with a better postal service than the rest of the
army owing to the fact that the government had ordered the Post Office
Department to undertake the receipt and despatch of mail for the
overseas forces. An efficient staff under Capt Ecclestone had therefore
been sent with the troops, and all mail for the force was collected,
sorted and sent to the unit indicated in specially labelled bags, thus
rendering it easy for quick distribution. As well, members of the
postal unit were located in strategic places such as Pretoria,
Bloemfontein, Middleburg and Kimberly. This ensured as early and
accurate delivery as possible.
      Lt Col W.D. Otter, Commanding Officer Canadian Contingent, wrote
the following on May 13, 1900, to the Honourable William Mulock, Ottawa:
 "I am quite sure you will be glad to learn of the working of the
Canadian Postal Service, established by you from one who has had the
best of chances for noting its usefulness, or otherwise. I am very glad
to be able to say everything that is good
of it. The service since it passed into the hands of Captain
Ecclestone, has been most efficient and satisfactory. Two of its
members have been doing duty at this station for some time, and the
result has been most prompt and regular deliveries at all times that the
exigencies of war would permit, while Captain Ecclestone himself has
been most attentive in meeting our demands and giving information.
Nothing could be more satisfactory, and I can safely
say that if any delays have taken place in the deliveries of either
letters, papers or parcels, the fault has not been with the officials of
the Canada Post Office Service. I consider it my duty to make this
statement voluntarily, in view of the good work done and of the great
satisfaction, under what is no doubt difficult and trying
circumstances."5

      The Postal Unit remained at the Cape Town Base Post Office until
January 20, 1901, when all the Canadian troops had departed for Canada
with the exception of the Strathcona Horse, which was being served by
the British Army Postal Service.




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III.   THE FOUNDING OF THE CANADIAN POSTAL CORPS


      On return to Canada, the postal unit was disbanded, only to be
recalled in October 1901 to provide postal facilities in Toronto
for a military unit mustered there from October 8 - 12 for a Royal Visit
by the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York. It was during this visit,
on October 11, that the first official souvenir military postal marking
was used.

      On June 16, 1909, Field Post office No 1 was established at Camp
Niagara, to serve the militia during their annual summer training. The
Honourable Rodolphe Lemieux, QC, MP, Postmaster-General, accompanied by
Mr George Ross, opened the office on June 16. An official souvenir
postcard was issued, showing that G. Ross was Chief Post Office
Superintendent and Capt W.R. Ecclestone was the Officer-in-Charge of the
Field Post Office.

      Shortly after more FPOs were opened; Camp Petawawa in June 1910
and Aldershot Camp, NS, in August 1910. These are the only offices with
known cancellations.
      Despite these historic beginnings, the Canadian Military Postal
Service dates it's seniority from General Order 70 of May 3, 1911. This
authorized the formation within the Canadian Militia of a Canadian
Postal Corps, consisting of a Base Post Office in Toronto commanded by
Major George Ross; with detachments at London, Toronto, Kingston,
Montreal, Quebec, Halifax, Winnipeg and Calgary. These detachments
operated the Field Post Offices at militia summer camps until the start
of the First World War.
      The first officers; Major G. Ross, Capt L.J. Gadoury, Lt K.A.
Murray and Lt J.T.F. Verville enlisted in the Corps in July 1911. They
were civilian post office officials, thereby ensuring that qualified
postal personnel would handle the mails. Lt Murray had seen action in
South Africa as a postal sergeant. In January, 1912, W.R. Ecclestone
re-enlisted as a Lieutenant. Other officers who entered the Corps in
1912 were Lieutenants E.A. Verrett, W.J. Gow, F.D. Sharman, W.T. Toyo,
E.A. Sullivan and H.W. Mix. The first


Director of Postal Services was a regular Service Corps officer, Colonel
J.L. Biggar.Note 3

       The story of the Canadian Postal Corps badge started in December,
1911. A proposed badge was submitted by Major G. Ross to Colonel J.L.
Biggar. The design was rejected and a new proposal submitted in January
1912, again by Major Ross. The resubmitted design was approved and
forwarded on April 18, 1912 to William Scully for production. General
Order 175 was then published, authorizing this design. There is no
evidence available that the badge was ever worn by CPC personnel during
World War I.
IV.    FIRST WORLD WAR 1914-1918
       Note 4




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       A.    Canada Mobilizes


      With the outbreak of war in 1914, mobilization began for the
Canadian Overseas Expeditionary Force. " This provided the first
opportunity for the CPC to serve with the Canadian Army on active
wartime service. There were immediate demands for additional Field Post
Offices to service the new camps and training centres in Canada, and to
staff the overseas postal unit. As a result, there were periods when
the CPC had difficulty finding sufficient personnel to fill all
requests."6

      The Post Office Department assisted from time to time by setting
up temporary post offices in camp locations. Occasionally the number of
troops under training at a location was so great that both a FPO and a
civilian post office operated at the same time.

      One of the earliest incidents of two offices operating at the same
time is believed to have been in Camp Militaire Saint-Jean, which opened
on November 16, 1914, and was the first military post office to show
it's designation in French.

      Canada started the war with 3,000 regular force members, one semi-
permanent camp at Petawawa, and militia armouries in major centres.
With the rapid expansion of the forces after 1914 it's surprising that a
new military postal system in Canada didn't emerge to respond to the
demand for postal facilities. The system devised in 1911 was deemed
adequate to the task, and it appears to have worked.
      Camp Valcartier was the training/staging base for the first
contingent. On August 10, 1914, the first detachment of the Permanent
Force arrived, which included a detachment of the CPC.

      Many of the old militia camps were converted during the war into
semi-permanent, or permanent barracks that still exists. A large new
central training area was established at Camp Borden to house both the
Army and the Royal Flying Corps. Other major camp-sites were:
       Ontario - Camp Niagara, Barriefield Camp (Kingston),
       Rockcliffe Camp (Ottawa), Carling Heights (London)
       Quebec - Camp Valcartier, Three Rivers Camp
       Prairies - Camp Sewell, Castor, Brandon and Calgary
       B.C. - Camp Vernon, Willow Park Camp (Victoria)
       Maritimes - Camp Aldershot (Kentville) Digby Camp (NS), Camp
       Sussex(NB)

      The other militia training Brigade summer camps were also put to
use, but only in the summer. These include St Jean, Levis and Farnham
in Quebec and Goderich in Ontario. Even the Exhibition grounds in
Toronto were once used to house troops and a FPO was in operation from
1914.

      In addition to the Army, many new airfield camps were opened for
the Royal Flying Corps; Camp Mohawk and Rathbun (Deseronto, Ont),
Leaside and Armour Heights (Toronto), Beamsville and Long Beach.




       B.    Overseas Operations




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      The 30,621 troops of the First Division, Canadian Expeditionary
Force, departed from Quebec Wednesday night, September 30, 1914, and by
early Thursday morning were far downriver. Thousands of
letters,newspapers and parcels had been taken onboard at Quebec, and, by
working long shifts, the postal detachment under Lieut K.A. Murray had
everything sorted, bagged and ready for despatch by Friday, October 1st.
When the Franconia arrived at the rendezvous at Gaspe Bay, a fast launch
was borrowed from one of the cruisers, and the first despatch of mail by
the CPC was affected.

      The Division disembarked in England on Wednesday, October 14,
1914, and began training on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire awaiting their
transfer to France. While here it was reported that the Post Offices
were in full working order and mail was actually delivered on the second
day after arrival. The postal services of all


Imperial Forces in the Expeditionary Force were controlled by the
Director of Army Postal Services, L.Col W. Price.Note 5

      During the 123 days the Division were on Salisbury Plain from mid
October to Mid February, 1915, it rained 89 days. From October 21, when
the weather first broke and 1/4 inch of rain fell, conditions grew
progressively worse in all camps. It grew cold, with occasional frost at
night, and there had been no facilities designated for the drying of
clothing. The troops were issued four blankets per man, and on November
11 a wind storm blew down most of the tents.Rain, fog, frost and mud
made life miserable.

      By February, 1915, the first units were on their way to the
battlefields of France and Flanders to join the British Expeditionary
Force (B.E.F.). Lieut K.A. Murray, Officer Commanding the CPC unit,
went with the division and took with him thirteen postal clerks who had
enlisted in Canada. This officer assumed the appointment of Assistant
Director of Postal Services Canadian Division (ADPSCD).Note 6
      After the departure of the First Division, some 6,000 Canadian
troops were left on Salisbury Plain, concentrated mainly at Tidworth.
The only postal personnel with this force were Lieut B.M.G. Caldwell and
two privates who were transferred from the 11th Bn. It soon became
evident that this staff was totally insufficient. Within a few weeks
the service of three additional privates was secured. These men were
drawn from various infantry units and would later transfer to the CPC.

      The First Division was accompanied to France by one NCO and two
men with each Brigade and the Divisional Train, which was established in
the villages around which the division concentrated. The divisional
postal services were organized on the model of the services of the
Imperial Divisions already in the field. Under this system, each Army
and FPO looked after the formation to which it was attached, along with
any other troops temporary under the command of that formation. A
Divisional Railhead Post Office was established and a postal detail was
attached to the supply column to convey the mails between railhead and
the FPOs or refilling points. The Railhead Post Office was first
established at Caestre, and the Imperial Army Postal Service loaned men
acquainted with the special conditions under which the work was to be
performed until such time as Canadian Postal personnel had gained
sufficient experience to carry on alone.

      In March, 1915, the Division moved into the line near Armentieres
and the Railhead Post Office was moved successively to La Gorgue and
Merville. Soon the Division was moved north to Ypres, and passed
through the fiery ordeal of the second battle at that location, where



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poison gas was first used. During this trying time the Railhead PO was
established first at Codewaersvelde, and later moved forward to
Vlamertinghe. Brigade and Division HQ Post Offices were well in advance
of these points, some being in Ypres and beyond at Wieltje. The
efficiency of the newly organized postal service was tested to the
utmost at this time, and emerged successfully from the ordeal.

      Early in March, 1915, the Canadian units and Base details located
in Salisbury Plain moved to Shorncliffe, in Kent. The Postal Detail,
consisting of five other ranks, made the journey on March 10th, and on
March 15th the first Canadian Base Post Office was put into operation.
On May 14th the CPC in England was recognized as an independent unit.
The provisional establishment authorized at that time was one officer,
one sergeant and six acting sergeants.

      It became evident that a Canadian section at the British Army PO
in London was necessary to handle the large volume of Canadian mails
arriving daily. On March 24, Lieut J.F. Verville and sixteen ORs arrived
from Canada, and formed the nucleus of the London Base, CPC.
Reinforcements for the Corps in France came from this unit.

      By this time the number of troops in England had increased with
the arrival of an additional 20,000 troops from Canada. Faced with the
problem of properly disposing of casualties mail, it was evident that
the augmented staff authorized by the provisional establishment would
not be adequate to meet the growing demands made upon it. Lieut Murray
detailed a three man section to deal with the problem. This section was
attached to the Base Army Post Office No 2, in close proximity to the
Canadian Section 3rd Echelon, which dealt with casualty records.

      When the Second Division arrived in England, at Shorncliffe, it
was accompanied by its own postal personnel consisting of one S/Sgt and
eighteen men. These personnel had been retained in London for duty and
it was only after much correspondence and delay that they were returned
for duty with their division. During the month of June, three
additional men were taken on strength and three FPOs were put into
operation. These FPOs were located at West Sandling, Digbate and
Otterpool.

      From the time of the arrival of the Second Division at Shorncliffe
until July 9th when the Division postal personnel reported from London,
a satisfactory mail service was provided to approximately 45,000 troops
by a postal unit of one officer and ten other ranks. On August 24,
1915, Lieut Caldwell was promoted Captain, backdated to May 29, 1915.

      Lieut Murray reorganized the postal service upon the arrival of
the Second Division. He cross-posted half of the First Division postal
people to the Second, in order to provide experienced personnel. With
the formation of the new Canadian Corps Headquarters, Murray was
promoted to Captain and appointed Assistant Director of Postal Services
at Corps. As well, a FPO consisting of one NCO and 2 men was
established to look after Corps HQ mail. Captain J.F. Verville was OC
Canadian Section, Army PO in London.

      A Base Post Office was opened at Bramshott during October, to
serve the troops located there. Subsequently the Third Division came
under this location. Early in November the FPO in Digbate was moved to
St Martins Plains.

      In December, 1915, two Brigades of the Canadian Mounted Rifles and
the 42nd and 49th Battalions, along with the Royal Canadian Rifles,
arrived from Canada, followed by the 9th Infantry Brigade in January
1916. The Third Canadian Division was formed in the field. By January




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31 the CPC in Flanders consisted of Capt Murray and 59 men manning two
Army POs, fifteen FPOs, two Supply Column Details and a Record Section.

      The CPC in England consisted of one officer, Capt Caldwell, and 31
other ranks. Base Post Offices were in operation at Bramshott and
Shorncliffe, and FPOs at West Sandling, Otterpool and St Martins Plains.
 Over 50,000 troops including casualties were being served by the CPC.
On January 18th, 1916, S/Sgt A.A. Peebles was promoted to Lieutenant.

      When the Third Division moved into France, it was located in
reserve in the Fletre area. The necessary postal details were also
provided in the field, 25 new posties having been attached for training
to the various existing FPOs in anticipation of such an event, and an
opportunity was thus afforded for promoting deserving men in the First
and Second Divisions to fill vacancies for NCOs in charge of the various
FPOs.

      During March 1916 the Canadian Corps exchanged areas with V Corps,
and moved into the apex of the Ypres Salient with Corps HQ at Abeele.
Normally during this period two Divisions were in the


line and the third was resting in the area around Steenvoorde. By the
summer the Fourth Division was being formed at Withey, and arrived on
the continent in late August.

      About this time the Postal Directorate in France decided to
appoint a senior NCO to take charge of the postal arrangements for each
Division. The frequent movements of Division from one area to another
had rendered it difficult for the Postal Officer at each Corps HQ to
effectively control and administer the Divisions when they were on the
move. Suitable NCOs were accordingly promoted to the rank of Staff
Sergeant, their appointments subsequently confirmed.
      In September, 1916, the Canadian Corps moved south to take its
part in the Somme battles. The First, Second and Third Divisions moved
with the Corps while the Fourth Division was left behind at Ypres with
the IV Corps, until it too moved south in October.

      While in the Somme area the Corps HQ was established at Contay and
the Divisions were assembled in the neighbourhood of Albert, with as
many as twelve FPOs being located in and around that town at one time.
Here the CPC suffered its first casualties when Sgt W.H. Hilton was
severely wounded by shell fire, dying a few hours later; and Cpl L.J.
Power was evacuated suffering from shell shock.
      The postal organization at this time was such that, close to the
front each Brigade had a FPO attached to Brigade HQ. This FPO looked
after all incoming and outgoing mails for the HQ and all units in the
Brigade. No matter how adverse the conditions, post office business was
transacted, by the Corporal and the two privates who manned the FPO. In
the early days of the war, the FPO was located with transport somewhere
in the close proximity of the HQ. When the fighting became more
elastic, the system became impractical as it was not always possible to
either locate the HQ or get to it with transport. Also, transport was
so heavily engaged during operations with the movement of ammunition and
stores it could not be spared for mail pick-up. It was decided to link
mail and rations, so the FPOs were attached to the Supply Section of
their respective Divisional Train Company. The Unit Mail Orderlies came
back to the FPO by bicycle, bringing their outgoing ordinary and
registered mail for despatch and collected incoming letters. Parcels
were signed for, bagged and loaded on the rations wagons which went
directly to the Unit . One of the orderlies went through the mail at
the FPO and redirected correspondence for casualties or detached



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personnel, thus reducing the volume of mail carried by the ration
wagons. Letters, daily newspapers and copies of the Canadian


Daily Record got to the troops whenever a meal came forward.

       The Divisional Train also had a postal unit consisting of a Sgt
and two privates. It was located with the Supply Section of the Train,
but its task was to serve the Divisional Artillery and other minor
units.

      On Sept 29, 1916, Capt Caldwell was promoted Major. On Oct 28 this
officer was appointed A/OC Postal Services CEF, effective Oct 1st. On
Nov 25 Sgt J.S. Hay and A/Sgt T.H. Murray were commissioned Lieutenants,
effective Nov 14, 1916.


╔═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║           ┌┐ Units               ┌┐ Units      ┌┐    Units         ║
║           └┤     ┌┐              ├┘            └┤        ┌┐        ║
║     ┌┐      │    ├┘        ┌┐    │ ┌┐     ┌┐    │    ┌┐ ├┘         ║
║     └┤      │    │         └┤    │ ├┘     └┤    │    ├┘ │          ║
║      │    ▄│     │          │ ▄│ │         │    │    │   │         ║
║      │      │    │          │    │ │       │    │ ┌─┘    │▄ Bde HQ ║
║      │      │    │          │    │ │       │    │ │      │         ║
║      └──┬─┴───┤             └┬──┴──┤       │ ┌──┴─┴┐     │         ║
║          │ SP │               │ SP │       └─┤ SP ├────┘           ║
║          └──┬──┘              └──┬──┘        └──┬──┘Supply         ║
║               │                  │              │    Points        ║
║               │                  │              │                  ║
║               └──┬─────┬────────┼─────────────┘                    ║
║        DIV HQ │FPO │             │                                 ║
║                  └─────┘         │                                 ║
║        Arty      *──────────┬─┐ │                                  ║
║        Units     *──────────┤ ├─┤DIV TRAIN FPO                     ║
║                  *──────────┴─┘ │                                  ║
║                                  │                                 ║
║                                  │                                 ║
║                             ┌───┴───┐RAILHEAD APO                  ║
║▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄└───────┘▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄║
╚═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝

            CANADIAN FIELD POST OFFICE SYSTEM IN FRANCE




      On November 15, 1916, a large FPO was put into operation at Camp
Witley, England. Also in November another FPO was opened at Didgate.
It was decided to put the HQ Postal Services in Brighton, and two
officers (Maj Caldwell and Lt Peebles) along with six ORs went from
Shorncliffe to Brighton. On the 25th Lieut J.S. Hay was placed in
charge of the CPC in the Bramshott and Witley areas, and Lieut T.H.
Murray took charge at Shorncliffe and the outlying camps.

       An Army Post Office was opened at the Canadian Base Depot, Le
Havre, with a Sgt and two men; and the Canadian Postal Record Branch,
3rd Echelon, was enlarged to one officer (Lieut J.B. Walker) and eleven
other ranks. By December 31, 1916, the CPC in France, consisted of two




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officers and 98 other ranks, and was operating five APOs, twenty-one
FPOs, four Supply Column Details and the 3rd Echelon.

      On January 14th, 1917, the HQ at Brighton was moved to 14 Great
Smith Street, London, and FPOs were opened at Seaford and Crowborought.
Until February, 1917, Capt Murray was responsible for the work of all
CPC details; the Cavalry Brigade FPO, the Base Depot APO and the Postal
Branch at 3rd Echelon. On February 10 Capt Murray was promoted to the
rank of Major, and was appointed ADPS, Canadian Forces, B.E.F., with his
HQ at the British Postal Directorate. CSM F.A. Warner was promoted to
the rank of Lieutenant to oversee Maj Murray's task at Corps HQ.

       At the beginning of April the Corps was reinforced by the 5th
British Division, and the battle of Vimy commenced. As the troops
advanced it was no longer possible to obtain billets for FPOs, and the
work had to be performed in odd shelters, disused gun pits or tents.
Throughout this engagement a daily delivery of mail was made to all
units.
      The summer of 1917 saw many engagements of a minor character, and
an extension of the Corps area northward. The battle of Hill 70 was
fought in this extended area, and the villages of Le Brebis and Bully
Grenay where FPOs were established were constantly under heavy
shellfire. It was here, on March 21, 1917, that Sgt A.W. Bitton was
killed while with the 6th Cdn Inf Brigade at Mont St. Eloi; and Sgt D.V.
Thompson died of wounds received while serving with the 3rd Cdn Div HQ.

      An important event occurred on June 5, 1917. On that day the CPC
under Major Caldwell was amalgamated with the CPC London Base, to form
one unit under the Major, the CPC (England). Headquarters, Postal
Services, O.M.F.C., moved from 14 Great Smith Street into


quarters provided by the British Army at General Post Office, Mount
Pleasant. Prior to this there had been two distinct commands in England,
each issuing its own orders and returns, and carrying out its own
functions. At this time there were 43 ORs employed at the Army Parcel
Office, Regent's Park, and 80 ORs at the Army Letter Section, Mount
Pleasant.
      In July the great increase in the number of troops rendered it
necessary to open a special Post Office, APO S.52. This office was
placed at the Corps Ration Dump, so that all units could collect their
mail when drawing rations. This arrangement afforded much needed relief
to the Divisional Offices which had been overburdened with work for some
time.

