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Report on Agriculture Syllabus for Secondary Schools in Somaliland

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Report on Agriculture Syllabus for Secondary Schools in Somaliland Powered By Docstoc
					         REPUBLIC of SOMALILAND




SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM and SYLLABUSES




              2007




                     1
                                                                                    CONTENTS
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................3

AGRICULTURE ...............................................................................................................................................8

BIOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................................36

BUSINESS STUDIES……………………………………………………………………………………….53

CHEMISTRY………………………………………………………………………………………………...71

ENGLISH…………………………………………………………………………………………………….87

GEOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………………………92

HISTORY.......................................................................................................................................................108

MATHEMATICS …………………………………………………………………………………………119

PHYSICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………136

SOMALI LANGUAGE……………………….…………............................................................................153

TEACHING ………………………………………………………………………………………………184.
                                                                                                                         Introduction




GENERAL INTRODUCTION
The Somaliland National Education Policy for Secondary education states:
“Secondary education will aim to:
   Build on the primary education base the foundation required for advanced, academic, vocational and professional training.
   Provide broad academic as well as practical and pre-vocational skills to those selected into secondary schools.
   Lay special emphasis on mathematics and science to meet the human resource needs of the country.
   Provide each student with the opportunity to achieve the full development of his/her talents by offering options for specializations.
   Equip students with life skills based on instructions on morals, health education, and HIV / AIDS pandemic, for the development of a socially
    acceptable character in accordance with Islamic principles.
  Policy directions for secondary education
   Expansion of opportunities for primary school graduates for all groups; boys, girls, pastoralists and the economically needy to benefit from
    secondary education.
   Provision of more opportunities to primary school level graduates, including girls and those from hardship areas, to enrol in and complete
    secondary education.
   Creation of a gender responsive school environment.
Curriculum in Secondary Schools
To achieve these objectives, the general secondary curriculum will consist of subjects in which the academic and practical are integrated in order to
develop problem-solving skills and a range of cognitive abilities. The medium of instruction for all subjects, other than Somali, Arabic and Islamic
Studies, will be English.
The curriculum should have the following core subjects; Islamic Studies, Somali, English, Arabic, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology,
History, Geography, Physical Education,
Where possible the following areas will be included at some stage in the curriculum as electives after form 2: ICT, agriculture, business education, art,
music, and folklore, environmental and health education. Students can drop some subjects and take elective options.”




                                                                           3
                                                                                                                        Introduction
The Somaliland Secondary school syllabuses were prepared initially in 2000 in consultation with the secondary school teachers of Somaliland, the
Ministry of Education, the Head of Curriculum, and with advice from CfBT under the European Union funded Institutional Support for Secondary
Education in Somaliland (ISSES) project.

The first review of the syllabuses then took place in January 2001. Following this review, amendments were made to the curriculum and the Form IV
syllabus was developed. Since then a subsequent review of the curriculum occurred in early 2005.
In December 2005 a stakeholders workshop was held evaluating the early 2005 review. Syllabus‟ rewriting workshops followed and subsequent
amendments to the curriculum were made by the end of 2007.
The syllabuses have now been reviewed and amended to meet the requirements of the Somaliland Ministry of Education National Education Policy
and specifically the „Education Sector Strategic Plan July 2007-2011‟ particularly page 29:

“The Ministry of Education …….take steps towards enhancing quality and relevance of secondary education with a view to ensuring that school
leavers possess appropriate skills for national socio-economic development and their own personal development. This includes putting in place
measures to ensure greater relevance by incorporating life skills, environment issues, health and HIV/AIDS education in the secondary education
curriculum …..that the curriculum is more relevant to labour market needs from 2009.”

The main curriculum changes, agreed in all the workshops, were:

1. For pupils entering form one, there will be an English language bridging course (with emphasis on listening skills) for the first six to eight weeks
of the first semester. The majority of form 1 syllabus will be covered in the second semester and final syllabus topics covered in form 2. Schemes of
work should be adjusted accordingly.

2. At the end of form 2 pupils will take an exam covering form1 and 2 work. The exam is also an exit point for those students who want to leave
school and possibly further their studies

3. For pupils entering form three, students will be able to select subjects.

    Mathematics, English, and Arabic/Islamic Studies will be compulsory.
    Compulsory subjects should receive 5 lessons per week
    Pupils can choose to follow the Science course or the Arts course. Those specializing in
     Science may take one Art subject or those taking the Arts can choose a science subject.
     However, the schools will decide what range of subjects they can offer within their
     teaching capacity. The norm will be a divide between those specializing in the social
     studies and those specializing in sciences.



                                                                               4
                                                                                                                        Introduction
      If the school permits then pupils can choose to take either Agriculture and Business Studies. It is recommended that Agriculture is taken with
       the science subjects and Business Studies taken by the Arts stream.
      Agriculture or Business Studies will be offered for examinations in June 2009.

4. In form 3 and 4 pupils will study a minimum of 7 and a recommended maximum of 9 subjects. However any student can take more than the
prescribed number of subjects if school resources are available and the choices can fit into the school timetable

5. At the end of form 4, as in the past, there will a school leaving exam covering school work completed from form one to form four. The major
change for Mathematics and English, is that all candidates sit both Core (Paper1) and Extended (Paper 2). For all other subjects candidates will sit
only one exam paper.
The above changes were carried out in Somaliland in September/October 2007, and specific changes will be reflected in the 2009 national
examinations
There will be a need for a lead national institution to work with schools and other local actors in the development, delivery and monitoring of the
syllabus and curriculum in close association with other Ministry of Education departments, including the Inspectorate, the National Examinations body
and agriculture Teacher Training Institutions. The national institution will also liaise with other non-Ministry of Education departments, NGOs and
other sector stakeholders in developing the Curriculum and related delivery materials.

Principles of the Syllabus/Curriculum
The main Principles of the curriculum and syllabus development and review when writing a new curriculum should
      be continuous and flexible process, responding to changes in government policy and practice and to the changing needs of learners, society
       and employers.
      Be based on the principle that only curricula and delivery systems that comply with strict quality criteria will be accepted.
      Be informed by prevailing Ministry of Education and other relevant non-Ministry of Education, Science, Technology and Scientific Research
       governmental policies.
      Be responsive to differing local needs and aspirations.
      Be the result of carefully evaluated and costed choices within a unified, comprehensive and rational plan.
      Promote Peace and Reconciliation and a unified and tolerant national identity.
      Promote the role of women in society and the education of girls in school.
      Cater for all levels of the ability range from those with learning difficulties to the specially gifted.
      Be in line with best local, regional and international practice.
      Be consonant with and supportive of governmental strategies for Human Resource Development.




