Excretory System of Body by Rafique1956

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									   Overview of
Excretory Systems
     of Body
Anatomy of Kidney
  Dr. Muhammad Rafique
      Anatomy, DIMC
Define the Excretion
Enumerate the different excretory organs
 of Body
Know facts about the renal system
Discuss the external features of kidney,
 ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
Describe the longitudinal section of
 Word made up of
  to components
Ex means  out
Crete means  to
That means to flow
  out of waste
  product from the
     Different organs for Excretion
 Kidneys:
Are the primary and major
  sources, to excrete out water
  and electrolytes from the body
  in form of urine
 Intestinal Tract:
The undigested food excreted
  from the body as the feces
  through anus
 Skin:
Water, salt & other metabolic
  products also excreted from
  skin as the sweat which
  secreted sweat glands
                   Glands of Skin
Sweat Glands
Sweat glands are long tubular
  glands, coiled at their ends,
  located in the dermis of the
  skin. They produce a watery
  fluid called sweat which
  consists of 98% water and
  2% solid residue.
Organic : Urea, uric acid,
  creatinine, volatile fatty
Inorganic: Sodium chloride,
  potassium chloride and
                Glands of Skin   Cont…
Sebaceous Glands
Sebaceous glands are attached
  to the hair follicle. Each
  gland consists of a small
  branched alveoli which
  produces an oily or waxy
  substance called sebum.
  Excretory substances like
  waxes, sterols, fatty acids
  and traces of other
  hydrocarbons are eliminated
  along with the sebum.
     Different organs for Excretion
 Lungs:
CO2 and water vapors are
  the metabolites and
  excreted from the body
  through nostrils
 Liver:
Dead and debris, toxicants
  and excess of amino
  acids are removed from
  the body through
  different source with
  help of blood
Overview of Gross Anatomy of Excretory System

The Excretory
 System consists
Urinary bladder
        Facts About Renal System
The kidneys function as a pair of filters through
 which about one liter of blood circulates each
 minute. The entire blood in the body passes through
 them in 5 - 6 minutes. In a day it filters 1800 liters
 of blood which is 400 times the blood volume.
Tea, coffee and alcohol are beverages that increase
 the formation of urine. They are termed diuretics.
Each human kidney contains more than 1.2 million
        Facts About Renal System
When a kidney is damaged or diseased, the other
 kidney is able to compensate for it. So a person can
 lead a normal life with only one kidney.
A normal adult excretes 1 - 1.8 litres of urine per
An artificial kidney (dialysing machine) is used for
 dialysis. When the kidneys of a patient stop
 functioning, life can be prolonged through dialysis.
Kidney transplants have had good success rates
 and have given fresh lease of life to patients.
Kidneys are the paired
  the paired organs
Bean shaped, located
  into right and left
  lumbar regions
The right kidney is
  slightly at the lower
  level as compared to
  left kidney due to
  presence of liver in
  left hypochondrium
                       Kidneys       Cont…..
Kidney has:
Two border:
Lateral; Convex
Medial; Concave, has depression
  at the middle called as Hilum.
  Hilum means opening through
  structures enter and leave the
The structures which entered the
  kidney are Renal artery & renal
  nerve fibers.
The structures which leave kidney
  are the renal vein, renal pelvis
  and ureter and lymphatic
                     Kidneys    Cont…..
Kidneys has:
Two Poles:
Superior pole; on the medial
  and posterior aspect of
  superior pole there is a
  supra-renal gland on each
Two Surfaces:
Anterior Surface related to
  different viscera
Posterior Surface; related to
  muscles of posterior
  abdominal wall and lower
  two ribs
The ureters are long tubes
  like structures convey the
  urine from the kidneys to
  the urinary bladder.
Superiorly the ureter begins
  at the dilated part called
  as the Renal Pelvis. The
  renal pelvis is the
  beginning of ureter
  within the mass of
  kidney, it first receives
  the urine and becomes
  narrow to form the
                 Urinary Bladder
Urinary bladder is situated
   within the hypogastrium,
   below the pubic symphysis,
   in the pelvic cavity
It receives the urine with help
   of two ureters and stores
   urine form some period.
Urinary bladder is a triangular
   shaped organ has an apex, a
   base and two lateral and a
   posterior surfaces
             Urinary Bladder Cont….
Empty bladder entirely
  located below the pubic
  symphysis, but urinary
  bladder distended it can
  be palpated per
The urinary bladder
  continuous downward
  as the base which gives
  another tube like
  structure the urethra
Urethra is a tube like
   structure which excretes
   the urine from the body.
   The urine is stored with
   in the urinary bladder
   and when desired
   occurred the urinary
   bladder expels the urine
   within the urethra.
In the female the urethra is
   short and has only one
   part which opens into
   vulva of female that is to
   the exterior
Urethra Cont…
In the male the urethra
    has three parts
1. Porstatic part
2. Membranous part
3. Penile Part
Ultimately urine
    excreted to exterior
    through urethra
    Longitudinal Section of Kidney
A longitudinal
 section of the
 kidney shows
 three distinct
Renal Cortex
Renal Medulla
Renal Pelvis
                Renal Cortex
This is the outer
 pale red colored
 layer. It contains
 the malphigian
 corpuscles, the
 proximal and
 distal parts of the
 renal tubule.
                   Renal Medulla
This forms the inner
  dark red zone and
  contains the Henle's
  loop and the
  collecting tubules,
  present in the form
  of renal pyramids.
  The conical
  pyramids project into
  the renal pelvis.
                      Renal Pelvis
This is a large funnel-
  shaped region behind
  the renal medulla.
  Urine flows into the
  renal pelvis through
  minute openings at
  the tips or papillae of
  the pyramids. The
  urine that is collected
  is passed down to the
  ureters into the

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