      On July 31, in England, the Crowborough area was demobilized and
the FPO closed. On September 26 the office at Hastings was also
evacuated, and the combined England detachment was placed under the
command of Major Caldwell, and consisted of the following; Headquarters
Postal Services, Regent Park Post Office (Capt Verville), Mont Pleasant
Post Office (Lieut Hay), London Base Post Office (Lieut Pebbles),
Canadian Section of the Dominion Army Letter Office, Army Parcel Office,
Base Post Offices at Shorncliffe, Witley, Bramshott and Seaford, with
FPOs at Dibgate, St Martins Plain, West Sandling and Otterpool. In
addition, the CPC also operated the mail detachments of nineteen
Regimental Depots, three Command Depots, one Discharge Depot and six
Discharging Hospitals.

      During the latter part of October the Canadian Corps moved back
to the Ypres Salient, where it took part in the battle for Paschendale.
 The forward areas had been destroyed by shellfire, and there was a
total absence of accommodation for the FPOs. Enemy aircraft were very



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active at night, so it was impossible to work with artificial light.
Heavy volumes of mail were being received during this period, and it was
difficult to dispose of it during the short hours of daylight. Returns
were also very heavy owing to the large number of casualties, and the
roads, such as they were, were so congested and suffered from heavy
rains to such an extent that transport was impossible.

      In addition to these problems, it was customary for all offices,
Corps HQ, Railheads, Divisional and Brigade FPOs to be subjected to
heavy shellfire and continuous bombing day and night. These
observations should make one realize that life in the Postal Corps was
no sinecure.

        From April 1918 until the end of July, the Canadian Corps was


in reserve with Corps HQ at Pernes in the First Army Area. It was
decided to transfer the Corps to reinforce the Fourth Army. The move
was carried out with great secrecy and special steps were taken to
ensure the maximum effect of a surprise attack. This naturally
complicated the postal arrangements, and called for the exercise of
great care as regards to traffic organization. Detailed instructions
were issued and moves actually completed with the express objective of
deceiving the enemy. Thus the Canadian Corps relieved the XVII Corps in
the line in the First Army area, and no sooner was the move completed,
than it was withdrawn and certain battalions were moved north and placed
in the line before Kemmel in order to lead the enemy to anticipate an
attack in Flanders. At the last moment the genuine orders were issued
for the Corps to move to the extreme southern point of the British Line
between Amiens and Roye, and within a week the whole of the Canadian
Corps of four divisions along with the 32nd British Division were
concentrated in the region of Boves Wood.

      The battle opened on the morning of August 8, and within five days
20 German Divisions had been defeated by 13 Canadian and British
Divisions, and the area around Amiens cleared of the enemy. It had been
realized that in the event of an advance in any depth it would be
impossible to maintain the system of mail delivery under which special
Postal Refilling Points were maintained, and that the only reliable
system would be to deliver all mails at the same time and place as
supplies. This system was the only practicable one, because of the
difficulty of maintaining touch with the different units and formations,
and in arranging for the move of the FPOs. The scheme proved very
successful, and in spite of the rapid advance involving the move forward
of Railhead and FPOs on short notices, sometimes twice a day, there was
no hitch whatever in the mail service.

      During the whole of this advance the Postal Service was run with
regularity despite the most adverse circumstances. To add to the
difficulties the enemy had systematically blown up cross roads, bridges
and long stretches of railroad lines. The land over which the Corps
advanced to Cambrai was low and marshy, with many impassable roads, and
as the weather became cold and rainy the FPOs found it somewhat
difficult to carry on without proper accommodation. None complained,
however, and the final phase of the fighting not only demonstrated the
high standard of efficiency to which experience had enabled the CPC to
achieve, but also afforded an unparalleled example of the fine and
cheerful spirit which animated all ranks of the CPC during the long
campaign.



      From the postal point of view, the march forward into Germany
presented one of the most serious problems with which the postal



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organization had to contend with because it occurred at the same time as
the heavy Christmas mail rush, and troops were advancing great distances
ahead of the available railroad facilities. The entire rail system east
of Valenciennes up to and beyond Mons had been completely destroyed, and
supply trains couldn't proceed beyond Valenciennes until lines across
the devastated belt had been reconstructed. To meet the situation all
available motor lorries were used to deliver the mail.

      This arrangement continued until the 1st of December, when the
railroad across this area was reopened, and supply trains were again
able to travel to railheads within reasonable distances of the
Divisions. The rail service was very slow and irregular for some time,
and the non arrival of mails on some days with the consequent double
arrival on other days caused considerable inconvenience to the postal
units, and had an adverse effect on the troops moral. During this time
a German civilian was detected tampering with the mails. He was shot by
the guard and subsequently died.

      During the march to the Rhine Sgt A.H. Hammill, who was in charge
of the 4th Cdn Brigade FPO, contracted pneumonia and died after being
admitted to the hospital.

      After a stay of six weeks in Germany, the Canadian Corps 1st and
2nd Divisions moved back to the Fourth Army area near Namur, Belgium.
The Corps HQ opened first at Andenne on January 26, 1919, and then on
the 1st of February moved to Jodeigne. The First Division was located
in the area around Huy, and entrained for England for demobilization
during March; the Second Division was situated in the Namur area, and
entrained for England on March 30, 1919. The Fourth Division, located
in the La Hulpe region, left on April 15, followed later by the Corps
HQ.

      Mention should be made of one of the most important offices in the
CPC service, the Canadian Postal Record Office. Its main function was
to redirect mail for casualties. With casualties, a unit was not aware
of a man's whereabouts and this class of correspondence was sent to the
Postal Record Branch Office, established at 3rd Echelon, where it was
redirected as soon as medical reports were received as to where the
casualty was hospitalized. Insufficiently addressed mails were also
handled and redirected from Base Records. In no instance was mail
returned to Canada unless the addressee was killed or posted as missing.
 With such heavy casualties it was a large office with one officer and


twenty-six ORs. As an example of the quantity of mail handled in 1918,
there were 1,932,192 letters, 365,547 parcels and 36,427 registered
items.
       As the postal service of World War I came to an end in 1919, the
Canadian Corps Commander, Lieut. Gen. Arthur Currie, wrote, "Before the
Canadian Corps breaks up, I would like to place on record my
appreciation of the most efficient work done by the Canadian Postal
Services during all the weary months of the war. "7




        C.   Administration



      During the war, the postal services for the Imperial Forces in the
B.E.F. was controlled by a Director of Army Postal Services, who was
responsible to the Quartermaster General. The Director, Brig. Gen W.



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Price, C.B., C.M.G. was assisted by two Deputy Directors, Col T. Kelly,
C.M.G. and Col. D.J. Lidbury, D.S.O. In Canada, the CPC Director of
Postal Services Overseas was Col. G.W. Ross, D.S.O.

      At the commencement of hostilities the Home Depot was accommodated
in two rooms in the General Post Office in London; but just as the
little army of 1914 was the advance guard for the Imperial Army of
millions by 1918, so this small depot was the forerunner of a large
organization which grew up in the middle of Regent Park and assumed such
proportions as to become the largest wooden building in the world.

      The cross channel mail service between England and France was
normally performed by the regular mail boats, but the volume became so
large that a portion of the parcel mail had to be carried on cargo boats
or transports. In 1917 the daily number of bags carried for the armies
in France was approximately 19,000 and was landed in France within 24
hours. This service was performed with remarkable efficiency and
regularity considering the difficulties which had to be surmounted and
the dangers to which the mail packets were exposed from enemy
submarines. It reflects great credit on the Navy that no mail was lost
in this sea passage during the war.


      It was perhaps unfortunate that the necessity for secrecy
prevented an explanation for the cause of delay being given at the time.
It was somewhat embarrassing to the FPOs when regimental transport had
made a journey over shell-swept roads to collect their mail, only to
find none had arrived because the mail boat was refused permission to
depart Folkestone Harbour until the RN Dover Patrol had swept the
Channel for possible submarines.
      On arrival at Calais, Boulagne or Le Harve the mail was unloaded
as expeditiously as possible. The bags were divided into groups for
despatch to the field, or different parts of the line of communication.

       There was always a time factor involved between the arrival of the
mail boat and the departure of the train. It wasn't uncommon to have
3000 bags of mail unloaded from the ship, sorted into groups, and
reloaded unto railcars going to twenty different railheads within two
hours.

      The work at these ports was often seriously hampered by air
attack. Due to necessity, much work was done under minimum artificial
light long into the night. The Post Office at Calais was totally
destroyed one night by a bombing attack, and several times narrowly
escaped being destroyed again. On another night the sleeping quarters
of the staff at Boulogne were burned by incendiary bombs.

      The bulk of the mail for the front units was despatched from the
port to various Railheads by railcar attached to the Supply Train. A
separate train was sent daily from the Base loaded with supplies for
each Division, and the mail was sent with these supplies. The cars used
for this were marshalled along the quay. As the bags came off the ship
they were checked by postal clerk and loaded unto the vehicle. When
loaded, each car was labelled in code as to its destination, and the
cars were taken as one train to the Regulating Station, where each was
attached to the appropriate supply train. The time taken in transit
from Base to Railhead varied from one to three days depending on
distance and traffic on the lines. The Railhead Post Offices developed
into important
concentration centres for all classes of inward and outbound mail, and
it is in this respect that they served their most useful purpose.




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      When the size of the Canadian Forces in France had increased, it
was decided to appoint an Assistant Director to supervise the postal
services, to regulate the supply and movements of all CPC personnel in
France, to correspond with the Officer Administering CPC in Canada, and
to co-ordinate postal operations generally. Lieut-Col K.A. Murray,
O.B.E., was the A.D.P.S. throughout the war. The organization under ADPS
comprised of Canadian Corps HQ, four Divisional HQ Post Offices, twelve
Infantry Brigade Post Offices, one Cavalry Brigade, four Divisional
Railhead Post Offices, five Divisional Train Post Offices, one Corp
Troop Post Office, S.84, S.22, and the Postal Record Office.

      The popular concept of a FPO varied considerably. In the
undestroyed towns and villages of France and Belgium they differed
little from offices in Canada, except that the fitting for sorting the
mail was crude and as such could be constructed easily with a few
nails, a hammer, and some old boxes. Even these facilities were not
available in the majority of cases, especially in the latter stages of
the war when the fighting was conducted over regions completely
devastated by the war. A feature which all FPOs had in common, whether
they were housed in an open field, a barn, a stable, a tent, a cellar,
dugout or a chateau, was a black box. This box contained the stock and
cash, seals, rule books and other necessary articles including a red and
white flag. Wherever that box was dropped the flag was raised, and a
FPO was open for business.

      At certain periods of the campaign the CPC was able to afford
valuable assistance to the French and Belgium civil post offices by
maintaining postal communications for the civil population in a battle
zone. This was particularly the case during the advance of 1918, when
large numbers of civilians were liberated in the towns which until then
had been in enemy hands, and who were naturally anxious to communicate
with their friends at the earliest possible moment. Pending a
resumption of the civil postal services, arrangements were made to
accept correspondence from civilians at our FPOs in the recaptured towns
in the Canadian areas. Such mail was carried by the CPC to specified
centres where it was transported to the civil post office.
      In November 1918, a conference was held between the Army Postal
Service and the Royal Air Force, where an experimental service was
introduced to fly express mail from the coast to the forward areas and
to the troops on the Rhine. This service attained a high degree of
efficiency, and mail for the Canadian Corps was carried regularly while
the troops were stationed on the Rhine.

      In the early part of the campaign the practice was adopted of
redirecting mail for reinforcements direct from England to the unit to
which they were allocated. This system worked well if the men arrived
within a few days, but if they were detained at the Base


Depot for a considerable time they received no mail during that period,
while the battalion in the field was burdened with an accumulation of
mail for men with no available record. This mail would be held for a
reasonable time, and, if the men did not turn up, it was sent to the
record office for the addresses to be traced. A considerable period
sometimes elapsed before delivery could be completed.

      It was accordingly decided to establish a   Canadian Post Office in
the Base Depot at Harfleur, near Le Havre, with   a staff of one Sgt and
three men. This was done on July 26, 1916. It     was designated S.22, and
cleared its mail through the Imperial Base Post   Office at Le Havre.

      At certain periods of the war a real difficulty existed owing to
the scarcity of small change. At a time when the amount of small coins



18/70
and notes in circulation was limited. The food restrictions in England
and elsewhere resulted in a considerable reduction in the parcel traffic
to the troops, and a corresponding increase in the number of postal
orders sent them so they could purchase comforts at the canteens. In
July, 1917, the Army Postal Service in France required a weekly supply
of 200,000 francs in small denominations with which to carry on
business, however, the sources of supply could not produce more than
15,000 francs. After a time increased supplies were forthcoming, and an
arrangement was made whereby FPOs could requisition money through the
Base Post Office at Boulogne.

      The Christmas season is never a holiday for the Postal Service. It
is questionable whether any peace time increase of work can be compared
to the abnormal flow of postal traffic which had to be dealt with by the
CPC as a result of the desire of friends to send messages and tokens of
good will to the men at the front. In the same vein, the men themselves
were not in any sense lacking in their desire to send similar messages
to their friends. The Canadian troops not only received and despatched
mail to and from Canada, but those who were not British born had many
friends in the Mother country which they had made on leave or while
training. Consequently the volume of mail traffic was very much larger
in the case of the Canadian Divisions then for the Imperial Army.

      To deal with the vast increase of work, special arrangements were
made to duplicate transport services. Staff and stores or dumps were
established to store mail when and where it was found that the volume
was so great that a particular unit could not take delivery of all its
mail at one time.


      Prior to repatriation of each unit, the O.C. Home Depot, London,
was instructed to divert mail to the Regimental Depot to which the unit
was despatched in England. A large number of the small units, however,
were disbanded or merged at the Canadian General Base Depot, Etaples,
France. The procedure for dealing with their mail was as follows; until
such time as the unit was completely disbanded or merged, that is until
all its personnel had transferred to the General Base Depot, the work of
redirecting mail for men who had left the unit was done by the unit mail
orderly. When the entire unit had left for the Base Depot, arrangements
were made for all mail for that unit to be diverted to the Canadian
Redirection Centre at Etaples for redirection. To enable this to be
done it was also arranged for each unit to supply the Army Post Office
with a complete nominal roll showing the disposition of all men of that
unit.

      The authorized establishment of Post Offices and staff at the end
of the campaign comprised 31 Canadian Post Offices staffed by four
officers, 44 NCOs and 108 men. It is impossible to number the unit
postal orderlies in the theatre during the war years.

      Lieut. Col K.A. Murray had this to say: "from my second in
command down to the junior private, I have always received most loyal
assistance, zealous and unsparing effort, and cheerful service, and it
is largely due to this fact that I attribute the undoubted success and
credit which had accrued to the Canadian Postal Corps in France.

      From a staff among whom it is difficult to choose one more than
another for individual commendation, I feel bound to call attention to
the following: Major F.A. Warner, D.A.D.P.S. Canadian Corps ... by his
undoubted efficiency he successfully performed a most difficult task,
often under most trying conditions. Major Walker had charge of the
Canadian Postal Record Section at Rouen and it was due to the efficient
manner in which he conducted that Branch of the Postal Service that the
work of redirection and disposing of mail for casualties was performed



19/70
so satisfactorily and came to be regarded as one of the most successful
features of our work. Lieutenant W.J. Gow controlled the Postal
Services at the Base Depot in a most satisfactory manner. He was one of
the members of the original postal draft and as a Corporal in charge of
a Brigade Field Post Office did excellent work. He gained his ultimate
rank by sheer hard work and the display of sound judgement. Several
N.C.O.s stand out as men whose work has been an example to all. By
their efficiency, energy, and the exercise of common sense in meeting
the many difficulties they were called upon to face, they have
contributed largely to the success of the Corps. These NCOs are:


CSM T.J. Kneebone, S/Sgt G.G. MacMillan, S/Sgt G. Christian, S/Sgt W.M.
Holmes, S/Sgt H.W. Livingstone, S/Sgt W.M. McClellan, S/Sgt W.F.
Paulton, S/Sgt R. Kent, Sgt A.H. Brunne, Sgt F.A. Goddard, Sgt J.L.
Clayton, Sgt C.J. Crane and Sgt E.R. Ingraham. "8

      The CPC in France was a success as shown by the mail statistics
for the period 1915-1919:



1.      Mail received for distribution to Canadian Troops
            1915           1916               1917           1918              1919

Letters 8,307,000       20,075,250     35,997,000       43,136,750     16,321,000
Parcels    270,905         818,370      1,518,310        1,396,000        430,500
Newspapers 473,280       1,429,700      2,563,600        2,844,740        510,000
Registers   67,344         213,435        364,780          395,400        113,600




2.      Mail posted by Canadian Troops
               1915         1916              1917          1918          1919

Letters   3,974,731      11,886,000     21,728,000       23,468,365     8,403,000
Registers   149,868         347,936        677,690          752,600       157,600
Parcels      29,575          65,975        118,300          132,280        67,000


3.      Financial transactions
          Money Orders sold       Money Orders cashed       Postage stamp sales

1915         854,855   francs        88,135    francs       114,921   francs
1916       2,582,160   francs       266,220    francs       347,130   francs
1917       4,630,080   francs       477,360    francs       622,440   francs
1918       5,006,325   francs       516,198    francs       664,221   francs
1919       2,317,000   francs       253,500    francs       314,000   francs




      The following Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers were awarded
military honours:



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Lieutenant Colonel K.A. Murray      ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
Major F.A. Warner                   MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL
Staff Sergeant R. Kent              MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL
Staff Sergeant H.W. Livingstone     MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL
Staff Sergeant D.V. McPherson       MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL
Staff Sergeant W.M. McClellan       MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL




V.      SIBERIA 1918-1919

      One of Canada's least known military ventures was that in which
over 4,000 troops were sent to Siberia in late 1918. This began when
the Allied Forces intervened in Russia following the collapse of the
Eastern Front during the Russian Revolution. Canadian troops were
committed to the Siberian area of operations with the main task of the
Canadian Force being the support of the Czechoslovak forces fighting
deep inside eastern Russia.
      The Canadian Government decided in the summer of 1918 to send a
brigade group under the command of Major General J.H. Emsley as the
major part of the Commonwealth contribution to the Allied cause.

      Troopships were difficult to come by in late 1918, so it wasn't
until October 11, 1918, that General Emsley and his advance party were
able to leave Canada. Vladivostok was selected as the main Canadian
base and the seven hundred man advance party sailed from Vancouver on
the "EMPRESS OF JAPAN" and arrived in Russia on October 26, 1918.



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      As the Canadian authorities had sanctioned the formation of a
Postal Unit to accompany the troops, Number 5 Detachment, commanded by
Lieutenant J.R. Ross and consisting of three other ranks, arrived with
the advance party and became responsible for postal services to the
Canadian and British forces in the area.

      Lieut. Ross had minor problems setting up, and there was a problem
with getting the mail to and from the troops. All difficulties were
overcome, and the first letter from Canada was delivered on December 5.

      The main body of troops arrived on January 15, 1919. Lieut. Ross
had FPO No 1 set up in the Depot area in Vladivostok, and serviced not
only the Canadians, but also the British Military Mission and British
Units (25th Battalion Middlesex Regiment and 1/9 Battalion Hampshire
Regiment) along the Trans-Siberian Railway as far as Omsk.



      For external despatches Lieut Ross utilized a variety of channels
and several countries. The most effective carriers proved to be the
Japanese mail steamers that ran between Vladivostok and Japan to Canada.
      Most of the Canadian troops never moved from Vladivostok. An
administration group did go to Omsk on December 6, 1918 with the British
Battalion, and a postal clerk was attached to this group effective
February 4, 1919. While postal service was never quite satisfactory,
the CPC did get the mail through until June 5, 1919, when the last
Canadians left Russia. The FPO actually closed down operations on 27th
May, 1919.