                                                                              5
                                                                                                                                       Introduction


Content of Syllabus
The content of a syllabus/curriculum should
        Be determined by rational criteria and not by exclusive reference to previous practices or practices elsewhere in the region.
        Be integrated one topic with another, linking one year to another.
        Be enjoyable.
        Be optimistic and practical in outlook but mindful of the lessons from the past.
        Be balanced according to the needs of different parts of the country based on livelihood activities of the communities that the students come from.
        Support the acquisition of practical cognitive and psychomotor skills and attitudes within the context of local availability of equipment and resources for
         teaching and learning
        Emphasise ’Learning by Doing’ and Active rather than Passive Learning and the acquisition of Skills, whilst recognising the role of Knowledge,
         especially for further studies
        Be an adequate preparation for Lifelong Learning.
        Provide content that encourages girls to develop sense of self-worth and to be ambitious about their role in society and to provide content that
         encourages teachers and boy and girl pupils to respect these ambitions.
        Provide content that links the world of the school to the world of the student’s family and community, both through in-school and out-of-school
         activities.
        Provide differentiated content that allows teachers to tailor individual curricula to local needs and aspirations.
        Provide content that encourages students to have a “can do” attitude to life whereby they are optimistic about their ability to control their own
         lives and to be successful.
Syllabus/Curriculum Content Delivery
   The curriculum should be clearly developed and distributed to all teachers for each year indicating aims and desired learning outcomes.
   Indications of how the curriculum should be delivered by the teacher will be clearly stated in Teacher Guides for each year.
   The number of hours to be allocated to the subject throughout the school day (including specific theory and practice lessons) and the school
           year should be clearly stated in schemes of work..
          Curriculum/syllabus compliant textbooks and supplementary materials should be made available to teachers and pupils.
          The training of teachers should ensure a complete understanding of the overall principles of the curriculum and a detailed understanding of
           syllabus topics.
          The delivery of the curriculum in secondary schools will be according to the principles of the democratic and student-centred teaching and
           learning methods



                                                                                      6
                                                                                                                     Introduction

The evaluation of the curriculum/syllabus should be a continuous process.
Each topic should have elaborate illustration of aims and objectives, learning outcomes, suggested lesson delivery methods, teaching and learning
resources and content assessment modes.
Subject Assessment
The syllabus and curriculum should be developed to include expected assessment methods and objectives. The assessment should ideally include,
wherever appropriate, personal, social, environmental, economic and technological applications of the subject in modern society.
The three assessment objectives in the subject would be:
     Knowledge with understanding
     Handling information and solving problems
     Practical skills and abilities
Knowledge with Understanding
Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to the use of:
    1. language: terms, symbols, quantities and units;
    2. facts, concepts, principles, patterns, models and theories;
    3. the techniques, procedures and principles of good practice.
Handling Information and Solving Problems
Students should be able, using oral, written, symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of presentation, to:
    1. locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources;
    2. translate information from one form to another;
    3. use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;
    4. present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships;
    5. make predictions and propose hypotheses;
    6. solve problems, including some of a quantitative nature.
Practical skills and abilities
Students should be able to:
    1. use and organise techniques, apparatus and materials;
    2. make and record observations and measurements;
    3. interpret and evaluate experimental observations and data;
    4. plan investigations (and, where appropriate, make predictions and propose hypotheses).

Teaching should include the use of student-centred approaches such as demonstrations, practicals, field visits and cooperative learning among
ohers. The examination should entail school based projects, national examinations
.




                                                                         7
                                                                                                                                                  Agriculture



   AGRICULTURE
   INTRODUCTION
   Agriculture for Secondary Schools is a two year course. It will be taught in the last two years, Form III and Four, of Secondary School education. It is a general course
   emphasizing mainly on crop and livestock production but also containing the requisite elements of environmental education, agricultural engineering and economics. It
   will have both theoretical and practical approaches so that learners practise in the field the principles they learn in class.

   GENERAL OBJECTIVES
   The secondary schools Agriculture course aims to:
          1. Promote interest in agriculture as an industry and create awareness of opportunities existing in agriculture and related sectors.
          2. Enhance learners’ knowledge and skills in the subject and related activities as a basis for increased food production, technological advancement and
             industrial development of Somaliland
          3. Develop in the learner resourcefulness and problem solving abilities
          4. Develop a foundation for higher learning and an occupational outlook in agriculture and related fields
          5. Promote health and environmental sustenance practices in all activities involving land utilization for agricultural production


   TOPICS AND TOPIC DISTRIBUTION
   The syllabus attempted to keep a balance of the four major sectors of agriculture viz. Crop production, Livestock Production, Agricultural Economics and Agricultural
   Engineering. The topic distribution in the four major areas of agriculture is tabulated below. Black marks xxxxxxx indicate the major sector(s) covered by corresponding
   topic.


       Table II: Topic distribution
                                                              Major sector of Agriculture
                  Topic                        Crop           Livestock     Agricultural     Agriculture
                                               production      production    economics       engineering
                                               FORM III
Introduction to Agriculture                    xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx         xxxxxxxxxx      xxxxxxxxxx
Factors Affecting Agriculture in Somaliland    xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx         xxxxxxxxxx
Farm Tools and Equipment                       xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx                         xxxxxxxxxx
Land Preparation for Crop Production           xxxxxxxxxx                                    xxxxxxxxxx
Essential Plant Nutrients                      xxxxxxxxxx


                                                                                       8
                                                                                                                                             Agriculture
 Manures and Fertilizers                        xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx       xxxxxxxxxx
 Farm Records                                   xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx       xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxxx
 Crop Planting                                  xxxxxxxxxx
 Sources of Power for Agricultural Production                                            xxxxxxxxxx
 Field Practices in Crop Production             xxxxxxxxxx                               xxxxxxxxxx
 Livestock Selection and Breeding                            xxxxxxxxxx
                                                  FORM IV
 Livestock Parasites                                         xxxxxxxxxx
  Livestock Health and Diseases                              xxxxxxxxxx
 Poultry Keeping                                             xxxxxxxxxx
  Bee Keeping                                                xxxxxxxxxx
 Soil and Water Conservation                    xxxxxxxxxx                               xxxxxxxxxx
 Pastures and Forage crops                      xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxxx                  xxxxxxxxxx
 Production of Vegetable Crops                  xxxxxxxxxx
 Production Economics                           xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxxx     xxxxxxxxxx
 Farm Accounts                                  xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxxx     xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx
 Markets and Marketing                          xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxxx     xxxxxxxxxx
 Agroforestry                                   xxxxxxxxxx   xxxxxxxxxx     xxxxxxxxxx




                                                                       FORM III
TOPIC/SUB-TOPIC                        CONTENT                               LEARNING/TEACHING                      LEARNING./TEACHING RESOURCES
OBJECTIVES                                                                   EXPERIENCE
1.0.0 INTRODUCTION TO                  Definition of agriculture                                                    Agricultural products
        AGRICULTURE                    Branches of agriculture               Brainstorming on what agriculture      Pictures depicting various
1.1.0 Specific objectives               Crop-farming (Arable farming)       entails them make a summary of what    agricultural products, activities
                                           Field crops                       agriculture is                         and farming systems
By the end of the topic, the learner    Horticulture                        Listing the various branches of
should be able to:                     - Floriculture (flower farming)       agriculture and discussing what each
        1. explain the meaning of      - Olericulture (vegetable farming)    of them is about
            agriculture                - Pomology (fruit farming)            Learners to narrate types of


                                                                                    9
                                                                                                                                                     Agriculture
        2. state, describe and             Livestock farming                      agriculture they have seen being
           classify the main           -    Pastoralism – mammalian                practised
           branches of agriculture          livestock farming                      Teacher to show various real of
        3. describe farming            - Fish farming                              pictures agriculture products and
           systems                     - Apicultural (Bee keeping)                 learners tell which branch of
                                       - Poultry keeping                           agriculture they come from
                                        Agricultural economics                    Learners to tell the branch of
                                        Agricultural engineering                  agriculture and the system of farming
                                        Methods of farming                        they prefer and why.
                                       - Mixed farming
                                       - Nomadic pastoralism
                                       - Shifting cultivation
                                       - Organic farming
                                       - Agroforestry
                                       Note:- Learners should be reminded
                                       that any of the above methods can be
                                       subsistence or commercial, large
                                       scale or small scale, intensive or
                                       extensive and that arable farming can
                                       be, monocropping
                                       , intercropping or mixed cropping.

