Comparing and Contrasting Labor Unions

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					Name: _____________________________________________________________________________Comparing and Contrasting Labor Unions

                                                                     General Vocabulary

Collective Bargaining = Collective bargaining is the name given to               Lobbying = The most common method of shaping public policy in the United
negotiations between employers and labor unions over working conditions          States, lobbying embodies the formal, organized attempt to influence
and wages. (CB)                                                                  legislation. Lobbying is carried out through a variety of means, but for the
                                                                                 most part, lobbyists directly contact legislators and their staffs in an attempt
Closed Shop = A closed shop is a company in which all the employees are          to influence congressional votes. (L)
union members, and being a member of a union is a condition of
employment. The employer is required to hire only union members except in        Sit-Down Strike = the sit-down strike was part of a new strategy adopted by
cases where a union member is not available. In such situations, a nonunion      labor organizers in the 1930s; as the name implies, workers simply sat down
worker may be hired with the requirement that he or she become a union           in the factory and refused to leave. Workers at companies like General
member once employed. (CS)                                                       Motors and Firestone effectively used the sit-down strike, as did glass and
                                                                                 textile workers, electricians, dressmakers, and waitresses. (SDS)

Directions: Your task is to learn about the four primary labor unions of the Second Industrial Revolution and compare and contrast their
membership, leadership, tactics, successes and failures (outcomes). Use the handout reading as well as textbook pages 244-249 to complete the
information organizer on the back of this page.
   Membership = What groups of people filled the ranks of this union?
   Leadership = What were the names of the union’s leaders?
   Goals = What changes/reforms did the union hope to achieve?
   Tactics = What specific actions did the union take to meet their goals?
   Outcomes = What were the successes/failures of the union? What happened to the union over time?
                  National Labor Union               Knights of Labor           American Federation of Labor      Industrial Workers of the World
                                                                                                                  Socialists and trade unions,
           City trade assemblies, national    Men, women, whites, blacks,                                         unskilled and exploited
                                                                               Skilled workers from many
Membership trade unions, reform               skilled, unskilled, citizens,                                       workers, immigrants,
           organizations                      immigrants                                                          minorities, women, migrant
                                                                                                                  Bill Haywood, Eugene V.
                                              Uriah Stevens, Terence           Samuel Gompers, William
Leadership   William Sylvis, David Davis                                                                          Debbs, Mother Jones, Daniel
                                              Powderly, James Sovereign        Greene
                                                                                                                  De Leon
                                                                                                                  One big union to control the
                                                                                                                  means of production and
                                              Abolishing child labor, equal
                                                                                                                  distribution (Marxist/communist
             Better working conditions, 8-    pay for equal work, 8-hour
                                                                               Higher wages, shorter hours,       struggle), abolish divisions
Goals        hour work day, equal pay for     work day, creation of a Bureau
                                                                               other economics issues             among workers, achieve fair
             equal work                       of Labor Statistics in the
                                                                                                                  and equal working conditions
                                              federal government
                                                                                                                  and government support for
                                                                               Distanced itself from
                                                                                                                  Direct action, strikes, (general
                                                                               communist and socialist
                                              Arbitration, boycotts,                                              strike in the future to overthrow
                                                                               organizations, negotiated labor
                                              cooperatives, though they did                                       the capitalistic system, smaller
                                                                               contracts, strike only when
             Legislative reform, lobbying, no not support strikes they did use                                    strikes in the short term),
Tactics                                                                        necessary, focused on day-to-
             strikes                          strikes sometimes, legislative                                      educational campaigns, songs,
                                                                               day working conditions instead
                                              pressure (used after                                                graphics, speeches, literature,
                                                                               of social or business practices,
                                              Haymarket)                                                          sit-down strike, chain picketing,
                                                                               collective bargaining, closed
                                                                                                                  car caravans
                                                                               Congress passed labor laws,        Civil rights advances, fought
                                                                               but the Supreme Court              against the government for
                                              Second strike against Jay
                                                                               overruled some, merged with        protection of 1st Amendment
             Transformed into the National    Gould’s railroad empire and
                                                                               the CIO (Congress of Industrial    rights, anti-military and anti-
             Labor Reform Party,              the Haymarket Square Riot in
                                                                               Organizations) in 1955, did        war stance caused them to be
             nominated David Davis for        May 1886 destroyed the
Outcomes                                                                       achieve better working             unpopular in WWI, legacy of
             president, lost the 1872         reputation and support of the
                                                                               conditions (minimum wage,          organizing tactics for groups,
             election, was disbanded in       union, most members joined
                                                                               maximum working hours,             led to the mass union of the
             1873                             the AFL or local trade unions
                                                                               workers compensation, end to       CIO and inclusion of women in
                                              comprised of skilled workers
                                                                               child labor = all during the       labor leadership and
                                                                               1930s)                             membership

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