     An example of a typical mail shipment forwarded from Vancouver is
the one of January 10, 1919, on the "S.S. MADRAS MARU":

            Letter mail     4   bags (10,625 letters)
            Registers       7   bags
            Newspapers     15   bags
            Parcel Post    65   bags
            British Mail    6   bags




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             NOMINAL ROLL OF ALL PERSONNEL ON STRENGTH
           OF CANADIAN POSTAL CORPS IN FRANCE 1915-1919


Number      Name             Rank     TOS        Home Town        Comments

51517     Allen         W.A. Cpl     5/8/16     (Charlottetown)
424520    Armstrong     G.E. Pte     20/2/17    (Brandon)
916533    Arnett        J.F. Pte     5/9/18     (Toronto)       Inj. 1/12/18
27583     Baker           A. Pte     25/1/17    (Toronto)       Trf. 19/12/18   35206 Baldock
     G.G. S/S     9/2/15 (Toronto)        S.    11/6/18 1564          Beattie     F.T.W. Pte
3/6/16 (Toronto)
35216     Belanger      J.H. Pte     15/2/15 (Montreal)     Trf. 1/3/16
1212      Bennett       T.W. Sgt     30/9/15 (Calgary)
109053    Benoit          B. Pte     24/10/15(Montreal)      S. 5/2/19
35217     Benoit          J. Pte     28/3/15 (Montreal)     S. 1/12/17
35203     Boyd          W.A. Sgt     15/2/15 (Toronto)    Trf 18/8/17
33        Brady         A.F. Sgt     24/12/16 (**      )
108117    Britton       A.W. Cpl     15/8/16 (Edmonton)    KIA 24/3/17
35256     Brooks        J.H. Cpl     30/9/15 (Winnipeg)
404627    Blain           H. Pte     14/8/16 (Toronto)     S. 20/9/16
285015    Brunne        A.H. Pte     15/1/17 (Toronto)     Trf. 5/2/19
4689      Bryan           C. Pte     15/12/17 (Winnipeg)
542058    Buchanan      W.J. Pte     25/1/17 (Toronto)
91738     Cameron       M.B. Pte     21/3/16 (Toronto)
171571    Cameron       S.H. Pte     15/8/18 (Toronto)
35215     Chagnon       F.H. Pte     15/2/15 (Montreal)
4850      Chalmers        F. Pte     15/12/17 (**      )
80140     Christian       G. S/S     20/3/16 (Calgary)
785134    Church        H.L. Pte     25/8/17 (Toronto)    Trf. 21/1/19
799785    Church        T.R. Cpl     14/8/17 (Toronto)
434417    Clark       H.R.A. Cpl      1/2/18 (Calgary)
35255     Clayton       J.L. Pte     28/9/15 (Moose Jaw)
1244      Cook          C.J. Pte     15/8/16 (Vancouver)
844230    Cooney        W.C. Pte      4/9/18 (London)
400092    Cooper        E.C. Pte      9/10/16 (Calgary)   Trf. 14/4/17
21350     Coulter         A. Cpl     26/9/16 (Winnipeg)
242824    Coyle         E.J. Pte      3/8/17 (Edmonton)
830425    Craddock        E. Cpl     17/8/18 (Winnipeg
430750    Craigmyle       W. Pte     15/8/16 (Victoria)
114151    Crane         C.J. Cpl     15/8/16 (Moose Jaw)
511747    Cunliffe      B.J. Pte      2/5/16 (Ottawa)
9973      Curlew          F. Pte     20/9/15 (Toronto)    Trf. 16/9/16
830430    Curtis        H.H. Pte     21/8/18 (Winnipeg)
26153     D'Aragon        H. Pte     24/12/16 (Montreal) Trf*. 8/10/17
86007     Daun            A. Pte     15/12/17 (Winnipeg)     S. 1/2/19

35233    Dowsley      W.H.   Pte     16/6/15     (**        )    S. 4/2/17
16539    Dunwoody       D.   Cpl     24/12/16    (**        ) Trf. 12/1/19
35210    Edwards        L.   Sgt     15/2/15     (Ottawa )
532770   Emsley     A.L.S.   Pte      1/4/17     (B.C.      )
510449   Farrow     W.A.C.   Pte     14/8/16     (Toronto)
681818   Fitchett     J.W.   Pte      5/9/18     (Toronto)
9195     Fitzsimmons C.W.    Pte     20/9/15     (Toronto)
75101    Fletcher     J.A.   Pte     **          (**      )   Trf. 17/5/16
36092    Flood        T.A.   Pte     20/3/16     (Vancouver)
338940   Forsyth      A.R.   Pte     15/12/17    (**      ) Trf.+ 24/1/18
61238    Franck         H.   Pte     15/8/16     (Montreal)
511749   Francoeur      L.   Pte      2/5/16     (Montreal)
109051   Fraser       G.P.   Pte     26/4/15     (N.B.      ) Trf. 21/2/18
21833    Frost        J.S.   Pte     15/8/16     (Regina)
109352   Gill         T.H.   Pte     15/8/16     (Toronto)
55207    Gilmour      R.B.   Cpl     15/8/16     (Toronto)



23/70
29559     Glendinning     W.   Pte 15/8/16      (Vancouver)
35253     Goddard       F.A.   Cpl 30/9/15      (Victoria)
35218     Goffin        A.F.   Pte 16/6/15      (B.C.      )  S. 23/11/16
35211     Gow           W.J.   Lieut 15/2/15    (Winnipeg)
85718     Graham        A.C.   Cpl 20/2/17      (**        )
5540467   Graham        W.H.   Pte 14/8/16      (Toronto)
153718    Grant         E.W.   Pte 15/8/16      (Regina)
35234     Green         J.S.   Pte 28/3/15      (N.S.    )
35247     Greer         M.E.   Pte 15/9/15      (**      )      S. 1/6/16
18814     Grieve          A.   Pte   5/1/16     (Edmonton)     S. 14/1/19
35235     Gueguen       J.L.   Cpl 28/3/15      (Ottawa)
9384      Hall          J.H.   Pte 24/12/16     (**      )   Trf. 31/1/18
475093    Hammill       A.H.   Cpl 15/8/16      (Winnipeg) DIED 26/11/18
19829     Hand          F.J.   Pte 10/7/17      (Calgary)
441642    Harrington    R.W.   Pte 30/9/17      (Saskstoon)     S. 2/9/18
16315     Hart            E.   Pte 27/4/16      (B.C.    )     S. 3/11/16
35326     Heaton        H.R.   Pte 15/12/17     (New Westminster)
35231     Heans         B.G.   Sgt 16/6/15      (N.B.    )     S. 17/9/17
55440     Henderson     W.J.   Pte 3/6/16       (Toronto)
35234     Hetherington J.H.    Pte 29/10/15     (Edmonton)
67988     Hilton        W.H.   Sgt 20/3/16      (Halifax)    DIED 27/9/16
35250     Hindle        W.L.   Pte 14/9/15      (Saskstoon)
4115      Hine            C.   Pte 15/8/16      (Toronto) Trf. 28/10/16
454949    Hiscock       E.C.   Pte   5/9/18     (Kingston)
300471    Holland     W.E.J.   Pte 21/3/16      (Belleville)
12644     Holmes        W.M.   S/S   8/1/16     (Moose Jaw)
160351    Holt            C.   Pte 20/7/18      (**      )   Trf. 12/1/19
260110    Holt          R.N.   Pte 21/12/18     (**      )    Trf. 7/2/19
308691    Horne         A.J.   Pte 25/8/17      (**      )    S. 29/12/18
523627    Houston       E.H.   Pte   7/10/17    (Winnipeg)     S. 25/1/19


4090443   Hudon          A.    Pte   21/12/18   (**      )
35248     Hughes       H.J.    Pte    5/9/18    (Toronto)
469815    Hyland       A.L.    Pte   14/8/16    (Halifax)       S. 5/1/17
35219     Ingraham     E.R.    Sgt   14/9/15    (St.John)
871992    Ironside     E.O.    Pte   17/8/18    (Winnipeg)
71814     Jackson        S.    Pte   20/3/16    (Winnipeg)
51241     Jacobs       H.R.    Pte   20/10/18   (Price Albert)
91773     Jacobs       S.H.    Pte   21/3/16    (Toronto)
29064     Jarvis       H.F.    Pte   20/3/16    (Victoria) Trf++ 3/2/17
20636     Johnson    A.D.E.    Cpl   20/3/16    (Winnipeg) Trf. 18/12/18
466610    Jones        J.E.    Pte   10/7/17    (Strathcona)
510186    Jones        T.R.    Pte   20/7/16    (Toronto)
73796     Jones          W.    Cpl   25/7/16    (Regina)
71274     Kent           R.    S/S   24/12/16   (Winnipeg)
35212     Kerr           K.    Sgt   28/3/15    (St.John) Trf 29/12/16
541932    King           G.    Pte   15/7/18    (Calgary)      Trf 3/2/19
35246     Kneebone     T.J.    CSM   14/9/15    (Winnipeg)
35220     Lacroix      A.H.    Cpl   15/9/15    (Montreal)
14711     Langston       E.    Cpl    7/12/15   (Winnipeg)    Trf 23/3/17
427560    Laramy     W.H.K.    Pte   25/8/17    (Regina)
268677    Leamon       R.A.    Pte   21/12/18   (**    )
107031    LeClaire     A.A.    Pte   20/3/16    (Moose Jaw)
35237     Legate       T.J.    S/S   28/3/15    (Toronto)    Trf 16/10/16
420073    Leslie         H.    Cpl   15/8/16    (Winnipeg)
35213     Livingstone H.W.     S/S   15/2/15    (Toronto)
71563     Lowry          H.    Pte   15/8/16    (Winnipeg)
425577    Mackie         D.    Pte   10/7/17    (Brandon)      S. 26/4/18
75206     MacDonald    J.M.    Cpl   15/8/16    (Vancouver)    S. 20/1/19
33398     MacKenzie    J.L.    Sgt   22/9/15    (Winnipeg)
35221     Malcolm      G.A.    Sgt   14/9/15    (Calgary)
260100    Marshall       J.    Pte   21/12/18   (**      )
109069    Martel       C.F.    S/S   24/10/15   (Halifax)



24/70
269210    Martin         E.   Pte   21/12/18   (**     )
55019     Martin         D.   Pte   15/8/16    (Toronto)
35222     Martin       P.G.   Pte   15/12/17   (Winnipeg)
301880    Matthews       R.   Pte   15/8/16    (Lethbridge)
35223     Matthews       T.   Pte   14/9/15    (Toronto) Inj. 25/10/18
35244     Maurault       H.   S/S   29/10/15   (Montreal)
277579    May          L.R.   Pte   21/12/18   (**     )
331659    Mayne          W.   Pte    4/7/17    (Vancouver)
77646     McCallum     R.B.   Pte   20/3/16    (Victoria) Trf. 10/10/16
35225     McClellan    W.M.   S/S   15/9/15    (Vancouver)
135808    McDevitt     S.C.   Cpl   15/8/16    (Toronto)
736637    McInnes      P.S.   Cpl    4/2/17    (Calgary)
26016     McIver         A.   Cpl   24/12/16   (**     )
35238     McKenzie     A.R.   Pte   15/12/17   (Edmonton)


864920    McLaughlin   R.G.   Pte 14/2/18      (Winnipeg)    S. 12/7/18
35240     McLellan     W.E.   Sgt 28/3/15      (N.B.    )
84144     McMillan     D.B.   Pte 20/9/15      (Toronto)
35226     McMillan     G.G.   S/S 15/9/15      (Winnipeg)
528722    McPhail      S.F.   Pte 20/2/17      (London)     S. 12/12/17
35208     McPherson    D.V.   S/S 15/2/15      (London)      S. 30/6/17
55478     Meadows      N.H.   Pte 15/8/16      (Toronto)
71027     Metcalf      C.H.   Pte 17/7/17      (Winnipeg) S. 26/11/16
187833    Miller     C.H.G.   Pte   2/5/18     (Winnipeg)
301814    Mills        H.F.   Pte 21/8/18      (Moose Jaw) S. 8/12/18
534242    Moodie         D.   Pte 24/3/18      (**      )
246370    Mooney       J.D.   Pte 17/8/18      (**      )
2498163   Moore        C.G.   Pte   5/9/18     (**      )   Trf 21/9/19
229258    Moore        W.C.   Pte   5/9/18     (Winnipeg)
192746    Morris         R.   Pte 15/8/16      (Toronto)
155047    Morris         T.   Pte 10/7/17      (Winnipeg)    S. 29/1/18
          Murray       K.A.   LCOL 15/2/15     (London)
35209     Murray       T.H.   Lieut 15/2/15    (London)    Trf. 22/11/15
73927     Musgrove     M.W.   Cpl 29/9/15      (Ottawa)
80093     Neale        E.W.   Cpl 15/8/16      (Calgary)
435740    Nelson       H.L.   Pte 25/1/17      (Calgary)       S. 9/6/17
9702      Newdick      S.G.   Cpl 22/8/15      (Toronto)    Trf. 20/2/18
5166      Oxley        R.E.   Pte 15/8/18      (Calgary)
435787    Parker       H.S.   Pte 30/7/18      (Calgary)
911984    Paulding     J.E.   Pte   5/9/18     (**      )   Trf. 26/1/19
436237    Paulton      W.F.   S/S 25/1/17      (Edmonton)
427462    Payne          D.   Pte   5/9/18     (Regina)       S. 23/1/19
35227     Pettigrew    R.C.   Pte   8/5/18     (Hamilton)
35241     Phelan       W.W.   Cpl 28/3/15      (Hamilton) Inj 18/12/18
529634    Pickup         W.   S/S 15/9/15      (Winnipeg) Trf. 20/9/16
35230     Plaxton        G.   Pte 25/1/17      (Winnipeg)
117482    Poole        P.R.   Pte 3/11/18      (Edmonton)
35229     Power        L.J.   Cpl 27/2/18      (Halifax)     Inj| 5/4/18
160095    Rackham        F.   Pte   1/8/17     (Calgary)
301887    Redmond      V.A.   Pte 25/8/18      (Lethbridge)
249049    Riddell      W.R.   Pte 29/9/17      (Toronto)
435594    Ripley         W.   Pte 25/7/18      (Calgary)
35242     Robertson      C.   Cpl 28/3/15      (Sherbrook)
79665     Rooth        H.H.   Sgt 20/3/16      (Calgary)
441683    Rorison      J.R.   Pte   1/8/17     (Saskatoon)
35204     Ross         G.W.   Sgt 15/2/15      (**      )   Trf. 3/10/16
505757    Ross         S.G.   Pte 16/4/18      (Vancouver)
35332     Saunders     A.V.   Sgt 15/9/15      (Charlottown) S.10/8/17
186687    Scott        S.G.   Pte 25/8/17      (Winnipeg)
530155    Sharp        S.W.   Pte 15/8/16      (Calgary)      S. 22/1/19
524636    Silsby         A.   Pte 25/1/17      (Victoria)




25/70
800226   Silver        J.R.   Pte    23/10/17   (Toronto)
400382   Skelly        A.J.   Pte    25/7/18    (Moose Jaw)
826335   Slater          J.   Pte    30/9/17    (Victoria) Trf: 5/10/18
35207    Smith         C.J.   Cpl    15/2/15    (N.S.      )   S. 23/2/17
511748   Smith         G.F.   Pte    2/5/16     (N.B.      )   S. 4/10/16
73701    Smith       H.A.N.   Cpl    15/8/16    (Regina)
475209   Smith         J.T.   Pte    15/8/16    (Winnipeg)
33454    Smyth         W.F.   Cpl    1/10/15    (Winnipeg)
160350   Soady           E.   Cpl    30/9/17    (Lethbridge)
249389   Sproule       E.V.   Pte    15/7/18    (Toronto)
35243    Ste Marie       H.   Pte     5/9/18    (Montreal)
441636   Strumm        H.H.   Pte    25/1/17    (Saskatoon)
20822    Stubbs        J.P.   Cpl    24/12/16   (**      )
110527   Suitor        F.G.   Pte    15/7/18    (Sherbrooke)
192670   Swinson       D.H.   Cpl    10/7/17    (Toronto)
35214    Taggie        F.A.   Cpl    15/2/15    (London)     Trf. 18/2/18
782062   Taylor        H.C.   Pte    25/8/17    (Moose Jaw)
35205    Terry         B.J.   Pte    15/2/15    (Toronto)     S. 27/10/16
35244    Thibedeau     C.M.   Cpl    28/3/15    (N.S.    )
541138   Thompson      R.C.   Pte    15/8/18    (London)
404621   Thompson      V.D.   Sgt    15/10/16   (Toronto)    DIED 27/9/18
504863   Thomson       A.T.   Pte    25/8/17    (Vancouver)
154362   Travers         C.   Cpl     5/6/16    (B.C.    )
1434     Trenham       W.T.   Pte    18/5/18    (Winnipeg)     S. 29/1/19
28895    Turner        A.B.   Pte    15/8/16    (Vancouver)
515178   Walker        J.B.   Capt    25/9/16    (Toronto)
35202    Wallis        G.T.   Sgt    15/2/15    (Toronto)    Trf. 27/8/17
35245    Warner        F.A.   Maj    28/3/15    (Halifax)
71097    Watts         G.S.   Pte    10/4/18    (Winnipeg) Trf. 30/11/18
704066   Webb          S.R.   Pte    17/8/18    (Victoria) Trf. 14/1/19
622236   Wells         P.T.   Pte    17/7/18    (Saskatoon)
830514   Whaley        W.J.   Pte    10/7/17    (Winnipeg)
730385   White           F.   Pte    15/12/17   (Galt)
153317   Whittaker     H.V.   Pte    15/8/18    (Winnipeg)
35249    Wilkinson     E.M.   Sgt    29/10/15   (Victoria) DIED 19/4/19
107633   Wilkinson     W.J.   Pte     3/6/16    (Victoria) Trf: 29/6/18




NOTES:
**         Unknown
Trf.       Transferred to CPC Unit in England
S.         Sick, transferred to England
Inj.       Injured, transferred to England
Trf*       Transferred to 14th Bn
Trf+       Transferred to C.F.C.
Trf++      Transferred to C.G.A.
Trf        Transferred to C.F.A.
Trf;       Transferred to L.P.
Trf:       Transferred to 2nd CMR
Inj|       Injured; evacuated due to shell shock
Bold       Names in bold print went with Lieut Murray as
           first CPC Unit to France on February 15, 1915.



26/70
VI        THE YEARS BETWEEN 1919-1939



      The peacetime operations of the Canadian Postal Corps was
limited between the First and Second World Wars. The CPCs primary
mission was to serve the militia in their summer exercises. The
CPC was organized into detachments that spread from Halifax to
Vancouver, the following units being operational at this time:


                      Det No 1   London, Ont
                             2   Toronto, Ont
                             4   Montreal, P.Q.
                             6   Halifax, N.S. and St.John, N.B.
                             7   Winnipeg, Man.
                             8   Calgary, Alta.
                             9   Vancouver, B.C.


      In 1923 a further reorganization was done, coverage of the
country being put into a more realistic system, and the following
detachments were put into operation:


           Det No 1      London, Ont.         Lieut K.A. Murray,
O.B.E.
                  2      Toronto, Ont.        Lieut S.A. Curran
                  3      Kingston, Ont.       ( CO unknown)
                  4      Montreal, P.Q.       Lieut J.T.F. Verville
                  5      Quebec City, P.Q.    Lieut A.E. Pouliot
                  6      Halifax, N.S.        Lieut A.E. Sullivan
                  7      St John, N.B.        Lieut E.R. Ingraham
                  8      Toronto, Ont.        Lieut J.B. Walker
                 10      Winnipeg, Man.       Lieut L.S. Hobbay
                 11      Victoria, B.C.       Lieut J.B. Corley
                 12      Regina, Sask.        Lieut J.R. Ross
                 13      Calgary, Alta.       Lieut A.E. King




      During the 1920s and 1930s the following camps were in operation
during the summer months:
            Aldershot Camp                   Niagara Camp
            Camp Petawawa                    Sussex Camp
            Camp Borden                      Valcartier Camp
            Camp Hughes                      Vernon Camp


      Most of these summer camps operated one or two seasons. Camp
Petawawa, however, ran an exercise every summer from 1920 to 1939,
usually for a three month period.



27/70
      In April, 1935, further reorganization was done. At this time Mr
J.A. Sullivan, the Deputy Postmaster General, was appointed officer
administering the Corps with the rank of Lieut.Colonel, and the Captain
Adjutant was Mr E.J. Underwood, the Chief Superintendent of Post Office
service.




VII.    WORLD WAR TWO   1939-1945


        A.    CPC Overseas


      The summer training camps had just closed for the season when
Canada entered World War 2 in September 1939. At that time there were
few large regular camps and barracks available, troops were mobilized
and quartered in the local town and city armouries.
      At the outbreak of WW2 the CPC strength consisted of 50 personnel
of Reserve Army status. At the cessation of hostilities in Europe in




28/70
1945, there were over 100 officers and approximately 3,000 other ranks,
including 300 members of the CWAC in the Corps.