    2.0.0 FACTORS AFFECTING            Climatic factors:                           Discuss the various climatic factors      Maps of Somaliland that show relief,
    AGRICULTURE IN                      Rainfall                                  and their effect on Agriculture           soil, rainfall and vegetation
    SOMALILAND                          -intensity,                                Using the map of the Somaliland point     Instruments used in weather
    2.1.0 Specific objectives          -reliability,                               out important Agricultural areas and      measurements
By the end of the topic, the learner   -quantity                                   classify the braches of agriculture and   Guest speakers (teacher to invite
should be able to:                     -distribution                               farming systems taking place there        people such as farmers,
1. list the various climatic factors    Temperature as it relates to              Discuss how each environmental and        Agriculture officers, veterinary
    and explain how each                  topography and altitude                  human related factor including politics   officers, farmers etc to
    influences agricultural             Wind effect on humidity,                  and government policies influences        Talk to learners about their work and
    production                            evapotranspiration, lodging, seed        agricultural production in the various    how it is
2. explain the influence of various       dispersal pollination and soil erosion   regions and the country as a whole.       Affected by environmental human
    biotic factors on crop and          Light:                                    Observe soils with different textures     factors



                                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                                  Agriculture
     livestock production in different -intensity,                                and give reasons why each is good or     Data on foreign exchange derived
     regions of Somaliland.            -duration i.e. long day and short day      not good for agricultural production.    from various activities including
3.   explain how various Edaphic        Biotic factors                           Bring to class real specimen or          agriculture
     factors influences agricultural   --Livestock pests/disease vectors,         pictures harmful and beneficial          Video/slides/Pictures of animals
     production                        vermin/predators and crop parasites        organisms. Learners in groups to
4.   List and explain the human and    -Livestock and crop diseases               examine the specimen/picture, discuss
     political factors that influence  --Decomposers                              and give the reason why they think
     agriculture                       --Nitrogen fixing                          each is beneficial or harmful..
5.   Name the important agricultural   -Pollinators                               Visit a weather station/observe
     areas in Somaliland                Edaphic factors( factors related         instruments used in weather
6.   state livestock characteristics     to soil)                                 measurements and discus use of
     that aid adaptation to            -Texture                                   various instruments
     environment                       -Depth                                     Listen to guest speakers, ask
     Explain economic importance of  Human factors                               questions and write notes on various
7.
                                       -Health and fitness                        issues related to agricultural
     agriculture to Somaliland
                                       -Level of education                        production
8.   List and explain ways of
     improving agricultural production -Economic status                           Discuss the importance of agriculture
                                       -Technology                                to household and to the nation.
     in Somaliland.
                                       -Cultural/religious beliefs                Listing livestock species kept in
                                        Political factors                        Somaliland and stating the importance
                                       Law and order/ stability                   of each
                                       International relationships                Teacher to put learners in discussion
                                       Availability of services: transport and    groups and gives each an assignment
                                            communication, Health,                to come up with suggestions on how
                                            Extension, veterinary, marketing      the whole society, their community
                                        Important agricultural areas in          and individual persons can help to
                                         Somaliland                               overcome the factors that negatively
                                        Livestock distribution                   affect agriculture.
                                       Cattle, Goats, Sheep, poultry and          Each group to report their findings to
                                       camels                                     class and answer questions.
                                        Livestock adaptation
                                         characteristic that help the animal to
                                         adapt to local environment
                                        Importance of livestock –social



                                                                                        11
                                                                                                                                                   Agriculture
                                         and economic
                                       Crop types and distribution
                                       Social and economic
                                        crop farming
                                       -Importance to the country
                                       -Important crops and their distribution
                                       in the country.
                                       Note: For each factor, negatively
                                       affecting agriculture, give the learners
                                       an activity through which they can
                                       come up with suggestions of how the
                                       society, his/her community and s/he
                                       could do to improve the situation. Ask
                                       them what they individually or in
                                       groups can do to make the situation
                                       better.

    3.0.0 FARM TOOLS AND                 Gardening tools and equipment           Observe a display of various tools       Tools and equipment
    EQUIPMENT                            Livestock production tools and          and listen to a technician to describe   Draft animals
    3.1.0 Specific objectives           equipment                                 the use and maintenance of their use     Videos/Slides/Picture
By the end of the topic, the learner    Workshop tools and equipment             and maintenance                          Guest instructor
should be able to:                        Study the above tools under the         Watch and discuss
1. identify various gardening,            following headings:                     videos/slides/pictures on use and
    livestock production and              Name and uses                           maintenance of tools and equipment.
    workshop tools and equipment          Parts and uses                          Discuss each tool and equipment
    and their uses.                       Simple maintenance practices            including its
2. name parts of various farm tools       Note: (see Appendix for list of         use, advantage,
    and equipment and their uses          tools and equipment to be               disadvantage and
3. carry out appropriate                  studied)                                maintenance
    maintenance practices on tools.                                               practices to use tools and equipment
                                                                                  to undertake tasks appropriate to each
                                                                                  tool.
                                                                                  Observe a technician repair or
                                                                                  undertake other tool and equipment



                                                                                        12
                                                                                                                                                Agriculture
                                                                              maintenance practices, listen, ask
                                                                              questions and take notes
                                                                              Practice tool and equipment
                                                                              maintenance activities
4.0.0 LAND PREPARATION FOR             Land preparation                       Discuss methods and importance of         Land preparation tools and
CROP PRODUCTION                                                               land preparation                          equipment
                                       Meaning
                                                                              Visit a piece of land which is not        Farm/Farmer/Guest instructor(
4.1.0 Specific objectives              importance                             prepared for crop production e.g. a       technician to show
By the end of the topic, the learner                                          swamp or bush land and discuss land       use of tools and equipment in land
                                       Drainage
should be able to:                                                            preparation activities that would need    preparation)
1. explain the meaning and             Meaning                                to be undertaken on it.                   Draft animal
    importance of land preparation.    Importance as a method of land         Visit a farmer during land preparation    Videos/Slides/Pictures of different
                                          reclamation                         period and observe him/her at work        types of land
2. explain drainage and its            Methods of drainage                    Teacher to select an appropriate place    preparation
   importance in land preparation      Land clearing                          to start a garden and allocate learners
3. explain methods of drainage.                                               individually or in groups to prepare
                                       Importance as a method of land
4. describe the primary,                   reclamation and land preparation   It ready for planting’ the teacher
   secondary cultivation and           Primary cultivation                    should see that they use appropriate
   tertiary operations                                                        tool(s) for each activity
                                       Definition and importance
5. describe minimum tillage and        Timing
   sub-soiling and explain the         Choice of tools and implements
   importance of each in crop          Secondary cultivation
   production                          Definition and importance
                                       Number of operations
                                       Correct tools and implements for
                                       different operations
                                       Tertiary operations:
                                       -Ridging
                                       Rolling
                                       Levelling
                                        Minimum tillage:



                                                                                    13
                                                                                                                                                   Agriculture
                                        - Definition
                                        - Importance
                                        - Equipment used
                                        Sub-soiling
                                        -     Meaning
                                        -     Importance
                                        Equipment used

5.0.0   ESSENTIAL PLANT                      Meaning and importance of         Discussion on meaning of soil fertility,    Fertilizers,
        NUTRIENTS                           Essential elements                  essential elements their role in plant      Video/Slides of Plants and/or real-
                                                                                growth and deficiency symptoms of           with and without nutrient
5.1.0   Specific Objectives             Macro – nutrients
                                                                                macro-nutrients.                            deficiencies
                                        -CHO
         By the end of the topic, the                                           Observing and discussion deficiency         Litmus paper or other pH indicators
                                        -Fertilizer elements (N.P.K)
learner should be able to:                                                      symptoms on real plants and pictures        Organic and inorganic fertilizers
                                        -Liming elements (Ca, Mg, S)
1. list the essential elements                                                  Experimenting on growth of crops on
                                        -Micronutrients
2. classify the essential elements                                              different soil fertility levels
                                        -Role of essential elements in plants
                                                                                Observe and discuss videos/slides/
3. state the role of each macro-        -Deficiency symptoms of macro-
                                                                                pictures of Slides of Plants and/or real-
   nutrient                             nutrients in plants
                                                                                with and without nutrient deficiencies
                                         Soil pH
4. describe the deficiency                                                      Soil fertility
                                        -Meaning
   symptoms of the macro-               -importance
   nutrients                             Soil fertility
5. Explain soil pH (soil acidity/       -Meaning
   alkalinity ) and explain its         -importance
   influence on crop production         -causes and ways of loss
                                        -maintenance
6. explain the meaning and
   importance of soil fertility
7. Describe way in which soil
   fertility and how it can be
   prevented
8. State and explain how to