      The already established Military Post Offices or Civilian Post
Offices were used during the fall of 1939, while the CPC set up a
military postal system. This system would see members of the Post
Office Department join the ranks of the CPC, as in the First World War.
 They were to be the basis for the fast expansion that was to follow
which would see the CPC serving in Canada, Europe, Asia and even the
Aleutian Islands.

      The first Base Post Office (BPO) was created in November 1939. It
was housed on Nicholas Street, Ottawa, and was staffed by 50 members of
the CPC. This was to provide a depot for the sortation and preparation
of mail to despatch to the Canadian Armed Forces serving overseas; to
train postal reinforcements; and to provide trained postal personnel for
new formations. More BPOs were to follow as the personnel increased. A
well known figure around BPO Ottawa was Captain A. Chevrier, who was the
Adjutant from the early days until the end of the war.

      As Canada opened more and more bases in the early part of 1940,
MPOs and Navy Post Offices (NPO) were created. The CPC opened more than
30 MPOs during the first two years of the war and


quadrupled that number before the end of hostilities. This was only in
Canada. Major E.J. Underwood, O.B.E. was the Assistant Director Army
Postal Services (A.D.A.P.S.) from 1939-1942.

      The first postal unit to be trained for overseas service was known
as No 3 Postal Unit. Authority was also received to recruit personnel
for No 4 Postal Unit to accompany the Second Canadian Division. The No
3 Postal Unit was attached to the First Canadian Division, leaving
Canada on the December 18, 1939. On arrival in England the troops were
stationed in Aldershot.

      There was a natural expansion of the CPC during the early years
and special units were created, such a Port Detachment to provide secure
handling of great volumes of mail at dockside in England, and a Tobacco
Depot to forward cigarettes and tobacco to the troops through the mail.
 A vast Postal Tracing Section was established, which worked around the
clock. Tracing presented many problems arising out of wartime
conditions, and it is a tribute to the perseverance of this section that
much of this mail eventually reached its destination.

      To help in the delivery of mail and to explain to the Canadian
public how to properly address a letter, a fictitious "Private John Doe"
was created as a sample of an overseas address. Widely advertised
across Canada, it created an undesired effect when some 1,000 wives,
mothers and sweet-hearts addressed their overseas mail to "Private John
Doe", despite all the prior publicity.
      In early 1940, the A.D.A.P.S. (Maj E.J. Underwood, O.B.E.),
proceeded overseas for the purpose of establishing a headquarters for
the Canadian Army Postal Service at the Canadian Military Headquarters.
 During his absence the administration of the CPC in Canada was
controlled jointly by officials of the Post Office Department and the
senior officer of the CPC in Canada, this being Major G.W. Ross, Major
G.C. Bloomfield and Major W.R. Corley successively.

      In these early war years most overseas mail was sent by ship,
often taking three weeks to reach the U.K. Some mail travelled by
commercial aircraft, but space was very limited.




29/70
      A detachment of the CPC landed in France in June 1940 to staff and
operated a FPO, but like most units it had to destroy its equipment and
return to England when France fell. Canada had a busy year in 1940,
since besides creating Divisions to send overseas, forces were also sent
to help the British in the Caribbean. Four


special Task Forces were created:

        (1)   Bermuda: Canada supplied a garrison which was designated
              "B" Force. Mail went by Civilian Post Office.

        (2)   Bahamas: "N"Force was sent to help garrison the islands,
              mail also being sent by Civilian Post channels to Nassau.

        (3)   Jamaica: "Y" Force arrived in June 1940 and was served by
              Civilian Post Office. Their duties were to guard German
              P.O.W.s.
        (4)   Iceland: "Z" Force also arrived on the island in 1940. In
              this case British Forces Post Offices (BFPOs) were used,
              BFPO 2 and 3 by the Army and BFPO 304 to 308 by the RCAF.

      During 1940, while mail was still carried by surface transport,
the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) had a Fleet Mail Office (FMO) in Halifax
which acted as an intermediary between ships and the Civilian Post
Office system. Its main function was to receive, hold, deliver and
redirect incoming mail for the navy so that ships movements could be
kept secret. When airmail became the rule for overseas mail, the RCN
opened FPOs in much the same manner as the CPC and the RCAF.
      The year 1941 saw the first visit of the CPC Director to England;
Colonel G.W. Ross, O.B.E., V.D.; and his assistant, Major F.T. Burgess.
 Major E.J. Underwood was promoted to Lieut. Col and returned to Canada
as A.D.A.P.S.

      Canada, under an agreement with Great Britain, opened a naval base
at St. Johns, Newfoundland, from May 1941 to July 1946 under the name of
H.M.C.S. Avalon. To service the forces,three CAPOs were opened; CAPO 1
in St. John, CAPO 2 in Gander and CAPO 3 in Botwood. All stamps used
were local Newfoundland postage.

      The Tobacco Unit of the BPO was moved from Ottawa to Montreal in
October 1941, to relieve the messing and barrack problem in Ottawa. In
addition, it brought the Unit closer to the larger tobacco companies who
sent cigarettes to the troops overseas.

      In November 1941, a new service was started by which up to 1,700
pages of correspondence was micro-filmed and sent by aircraft overseas.
 This system saved time and space on board ships and aircraft.

      The parcel repair section never boasted about their luck, but one
day their daily catch included two lobsters and a cooked codfish.
Unfortunately, the lobsters had been packed in a glass jar in a
soldier's parcel despite the repeated warning from the Post Office not
to send glass through the mail. The codfish, several pounds of it, had
been enclosed in a large jam tin with only a "push on" lid in another
soldier's parcel. The final results in each parcel were much the same.
 The "sea food" literally broadcast its presence immediately on arrival
at the Base Post Office. It was necessary to take the nauseous parcels
outside the building to unpack, so overpowering was the aroma. As
usual, it was found that the glass containers had broken in the parcel,
leaving the package an odorous wreck, and the "push on" lid on the tin




30/70
of codfish had run true to form - squeezed open in the other parcel with
disastrous results.

      In addition to the MPO's there were also two Divisional Postal
Units operating in Canada in 1941. No 2 Postal Unit with 3rd Canadian
Division at Debert and No 6 Postal Unit in Ottawa.

      Total personnel in the Corps at that time consisted of thirteen
officers and 396 other ranks, including the six officers and 138 other
ranks overseas.

      In late 1941, a detachment of five men of the CPC accompanied the
Canadian troops sent to reinforce the British garrison in Hong Kong.
They were known as Force "C", and consisted of:

            C-97586     S/Sgt C.A. Clark NCO i/c
            C-97583     L/Cpl L. Brunet
            C-97584     L/Cpl W.J. Overto
            H-6053      L/Cpl F.D. Ford Martyn
            E-29839     Cpl W.G. Billson

      After a briefing at BPO Ottawa they left by train for Victoria,
BC, with first stop in Wininpeg. (Troops handed their letters and cards
out train windows to people on the station platforms requesting they
affix stamps and mail them.)

      Arriving in Vancouver on October 27, they immediately
boarded the "S.S. AWATEA", a New Zealand ship with an Australian crew.
They arrived in Hong Kong on the November 16, 1941. Orders were
received on November 19, to establish a FPO, and mail started to pour
in for despatch to Canada for the Christmas season.

      On November 26 a second FPO was established at China Command,
despatching about 50 lbs of letters each day, as well as some parcels.
Weather permitting, airmail was scheduled to depart twice a week on the
American Flying Boat.
      Japan declared war on Great Britian on December 8, 1941, and bombs
were dropped at Kaitak airport that day, destroying the Clipper Flying
Boat. This ended any thought of despatching airmail. On December 25,
1941, word came that the garrison had capitulated with no terms. The
CPC Det personnel were POW's. This would last for the next four years.
      S/Sgt Clark concealed the two brass cancellers throughout these
four years of captivity and brought them back to Canada with him. He
later sent them to the Director of Forces Postal Services to be held as
historic items.

      He was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal on June 15, 1946,
and was the only man in a POW camp to win this decoration. S/Sgt Clark's
award really covers two citations, for it tells how, under heavy fire,
he brought aid to his wounded officers. The citation also relates how,
while employed in the Nippon-Koken shipyards as a POW, he and another
man set a fire which destroyed a large part of the shipyard.

      Arrangements were made during 1942 for the recruiting and training
personnel in anticipation of the opening of a considerable number of
MPO's and FPO's. Personnel were given instruction in army postal
service at the BPO, Ottawa, in addition to basic military training.
This would enable a member of the CPC to provide postal service in any
theatre of the war. Arrangements were also made to extend the free
postage privilege to Canadians attached to R.A.F. units for mail
addressed to Canada.




31/70
      In addition to handling mail for the Armed Forces overseas, postal
service was provided for the Army and Air Force in Canada. The BPO's in
Canada also handled mail for prisoners of war and internees in Canada.

      A sub P.O. was established in Halifax to take care of mail for
Canadian Armed Forces in Newfoundland and for mail originating in the
Maritimes for the Army overseas.

      The Forces Air Letter was introduced in 1942. By using the Air
Letter a lot of weight was saved, enabling more letters to be sent with
less space taken from the aircraft.

      Lt Col E.J. Underwood, OBE, became DPS in July 1942, while Maj
G.H. Lawrence left for England in December to become CO of the BPO
overseas, a position he held until the end of hostilities.
      The staff of 265 officers and men at BPO Ottawa were working 16 to
18 hours a day to sort, double-check, bag and despatch some 90,000
parcels and 275,000 letters a week overseas for the Christmas rush.

      The average number of letters per month per soldier for 1942 was
10 letters, resulting in 35,000,000 pieces of mail being sent overseas
during that year. Free mail was introduced for the troops in Europe to
write home to Canada. Each item was not to exceed 2 ounces to qualify.

      By 1943 the only MPO in Canada with general delivery facilities
was MPO 201 at No 2 District Depot, Exhibition Park, Toronto, manned by
Pte Bette McInnis, Pte M.M. Campbell and Pte E.E. Robertson.

      The Corps lost three FPO's to enemy action during 1943, FPO 131,
219 and 469 were all lost on March 12.

      In 1943, as a result of increasing pressure for a speedier service
on letter mail, 168 Sqn RCAF, familiarly known as the "Mailcan
Squadron", was formed for the primary purpose of ferrying mail to
Europe.
      The first trans-atlantic flight was made on December 17, 1943, and
in the 30 months of existence the B-17 Fortress, and later Liberators,
made 636 trans-atlantic flights. Shuttle services were also maintained
to the continent, the Mediterranean and the Middle East.

      The initial, and more or less experimental, flight of the
Lancaster placed in operation for this purpose was made in May 1943,
with the Director along on this flight in order to make the necessary
arrangements in the U.K. for the handling of the mails carried by this
service.

      In July 1943, Maj G.C. Bloomfield received the Member of British
Empire (MBE) from the King, for his work in the Canadian Army Postal
Service of which he was Assistant Director.


      During the course of the war all kinds of funny letters were
received that could cause a lot of extra work for the tracing section.
Hours might be spent just to check one letter, such as:

            Pte? Leo Laffel
            Cavalry (I think)
            Camp Something
            England

      Another example is Sgt Pilot J. Morris who is willing to admit
that the CPC, like the famous mounties, was getting its man. This came



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about when he opened a parcel from home and discovered a pair of ice
skates which had followed him to England, on to South Africa and finally
reached him back in Europe.

      In the Mediterranean theatre the CPC set up shop shortly after the
invasion of Sicily in July 1943. They transferred their operations to
the Italian mainland two months later.    A detachment (CAPO 51) also
went to Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands, in August 1943, and was using
U.S. postage during it's 6 month tour of operation.

      Subsequent to December 1943 it was found necessary to establish
offices designated "Canadian Forces Posts" in Algiers, Cairo, Bombay,
Calcutta, Karachi and Colombo to expedite mail for the RCAF personnel in
those areas, and for the Canadian Army Officers seconded to the British
Forces. By the end of 1943 there were 3,087 members of the CPC serving
in all theatres of the war from 170 post offices. Literally millions of
letters and parcels were handled. In view of difficulties encountered in
the delivery of mail to the troops in the Mediterranean theatre,
particularly the reinforcements, the DPS was directed to proceed
overseas in April 1944 to make the necessary recommendations.

      Arrangements were made by the DPS for the establishment of a
Postal Tracing Section in the U.K., Mediterranean and Western Europe
theatres, and for the use of a postal redirection card system. Prior to
his return to Canada in August 1944, the DPS also completed arrangements
for the establishment of Tobacco Depots in Italy and in the U.K.

      The "Mailcan" run was extended to cover the Canadians stationed in
many parts of the world including Australia, India, Iceland, the Azores
and British West Indies.
      During 1944, Maj F.T. Burgess was posted to Washington D.C. as the
Canadian Postal Liaison Officer. Col G.H. Lawrence became Director for
Overseas Operations and Maj J.C. Dixon was appointed DADPS for 2
Canadian Corps. Lt A.J. Willis was attached from the 1st Canadian Postal
Inspectorate for unit mail room inspections.
      Following "D" Day, eight members of the CPC with two vehicles
returned to France at 0600 hours on June 7, 1944, and opened for
business in Normandy. Other postal units followed as their units
entered the battle zone around Caen and continued as the army advanced
into Northern France. The FPO's lived up to their name. They were
almost constantly on the move as the army advanced through Northern
France, Belgium and the Netherlands.

      The first mail despatch from France was sent by the 3 Cdn Inf Div
on June 11, 1944 at Buvieres sur Mer, and the first despatch received
was on June 13, 1944. To improve the mail service an air lift was
established from the U.K. to France commencing July 6, 1944. During the
early days in France the FPO was moved many times due to shelling.

      Pte South was wounded by enemy plane gunfire and evacuated on
July 14, 1944. Cpl W. Gould was evacuated on August 4 with shrapnel in
the head, chest and left shoulder during enemy shelling to 8 Cdn Gen
Hospital.

      By D + 17 (June 23) the postal unit with 3rd Cdn Inf Div was at
full strength. Mail was arriving daily and for the month of July 673
bags of letters and 6,144 bags of parcels were received in France.
During the same time, 237 bags of letters and 1,387 bags of parcels were
despatched to England and Canada.

      In this regard tribute should be paid to the Merchant Marine
Service which transported the mails overseas. Their part was



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particularly dangerous during the first years of the war when measures
against submarines and air attacks were not as successfully organized as
later.

      Much credit is also due to the crews of the Canadian Trans-
Atlantic Air Service and the RCAF Transport Command for their efforts in
the face of dangerous flying weather and other perils of long distance
aerial navigation. In carrying the mails to and from the forces
overseas several planes were lost, in some cases with the loss of the
crew as well. In one case an RCAF plan flying from Gibraltar to the
U.K. on March 7, 1944 was forced to jettison 7,400 pounds of troops mail
on account of engine failure. Fortunately,


the plane itself was able to make it to Gibraltar. Another plane crashed
on takeoff at Prestwick with the loss of the crew and the bulk of the
mail cargo. In still another case, a plane flying over the Bay of
Biscay collided in a heavy cloud with another plan but was fortunately
able to return to the U.K. after throwing the mail overboard. Another
RCAF plane carrying a cargo of mail disappeared without a trace on a
flight from Rabat Sale to Legens on December 15, 1944. Then on December
23, 1944, the CTAS lost a Lancaster carrying mail from Canada to the
U.K. No trace was ever found of the crew or the plane.

      CPC units in various theatres have also had their share of danger,
principally from strafing and bombing. Such incidents were not unusual
particularly with Divisional Postal Units. The Headquarters of the
Canadian Postal Service Overseas in London and the Canadian Overseas
Postal Depot had several narrow escapes during the blitzes and later
with the V-1 and V-2 attacks. The walls of Headquarters Overseas were
blown in at one time and on several occasions the windows of the
Headquarters of Canadian Overseas Postal Depot were blown out by near
hits. After the capture of Antwerp the Germans tried to deny the Allies
the use of the port by bombing the city with V-Bombs.

      No 1 CABPO with a large staff was established at that time in
Antwerp in a very large building suitable to operations. This building
was hit by a V-Bomb on New Years Eve but the staff had been dismissed
and only one man was killed and one wounded. In view of the intensity
of the V-Bombing, it was deemed advisable to move No 1 CABPO to a more
outlying district. This move was quickly put into effect. Just a few
days later the former quarters received another direct hit by a V-2
bomb. Had this move not taken place, practically the whole staff would
have been casualties.Note 7

      The safeguarding of Armed Forces mails at all stages of their
lengthy transmission from Canada to the U.K. to India, etc., had
presented difficult problems and given rise to some interesting
incidents. Safeguarding the mails called for constant vigilance and the
expenditure of considerable manpower in guarding from pilferage while
being loaded, unloaded and transferred at ports overseas.
      In North Africa and in Italy organized groups of bandits attempted
to steal mail en masse. Comforts from Canada presented a great
temptation to the lawless in such recently occupied areas where
confusion and upheaval offered more than the usual opportunities for
pillage. In these areas it was necessary to keep constant guard on
docks, building and airplanes at airports when Armed Forces mail was
involved.

      In Algiers, not long after the occupation of North Africa, a gang
of Arabs was successful in forcing entry into a building containing mail
for the Canadian Forces and making away with a number of mail bags. A
raiding party of RCAF postal personnel, RAF police and French civilian



34/70
police armed with Sten guns and pistols was organized and raided certain
Arab cafes and later proceeded into the famous Kasbah, where in spite of
the danger of attack by individuals or mob, the party forced entry into
several houses and recovered a considerable portion of the loot.

      Brigandage perhaps reached its height in Italy, where gangs raided
trucks and convoys on highways and looted them. It was necessary to
have guards armed with sub-machine guns ride each truck. To complicate
the problem it was sometimes difficult to tell bandits from Allied MPs
as deserters joined the brigands, or the latter secured Allied uniforms.
 However, the MPs eventually reduced this hazard.

      The operations of the Corps had a humorous side as well. For
instance, Canadian women would probably not consider mail bags as
suitable dress material. Nevertheless others do, and one of the
problems was to prevent Canadian mail bags from being purloined for
sundry purposes including the making of clothing. This problem came to
the fore in Italy where the mysterious disappearance of large numbers of
the lighter blue Canadian Airmail bags was followed by the appearance of
many Italian women wearing nice blue aprons.

      Another incident concerning the transportation of mail bags
containing cigarettes from the harbour through the narrow streets of
Naples to the Tobacco Depot operated by the Canadian Postal Corps. Bags
of mail were being unaccountably lost between the dock and the depot and
it was particularly certain that as the trucks passed beneath an
overhanging balcony on a certain narrow street, the occupants of the
house had been taking full advantage of their strategic location to lift
bags of mail from the top of the load. Naturally the contents would
fetch tremendous prices in the black market. The truck driver solved
the problem himself without recourse to higher authority. He simply
loaded the truck higher than usual. In the trip to the depot he drove
beneath the balcony, the truckload and the force of the vehicle detached
that piece of the carpentry from the house and the truck arrived at the
depot with the balcony on top of the load. Thus the solution to another
problem.
      A Canadian Postal Section had been established at a British Base
in Algeria. It handled and controlled all the mail to the forces on the
mainland of North Africa and in some cases was forwarding mail to
Sicily. Air letters were flown by U.S. Army Transport Command from
Prestwick to Marrakesh where it connected with the Air Service to
Algiers. At Algiers it entered the British Army Postal Service, and was
handed to the Canadian Section.

      In June 1945 the Army of occupation opened FPO's to service the
troops that were left behind. FPO 764 was serving Holland and FPO SC
765 to 770 were serving the troops in Germany. These FPO's closed in
April 1946 and the last members of the CPC were deported home.

      At the end of the war 162 MPO's were in operation, having served
in Europe, U.K., North Africa, Sicily, Gibraltar, India, Ceylon, Burma,
Hong Kong and Kiska.

      During the latter stages of the war a liaison was established with
RCN units in Belfast, Glasgow and Plymouth, but time was against the
implementation of a truly tri-service organization.

      There was a natural expansion of the CPC during these years,
including RCAF Postal Service, eventually totalling 5,000 Officers, men
and members of the Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) and the RCAF
Women's Division (RCAF WD).




35/70
        B.   RCAF POST SERVICES (OVERSEAS)



      The Commanding Officer of the RCAF overseas made a presentation to
the Postmaster General of Canada for the establishment of a postal
service within the RCAF, to be manned by Air Force personnel. Agreement
was reached whereby four officers and 26 other ranks of the CPC would
transfer from the Army to the RCAF. This group formed the nucleus from
which the RCAF postal service developed.
      These transfers from the CPC would form the nucleus from which the
Service would be developed. The Senior RCAF Postal Officer was detailed
for duty to CPC Headquarters Overseas on October 16, 1942.

      When arrangements were made for the Air transmission of Letter
Mails to the Canadian Forces, Col E.J. Underwood, DPS, directed that the
Senior RCAF Postal Officer (Flight Lieut J.G. Whitehead) would be placed
i/c of the operation of this Service for all Canadian Forces overseas.
The Senior RCAF Postal Officer was also responsible for the
administration of RCAF Section, No 2 Canadian Tobacco Depot.

      In the initial stages of operation it was impossible for the RCAF
with their small staff to handle the RCAF mails, and the Army Section of
the Base Post Office performed the bulk of the work in addition to their
own commitments. As additional RCAF personnel were made available for
postal duties the RCAF assumed more and more of their responsibilities.

      It wasn't until August 1943, that the RCAF were in a position to
operate their Section of the Base Post Office entirely with their own
personnel.
      A draft of 43 O.R.'s of the RCAF Women's Division who were being
held at P.C.C. Bournemouth, arrived at the unit during that month. Upon
arrival of the O.R.'s, A/S/O. M.H. McCorkingale was detailed as the Unit
i/c of the W/D Personnel. The W.D.'s proved to be adaptable and in
"short order" were performing their duties in a most creditable manner.
      The functions of the Unit had considerable expansion due to the
growth of the RCAF Overseas since the RCAF Section Canadian Overseas
Postal Depot first commenced operations. In addition to strictly postal
work, it had been the duty of this Unit to arrange the distribution of
Armed Forces Air Letter Forms to all Units throughout the U.K. on whose
strength RCAF Personnel were serving. The strength of this unit as of
October 30, 1944 was three officers and 304 ORs.

      In view of the need for improvement in mail handing arrangements
on R.A.F. Stations in the U.K. it was decided that an RCAF Postal
Officer should be placed on strength at the staff of the various RCAF
District Headquarters. As sufficient Officers were not available to
cover all, it was necessary for some Postal Officers to cover two
Districts. RCAF Postal Officers were therefore detached to Nos. 2, 3,
4, 5 and 6 District Headquarters.

      At the time RCAF District Postal Officers were established, A.D.O.
(Mails), Air Ministry, also obtained authority for similar R.A.F. Postal
Officers, so between both Services postal conditions to the Air Force in
the U.K. were improved in the shortest possible time. Approval was given
for the establishment of a Field Post Office on all RCAF Stations to be
manned by qualified "Postal Clerks". Due to a shortage of these
qualified Postal Clerks, establishment of such offices was done as
expeditiously as possible under the circumstances.



36/70
      At R.A.F. Stations where concentrations of Canadians posted to
O.T.U.'s were such that the postal establishment on the Station was
inadequate to deal with the volume of mails received, the RCAF Postal
Service assisted the R.A.F. Service by supplying Postal Clerks to handle
the Canadian Mails.

      Flight Lieutenant P.C. Wall, RCAF Postal Officer, was posted to
REAR H.Q. No. 3 Group and placed in charge of Postal Arrangements to all
personnel serving with the Group. Fl. Lieut. Wall worked in close
liaison with the Command Postal Officer R.A.F. 2nd Tactical Air Force,
A.D.P.S. 21 Army Group, and A.D.P.S. Canadian Section 21 Army Group.

      One Corporal was posted to Headquarters 85 Group R.A.F. for duty
with Command Postal Headquarters Tracing Section. It was the duty of
this N.C.O. to extract all copies, or movement, of RCAF personnel
serving with 2nd T.A.F. This information was despatched by the fastest
available method to the RCAF Section, Canadian Overseas Postal Depot, in
order that the mails intended for the aforementioned personnel could be
intercepted and redirected to the new location. This avoided
unnecessary delay in receipt of mails by RCAF personnel serving with the
Formation.

      Twelve other Ranks were also posted to H.Q. No. 5 Group, for
detachment to No. 1 C.A.B.P.O. to operate the RCAF Section of that
Office. It was the duty of this Section to supply RCAF Postal Clerks
who received and despatched all letter mails which were given air
transmission via No. 168 (RCAF) Squadron aircraft.

      In December 1943 it was decided that Postal Services to RCAF
Personnel serving in the Middle East Theatre could stand improvement and
accordingly arrangements were made for the establishment of a small Base
Post Office in Cairo. Approval was received for the posting of a Flight
Lieutenant and Staff to operate this Office.

      When the Office was suitably operating, Flight Lieut C.L. Guenette
was replaced by Flight Lieut J.N. Hopper. Flight Lieut Guenette was
then sent to Algiers for the establishment of RCAF Base Post Office, for
the purpose of supplying proper Postal facilities to RCAF Personnel.
      A similar procedure as Cairo was put into effect at Algiers,
resulting in a marked improvement in the receipt of mails by personnel
in that theatre. Upon completion of the task of establishing this
Office, Flight Lieut C.L. Guenette was replaced by Flight Lieut A.M.
Davies.
      The Algiers Office was established during the month of August,
1943, and was located here until October 1, 1944, when, owing to a
change in the tactical situation in that theatre the Office was moved to
Naples, Italy. A Detachment of one N.C.O. and one L.A.C. were left at
Algiers to handle any Canadian Mails received there subsequent to the
move of the Unit.

      Flight Lieut C.L. Guenette went to India next, arriving early in
December 1943 to arrange the establishment of RCAF Postal Services in
the Far Eastern Theatre. Though H.Q. New Delhi arrangements were made
for the initial establishment of the RCAF Section, Base Post Office, in
Bombay. This Office to be known as "Canadian Forces Posts, Bombay".
The location in Bombay being governed by the fact that Surface Mails for
the theatre circulated through this city.

      Owing to the great delay in the receipt of mails by Canadian
Forces, it was decided that representation should be made as to having
an Air Service for the transmission of Letter Mails. Occasionally the



37/70
Canadian Postal Service was able to arrange transmission of a small
amount of Letter Mails by B.O.A.C. aircraft from the U.K. to Canada.
Since the inauguration of the Trans-Canada Air Service to U.K. in July
1943, a large proportion of the mails both to and from the Canadian
Forces were carried by that Organization.

      It was found, however, that T.C.A. could not carry all the
Canadian Forces mail and B.O.A.C. advised that they could not move any
Canadian mail by air from the U.K. to Canada from early in September
1943 in accordance with instructions received from the Air Ministry.

      The Postmaster General made representation to have an RCAF
Squadron formed for the purpose of flying Canadian Forces Mail. No. 168
(RCAF) Squadron was commissioned to perform this task and was allotted
B.17 Fortress aircraft for the Trans-Atlantic leg, and a number of
Dakotas to perform a "shuttle service" to the Canadian Forces in the
various theatres.


      The route decided upon for No. 168 (RCAF) Squadron was Rockcliffe
- Azores - Gibraltor - Prestwick and return on the Trans-Atlantic Run;
and Gibraltar - Algiers - return on the Mediterranean run. This Med Run
was later extended to serve the Canadian Forces in Naples and
subsequently to the forward area in Italy where the Canadian Army were
operating.

      In order that proper handling, billing and recording of all mails
transported by air would be insured the RCAF Postal Service was
authorized to establish Postal Detachments at all Transfer Points.

      Airmail Service to the Canadian Forces in the North West European
Theatre was supplied by No. 168 (RCAF) Squadron Dakotas on a daily
basis. The route in use was Northolt - B.56 (Brussels) - B.7
(Eindhoven) - B.70 (Antwerp) - Northolt.

      The No. 2 Canadian Tobacco Depot commenced   operation on September
1, 1944 filling orders of gift cigarette parcels   for RCAF personnel in
the U.K., North Western Europe Theatre, Iceland,   Azores and British West
Africa. A staff consisting of four officers and    56 O.R.'s was
authorized and supplied.

      During the latter part of the month of October 1944, despatches of
Tobacco Labels received by air from Canada greatly increased. This
increase amounted to slightly over 100%. It was thought that the
increase was due to Christmas orders of tobacco parcels placed by the
Canadian public. In order to handle the increased traffic all leave and
48-hour passes were cancelled and the Unit worked overtime to ensure the
troops received their cigarettes.
      A request for 26 additional clerks was submitted to assist in
handling this increased traffic. It was anticipated that after the
Christmas rush the receipt of labels would revert to approximately the
same figure being received during September, and the additional help
would be reduced at the earliest opportunity.

      Flight Lieut C.L. Guenette was recalled from his tour of duty in
India and became Commanding Officer of this unit.

      During the period 1943 - 1946 168 Sqn (RCAF) completed 636 trans-
atlantic flights, carrying 2,245,269 pounds of mail. The overseas
detachment carried 8,977,600 pounds of mail to the continent and the
Middle East.




38/70
      A detailed list of all offices in operation during the period 1939
- 1946 can be found in "Canadian Military Post Offices to 1986" by W.J.
Bailey and E.R. Toop.




VIII.   THE KOREAN CONFLICT 1950-1953
        note 8




      The Canadian Postal Corps was disbanded in 1946, and personnel
returned to their peacetime jobs, which meant for most ex-posties
returning to the employment they had held with the Canada Post Office
Department.




39/70
      The only MPOs operating in Canada were MPO 1113 in Esquimalt,
B.C., until May 1947; and MPO 1015 in Churchill, Manitoba, that ran
until January 1950. It would remain this way until the start of the
Korean Conflict, except for a few MPOs which would serve the summer
camps at irregular intervals.

      All this changed at 0400 hrs (L) on the morning of June 25, 1950.
At this time the armed forces of the Democratic People's Republic of
Korea crossed the 38th parallel and advanced rapidly southwards towards
the capital of Seoul. On June 27, the United States intervened with
support for the South Korean Army; and on July 21, Canada announced its
support. This was followed on August 7, 1950 with an Order in Council,
which authorized the formation of a Special Force, the 25th Infantry
Brigade Group, for duty in Korea.

      On October 11, 1950, 1 CBPO was activated in Vancouver, and on the
1st of November the CPC was reactivated. All ex-posties still in the
military, most of whom were with the Royal Canadian Army Service Corps
(R.C.A.S.S.) transferred back to the CPC. As part of an ABC agreement
Canada adopted the letters CFPO (Canadian Forces Post Office) for
overseas use. A four digit number was used to designate regulating post
offices in the overseas theatres.

     "In the first years the CPC was established as a section under the
Director of Supplies and Transport, but on October 2, 1952, as the
special force expanded and was absorbed by the regular force, the CPC
emerged as an independent tri-service directorate operating as a
separate unit within National Defence Headquarters, administered by 1
Army Administrative Unit, but reporting directly to the Chief of Naval
Personnel, the Quartermaster-General and the


Air Member for Personnel. To provide the Canadian forces with postal
services in the Far East theatre, a Communications Postal Unit
and a Base Post Office were established in Japan and Vancouver to serve
the force."9
      From 1952 to early 1954 the HQ of No 1 Canadian Communication Zone
Postal Unit had been located in Kure. All incoming Canadian mail was
routed from Tokyo-Yokohama to Kure for onward transmission to Korea. The
Tokyo staff consisted of a Sgt, who operated the CFPO in Ebisu Camp.
Mail from the troops in the theatre to Canada went free, and letters
were marked "On Active Service". On arrival in Vancouver, all mail was
checked to ensure items were properly marked before being put into the
Canada Post System.

      In February 1954, the Bde Commander (Brig J.V. Allard) expressed
dissatisfaction with the service on letter mail to and from Korea, and
directed that action be taken toward improvement, possibly by the
carriage of letter mail directly from Tokyo to Seoul via US facilities.
This suggestion was investigated and through the full cooperation of US
authorities at HQ AFFE, carriage of Cdn letter mail only was instituted
on Mar 5, 1954, for a trial period of one month, in one direction
(Tokyo- Seoul).

      This trial proved so satisfactory that the arrangements were
placed on a permanent basis. In order to effect the service in the
reverse direction, the HQ of the unit would have to be moved from Kure
to the Tokyo area.Action was instituted on Mar 7, 1954, toward obtaining
accommodation in the Tokyo-Yokohama area. A building was secured in
Ebisu Camp, and on Sept 1, 1954, the HQ of the unit moved from Kure to
Tokyo, and despatches of letter mail from Seoul to Tokyo commenced on
the same day. The staff at this unit comprised of a Captain, Sergeant,
two corporals and two privates.



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      There were twelve CAPOs in operation during the conflict, either
in Korea or Japan; CAPO 5000, 5001, 5002, 5003, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31 and 32. Approximately thirty-five men were employed to provide postal
service to the Canadian troops who were serving in all areas of that
campaign.

      Some of the people who are suspected "Posties" and served in Korea
are listed below. Ranks and initials are given where known.


Capt Ford             S/Sgt Bill Tordon             Pte Wheeler         Capt
R.V.Hyde              Sgt Bob Wood                 Ed Ferguson
Lt Dansereau               Sgt Noonan                   Thibault       Lt
Cobbold                 Sgt Torrie                   Jones          Lt Brown
                  Sgt Bulter                  Moon               Lt
MacKenzie               Cpl Millier                  Hartwick
Lt Deziel                  Cpl Cattell                  Polloway
Lt L.W.Mank                Cpl Kenny                Pte R.Lefebre      Lt
Porter                  Cpl Raymond             Sgt J.F.Roland      Lt
P.A.Ross                Cpl Perry Comeau
   Lloyd White             Cpl Nick Nickerson
   Bruce Doak              Cpl Wood
W.C.Parker              Cpl Morneau
       Layennesse        A/Cpl Butler
       O'Hara              Pte Shean
       Nacon               Pte Wolstenholme
       Paulson             Pte Nayhaug
       Burton              Pte Hampel
       Barkley             Pte Hill                                     Capt
F.T. Burgess         Pte David
       Kennedy             Pte Hall




IX.THE POST WAR ERA 1946-1986



        A.     CPC Europe



      "While the Korean conflict was making headlines, NATO was
simultaneously coming into its own. The despatch of Canadian



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Forces to Germany and France necessitated the establishment of
postal units in England, France and Germany to serve Canadian
servicemen there."10
      The Post Office Department made a decision to give the CPC
the same status as civilian "posties". The Postmaster General,
     G. Edouard Rinfret, confirmed this on October 29, 1951, by
stating: "Pursuant to Section 5 of the Post Office Act, notice is
hereby given, that effective as of 4 November 1950, all officers,
non-commissioned officers and men of the Canadian Postal Corps
serving within and without Canada with the Canadian Forces, are
hereby authorized to receive and despatch mail and perform such
postal duties as may be required from them by the needs of the
Postal Services of the Armed Forces of Canada..".11

      In 1951 the 27th Canadian Infantry Brigade was formed as
part of Canada's commitment to NATO. Training was completed by
October 31, 1951, and the main body proceeded by ship to the
British Occupied Zone in Germany. Most of the service units
including No 2 Communication Zone Postal Unit and CAPO 5000 were
scattered in the various barracks around Hanouver.

      CAPO 5050 opened December 2, 1951, in Hanover, but the unit
moved on December 16 to Hereford, in closer proximity to the
British No 8 Command Postal Depot. The camps of the 27th Brigade
were allotted six Canadian FPOs, CFPOs 40 through 45.

      No 1 Canadian Overseas Postal Depot arrived in Europe in
October 1952, and established it's Headquarters in London. It's


first mission   was to open CAPO 5053 on June 1, 1953, in order to serve
the Canadians   at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), in
Paris. It was   not until September of 1953 that it managed to establish
FPOs to serve   Canadians in England.

      When the Brigade moved to the Soest area, CAPO 5050 remained at
Herford, along with CFPOs 41 and 42 for use as mobile post offices
during exercises. The main post office was relocated at Fort St Louis in
the Werl area, with CFPO 40 at Iserlohn, CFPO 43 in Soest, and CFPOs 44
and 45 at Werl. In July 1955 CAPO 5050 moved to Fort St Louis (Werl).
Two new CFPOs, 46 and 47, were created as the new reserve offices.
      During the 1950s other changes were taking place in Europe,
particularly with the Brigades.
      "The 2 Canadian Infantry Brigade Group replaced 1 Brigade in 1955
and in turn was replaced by 4 Brigade in 1957. There was a change in 4
Brigade as the Armoured Squadron was replaced by an Armoured Regiment.
It was garrisoned in an ex- German barracks renamed Fort Beausejour in
Iserlohn near Hemer. The Recce Sqn was moved to more spacious quarters
at Fort Chambly". 12

      On January 1, 1965, all CAPOs were renamed Canadian Forces Post
Offices (CFPO). The two and three digit FPOs also became CFPOs. The Army
as such ceased to exist on February 1, 1968, upon unification and the
Forces were drastically reduced. The 4 Brigade lost almost 50% of it's
strength. Further, it was decided that the entire Soest Area would be
closed out, and the Battle Group would be moved to Lahr in southern
Germany.
      "The Lahr base was taken over from the French and had a caserne
and airfield. Headquarters 4 Canadian Mechanized Battle Group and the
Signal Squadron settled in the caserne after a road move from Soest 1



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October 1970. The remainder of the Battle Group moved to the airfield
garrison except one of the two infantry battalions, 3 Mechanized
Commando, which moved in with the RCAF at Baden-Soellingen to the
north".13

      In Soest, CFPO 101 had been operating since April 30, 1964, CFPO
102 was being used at HQ since June 1, 1964, and CFPO 5050 was moved to
Soest for the re-posting of the new Battle Group to the south and the
close-down of all Westphalian camps. CFPO 5050 had been operating since
 October 9, 1970, until it closed on July 22, 1971.



      In the new area, CFPO 5000 was ready as it had been set up early
in 1967. The unit offices in the area were CFPOs 105 and 108.

      "In 1965, Canada allocated an infantry battalion group to the
northern ACE Mobile Force (AMF). The units alternately trained in Canada
and exercised with other NATO troops in North Europe, mostly in the
mountain ranges of northern Norway inside the Arctic Circle. CFPO 5046
was allotted to the force and has been used during each exercise ever
since February 1966. The first exercise was in Feb/Mar 1966 and the
Canadian Post Office was set up at Bardufoss, Norway. That year, CFPO 25
was also used by the 1st Battalion The Black Watch (RHR) of Canada, the
first AMF Battalion."14


        B.   RCAF Europe



      In 1951 Canada agreed to supply a fighter Air Division to NATO as
its contribution to the integrated air forces. By June 15 ,1952, 439
Squadron arrived to complete No 1 Fighter Wing, the first of four Sabre
jet fighter wings to meet Canada's commitment. This was also the year
(1952) that No 1 Air Division HQ was formed with temporary headquarters
in Paris with an operational command within 4 Allied Tactical Air Force.

      In March 1953, No 3 Fighter Wing arrived at their new base in
Zweibrucken, Germany, and No 4 Fighter Wing moved to it's new base at
Baden-Soellingen, Germany, between August 27 and September 4. The Air
Division Headquarters moved on April 10, from Paris to Metz. It's first
task was to open CAPO 5053 on June 1, 1953, to serve the Canadians at
SHAPE in Paris. It wasn't until September that it established FPOs to
serve the Canadians in England, at the Canadian Army Liaison
Establishment in Ennismore Gardens in London, and later to include the
Canadian Joint Staff located at 1 Gosvenor Square, London. In the fall
of 1953, CFPO 101 was opened at North Luffenham, CFPO 103 in London, and
CFPO 102 at Langar.

      In October, 1952, No 1 Air Division Postal Unit had been sent to
Paris where it immediately opened CFPO 104 to serve the Division's
temporary HQ. Also, CAPO 5052 was opened in October of


that year, along with CFPO 105, at Grostenquin, France, to serve the No
2 Fighter Wing.

      In 1953, when new Fighter Wings arrived, CFPOs were opened in
support; CFPO 106 at Zweibrucken, CFPO 107 at Baden-Soellingen, CFPO 109
at Metz (France), and 1 ADPU which moved there from Paris on April 10,
1953. On September 14 CAPO 5052, along with CFPO 108 moved to Metz with




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the task of acting as regulating post office for all RCAF postal
facilities.

      In 1956 it was decided to increase the RCAF Wing postal units,
therefore CAPO 5055 was opened at Zweibrucken, CAPO 5056 in Baden,

       CAPO 5057 in Trier and CAPO 5058 in Langar, UK. By 1957 CAPO 5054
had been set up in Antwerp, Belgium. This was also the office of the CPC
Assistant Director of Postal Services in Europe, a NATO position. Later
in the year this position moved to London, UK, along with the CAPO.