                                                                                      14
                                                                                                                                                   Agriculture
   improve soil fertility




6.0.0 MANURES AND                           Meaning of and differences            Observe manures for identification and   Vegetable materials for composting
FERTILIZERS                                between and importance of organic       classification                           Farm
                                           matter, manure, humus and fertilizer    Discuss the:                             Ashes
6.1.0 Specific objectives
                                                                                   Preparation of manure                    Yard Manure(FYM)
                                            Preparation of farm yard manures
      By the end of the topic, the                                                 Quality of good manure                   Compost
                                           and compost manures
      learner should be able to:                                                   Importance of manure in crop             Variety of inorganic fertilizers
   1. define and distinguish                Inorganic fertilizers                 production                               Tools for digging pit and forking
      organic matter, manure and                                                   Preventing deterioration of manure       manure
                                       Classification of fertilizers
      humus.                                                                       Advantages and disadvantages             Materials for making manures.
                                       Identification of fertilizers               Collect composting materials and
   2. state the sources of soil
      organic matter                   Properties of fertilizers and their         prepare compost manure.
                                       relation to methods of application          Apply manure to land
   3. explain the importance of
      organic matter in the soil       Fertilizer application rates
   4. describe the different                    Disadvantages of manures
      organic manures                            compared to organic fertilizers
   5. prepare compost manure.                   Advantages of manures over
                                                 inorganic fertilizers
   6. identify and classify
      fertilizers
   7. describe the properties of
      various fertilizers and relate
      them to method of
      application
   8. Compare the advantages
      and disadvantages of
      organic and inorganic
      fertilizers



                                                                                         15
                                                                                                                                                Agriculture



7.0.0 FARM RECORDS                         Farm records                        Examining sample farm records           Sample records
                                                                                Discussing purpose of farm records      Guest speaker (A farmer/farm
7.1.0 Specific objectives               Types of farm records and their uses
                                                                                Listening to a guest speaker, asking    manager or other person who is
                                           (Breeding, Feeding,
By the end of the topic, the learner                                            question and taking notes               conversant with record keeping)
                                           Production, Health
should be able to:
                                           Field operations,
1. explain the meaning of farm
                                           Inventory, Labour
    records are
                                           Marketing)
2. explain the importance of farm       Importance of farm records
   records.
3. describe the different types of
   farm records
4. keep simple farm records

8.0.0 CROP PLANTING                     Types of planting materials             Collecting planting materials           Different planting materials
                                                                                Examining, identifying and discussing   Fertilizers, manures and water
8.1.0 Specific objectives                  Seeds
                                                                                planting materials                      Garden tools
By the end of the topic, the learner    -Description of good planting seeds     Discussing crop planting procedures     Pictures of planting materials
should be able to:                      (seed purity, germination percentage,   Observe and discuss videos/slides/      Videos/slides/Pictures of people
1. identify the correct planting        certified seeds)                        pictures of people planting             planting
    materials for each of the various   -Advantages                             using different methods                 using different methods
    crops                               -Disadvantages                          Carry out the above practices
                                         Vegetative materials                  Develop a table showing spacing for
2. describe good planting
   materials                            Plant parts used for vegetative         different local crops
                                        propagation with examples of crops
3. determine the optimum time and
                                        planted using each :       -Slips,
   depth of planting
                                        --Bulbils,
4. describe the planting                -Crowns,
   procedures for different crops       -Suckers,
5. state the factors that determine     -Tubers,
   seed rates and spacing               -Vines,



                                                                                      16
                                                                                                                                               Agriculture
6. plant a crop using appropriate     -Cuttings and setts
   material, method and depth          Preparation of planting
                                          materials
                                      -Breaking dormancy
                                      -Disease and pest control/seed
                                      dressing
                                      -Seed inoculation
                                      -Note: Give an appropriate example
                                      crop for each practice
                                       Planting
                                      -   Method/type of crop and reason
                                      -   Timeliness
                                      -   Depth
                                      -   spacing
                                      For each of the above, discuss: How it
                                      is done, reasons, advantages and
                                      disadvantages
                                      Give appropriate examples of crops
                                      for each.

9.0.0 SOURCES OF POWER FOR            Sources of power in the farm             Discuss various sources of power ,       Farm/farmer
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION               Devices used for power production,       how they generate power, how it is       Instructors/buyers/
9.1.0 Specific objectives             method of use, advantages and            used in the farm and its advantages      farmers/manufacturers/users etc
By the end of the topic the learner   disadvantages of the following:          and disadvantages                        Power generating/using equipment
should be able to:                    -Animal                                  Visit farms or other places where        Pictures/slides/videos on power
    1. Describe various sources of    -Wind                                    power is being generated and/or used     sources/ generation/ transmission/
        power in the farm.            -Biomass                                 e.g. wind vane driven water pumps,       use etc.
    2. describe uses of power in      -Wood/charcoal                           solar energy apparatus, electrical
        the farm                      -Biogas                                  generators etc ask/instructors/buyers/
    3. Explain the advantages and     -Fossil fuel                             farmers/manufacturers/users etc about
        disadvantages of each type    -Electricity                             their energy sources, use advantages
        of power                      -Solar energy                            and disadvantages


                                                                                     17
                                                                                                                                                 Agriculture


10.0.0 FIELD PRACTICES IN              Crop rotation                          Visit a farm to observe the various        Farm/plot
CROP PRODUCTION                                                               practices. Ask questions and record        Video/slides/pictures of various crop
                                       -Definition
                                                                              information in note book                   production practices
10.1.0 Specific objectives             -Importance
                                                                              Observe and discuss videos/slides/         Seeds/planting materials
                                       -Factors influencing crop rotation
By the end of the topic, the learner                                          pictures of various crop production        Fertilizers/manures
                                       -Rotational programmes
should be able to:                                                            practices                                  Garden tools
                                            Mulching
1. define crop rotation                                                       Prepare a plot of land. The class to       Crop protection chemicals
                                       -Meaning                               grow one cereal and one legume from
2. state the importance of crop        -Importance                            planting to harvesting peas
   rotation                            -Types of mulching materials           undertaking all the appropriate routine
3. draw a crop rotation                -Advantages and disadvantages of       field practices
                                       various mulching materials             Note: Learners should be reminded to
4. distinguish terms used in crop           Production of:                   refer to notes on planting done earlier.
   farming
                                     Maize, Millet ,sorghum
5. state the importance of mulching ,Beans,
   in crop production                     Harvesting
6. describe the importance of        -Stage and timing of harvesting
   various field practices in crop   -Methods of harvesting
7. state the correct stage for       -Precautions during harvesting
   harvesting various crops               Post – harvest practices:
8. describe harvesting practices for -Threshing/shelling
   various crops                     -Drying
                                     -Cleaning
9. carry out management practices -Sorting and grading
   on crops                          -Dusting with insecticides
                                     -Packaging
                                     -Types of storage
                                     -Preparation of store to receive crop