      There was a RCAF Air Weapons Unit stationed at Decimonnu,
Sardinia. CAPO 5047 (along with CFPO 111) was operating from there by
June 15, 1957.

      A series of events which included conversion to new aircraft, a
move from France and integration and unification all served to impose
major changes on the RCAF and its CPC support in Europe. This all
commenced with the disbandment of four CF 100 squadrons in 1962.
France's decision to ask NATO troops to leave resulted in more major
moves and changes in 1967.

      The CPC detachment in Paris and Fontainbleu were moved to Casteau,
Belgium, operating as CFPO 5048. CFPO 5053 and CFPO 105 were also moved
at this time.

      The Air Division HQ, which had been located in Metz, was moved to
Lahr, Germany, along with 1 Fighter Wing from Marville. Other changes
were the closing of CAPO 5058 and CFPO 102 in 1964, followed by the
closing of CFPO 105 in 1965. CFPO 5052 at Metz closed in 1967, along
with CFPO 109. Other closures included CFPO 5057 and CFPO 108 in 1967,
as well as CFPOs 106 and 107. The bright side of all this was the
opening of CFPO 105 on March 27, 1967, followed by CFPO 5000 on May 27,
1967, in Lahr, Germany. CFPO 108 followed on October 16. Brunssum,
Holland had a new CFPO when 5045 opened in March 1967 in support of the
Canadian staff at Headquarters Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT). On
June 30, 1969, CFPO 5055 at Zweibrucken closed, only to reopen the next
day in Ramstein, Germany.

      Following all these changes, there was a major realinement of
postal units in Europe. By January 1968, the new organization looked
something like the chart below.




        B.   Mail System Europe




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      There have been many changes in mail transportation to Europe
since 1951. The principle of providing postal service to the forces out
of country by the fastest means possible has always been a priority for
the CPC. In Europe, the system worked as follows: the two and three
digit CFPOs are the normal unit post offices for the sale of postage
values and money orders. It is these CFPOs that process the outgoing
mail for delivery to the larger four digit regulating CFPOs. The
regulating CFPOs are used as main mailing addresses for units in their
vicinity. They receive and despatch mail via road, rail or air to and
from the other European CFPOs. In the beginning, the heavy mail went
across the English Channel by ferry via Antwerp or Amsterdam.

      The RCAF organized Trans-Atlantic air service dating from early
1951, between the Base Post Office in Montreal and the various locations
in Europe. North Luffenham, England was first used, later moving to
Langar, England when No 2 Communication Zone Postal Unit took control of
the mail for the forces.
      Marville, France, became the main terminal when that base was in
use by the transport squadrons crossing the Atlantic. At that time, 412
Squadron flew the Comet and North Star aircraft out of Uplands, Ottawa,
and 426 Squadron flew North Stars out of Dorval, Quebec.In 1959, 426
Squadron moved to Trenton, Ontario. Regular scheduled passenger and mail
service between Trenton and Marville started in January 1962, using
Yukon aircraft. By 1970, the larger Boeing 707 aircraft had replaced the
Yukon, and the terminal at Marville had been moved to Lahr, Germany.




        D.   Naval Postal Service



      The Royal Canadian Navy ended the Second War as the third largest
Allied Naval Power in 1945. Demobilization was so fast that by 1947 the
Navy had a personnel strength of only 6,800. To honour it's commitments
to NATO and the United Nations, in 1948 Canada began a naval rebuilding
program.



45/70
      Naval Headquarters in Ottawa and the two coastal command bases,
Halifax in the Atlantic and Esquimalt in the Pacific, still had large
Fleet Mail Office facilities and, because of the population in the
vicinity, Canada Post agreed to operate them for the RCN as civilian
offices. The Naval Service in Ottawa was still responsible for informing
the Post Office Department on the movement of naval shipping so that the
mail could be forwarded to the appropriate port of call.

      In 1950, the same post offices were used except that for airmail
to the North Atlantic and Mediterranean areas, a ship mail section was
used by the Canada Post Office in Montreal, until 2 Canadian Base Post
Office took over this role. There were (1950) now three main Canadian
Naval Post Offices (CNPO) in operation; CNPO 5071 in Halifax for ships
on cruise in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean, CNPO 5073 Montreal
for airmail to ships on cruise in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and
CNPO 5075 Esquimalt for ships on cruise in the Pacific and Indian
Oceans.




        E.   Canada



      Following WWII, a major change was initiated whereby the wartime
military district system was changed to a regional Command system by
January 1947. There were only five major headquarters and six smaller
ones;
                  Central Command
                        Western Ontario Area
                        Eastern Ontario Area
                  Quebec Command
                        Eastern Quebec Area
                  Eastern Command
                        New Brunswick Area
                  Prairie Command
                        Saskatchewan Area



46/70
                  Western Command
                        British Columbia Area


      In February 1946 the plans for the RCAF were announced, which
provided for a regular force of eight squadrons. Many of the wartime
bases and stations remained open. Mail facilities were still required on
many stations, so the wartime post offices remained open as an interim
measure, until Canada Post could assume responsibility.

      If an RCAF Station was close to an urban centre, Canada Post
converted it to a civilian PO, however, for some of the isolated bases
the post office had to be manned by military personnel. Factors such as
the base population, whether civilians had access to the post office,
and the cost sharing of postal services played an important role in the
final decision.

      The military postal personnel answered to Canada Post, but could
not always maintain full postal facilities. All this was to change when
the CPC was reactivated in 1950.

      The NATO Agreements completely changed the post-war plans for the
RCAF after 1949. There was a requirement for many more


squadrons, as well as training. New stations and bases were opened in
anticipation of expansion even before 1949. By 1949 older stations were
in the process of being reconditioned, and new bases were being
developed at Bagotville and Mont Joly in PQ, Chatham in NB, and
Summerside in PEI.
      During the period from 1946 to 1950 Canada Post and DND attempted
to have each other assume responsibility for all military post offices
in Canada. With the coming of the Korean Conflict and NATO commitments,
a requirement arose to organize proper base post offices and a more
sophisticated military postal service. The CPC was reactivated on
November 1, 1950, and took over No 1 BPO in Vancouver, and later No 2
BPO at Montreal. Postal HQ remained in Ottawa with Army HQ.

      Because the CPC was now in operation, Canada Post did not feel
responsible for the military posts. Each of the five HQs had a Command
Postal Officer and the CPC could open such MPOs as deemed necessary. The
numbering system for these MPOs was similar to that of WWII; numbered
blocks issued to Commands starting in the East. Under this system
Eastern MPOs were 100 series, Quebec 200 series, Central 300, Prairie
400 and Western 500. With this new revision, in 1952 Col G.W. Ross, OBE,
VD, became Director of Armed Forces Postal Services.

      On July 3, 1951, MPO 200 Camp Valcartier was opened to handle the
mail for the troops assembling for duty with the NATO 27th Canadian
Infantry Brigade in Europe. In September MPO 333 Ottawa was opened as a
Postal Tracing Section.

      In 1954 Lt.Col T. Bond became Director of Armed Forces Postal
Services, a position he held until 1956, turning over the office to
Lt.Col R.V. Hyde. In 1963, on August 29, Col T. Bond became the first
and only Colonel Commandant of the Postal Corps, remaining as such until
 August 27, 1972.

      As mentioned, the first Canadian BPO after the second war was
opened in Vancouver. It was renamed 1 Canadian Base Post Office on
August 21, 1951, as another Base Post Office, No 2, was opened in
Montreal in the fall. Later, in March of 1955, 1 Cdn BPO was moved to
Montreal, where it absorbed 2 Cdn BPO. It became the key centre for



47/70
overseas mail until October 1963. It was closed at this time because the
overseas air terminal was moved to CFB Trenton.

      The Postal Corps celebrated it's Golden Anniversary in 1961. By
now there were posties serving the troops in many parts of the


world; Great Britain, France, Germany, Sardinia, Egypt, Lebanon, Congo,
and of course throughout Canada.

      To celebrate the 50th Anniversary, a Commemorative Dinner was
heldin Ottawa by the officers of the Corps, including Lt Col Hyde, Maj
Ross, Maj Wiens, Capt Lavigne, Capt Mank, Lt Mikula, Lt Penwall and Lt
Roberts. There were celebrations in other parts of the world as well. In
the Gaza Strip there was another mess dinner, presided over by Major
Burgess. In Europe, there was a Remembrance Ceremony at Brookwood
Cementery, England, and at Nivelles, Belgium and Cholay, France.

      On June 30, 1961, Queen Elizabeth II bestowed the title of "ROYAL"
on the CPC, effecting a name change to Royal Canadian Postal Corps.

      By January 1963 the RCPC consisted of twenty-five officers and 217
other ranks. Of these, many were either WWII postal veterans or ex-
Canada Post employees. Approximately 125 of these were serving outside
Canada. On April 1, 1963, CFPO 26 was opened onboard HMCS Bonaventure,
Canada's aircraft carrier. Also, in September, No 1 BPO moved from
Montreal to the Federal Building in Belleville, Ontario.
      In 1967 Canada celebrated it's Centennial year. The Armed Forces
created a Centennial Tattoo, which covered the country in two trains,
stopping along the way to provide Canadians with special demonstrations.
The RCPC provided two MPOs; 318 on the Blue Train which was touring the
West, and 367 for the Red Train which was travelling the East.
      As a result of unification, the CPC was reorganized as the
Directorate of Postal Services. The BPO's name was changed to Canadian
Home Postal Depot in February of 1967. Although the new CHPD was the
military postal centre, it had little control over the new Command
Postal Officers who answered to their functional Command HQs. The one
exception was the Air Transport Command where the Commanding Officer
CHPD was also the ATC Command Postal Officer. Also in 1967 Lt.Col W.A.
Coles, CD, became Director of Forces Postal Services. In 1970 Lt.Col
R.G. Deziel, CD, replaced him as Director, remaining as such until 1974,
until he too was replaced by Lt.Col N.D. Sayer, CD.

      As the Corps expanded in the early 1970s, more offices were
opened. On the 21st August, 1972, CFS Sydney obtained it's own post
office when MPO 200 was opened. CFS Alert followed the following year,
when MPO 310 was opened for business on the 1st April. This


MPO is the most northerly post office in Canada. This was followed the
same year by CFB Chatham when MPO 140 was opened for business on
September 31.
      On October 31, 1975, CHPD became the Canadian Forces Postal Unit.
Under this new system the five new postal detachments across Canada all
answered to the new CFPU. In 1975 CFB Trenton also opened it's own post
office, when MPO 303, known as Astra Post Office, began operation on the
first day of August.

      Due to the Golan Heights and UNEF II, a major crisis was
developing. The Corps was stretched thin for manpower, and there had
been a sudden increase in the volume of mail being processed. In 1974




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the Corps moved 26.66 % more than in 1973, with the two year total being
an increase of 40%.

       The Other Ranks Career Development Study examined the postal
trade, recognized a problem existed, and suggested some solutions. One
was for the Command Postal Officer concept to be abolished, and in place
to create five Regional Postal Officer positions. All postal clerk
positions were taken out of the Base establishments and transferred to a
Regional Detachment with sections on the bases from which they had been
taken.

      There was no increase in numbers, but they retained the same
number and placed all personnel on a postal establishment controlled by
NDHQ. Each Regional Detachment became part of the Canadian Forces Postal
Unit establishment, a field unit with establishment control vested in
Adm (MAT). The establishment was to be controlled by the Director of
Forces Postal Services.

      The next step was to increase the number of positions and this was
done in 1976 by converting all Administration Clerk 831 positions in
Central Registries to Postal Clerk 881 positions. This was done with the
full cooperation and understanding of the Administration Branch Advisor,
who recognized the need and the urgency of the matter.

      That move provided an additional thirty-three positions, and
raised establishment to approximately 185. At the same time recruiting
and remuster programmes were stepped up to ensure that all positions
were kept filled.

      Along with this, the RCPC badge was abolished and the Postal Corps
rebadged with the Administration Badge.

      In 1975, the Postal Corps survived the longest postal strike in
Canada's history. The emergency Postal Plan functioned as it should, and
all comments were complimentary.

      On September 1, 1975, COD service was extended to all CFPOs with
the exception of CFPO 5051 in London,England.

      The most significant achievement of 1975 was the implementation of
the Regional Organization in Canada. Action was also started on the
proposal to establish Postal Clerks in the CRs across Canada.
      By 1976, as a result of a decision made in the spring, Postal
Officers were now specialists of the Administration Classification. This
meant that the Postal Trade could now recruit and train some new
officers from the ranks of the Admin Officer Classification, and this in
turn would create a pool of Postal Officers. Also, by 1976 there were
thirty-three new hard Postal positions created in the CRs.

      On the down side of 1976, a postie in Cyprus was arrested by the
Turkist police for attempting to smuggle 100 cartons of cigarettes out
of the Greek sector into the Turkish sector. In mail bags! He received
ninety days detention and compulsory remuster to another trade. This of
course meant a very hard time for our posties at the check points for
quite some time after.

      An up side to 1976 - in late September D Post presented MCpl Red
Rose with the Assistant Deputy Minister Merit Award for his years of
dedicated service.

      Lt Col Sayer began his retirement leave on January 12, 1978. He
was replaced as D Post by Lt Col R.B. (Scottie) Auchterlonie, CD.




49/70
      A major renovation to the building and facilities housing CFPU at
CFB Trenton was completed by 1978. To celebrate the opening of the new
facilities, a parade followed by a social function was held on June 21.
During the ceremonies, Col Lindsay presented CWO Marve Schmidt with the
ADM (MAT) Certificate of Merit. Cpl Ray Mueller got lucky twice that
day, by receiving the Canadian Forces Decoration and the Queens Silver
Jubilee Medal! Well done Ray.

      1978 also saw the PSPT classification which included the sub-
classification PSPT (POST) become history. It was replaced by the new
classification Personnel Administration (PADM), which included a postal
specialty 68A1.


      To round out a busy year, PS & MOD was relocated from CFPU Trenton
to NDHQ D/POST, and the Postal Tracing office, MPO 333, was moved from
Ottawa to CFB Trenton.

      During 1979 new MPOs were opened at CFB Chilliwack (612 in Jan),
CFB Valcartier (210 in July) and CFB St Jean (204 in Jan).

      1981 saw CFB Gagetown hold a multi-formation training
concentration, the largest land force concentration held in Canada since
1965, and brought together troops from all bases across the country, a
total of over 9,000 troops. This included elements of the militia and
the Communication reserve, as well as elements from the 10 Tactical Air
Force, USAF and Cobra Helicopter units from the US Army. This exercise,
called Rendezvous 81 (RV 81) was held from June 1 until July 6
inclusive, under the command of Lieut General C.H. Belzile, CMM, CD,
Commander FMC.
      Twenty four members of the Postal Corps went on this exercise to
provide postal service to the troops in the field. This was the first
time since WW II that MPOs 111, 112 and 115 were used, with the
exception of MPO 115, which had been used once in 1980 during exercise
Maitre Guerrier, held in CFB Gagetown. MPO 81, created especially for RV
81, had never been used before. These MPOs operated from May 15 until
July 15, 1981. The following posties gained field experience in this
first Rendezvous Exercise:



Capt R.C. Lamoureux        WO R.J. Lavigne         Sgt A.R. Nadeau
Sgt J.F. Nowlan            MCPL J.C. Bedard        MCPL J.L. Comeau MCPL
J.C. Richards         MCPL D.F. Walls         Cpl B. Babineau
Cpl L.M. Beauchamp         Cpl J.A. Cardinal       Cpl J.D.M. Dulude Cpl
B.L. Ewart             Cpl L.N. Gives          Cpl J.R.M. Gravel Cpl
W.G. MacAulay          Cpl B.D. Milton         Cpl G.P. Molloy
Cpl S.C. Molner            Pte K.B. Orr            Cpl K.M. Rispin
Cpl R. Rohner              Cpl J.G.J. Russell      Cpl J.F. Ryan


      To complete a very busy year, 1981 saw the first edition of the
Corps Journal, the Post Horn, which made it's debut in April.

      1986 started very badly for the Corps. On January 3, Chief Warrant
Officer Ken McDonald died in Stadacona Hospital from a terminal illness.

      1986 was also the 75th Anniversary Year of the Postal Corps. After
the terrible start to the year, the Anniversary was celebrated in CFPU
Trenton by holding a Meet and Greet, an Open House and a Dinner/Dance on
May 2 and 3, followed by a Church Service and a Champagne Breakfast on
the 4th. Those attending included former Directors Lt Col R.V. Hyde and
Lt Col N. Sayer.



50/70
      On May 9, Maj Cormier, Maj T. Murray, WO S. Yetter, Sgt R.
Robertson and Sgt J. Goyette travelled to Toronto to take part in a
presentation of the Canadian Forces Postal Services 75th Anniversary
Commemorative Stamp.

      The First Annual CFPU All Ranks Mess Dinner was held on June 5,
which Colonel A. Popowych, NDHQ/DGT , partook as the guest speaker.

      Also that summer, Major Murray went to Ottawa, to present an oil
painting on behalf of the CFPS to the Ottawa War Museum.

      Not only Trenton celebrated the 75th. In Halifax, Canada Post
Corporation unveiled a special stamp on May 9. Officiating at this
ceremony was Commodore E. Lawder, Chief of Staff Material MARCOM, and Mr
Arnie Clark, Director of Operations Canada Post Nova Scotia. This was
followed on May 17 with a Dinner/Dance. Other units in both Canada and
Europe held functions to celebrate the 75th Anniversary.

X. POSTAL UN OPERATIONS
        A.   UN Emergency Force (UNEF)



      Late in the afternoon of October 29, 1956, fighting in the
Sinai area turned into a major incursion by Israeli forces towards
the Suez canal. On October 5 - 6, Great Britain and France sent in
strong military forces to protect their interests on the Suez
Canal. Lester B. Pearson of Canada suggested at the UN in New York
that an international UN buffer force keep peace in the Sinai and
Suez area. This motion was passed on November 4, and was the
first peace keeping force established by the United Nations.

      On November 5, 1956, the UN General Assembly authorized a
United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), with Canadian General
E.L.M. Burns as Commander. The advance party of sixteen officers
and 132 other ranks left Dorval airport, Quebec, aboard three
North Star aircraft on November 22, arriving at Abu Suweir, Egypt,
on November 24. The main body of 405 all ranks departed aboard the
HMCS Magnificent on December 29 from Halifax, Nova Scotia,
arriving at Port Said, Egypt on January 11, 1957.

      Canada supplied mainly logistics troops, as well as a
Signals and a Reconnaissance Sqn. The RCAF provided No 114 Air
Transport Unit, consisting of 435 and 436 Squadrons, flying C-
119s. On March 1, 1957, 115 ATU relieved 114 ATU and continued to
support the Contingent until the UN pull-out. UNEF was tasked to
enforce the Armistice which included the usual border observation,
and the prevention of military incursions in the area. It grew to
6000 troops with national contingents serving as units under the
UN HQ which was set up at Gaza on the Egyptian/Israeli border,
following the Israeli withdrawal on March 7, 1957. It was here
until Egypt forced its withdrawal on June 13, 1967, just prior to
the Six Day War.

      After consultation with the Universal Postal Union, a free mail
system was worked out between the UN HQ and participating countries in
the UNEF. This plan included the provision for the troops to have free
mail privileges similar to Korea. It provided for a UN Base Post Office
(BPO) to be set up at Naples, Italy and at Abu Suweir in Egypt. After
franking, the outbound mail was bagged by country and shipped to the




51/70
UNBPO Naples, where it was forwarded to the Italian Postal system for
onward transmission.
      Since Canada was supplying most of the administration and logistic
personnel, it became logical that the CPC would be tasked to handle the
UNEF mail. Initially the CPC looked after the Canadian Contingent, but
its role was soon altered when the Assistant Director of Posts (Europe)
went to Italy and Egypt to organize the new UN Post Offices.

      In Italy CAPO 5048 and CFPO 34 opened at Naples in December 1956.
At Abu Suweir CAPO 5049 and CFPO 35 were opened on November 25, 1956. At
first they could do little but collect mail because the Egyptains
initially refused to allow proper UN post offices on her soil. Troops
used Canadian postage for a few weeks and the mails went through Europe.
The new system finally became workable in mid-December.

      The UNEF moved into the Gaza strip in April 1957, along with the
CPC. The UNBPO was moved to Rafah on April 30 together with CAPO 5049.
CFPO 35 remained at Abu Suweir, but CFPO 33 was opened at Rafah as the
Canadian office. CFPO 32 was opened August 12 at Gaza to serve the
Canadians at UNEF HQ. Other Canadians serving with UNTSO were also
permitted to use the CFPO.

      CAPO 5048 and CFPO 34 were closed out on March 1, 1958, and the
UNBPO at Naples was moved to Beirut Airport. This office at Beirut was
really a transfer office for mail bags from UN aircraft to commercial
planes. A UNEF post office was not set up at that time because Lebanon
did not agree to free mail privileges, so all the mail was sent to Gaza
for franking.

      On May 29, 1964, the RCPC lost Pte R.L. Morin due to an accident,
the only postie to be killed during a UN operation.

      On May 27, 1966, President Nasser demanded "a complete withdrawal
and departure of Canadian Forces immediately and not later than forty-
eight hours from the time my cable reaches you."16

 This withdrawal was to start on May 29. From that date until May 31,
eighteen Hercules flights transported 700 men and 232,110 pounds of
equipment from El Arish, Egypt, to Pisa, Italy.

        Some of the "posties" who served in UNEF I were:

Lt R.G.W. Butler         Lt E.R. Butler             Lt.     Lavigne
S/Sgt Steven             S/Sgt Seely                Sgt      Doak
Sgt    Sheehan           Sgt Francis McKinnon       Sgt    D. Parker
Sgt Ralph Hartlan        Sgt Bob Bond               Sgt      Kennedy
Sgt Daniels              Sgt Gaillaid               Cpl    John Coker
Cpl Terry Hartley        Cpl Earl Linden            Cpl    Gus Este
Cpl Ken MacDonald        Cpl Janelle                Cpl    Maille
Pte Francis Currie       Pte R.L. Morin             Pte    Pitts
Pte Chernetski           Pte Masse                  Pte    Arnold
Pte Murray               Pte Norm McGee                    T.B. Wilson
Pte Paul Gertridge           J.A. Boudreau                 L. Chapman
    A.V. Keleher             J.A.D.J.P. Labell             W.C. Parker
    J.P. Kennedy             J.N. Payne                    K.J. Rapp
    J.F. Robert              J.A. Stewart                  A.T. Peck
    Leo McNeil               Bill Gauthier                 Clem Donaldson
    Bob Vinters
      B.    UN Organization in the Congo (UNOC)

      The Belgium Congo became an independent republic on June 30, 1960.
Shortly thereafter a rebellion broke out in the 25,000 member native
Army/Police force, and the many Belgium nationals who had remained in




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country had to flee for their lives. The Belgium Army intervened and the
new republic called for UN assistance.

      The UN Organization in the Congo, known as Organisation des
Nations Unies au Congo (ONUC), was formed on July 14, 1960. The purpose
was to establish and maintain law and order, and to oversee the
withdrawal of the Belgium Army. Over 30 countries, including Canada,
participated in this operation, which ended in June 1964. Colonel Albert
Mendelsohn was chosen as the Commanding Officer of the Canadian advance
party, which arrived in Leopoldville on August 1, 1960. Colonel Paul
Smith assumed command of the Canadian Contingent.

      Canada's mission was to set up and maintain a UN communication
system, and to operate air flights between Dorval Quebec and ONUC HQ at
Leopoldville. No 57 Canadian Signal Squadron was sent to the Congo in
August 1960. Ground crew and other RCAF personnel were also sent to
Njili airfield at Leopoldville, and to Pisa Italy, which had been
selected as the stop-over base.
      The Sigs set up ONUC communications in Leopoldville and other
cities; Luluaburg, Bukavu, Stanleyville, Coguilhatville and
Elizabethville. The Canadian contingent, including officers seconded to
ONUC HQ was approximately 300 personnel. This included, of course, the
usual postal detachment.

      UN Headquarters in New York decided to use the same free mail
system as was used in UNEF. A problem arose over this, in that the new
government of the Congo Republic wished all mail to be processed through
 the main post office in Leopoldville.

      Negotiations between Canadian postal administration and the
Congolese civilian authorities were complicated by the Congolese


political situation. For some seven weeks the Congolese administration
processed incoming and outgoing mails of the Canadian Force and effected
transfer through a United Nations Base Post Office manned by UN civilian
personnel.note 9

      During the first week of September 1960, a political collapse
resulted in all airfields being closed and postal services being
suspended. Military authority was then granted for the RCPC to take
control within the Congo of all Canadian mail to and from the Force.
Immediate advantage was taken to commence direct exchange of dispatches
between Canada and CAPO 5046 , which was established in Leopoldville
proper by the RCPC on September 16, along with CFPO 25, as the postal
regulating station to serve the Force.

      The CPC picked up the mails from the many detachments and
processed them through CFPO 25, to UNBPO and then to Canada via the
RCAF's weekly flights through Pisa, Italy. A revised ONUC mail plan
called for a secondary UNBPO to be established at Pisa, opening on
January 25, 1961, to sort the despatches for European countries.

      Delivery and collection of mail within the Force presented its own
challenges to the posties. The troops were deployed in detachments
throughout the Congo as far as 2500 kilometres from the CAPO. Road or
river travel was not possible and mail service was a high priority on
all UN aircraft flying between the base and the detachments.

      In addition to their seven day a week postal job, the posties
assumed their share of other military duties as well. The most vivid
memory for some was that of being "Orderly Sergeant", which entailed a




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twice a night check of the quarters. The quarters in question were two
buildings, each seven stories high, and of course no elevator service.

      CFPO 25 was never moved from Leopoldville but remained beside CAPO
5046 as the Canadians were deployed in too many small detachments to
warrant a FPO. The Canadian military post offices were closed June 30,
1964, when Canadian forces withdrew from ONUC.

        Members of the RCPC who served in the Congo were;

Capt L.W. Mank           Sgt   E.R. Foubert       Sgt   J. Hodson
Sgt J.C. Gauthier        Sgt   E.W. Ferguson      Sgt   A.J. Gaillard
Cpl J.C.H. Poirier       Cpl   J.P.P. Fillion     Cpl   L.H. Cattell
Cpl J.J.E. Cornellier    Cpl   J.C.C. Provost     Cpl   L. Janelle
        C.    UN Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

      When Cyprus became independent in 1960, the old animosity between
the ethnic Greek and Turkish communities on the Island increased until
fighting broke out in December 1963. By early 1964 the Security Council
gave it's approval for a temporary peacekeeping force.

      A peace-keeping force was authorized on March 4, 1964, tasked to
prevent the recurrence of fighting, to assist in restoring and
maintaining law and order, and to contribute to normal conditions.
Canada's contribution included a HQ, Infantry Battalian, Armoured
Reconnaissance Squadron, RCAF ground crew, and the ever-present Postal
Unit. Commanding Officer of the Canadian Contingent was Colonel E.A.C.
Amy.

      The advance party of the Canadian Contingent reached Nicosia on
March 15, 1964. The main body arrived a few days later. Heavy vehicles
and equipment were transported by the aircraft carrier HMCS Bonaventure,
which entered Cypriot waters on March 30.

      Initially Canadians occupied the mountainous area of Kyrenia,
between the opposing Greek and Turkish forces. The battalion HQ was in
Kyrenia with Contingent HQ and Administration Support Group located in
Nicosia. Later, the Canadians moved to Nicosia to patrol the buffer zone
between opposing forces in the city, known as the "green line". The
recce sqn was not required, therefore the force was cut to about 600
troops, the present size. The main center of tension known as the
Nicosia Zone was commanded by a Canadian, Brigadier A.J. Tedlie.

      Although the Cyprus mission was intended to last only for a few
months, fighting in 1967 and an attempted coup by Greek Army fractions
in 1974 led to the intervention of the Turkish Army - the Turks occupied
the north of the Island. The invasion commenced at 0455 Local time on
July 20, when 6000 Turkish troops supported by 40 tanks landed in the
Kyrenia area and rapidly moved south to Nicosia. Colonel C.E. Beattie,
CO of the Canadian Contingent, managed to negotiate a cease-fire at the
International airport, and the UN was given possession of the airport.

       A cease-fire was arranged on August 16, 1974, under UNFICYP
supervision, but it has meant a continued presence on the Island of UN
and Canadian troops.

      The UN did not provide free mail facilities for UNFICYP; national
contingents looked after their own requirements.

      In the beginning the Canadians used local Cypriot mails, the
existing BFPOs and CFPO 26 which was located aboard the HMCS
Bonaventure. A RCPC detachment opened CAPO 5001 and CFPO 27 at the
Canadian Administrative Area on March 21, 1964. On May 1 CFPO 28 was



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opened to serve the Infantry Battalion and a daily mail run was made
between Nicosia and Kyrenia.

      CFPO 5001 (so called after Jan 1, 1965) became the main   post
office and handled all mails after the two CFPOs were closed;   CFPO 28 in
August 1965 and CFPO 27 in February 1967. However, during the   crisis in
1974, CFPO 30 was opened as a FP from August 12 to September    30, 1974.

        Posties who have did their time in Cyprus include:

R.J. Bernard           C.J. Bishop               J.R.C. Blais
J.J.J. Beliveau        K. Bouillion              R. Cromwell
R.V. Clarke            J.O. Cardinal             L. Cattell
A. Daviault            R.J. Desmarais            J.L. Donaldson
T.P. Dew               C. Dennis                 B.L. Ewart
G. Flowers             J. Giesbrecht             P.C. Gertridge
S. Hartlan             T. Hodder                 T. Hartley
M.J. Joly              G.E. Jones                D.W. Kennedy
J.L.G.S. Laroche       J.P.J. Leduc              D.G. Lee            J.J.D.
L'Heureux            Langford             P. Lanteigne
R.H. MacDonald         A.D. MacLeod              G.R.C. Mandeville
K.J. Malone            G.R. McFadyen             W.M. McGrath
B.D. Milton            J.J. Moreau               S.Molnar
W. Obleman             W. Nowlan                 K.B. Orr
T. O'Quinn             J.A.J.P. Patry            M.S. Roy
K.J. Rapp              L.H. Rose                 T. Rafuse
R. Robertson           B.W.F. Reid               K.M. Rispin
C.V. Rowe              J.C. Roy                  J.G. Russell
G. Richards                  Rasmussen           R. Stepharnoff
Sutherland           R.G. Stygall             J.M.G. St Onge
F.R. Sheppard            V. Sullivan             M. St.Pierre
G.R.J. Thuot             K.T. Tolhurst           S. Trudeau          E.H.R.
Vos              P. Wood                  A. Williams
R.R. Williamson          B. Wilson               C.S. Wray
        D.    UN India-Pakistan Observer Mission (UNIPOM)

      Minor clashes in April 1965 along the India-Pakistan frontier led
to a flare-up. By August the fighting spread to Kashmir along the line
patrolled by UNMOGIP. Early in September 1965 the UN Security Council
created a new India-Pakistan Observer Mission (UNIPOM) to ensure
enforcement of the cease-fire outside Kashmir.
      Canadian Major-General B.F. MacDonald became the force commander
in September 1965. Most of the Observers were detached from UNMOGIP and
UNTSO, with support from 117 Air Transport Unit. HQ was established at
Lahore, Pakistan, and Amritsar, India. Peak military strength reached
200, which included 112 Canadians.note 10
      The Canadians serving at Lahore could sent their mail through CFPO
5000 via the weekly service flight to Canada. CFPO 5000 was operational
from October 3, 1965, until March 23, 1966, the day after UNIPOM was
ordered out of country, with Sgt Payne and Cpl Middleton looking after
the mail.
      From the diary of 117 ATU, a brief reference to the postal effort:
"Wednesday 24 November, apparently there is scads of mail and parcels
aboard the Herc on Sat, for the troops. Saturday 27 November , Here
comes Santa Claus- oh brother! Who's going to sort all the presents that
arrived on the Herc today."17

        E.    UN Emergency Force Middle East (UNEFME)




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      In October 1973 the fourth Arab-Israeli War in twenty-five years
broke out. on two fronts. Following a cease-fire agreement, a UN
Emergency Force was authorized by the UN Security Council. Advance
parties began arriving in Cairo on October 28, 1973.

      In May 1974 a treaty involving the Syrians and the Israelis
established a UN Disengagement Observer Force on the Golan Heights to
supervise the cease-fire in that area.

      Canada and Poland were the two countries selected to provide the
bulk of the administrative and logistics support for UNEF II. Canada's
requirement included the provision of all supplies, the maintenance of
Western bloc vehicles, communications, air support, movement control and
postal services.

      The Force HQ was initially at Camp Shams located at the Cairo
racetrack at Heliopolis, Cairo. Later HQ was moved to Ismailia, nearer
the Suez Canal and the Sinai Desert where the bulk of the UNEF II troops
were deployed. They stayed here until a Peace Treaty between Egypt and
Israel set up the Multinational Force in July 1979, and all members of
UNEF II were withdrawn from the Middle East at this time.

      The first Canadians, which included posties, slept in front of the
betting windows under the grandstand. Soon tents were erected on the
grassy strip between the tote boards and the track.Between November 26
and December 6 a second group of Canadians arrived in theatre, putting
over 1100 all ranks in place by February, 1974. This number wasn't
constant, and averaged 850 troops over the operation.

      The mail plan worked out between HQ in New York and the UNEFME
Canadian postal officer called for free mail system be in place by June
1, 1974. Prior to this date contingents set their mails through local
posts, dipomatic bags or via temporary BPO set up by the Canadians at
Camp Shams. Under free mail, each member was entitled to send five
letters per week weighing not more than 10 grams each to Canada.

      The Canadians moved into their permenant quarters at El Gala Camp,
which was a former RAF Camp that had been abandoned by its 450
inhabitants in 1956 when the British left Egypt. The wiring and plumbing
had deteriorated to the point where a great deal of work was needed to
provide these basic services. Bomb holes from the latest conflict had
badly damaged the roofs, which needed patching. There was also twenty
years of accumulated rubble which had to be removed.

      When the camp had been cleaned, accommodation became
adequate(sic). Officers,CWOs and MWOs were housed two to a room. The
senior NCOs were put into air conditioned trailers, six to a unit. The
junior ranks were quartered in the infamous Ismailia Towers. All
servicewomen were housed in their own barrack block, commonly referred
to as BRABATT, eight to a suite. The camp had a barbershop, laundry,
tailor shop, shoe shop, Canex and, for the troops, the Blue Beret Club.
The camp also had it's own radio station, operating on FM 92.5, and
manned by volunteers from all contingents.Posties who served in Ismailia
will of course remember, fondly or otherwise, the 7-up club, a well
known postie hangout.

      A UN BPO was established in June 1974 in Lebanon, at the Beirut
airport. This BPO was set up to handle the mails for UNDOF as well as
for UNEF II. A few months later, in December 1975, the BPO was
transferred to Tel Aviv, Israel with the commencement of the Lebanese
civil war.

      Canada's 850 man contingent contained a fourteen man postal
detachment, which opened a regulating post office, CFPO 5002, and three



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FPOS, CFPO 111, CFPO 112 and CFPO 113. As Canada was responsible for the
UNEF II posts, it was involved in manning the UN BPOs as well as
servicing the Canadian Contingent.

      "The postal services are one of the most important morale boosters
in the contingent. Canadian mail arrives by both commercial and CF
aircraft several times a week, and is flown out from Tel Aviv on
commercial aircraft almost daily. The postal section in YTel Aviv is a
very busy detachment, accepting bulk shipments from all UN contingents
and loading them on appropriate aircraft. Sgt Bruce Owen called his Tel
Aviv detachment `the biggest little post office in the Middle East.' The
volume is incredible - the Ismailia post office alone handles over
11,000 kg of mail each month."18

      Mail at Ismailia was bagged, tagged and sent via 116 ATU Sqn to
the BPO at Tel Aviv. From there Canadian mail went to Canada via
civilian or service aircraft. As well, a load of mail arrived at Cairo
once a week from Trenton via CF Boeing 707. CFP 5002 and CFPO 111 were
set up at Camp Shams in Cairo on November 13, 1973, and January 8,
1974. It processed Canadian mail using Canadian stamps until June 1974,
when the free mail system came into effect.

      CFPO 5002 then followed the UN HQ to Ismailia in July 1974, and
remained there until it closed out in 1979. The FPOs were moved about as
required. CFP0 111 was first used at Cairo, then it was sent to El
Quneitra on the Golan Heights in June of 1974, where it remained until
the end of March 1981. CFPO 112 was orginially used as a mobile post
office, working out of Rabah until June of 1974, at which time it moved
to Ismalia until 1975, when it was sent to Tel Aviv. It remained in Tel
Aviv until the UN closed out at the end of March 1980. CFPO 113 opened
in Cairo in June 1974. It remained at Camp Shams until August 1974, when
it moved to Ismailia, where it remained as the financial office until
October 31, 1979.

      The Middle East Peace Treaty signed on March 26, 1979, by Israel
and Egypt signalled the end of UNEF II.

      Many of our postal personnel gained their UN ribbon during UNEF
II. If there are names not listed, don't critize the list, write in the
missing posties.

R.D. Adair       G. Alexander    R.P. Atkinson       D.Archibald
J.C. Bedard      A. Bond         E. Bond             M.L. Cleal(Pothier)
S.B. Chapman     R.G. Cooper     J.J.E. Cornellier   R. Charleton
L. Dawson        J. Daley        G. Duviniczule      A. Daviault
M. Deyo          G. Este         L. Finney           E. Flarrow
B. Gauthier      L.N. Gagnon     J.P. Guitard        R.J. Horner
R.E. Hitchens       Himbury      R. Hartlan          J. Hyde
A. Isherwood     M.J. Joly       L.D. Kane           J. Kilby
R.C. Lamoureux   A.D. MacLeod    B.L. MacDougall     G.R.C. Mandeville
T.B. Matheson    W.M. McGrath    S.G. Michelin       M.C.M. Morin
D. McCarthy      G. McDermid     B. Marshall         A. Moraz
G. McKay         T. Murray       G. Morse            R. McCulloch
W. Nowlan        A. Nadeau       T. O'Quinn          B. Owens
W. Parsons       E. Peck         W. Parker           G. Porter
Polloway         G. Richards     M. Rose             D. Rivard
I. Sabean        D.D. Schnare    D.R. Sheppard       R.G. Stygall
M.W. Schmidt     R.A. Stepharnoff D. Shupe           T. Sauber
M. Salter        A. Schuster     C. Switzer          S. Trudeau
L.A. Therens     J.G.R. Trepanier K. Talhurst        E.D. Vincent
P. Wood          C. Woodgate     A. Williams         D.P. Wilson
B. Wilson        E.W. Way        S.E. Yetter




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     F.    UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

      An accord was signed on May 31, 1974, between Syria and Israel.
This accord created a buffer zone between the two countries, and a new
force composed of many units from UNEF was set up. This new force was
designated as the UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), and became
operational on June 6, 1974.
      Again, Canada and Poland had similar logistic responsibilities. HQ
UNDOF was Damascus, Syria. The main body of approximately 1250 troops
was garrisoned in two camps on the Golan Heights near Quneitra- Camp
Fauour on the Syrian side and Camp Ziouani on the Israeli side. Camp
Ziouani was originally a French Foreign Legion post dating from the
1930s. "The camp was nicknamed Camp Roofless because so many of the
buildings had been shelled and were without a roof when the camp was
originally occupied."19
      There were approximately 127 all ranks located in Camp Ziouani.
Officers and senior NCOs were housed in ATCO trailers, while the men
were quartered in thirty-six man barrack blocks, which were divided into
rooms, with six men to a room.

      As to the mail, one UNBPO was set up on the Golan for UNDOF in
1978 and later, in the same year another UNBPO was opened at
Naqoura,Lebanon. The RCPC moved CFPO 111 to the Golan Heights area in
June 1974. At the same time, CFPO 112 was in operation in Tel Aviv,
Israel from December 1975 to the end of March 1980.

      CFPO 5002 was opened at Tiberias, Israel on November 1, 1979, to
handle the Canadian mails in the middle east area.

      Many posties served in the Golan, and continue to serve there. The
list below is incomplete, again, if you know of someone who served,
write in the name.
J.A. Babeux         J.L. Beauchamp           C.J. Bishop
J.C. Bedard         J.J.J. Beliveau          J.O. Cardinal
R. Cooper(5 tours ?) S.B. Chapman            N. Choquette
H. Dewling           J.P. Dew                L. Gives
H. Guthoerl          R. Henry                M. Joly
J.J. Keough          J.R. LaFreniere         J. LeBlanc
P. Lanteigne         D.P. MacAuley           G.R.C. Mandeville
P.K. McKeough        W. McGrath              G. Molloy
R. Mueller           A.Nadeau                W. Nowlan
A.G. O'Quinn(3 tours ?)                      J.A.J.P. Patry(3 tours)
K.M. Rispin          D. Rivard               J.F. Saulnier
P.I. Wood            L.A. Wolfe              H. White
B. Wilson            F. Yunace




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        G.   UN Interm Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

      The Israeli invasion of Lebanon on March 14, 1978, brought about
the establishment by the UN Security Council on March 19, 1978, of the
UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). Among its objections were the
withdrawal of Israeli forces, restoration of peace and security and the
return of the area to the Lebanese government.