11.0.0 LIVESTOCK SELECTION                Selection                          Listening to a livestock officer, asking   Livestock officer
AND BREEDING                           -   Meaning                            questions and writing notes on             Charts on various pure breeds and
  11.1.0 Specific objectives           -   Factors to consider in livestock   livestock selection and breeding.          crosses



                                                                                     18
                                                                                                                                               Agriculture
By the end of the topic the learner          selection                       Observe a demonstration/video on          Videos on breeding and
should be able to:                        Methods of selection              artificial insemination, and various      insemination systems
1. select breeding stock                 -Mass selection                     routine management practices              Livestock production tools
2. describe breeding systems             -Contemporary comparison            Discuss natural and artificial
3. identify signs of heat in livestock   -Progeny testing                    insemination
4. describe methods used in                                                  Discuss advantages and
    serving livestock and state the       Breeding                          disadvantages of natural and artificial
    advantage and disadvantage of        -Meaning                            insemination
    each                                 -Terms used in breeding             Observe pure breeds and crosses and
5. demonstrate a caring attitude         -Dominant and recessive genes       discuss their visible characteristics
    towards livestock                    -Heterosis(hybrid vigour)           Teacher to group learners and assign
                                         Epitasis                            them one of the topics below to
                                                                             discuss and report to class:
                                          Breeding systems                   selection of livestock
                                         Procedure, aim, advantages           Artificial insemination
                                          And disadvantages of each of the    Embryo transplant
                                         following:                           Cross breeding of local and exotic
                                         -Cross-breeding                       breeds
                                         -Up-grading
                                         -Inbreeding
                                         -Line breeding
                                         -Out-crossing
                                          Signs of heat in livestock
                                         - cattle and camels
                                          Methods of service in livestock
                                         Meaning, advantages and
                                         disadvantages of each
                                         -Natural mating
                                         -Artificial insemination
                                         -Embryo transplant
                                          Signs of parturition
                                         Cattle and camel
                                          Routine management practices
                                         - Culling



                                                                                   19
                                                                                       Agriculture
          -   Castration using open and closed
              methods
          -Management of dam and offspring
          before, during and after parturition

FISHING      Definition of fishing and             Explain the term fishing and
              fisheries.                             fisheries
             Factors influencing fishing           Explain factors influencing
                                                     fishing.
             Distribution of world fishing         Account for the location of the
              grounds                                major fishing grounds of the
                                                     world
             Types and methods of fishing
                                                    Describe types and methods of
             Fishing industry in Somaliland         fishing.

             Significance of fishing               Discus the marine fisheries in
              industry in Somaliland.                Somaliland.

             Problems facing fishing               Explain the importance of
              industry in Somaliland and             fishing in Somaliland.
              their possible solutions.
                                                    Discuss the problems facing
             Management and conservation            fishing industry in Somaliland
              of fishing grounds.                    and suggest possible solutions.

                                                    Explain ways and means of
                                                     managing and conserving
                                                     marine fisheries of the world.




                                                       20
                                                                                                                                                 Agriculture




FORM IV

12.0.0 LIVESTOCK PARASITES                  Parasites               Visit a farm or any other    Farm/ farmer/instructor from ministry of livestock
                                       Definitions                   place where livestock are    Livestock
12.1.0 Specific objectives
                                       - parasite                    to be fond. Examine the      Livestock handling tools
By the end of the topic, the learner   - host                        livestock for external       Jars and preservative (for preservation of parasites)
should be able to:                     - Identification and          parasites and sign of        Videos/ slides/ Pictures on livestock parasites, lifecycles,
1. describe parasitism                     classification            parasite attack.             signs of infestation and methods of control.
2. classify                            - Signs of parasite           Examine livestock dung       Charts on parasites and parasite life cycles
                                           infestation               for parasites and parasite
3. identify different parasites        - Losses caused by            eggs.
4. describe the life-cycle of              parasites                 Collect parasites and
   parasites                           - Dangers posed to human      preserve them for study
                                           beings and how to avoid   Identify common
5. Describe signs of parasite                                        parasites and classify
                                           them
   infestation, damages caused to                                    them according to
                                       - Life cycles of parasites
   livestock and loss incurred by                                    livestock they attack and
                                       - Ticks ( 1,2,3,host)
   the farmer                                                        whether they are external
                                       - Tsetse fly
6. Describe dangers posed by           - Tape worms                  or internal
   livestock parasites to people       - Liver flukes                Discuss signs of parasite
   and how to avoid them                    Parasite control        infestation including
                                       - Spraying, dipping, hand-    damage they cause to
7. explain methods of parasite
                                           dressing                  livestock and loss to the
   control in livestock
                                       - Deworming                   farmer
                                       - Hygiene in field, housing   Discuss life cycle,
                                           and watering, handling    damage they cause,
                                       - Drainage                    symptoms of infestation
                                                                     and control methods of
                                                                     ticks, tsetse fly, tape
                                                                     worms and flukes



                                                                                   21
                                                                                                                                                      Agriculture
13.0.0 LIVESTOCK HEALTH AND            Health and disease                  Discussion on signs of       Veterinary/livestock health officer
DISEASES                               -Definitions                        health in livestock.         Farmer
                                       -Importance of keeping              Identification of disease    Livestock and livestock handling/treatment tools
13.1.0 Specific objectives
                                       livestock healthy                   by signs’                    Videos/slides/ pictures of on livestock health, diseases
By the end of the topic, the learner   -Pre-disposing factors of           Discussion on risk to        and
should be able to:                     livestock diseases                  humans, how they come        diseases control and treatment
1. define health and disease           -Signs of ill-health in livestock   about and how they can
2. describe signs of sickness in       Dangers posed to human              be avoided.
   animals                             beings                              Listen to a veterinary
                                        Classification of                 officer discuss about
3. explain dangers to humans by           livestock diseases by            livestock health and
   ill-heath in livestock                 cause and vector(where           diseases and ask
4. state the predisposing factors of      applicable), livestock           questions and write notes
   livestock diseases                     attacked and signs and           (Questions should include
                                          symptoms                         meanings of terms such
5. classify diseases                                                       as, Quarantine,
6. Classify diseases                      Protozoan diseases
                                                                           Isolation, Vaccination,
7. describe the signs of each          -   East cost fever
                                                                           contagious, infectious
    diseases                           -   Anaplasmosis
                                                                           notifiable epidemic etc)
8. carry out simple control            -   Trypanosomiasis
                                                                           Visit to a farm to observe
    measures of livestock diseases.        (Nagana)
                                                                           the various health
9. demonstrate a caring attitude          Bacterial diseases
                                                                           practices. Watching and
    towards livestock                  -   Fowl typhoid
                                                                           discussing videos/slides/
10. describe disease control           -   Contagious abortion
                                                                           pictures on livestock
    practices                              (Brucellosis)
                                                                           health
                                       -   Scours
                                                                           Discussion on various
                                       -   Black quarter
                                                                           diseases, their causal
                                       -   Mastitis
                                                                           organisms, signs of
                                       -   Anthrax
                                                                           infection and control
                                          Viral diseases
                                                                           measures (Simple
                                       -   Rinderpest
                                                                           treatment where
                                       -   Foot and mouth
                                                                           applicable on the farm
                                          Nutritional diseases
                                                                           e.g. for bloat)
                                       -   Bloat
                                                                           Visit a farm/ or other
                                       -   Mineral deficiencies