      Canada responded to the request for assistance. A signal troop was
detached from UNEF II at Ismailia on March 23, 1978. The Sigs were
quartered at UNIFIL HQ in Camp Pearson at Naqoura, Lebanon, and remained
until October 1, 1978.

      The free mail system operated in conjunction with UNEF and a UN
BPO was set up at Naqoura in June 1978 for the 6000 troops involved. The
Canadians opened CFPO 114 from June 21 until September 30, 1978, with
Sgt Robbie Robertson as Postmaster, the only postie in Lebanon.

        H.   UN Iran/Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG)

      On August 8, 1988, the UN Secretary General announced a cease-
fire agreement in the war between Iraq and Iran. The next day a UN Iran-
Iraq Military Observer Group of 350 personnel from 24 countries was
authorized for the area. Their main tasks were to observe the ceasefire,
to monitor troop withdrawals and to assist in the exchange of POWs.

      Canada's main support to UNIIMOG was 15 UNMOS. In addition, the UN
requested that a Canadian Signals Unit be provided on a short term basis
until civilian staff could be set in place to operate communications. In
response to this, 88 Canadian Signals Unit, consisting of 525 troops was
despatched to the Persian Gulf in August 1988. The sigs were divided
between Iran and Iraq, and communications were established between the
cease-fire line, the two UNIIMOG HQs, and UN HQ in New York.

      Early mail was sent by UN pouch until the Postal Unit was in
place. CFPO 5003 was opened in Baghdad, Iraq , and operated from August
24 until December 16, 1988. At the same time, CFPO 5054 operated out of
Bakhtaran, Iran, closing a bit earlier, on November 12, 1988. Free mail
was not authorized for this operation.

      During this operation, CFPO 5003 was manned by Sgt Michael
Beauchamp along with Cpl Marcel Emond. CFPO 5054 was run by Sgt Alain
Daviault and Cpl J.J.Campbell.




        I.   UN Transition Assistance Group Namibia (UNTAG)



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      In April 1989 the UN Security Council approved the establishment
of an Assistance Group in South West Africa (Namibia). The main
responsibility was to supervise the territory's transition to Nationhood
by April 1, 1990. This included overseeing elections and to supervise
the withdrawal of the South African Defense Force from Namibian
territory.

      The 4,700 menber group involving 21 countries included 250
Canadians, mostly administrators and logistics. Later in the operation
approximately 100 RCMP arrived to assist in keeping law and order during
the transition period.

      CFPO 5004 flew in with the main body, and opened for operations
the next day, on April 18, 1989. Free mail was authorized for all units,
but the Canadians were the only ones to initially take advantage of this
"freebee". Later, under direction from the senior postal officer, a
Danish Major, other contingents followed in the posting of free mail.
Canadian mails were routed both in and out of country via Windhoek,
Johannesburg, Frankfort, London and finally Toronto. A long involved
route, but one that worked very well, and other than the usual delayed
despatch now and then, the Canadians enjoyed daily mail - call.

      Distances were long in this operation, with a Canadian detachment
being located in Keepmansoep, 500 kms south of Windhoek. The posties
made a weekly run to this outpost, along with a member of the financial
section. There was also a small detachment located 500 kms north, close
to the Angola border. Mail despatches to this outpost was arranged with
the Spanish air detachment, who did flights three times a week.

      The operation closed out early, in January of 1990. During the ten
month tour, CFPO 5004 was manned first by Sgt Lloyd Dawson and MCPL
Junior Molloy, who in turn were replaced by Sgt Ron Clarke and MCPL Fern
Savoie.
XII. POSTAL OPERATIONS OTHER THAN UN
        A.   International Commission for Control and Supervision
                              (ICCS)

      The second International Commission was established following the
Paris Agreement of 1973, providing that a temporary ceasefire be
established in South Vietnam. This ICCS replaced an earlier
International Commission for Supervision and Control (ICSC), and
consisted of four delegations: Canada, Hungary, Indonesia and Poland.
      The Canadians departed Dorval Airport, Quebec, in late January,
arriving at 0330 local in the Tan Son Nhut Airbase, Saigon, on January
29, 1973, and were withdrawn on July 31, 1973. Major General Duncan A.
McAlpine was the Commander of the Canadian Contingent. Teamsites in
South Vietnam were set up in seven numbered regions with the ICCS HQ a
seperate region in Saigon.

      Taking a lesson from the first Commission, this time a postal unit
went with the Canadians, and CFPO 5005 was opened on February 1 and ran
until July 27, 1973, in Saigon. Sgt Pollaway and Cpl Ron Clarke were the
two posties for this operation. Mail was collected on a daily basis from
the more concentrated areas by an air run from Tan Son Nhut. This ICCS
air run carried virtually all mail and passengers throughout South
Vietnam.
      Besides the UN medal, a select few also received the Golden
Butterfly Award. This was a small gold pin worn discreetly behind the
lapel. It could be worn by a Canadian on the ICCS who had sex with at



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least ten Vietnamese women. History can only wonder if any of our
posties have such a pin.

      A total of thirty-five manned sites were located in the South
to help supervise the truce. Many could only be reached by helicopter,
which came under fire frequently by the VC troops in the field. To them
anything that flew was hostile.

      Two major problems presented themselves to the members of the
ICCS; serious fighting in the general proximity and the threat of
malaria.

      Canada was to serve with the ICCS for sixty days, however on May
29 Canada extended the tour for an extra month. The last members of the
Canadian team flew out of South Vietnam on July 31, 1973.




        B.   Multinational Force and Observers (MFO)

      On March 31, 1986, Canada became involved in the Multinational
Force and Observers (MFO). As the background to this force, on March 26,
1979, Egypt and Israel signed a US sponsered Peace Treaty. As a result
of a protocol signed in 1981, the MFO was created to replace the larger
UNEF II force in the Sinai. The HQ was located at El Gorah, Egypt,
thirty kilometers south of El Arish. Nations involved in this operation
included, besides Canada, Columbia, Fiji, Netherlands, Uruguay, United
Kingdom, France, Italy, New Zealand and the United States.

      "The actual MFO took up its duties of observation in all four
zones and occupation of Zone 'C' on 23 April 1982 as Israel completed
her withdrawl from the Sinai. It basically carries on the same role as
the former UN Force, manning a buffer zone between the two nations. "20




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      Canada contributed air support, consisting of C135 aircraft with
408 Squadron, CH 135 Twin Huey helicopters from a rotary wing (RWAU),
administration and logistics personnel, and one postie, who worked out
of the American Post Office.

      MCpl Alain Daviault was the first postie with the MFO, to be
followed in turn by Gary Coffey, R.R. Williamson, Alain Lemieux, Andre
Gagnon, and finially Glen Thompson.
                             IN MEMORIAL

HILTON, Sgt William H.            3rd Cdn Div Field Train,France
                                                      26 Sept 1916
BRITTON, Sgt Arthur W.            6th Cdn Inf Brigade,France
                                                      21 Mar 1917
THOMPSON, Sgt Vernon D.           3rd Cdn Div HQ FPO ,      France
                                              27 Sept 1918
HAMMILL, Sgt Albert H.            36th Casualty Station , Belgium
                                               26 Nov 1918
WILKINSON, Sgt Ernest M.          Military Hospital,Rouen ,France
                                              19 Apr 1919
SNIDER, Cpl Lloyd G.              Died in Ottawa          , Canada
                                              17 Mar 1940
WATT, Sgt James C.                Died in Scotland        , UK
                                             11 Jan 1941
RICHARDS, Cpl Daniel W.           Died in England         , UK
                                              6 Feb 1941
MILLAR, Cpl William               Died in England         , UK
                                             10 Aug 1941
YOUNG, Pte Edward D.              Died in England         , UK
                                             16 Sept 1942
BELL, Pte Wilfred S.              Died of injuries,       , UK
                                              25 Dec 1942
BAYLEY, Sgt Harold J.             Died in England         , UK
                                             11 Mar 1943
SMITH, Pte William G.             Died in England         , UK
                                              6 Apr 1943
McKEOWN, A/L/Cpl Robert H.        Killed in action,Ortona Italy
                                               5 Dec 1943
McINTYRE, Pte Donald L.           Died in England         , UK
                                             18 Mar 1944
CADIEUX, Pte Lomer                Drowned in Quebec       , Canada
                                               5 May 1944
WADDINGTON, A/Sgt Harry E.        Died in Alberta         ,Canada
                                             18 July 1944
McALPINE, Pte John B.             Died of injuries,       , UK
                                              28 July 1944
BRIGGS, Lieut Joseph S.           Killed in action         ,Belgium
                                               25 Oct 1944
DUMMER, L/Cpl Henry               Killed in action         ,Belgium
                                               31 Dec 1944
WARMAN, Cpl Albert H.             Died in Canada           ,Canada
                                              24 Feb 1945
WILSON, Sgt Hugh                  Died in Ontario         , Canada
                                              16 Aug 1945
PEARSON, Pte William E.           Died of injuries,       , UK
                                               6 Oct 1945
ASHBERY, QMS/WO2 Hedley W.        Died in Ontario       , Canada
                                               8 Feb 1946
IRELAND, Lieut James E.           Died in Ontario       , Canada
                                              18 July 1955
HILL, Pte William H.              Died in Ontario       , Canada
                                              28 Oct 1955


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BURNS, Cpl William K.              Died,auto accident    ,    France
                                               28 Nov 1957
LIBOIRON, Pte Julien P.            Drowned,Canada        ,    Canada
                                                3 Mar 1958
KEELER, WO2 Clifford F.            Died in Ontario       ,    Canada
                                               12 Apr 1959
MOORE, Pte Richard K.              Died in Alberta       ,    Canada
                                               26 July 1960
DEAN, Cpl Robert                   Died in Alberta       ,    Canada
                                               31 Jan 1961    MORIN, Pte
L.R.(JOE QUEBEC)        Died in accident      , Egypt
                                    29 May 1964
LINDEN, Cpl E.H.                   Died of Heart Attack ,     Canada
                                               16 Sept 1975
MacDONALD, CWO Kenneth             Died of illness       ,    Canada
                                                3 Jan 1986




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ANNEX A

                            COMMANDING OFFICERS
               1 BASE POST OFFICE/CANADIAN HOME POSTAL DEPOT
                        CANADIAN FORCES POSTAL UNIT

        1964               MAJOR     N.D. SAYER, CD

        1965 - 12 May      CAPTAIN     C.J. MIKULA, CD

        1965 - 22 Jul      MAJOR     E.A. WIENS, CD

        1968               MAJOR     C.J. MIKULA, CD

        1972               MAJOR     M.T.M. ROBERTS, CD

        1975               MAJOR     H.W. OSBORNE, CD
        1978               MAJOR     G.B. HUNT, CD

        1980               MAJOR     J.H. RICHARD, CD

        1982               CAPTAIN     L.F. MACNEIL, CD

        1983               MAJOR     G.A. MCDERMID, CD

        1985               MAJOR     A.J. CORMIER, CD

        1986               MAJOR     T.W. MURRAY, CD
        1988               MAJOR     K. ZELLE, CD

        1989 - 6 Sept      CAPTAIN     J.J. BELIVEAU, CD

        1989 - 10 Dec      MAJOR     R.C. LAMOUREUX, CD




64/70
ANNEX B

                              POSTMASTERS
                               CFS ALERT
                                MPO 310
                             OPENED APR 73

          DEC 72 -   JUN 73      MCPL S.E. YETTER
          JUL 73 -   DEC 73      CPL F.C. CAPSON
          DEC 73 -   MAY 74      MCPL J.J. KEOUGH
          MAY 74 -   NOV 74      SGT K.C. MACDONALD
          NOV 74 -   MAY 75      SGT J.J. CORNEILLIER
          MAY 75 -   MAY 75*     SGT A. TIMKEW
          MAY 75 -   NOV 75      SGT R.A. SUTHERLAND
          NOV 75 -   MAY 76      SGT A. MOROZ
          MAY 76 -   NOV 76      SGT J.A. ROSENLEHNER
          NOV 76 -   DEC 76*     SGT R.J. LAVIGNE
          DEC 76 -   JUN 77      MCPL D.D. ATKINSON
          MAY 77 -   NOV 77      SGT W.A. GAUTHIER
          NOV 77 -   MAY 78      SGT H.P. BURNS
          MAY 78 -   NOV 78      WO R.M. HARTLAN
          NOV 78 -   FEB 79      SGT M. FLOWERS
          FEB 79 -   AUG 79      SGT G. JONES
          AUG 79 -   FEB 80      SGT A. TIMKEW
          FEB 80 -   AUG 80      SGT E.W. FLARROW
          AUG 80 -   FEB 81      SGT J.L.C. DONALDSON
          FEB 81 -   AUG 81      SGT D.R. SHEPPARD
          AUG 81 -   FEB 82      WO L.E. GREENING
          FEB 82 -   AUG 82      SGT J.W.D. EMERY
          AUG 82 -   FEB 83      SGT T.B. MATHESON
          FEB 83 -   JUL 83      SGT D.R. SHEPPARD
          JUL 83 -   JAN 84      SGT L.D. KANE
          JAN 84 -   JUN 84      SGT R.V. CLARKE
          JUN 84 -   DEC 84      SGT R.J.A. DESMARAIS
          NOV 84 -   MAY 85      SGT A.G. O'QUINN
          MAY 85 -   NOV 85      SGT D.F. WALLS
          NOV 85 -   MAY 86      SGT O.R. MCCULLOCH
          MAY 86 -   NOV 86      SGT B. WILSON
          OCT 86 -   APR 87      SGT T. HARTLEY
          APR 87 -   OCT 87      SGT J. GOYETTE
          OCT 87 -   APR 88      SGT E. GOUMANS
          APR 88 -   OCT 88      SGT A.D. MACLEOD
          OCT 88 -   APR 89      SGT(W) M. GOUMANS
          APR 89 -   OCT 89      SGT C. BISHOP
          OCT 89 -   APR 90      SGT R.A. MUELLER
          APR 90 -   SEPT 90     SGT C. ROWE
          SEPT 90-   FEB 91      SGT R. ROHNER
          FEB 91 -   AUG 91      SGT A. DAVIAULT
          AUG 91 -   FEB 92      SGT D. RIVARD
           * - did   not complete a full six month tour




65/70
ANNEX C


                   DIRECTORS OF POSTAL SERVICES


          COLONEL J. L. BIGGAR                         1911

          COLONEL G. W. ROSS, DSO (OVERSEAS)           1914-1918

          COLONEL E. D. UNDERWOOD, OBE                 1942-1946

          COLONEL G. W. ROSS, OBE, VD (OVERSEAS)       1941-1944

          COLONEL G. H. LAWRENCE (OVERSEAS)            1944-1945
          COLONEL G. W. ROSS, OBE, VD                  1952-1954

          LT COL    T. BOND , MC, ED                   1954-1956

          LT COL    R. V. HYDE, CD                     1956-1967

          LT COL W. A. COLES, CD                       1967-1970

          LT COL R. G. DEZIEL, CD                      1970-1974

          LT COL N. D. SAYER, CD                       1974-1978
          COLONEL R. B. AUCHTERHONIE, OMM, CD          1978-1986

          LT COL J. H. RICHARD, CD                     1986-1988

          LT COL G. A. MCDERMID, CD                    1988- *



          COLONEL T. BOND, MC, ED             COLONEL COMMANDANT
                   29 AUGUST 1963         -     27 AUGUST 1972




66/70
                              NOTES


Note 1..........Edward Wells,Mailshot, pg 12 gives 1/4 oz as the
           maximum weight. Baily and Toop in Vol I, The
                Canadian Military Posts, give 1/2 oz as the
           authorized weight.

Note 2..........Lieut Col K.A. Murray's letter to Lieut Col R.V.
           Hyde dated 20 April 1960 is used as the main source
        for this chapter.

Note 3..........Director of Supplies and Transport, who became
           Quartermaster General of Supplies and Transport
      during the First World War.
Note 4..........The main reference for this chapter was Lieut Col
          K.A. Murray's Historical Report (see sources).

Note 5..........Later Brigadier General W. Price, CB, CMG, CBE, VD

Note 6..........See list of names at end of chapter. Bailey and
           Toop, in Vol I of The Canadian Military Posts give
       15 as the number of men who went to France with
  Lieut Murray.

Note 7..........L/Cpl Henry Dummer, killed in action December 31,
          1944.

Note 8..........The main reference for this chapter was Bailey and
           Toop, Vol III, The Canadian Military Posts

Note 9..........Air letters were sent from New York and were first
           used by the Canadian contingent on October 22, 1960.

Note 10.........Gaffen,In the Eye of the Storm, pg 168, gives
           MacDonald's rank as Brigadier, promoted to Major
      General effective end September 1965.




67/70
                                REFERENCES




        1.    (unknown), Canadian Archives
        2.    Postal Service Down the Centuries, pg 29
        3.    Ibid, pg 30-31
        4.    Ibid, pg 31
        5.    Letter, Otter to Mulock, dated July 30, 1900
        6.    Postal Service Down the Centuries, pg 31
        7.    Letter, Currie to Ross, dated April 16, 1919
        8.    Lt Col K.A. Murray, After Action Report dated 1919
        9.    Canadian Army Journal, Fall 1961, pg 112
        10.   Ibid, pg 117
        11.   Bailey & Toop, Canadian Military Posts,Vol III, pg 12
        12.   Ibid, pg 36
        13.   Ibid, pg 37
        14.   Ibid, pg 43
        15.   Ibid, pg 48
        16.   Gaffen,In the Eye of the Storm, pg 68
        17.   Ibid, pg 175
        18.   Sentinel, Vol 14 No 5
        19.   Gaffen,In the Eye of the Storm, pg 142




68/70
                                SOURCES



        PRIMARY:

Burgess, Capt F.T.            After Action Report, dated   December 5,
                       1954
Lamoureux,Capt R.C.         RV 81 May - June 1981 Summary
Murray, Lt Col K.A.         Letter, Lt.Col K.A. Murray to Lt.Col.R.V.
                         Hyde dated April 20, 1960
Murray, Lt Col K.A.         Historical Memorandum of the Postal
                            Service with the Armies in France,
                            Belgium and Germany 1914 - 1919, dated
                            1 August, 1919
                            1914-1919, dated August 1, 1919
Peebles, Lt A.A.            Historical Record of Canadian Postal
                       Corps in Britain, dated November 1,1917.



SECONDARY:

Bailey, W.J. & Toop, E.R.    Canadian Military Post Offices to 1986,
                             c.1987, Unitrade Press,Toronto
Bailey, W.J. & Toop, E.R.    The Canadian Military Post, Vol I,
                        c.1984 Edward B. Proud
Bailey, W.J. & Toop, E.R.    The Canadian Military Post, Vol III,
                        c.1990 Edward B. Proud
Duquid, Col A. Fortescue     The Canadian Forces in the Great War
                             1914-1919 c. 1938, Ottawa
Emmenegger, J.L.             The Postal Facilities of the United
                        Nations Disengagement Observer
                   Force (UNDOF), April & June 1977, Postal
                History International
Gaffen, Fred                 In the Eye of the Storm, c.1987, Toronto
Mathieson, William D.        My Grandfather's War, c.1981, Toronto
Melady, John                 Korea: Canada's Forgotten War, c.1985,
                        Toronto
Morton, Desmond              The Last War Drum, c. 1972, Toronto
Morton, Desmond              A Military History of Canada, c. 1985,
                         Edmonton
Postal Department            Postal Service Down the Centuries,
                        c. 1974,Ottawa
Sanger, Clyde, ed.           Canadians and the United Nations,
                        c.1988,Ottawa

Wells, Edward                Mailshot, c. 1987, Royal Engineers,
                        Kent, UK
Wood, Lt.Col Herbert         Strange Battleground, c. 1966, Ottawa




MAGAZINES;BOOKLETS

Canadian Army Journal, Vol XV, Nov 1961
Canadian Forces Personnel Posted to Duty With The United Nations in the
Middle East, dated 1978
Sentinel, Vol 14 No 5, dated 1978




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D Post Newsletter, No 1/75, 2/75, 4/75, 1/76, 2/76, 1/77, 1/78, 2/78,
1/80




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