                                                                                         22
                                                                                                                                                Agriculture
                                            /effects, symptoms and      place where there is a
                                            control.                    sick animal( if available)
                                        General methods of             and observe symptoms or
                                         disease control                visit a place where
                                       -Vaccination                     control/treatment
                                       -Quarantine/Isolation            measures e.g. spraying,
                                       -Housing                         hoof trimming, vaccination
                                       -Hygiene                         etc is taking place
                                       Controlled breeding              Watch a video on
                                       -Nutrition/classes of            livestock diseases, their
                                       feeds/balanced rations proper    control and treatment.
                                       for different categories and
                                       ages of livestock
                                       Parasite control ( only
                                       mention, details to be handled
                                       in the next chapter)
                                       -Hoof trimming
                                       -Dehorning
                                       -Castration
                                       -Culling
14.0.0 POULTRY KEEPNG                   Brooder                        Study a real brooder or      Poultry
  14.1.0 Specific Objectives           - brooder management             watch pictures/ video on     Video/slides/pictures of poultry and poultry management
By the end of the topic, the learner    Extensive systems of           brooder management.          practices
should be able to:                          poultry keeping             List important features      Eggs
    1. Describe management of          - Free range                     and equipment in the         Candling equipment
        day old chicks to maturity      Semi-intensive                 brooder                      Equipment used in poultry management
    2. describe different poultry      - Fold system                    Discuss each poultry         Poultry feeds and supplements
        rearing systems and poultry     Intensive systems              rearing system and the
        management under each.         - Deep litter                    management practices
    3. carry out various poultry       - Battery cage system            involved
        management practices                                            Practise the following;
                                                                        Selection of eggs for
                                                                        incubation
                                                                        Identifying broody hens



                                                                                      23
                                                                                                                                          Agriculture
                                                                    Preparing nest for broody
                                                                    hen
                                                                    Managing chicken during
                                                                    incubation
                                                                    Carry out management of
                                                                    chicken kept under
                                                                    intensive system
                                                                    Visit chicken farm to
                                                                    observe management
                                                                    practices/watch video on
                                                                    chicken management
                                                                    practices
15.0.0 BEE KEEPING                       Importance                Discussion on:                Chart showing members of the bee colony
15.1.0 Specific objectives               Colony in the hive        - Bee colony and role         Hives
By the end of the topic the learner   -   Role and organisation of       of each sector           Tools and equipment used, and items of
should be able to:                        colony members            - Appropriate site for        clothing worn during bee management and honey
1. describe the colony and the role      Siting of the apiary and       bee keeping              harvesting practices
    of each sector                        hive                      - Bee management              Video on bee management and honey harvesting and
2. select an appropriate site for        Management:                    practices                processing.
    bee keeping                       -   Stocking the bee hive     - Trees/bushes and            Trees/bushes and other plants
3. carry out routine management in    -   Feeding/ Flowering             other plants which are
    bee keeping                           trees/bushes/plants grown      good for bee keeping
4. harvest and process honey              around apiaries           - Honey harvesting and
5. state the uses of honey and        -   Predator and pest control      processing
    beeswax                              Honey                     - how to start
                                      -   Harvesting                     school/agriculture
                                      -   Processing                     club/home bee-
                                      -   Uses of honey                  keeping projects
                                      -   Uses of beeswax           Watch a video on bee
                                                                    management and honey
                                                                    harvesting and
                                                                    processing
                                                                    Teacher to assign
                                                                    learners a research



                                                                                   24
                                                                                                                                                       Agriculture
                                                                            project on the theme,
                                                                            “How Somaliland can
                                                                            produce ten times its
                                                                            current honey
                                                                            production.”


16.0.0        SOIL AND WATER              Soil erosion                     Visit eroded sites and       Work tools and materials for erosion control and water
CONSERVATION                             - Meaning                          discuss type and             conservation
  16.1.0 Specific objectives             - Agents                           influencing factors.         Eroded sites
By the end of the topic, the learner     - Influencing factors              Listen and observe           Soil and water conservation officer
should be able to:                       - Types and effects                demonstration on soil and    Farm/farmer
1. Explain meaning, cause, types          Biological/cultural              water conservation           Video/slides/pictures of eroded sites, arid places and soil
    and effect of soil erosion               control                        practices by farmer or an    and water harvesting and conservation practices.
2. explain the various factors that      -Grass strips                      agriculture officer
    influence erosion                    -Cover crops                       Watch video /slides
3. list the agents of erosion            -Grassed water ways                /pictures of eroded sites,
4. describe the various types of         -Contour farming and strip         arid places and soil and
    erosion                              cropping                           water harvesting and
5. describe various methods of           -Mulching (Refer to notes on       conservation practices
    erosion control                      field practices        in crop     Carry out soil and water
6. carry out soil erosion control        production)                        conservation practices in
    measures                             -Afforestation/forestation         school or in surrounding
7. describe water harvesting and          Physical/structural              areas and farms.
    conservation techniques                  controls
Note: it is important that school        -Stone lines
have gutters attached to the edge of     -Filters/strip
the roofs to harvest rain water and      -Trash lines
to direct it to a reservoir. Harvested   -Terraces – level, graded,
water can be used for raising tree       broad based narrow based. -
seedlings, watering transplanted         Bench, Bunds
seedlings and irrigating crops           -Cut-off        drains/diversion
                                         ditches
                                         -Gabions /porous dams



                                                                                          25
                                                                                                                                               Agriculture
                                       -Ridging
                                        Water harvesting
                                       -Roof catchment
                                       -Rock catchment
                                       -Weirs and dams
                                       -Ponds
                                       -Retention      ditches/level
                                       terraces
                                        Micro-catchments
                                       -Types
                                       -Laying out and construction
                                       methods
                                       -Uses

17.0.0 PASTURES AND FORAGE                Pastures                     Discussion on pastures       Fresh and conserved fodder and pasture plants
CROPS                                  -   Definition                   and pasture                  Feed concentrates and supplements
17.1.0 Specific objectives             -   Classification               establishment and            Farm/farmer/livestock officer
By the end of the topic, the learner      Pasture Grass and            management                   Video/slides/pictures
should be able to:                      legume species                  Visit to farm or any place
1. define and classify pastures        - Establishment                  where fodder crops are
2. identify forage crops               - Management                     grown
3. describe the ecological             - Utilisation                    Watch
    requirements of forage crops        Forage/Fodder crops            video/slides/pictures on
4. describe the establishment,         Establishment, growth            fodder types,
    management and utilisation of      characteristics, management,     management,
    pastures and fodder plants.        harvesting and utilisation of:   conservation and
5. describe forage and                 - Napier/bana grass              utilization
    conservation.                      - Guatemala grass
6. Classify and describe fodder        - Sorghum
    and pasture supplements            - Lucerne
                                       - Clovers
                                       - Desmodium
                                       - Fodder trees/bushes
                                        Fodder conservation



                                                                                       26
                                                                                                                                               Agriculture
                                       Meaning, reason, procedure,
                                       precautions and utilization of:
                                       - Hay
                                       - Silage
                                       Other feeds and
                                       supplements to top up field
                                       grazing/browsing
                                       - Reason for supplement
                                       - Types
  18.0.0 PRODUCTION OF                  Nursery bed                     Select a good nursery site   A plot of land for nursery and for
  VEGETABLE CROPS                                                        in your school and           planting vegetables
                                       -Definition
                                                                         establish a nursery          Seeds,
  18.1.0 Specific objectives           -Different between a nursery
                                                                         Manage the nursery until     Fertilizer
                                       bed, seedling bed and a seed
By the end of the topic, the learner                                     the seedlings are ready      Garden tools
                                       bed
should be able to                                                        for transplanting.           Water
                                       -Importance
By the end of the topic, the learner                                     Transplant seedling and      Gardening tools
                                       -Site selection
should be able to:                                                       carry out all management     Vegetable seeds,
                                        Nursery establishment
describe each and distinguish                                            practices to harvesting      Manures and fertilisers,
between a nursery bed , seedling    -Seed drilling                       Observe and discuss          Plots of land
bed and seed bed                    -Mulching ( Refer to notes on        videos/slides/ pictures on   Videos/slides/Pictures on vegetable management
                                    field practices in crop              vegetable production         practices
1. state the important vegetable
   production practices and explain production)                          Note: Learners should be
                                    -Watering                            advised to keep records
   the importance of each.
                                    -Shading                             of all occurrences, inputs
2. select a suitable site for a     -Pricking out                        and outputs to use later
   nursery                          -Hardening off                       for writing report at the
3. carry out routine management     -Weed control                        end of project and to draw
   practices on a vegetable crops -Pest control                          simple profit and loss
   from nursery establishment to    -Disease control                     account)
   harvesting                       Transplanting of vegetable
                                    seedling from nursery to
4. Keep production records on a     seedbed
   vegetable growing project




                                                                                       27
                                                                                                                                        Agriculture


                                          Growing a Vegetable
                                         Crop
                                    *(Coriander or Radish)
                                       and any of the following:
                                    Tomatoes, Onions, Lettuce
                                    -Each student should grow
                                    Coriander and at least one
                                    other of the above crops
                                    keeping all the necessary
                                    records.
                                    -The teacher should organize
                                    the class in such a way that
                                    there are students growing
                                    each of the crops
                                    -Class discussions should be
                                    organized so that students tell
                                    and demonstrate to each
                                    other their work in the different
                                    vegetable crops. Discussion
                                    may be held at the crop plots
                                    for students to observe.
                                    -The teacher may organize
                                    common nurseries for
                                    students growing tomatoes,
                                    lettuce and onions. However,
                                    all students should actively
                                    participate in all

19.0.0 PRODUCTION ECONOMICS               Factors of production        Discuss factors of        Farm manager/Agricultural economist
19.0.0 Specific objectives                  Land                       production                Farm records
By the end of the topic, the learner -     Definition                   Listen    to    a    farm Farm accounts



                                                                                      28
                                                                                                       Agriculture
should be able to:                     -  Methods of acquisition          manager/Agricultural
1. State the factors of production     -  Methods of increasing           economist         discuss
   ad their sources.                      productivity                    various     aspects     of
2. explain how each effects                Labour                        agricultural production,
   production and how it can be        - Definition                       take notes and ask
   made more efficient.                - Types                            questions ( questions
3. Describe risks and uncertainties    - Measures of labour               should             include
   in farming and adjusting to risks   - Ways        of      increasing   terminology used in
   and uncertainties.                     productivity                    economics)
                                       - Labour efficiency
                                           Capital
                                       - Definition
                                       - Types
                                       - Sources
                                           Management
                                       - Definition
                                       - Role of a farm manager
                                       - Methods of increasing
                                          management efficiency
                                          Risks                   and
                                             uncertainties           in
                                             farming
                                       -Meaning
                                       -Common          risks      and
                                       uncertainties
                                       -Ways of adjusting




                                                                                        29
                                                                                                                                             Agriculture
19020.0.0 FARM ACCOUNTS                  Financial documents and          Examining and discussing Farm manager/Agricultural economist/ accountant
20.1.0 Specific objectives               books of accounts                the use of various       Financial documents
By the end of the topic, the learner      Financial documents            financial documents
should be able to:                       - Invoices                       Listening to a farm
1. State the importance of farm          - Statements                     manager/agricultural
    accounts                             - Receipts                       economist/accountant
2. Distinguish and describe the          - Delivery notes                 explaining various
    various financial documents and      - Purchase orders                financial documents,
    their uses.                           Books of accounts              asking questions and
3. Prepare and analyse financial         - Ledger                         taking notes
    statements                           - Journal                        (Learners to use records
4. Identify various books of             - Inventory                      kept on vegetable
    accounts and their uses.             - Cash book                      production to do simple
5. Prepare a simple balance sheet         Balance sheet                  accounts)
6. Prepare a simple profit and loss       Profit and loss account
    account


   21.0.0         MARKET         AND         Market and marketing        Discussion on market and     Cooperative/
   MARKETING                             -    Definition                  marketing of various farm    Marketing officer
20.1.0 Specific objectives               -    Types of markets            products                     Data on markets and marketing
By the end of the topic, the learner     -    Market functions            Listening to a               Video on markets and marketing
should be able to:-                      -    Problems of marketing       farmer/businessman
1. define market and marketing                agricultural products and   Discuss markets and
2. describe the various types                 possible solutions          marketing of the various
    markets                               Price theory                   farm products
3. describe how the law of supply        influence of demand and,         Listening to a marketing/
    and demand affects prices of         supply on price                  cooperative officer
    agricultural products                 Marketing cooperatives         discuss formation and
4. state        various      marketing   - Formation                      functions of a cooperative
    functions,        agents      and    - Functions                      In each case, learners
    institutions.                                                         should ask questions and
5. Identify problems in marketing                                         make notes.
    of agricultural products                                              Watch and discuss video



                                                                                        30
                                                                                                                                                  Agriculture
6. Describe    formation     and                                         on markets and
   functions of agricultural co-                                         marketing.
   operatives



22.0.0 AGROFORESTRY                      Definition of agroforestry     Discussion on meaning,        Forester/Tree nursery manager
22.1.0 Specific objectives                  Forms of agroforestry        practices/forms and           Tree seeds and seedlings
By the end of the topic, the learners       Importance of agroforestry   importance of                 Sleeves/nursery boxes/tins and other innovative devices
should be able to:-                         Importance of trees and      agroforestry                  for raising seedlings in
1. define agroforestry                      shrubs                       Identification of different   Water and water dispensing equipment e.g. hoses,
2. state the importance of  Important trees and                         trees that do or can grow     watering cans, buckets etc
    agroforestry                            shrubs for particular        in Somaliland and their       Soils/sand /manures and fertilisers
3. describe various forms of                purposes                     uses                          Gardening tools
    agroforestry.                        Trees and shrubs to avoid      Visit a nursery site and      Video on forestry and agroforestry management
4. explain the importance of trees,         at certain sites and         observe management            practices.
    and motivate communities to             reasons.                     practices
    plant them                           Types of nurseries             Discuss the suitability of
5. identify and select appropriate  Seed collection and                 the site and how the
    trees for different uses                preparation                  nursery is constructed.
6. describe          tree       nursery  Nursery management Site        Ask the attendant
    management and transplanting            selection                    Ask questions about
7. explain          routine        tree     Nursery establishment        nursery establishment
    management                          -use of sleeves and other        and management.
8. select appropriate sites for tress innovations for growing young      Listening to forester/tree
    in the farm and other areas.        plants                           nursery manger discuss
9. plant trees at appropriate sites making and using seedling            how to establish a tree
    and using proper planting boxes for growing young                    nursery, transplanting
    methods                             plants                           seedlings and managing
10. construct        tree      seedling -preparation of rooting          trees
    protection structures               medium                           Select and prepare sites
11. carry      out       roper     tree preparation of cuttings          for tree nurseries and tree
    management practices Routine management in raising                   planting
12. describe various methods of  Transplanting                          Select trees for



                                                                                        31
                                                                                                       Agriculture
     tree harvesting.                     Grafting                       appropriate sites and
Note: Every school should establish       Budding                        uses.
a tree nursery from which it will be      Care and management of         Note: Learners to be
getting a constant supply of               trees                          asked to tell how
seedlings. Students should be given     Protection                       individually or in a group
seedlings and encouraged to plant       Pruning and training             they can help increase
them in their homes and                 Agroforestry practices           trees in Somaliland
surrounding areas.                      Alley cropping                   Participating in tree
Each school should conduct at least     Multi-storey cropping            nursery establishment,
one tree planting campaign per year     Woodlots in farms                tree planting and tree
in the immediate community.             Sites for agroforestry           management
                                           trees                          Participate in out of
                                        Boundaries                       school tree planting
                                        River banks                      campaigns among
                                        Terraces                         communities
                                        Slopes
                                        Homestead
                                        Tree harvesting methods
                                        Appropriate practices from
                                           the above should be
                                           undertaken        in     the
                                           production       of      the
                                           following:
                                        Trees:         Silky      Oak
                                           (Grevillea robusta) Croton
                                           tree                 (Croton
                                           megalocarpus),        Neem
                                           tree (Azadirachta indica),
                                           Gerrard’s Acacia (Acacia
                                           gerrardii)
                                       (Blue gums (Eucalyptus) to be
                                       planted only in areas that
                                       flood and retain stagnant
                                       water for a prolonged periods)



                                                                                         32
                                                                   Agriculture
             Fruits: Grapes, Citrus
             (Oranges, Lemon
             Tangerines, lime and
             Grapefruit) Bananas,
             mangoes (Mangifera
             indica), Pawpaw, Guavas
             (Psidium guajava) Water
             melons.

FISHING   Fishing resources            Describe FURTHER all
                                       the fishing activities of
                                       THE REGION ‘s coast
                                       and the future
                                       development of fishing
                                       industry




                                                     33
                                                                                                                                                 Agriculture

APPENDIX

SUGGESTED WORK PLAN
Tabulated below is the suggested work plan of activities to be undertaken in the next two and a half years after the introduction of the agriculture syllabus in schools.

                                                            Year
                 Activity                   2007    2008    2009                 2010
       Quarter of Year                      1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2              3 4 1 2         3   4
1.     Setting up support services          x x
2.     Equipping schools                    x x
3.     Training on use of syllabus          x x
4.     Distribution of syllabus to          x
       schools
5.     Formative project M &                x x x x x x x x
       Evaluation
6.     Supply of books to schools           x x
7.     In-service course                                x
8.     Book writing                                                  x   x   x x
       Book publishing                                                       x x x       x
9.     Decision on number of papers                  x x
       Training of examiners in:
           Setting                                x x
           Moderation                               x x
           Marking                                    x x
11.    Marking (End course                                       x
       examination)
12.    Summative Project evaluation                                  x   x
13.    Syllabus review                                                           x x




                                                                                    34
                                                                                                                                               Agriculture

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

A set of protective clothes/Overall Pangas Axes Mattocks/pick axes Jembes/hoes Fork jembes Spades Wheelbarrows
Watering cans Spring balances Rakes Tape measures Knap-sack sprayers Sprinklers Hose pipes Pruning saws Secateurs Garden/Pitch forks Pruning – hooks
         `Buckets         Stir-up pump Milk churn           Hives Strainer/sieve
Weighing/spring balance            Hot irons/ Dehorning wire        Drenching gun Dosing gun/Bolus gun Overall and veil for honey harvesting Honey Burdizzo
         Syringes and needles Thermometers         Halters/ropes Hoof trimmers
Strip cups        Trocar and cannula       Hard broom       Ear notchers Bull ring and lead sticks
Harvesting        Cross cut saw Rip saw bow saw             Elastrator and rubber rings    tools Spirit level
Mason’s square G-clamp             Plumb bob       Shovel Meter rule         Mallet Claw hammer Brace and bits
Jack plane        Crow bar         Bench clamp

4) TEACHING DEVICES
Hardware or showing video and slides and for audio cassettes e.g. DVD player with monitor/Computer and LCD projector
AGRICULTURAL CLUB
It is important that each of all schools offering agriculture as a subject come together and form an agricultural movement for young people. At school level, the
movement will be in form of a club which will be affiliated to the National movement. Members will individually and in groups undertake agricultural ventures for
additional practice to what they learn in school.
The National movement will from time to time bring the school clubs together for various conventions during which the members will display products of their school
and/or home plots, discuss various matters of agricultural concerns ad their movement and compete in undertaking agriculture related tasks such as judging of
livestock, tractor driving, ploughing using animals and machinery etc.
Both boys and girls should be encouraged to join the clubs/movement,
vie and take positions of leadership in the clubs/movement and to actively participate in all activities
The Agricultural Movement and Clubs should take the form of: 4H (as practiced in Canada), Young farmers Clubs (YFC)( as practiced in Kenya,
England and Wales), Future farmers( as practiced in USA) etc




                                                                                      35
                                                                                                                                     Biology

                                                                                BIOLOGY
Introduction
The Somaliland Biology Syllabus 2000 was prepared in consultation with the Secondary School biology teachers of Somaliland, the Ministry of Education, the Head of Curriculum, and
with advice from CfBT under the European Union funded Institutional Support for Secondary Education in Somaliland project.

The syllabus outlines the learning objectives for each topic. . Teachers are encouraged to use textbooks to assist them achieve the learning objectives. They are also encouraged to
use additional materials, books and particularly experimental work where appropriate.
Aims of Somaliland Biology Syllabus
       To develop the scientific language and biological terminology required to enable students to study biology effectively in English.
       To develop abilities and skills relevant to biology.
       To equip learners with appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes and in sights that will empowered then to realize their full potential
       To develop students ability to use experimental biology and to enable students to use experimental techniques as a means to acquire scientific knowledge,
        understanding and skills.
       To enable students to communicate their ideas effectively through appropriate means (including diagrams, tables, graphs, charts) and using appropriate
        scientific and mathematical conventions.
       To develop in students critical thinking and problem solving abilities
       To enable students to relate and apply their scientific knowledge and skills so as to increase their understanding of the environment and their everyday life.
       To enable students to understand how life and living things are inter-related and how they interact with the environment.
       To equip learners with appropriate skill and attitudes to enable then to achieve a better understanding of the world around them
       To lay the knowledge base for student‟s a access to tertiary education with Somaliland and abroad.

PRACTICALS By the end of form 2 (and form 4) the student should be able to perform Biology practical experiments (see objectives and form 4
syllabus) and use the microscope effectively

           Form I                                     Form II                                  Form III                                 Form IV


           1.       Introduction to Biology           1.       Cells                           1.      Flowering plants                 1.    Cell Biology
           1.1.     Definition of Biology             1.1.     Cells and tissues               1.1.    Plant structure and              2.1.  Cell structure
           1.2.     Characteristics of living         1.2.     Chemicals and living cells      function                                 2.2.  Carbohydrates
           things                                     1.3.     Energy from respiration         1.2.    Transport in plants              2.3.  Lipids and proteins
           The cell                                   1.4.     Diffusion, osmosis and          1.3.    Reproduction                     2.4.  Water and inorganic
           Classification of living thinGs            active transport, phagocytes             1.4.    Seed formation and               ions
           Respiration                                pinocytes & oxocytes                     germination                              Enzymes



                                                                                        36
                                                                                                                Biology
    Movement of substances across                                                                                 Cell membranes
    membrane                          2.       Nutrition                   2.       Human physiology
    Osmosis                           2.1.     Photosynthesis and          2.1.     Circulatory and lymphatic
T   Diffusion                         nutrition in plants                  system                                 2. Nutrition and Respiration
E   2. Introduction to Green Plants   2.2.     Nutrition in animals        2.2.     Respiratory system            4.1.     Autotrophic
R   2.1.    Structure and functions   2.3.     Digestion                   2.3.     Excretory system              nutrition
M   2.2.    Transportation            3.       Sensitivity and             2.4.     Skeleton and Muscular         4.2.     Heterotrophic
    Nutrition plants                  Coordination                         system                                 nutrition
1   Photosynthesis                    3.1.     Skin and temperature        2.5.     Reproductive system           Respiration and gaseous
    2.4.    Tropism                   control                                                                     exchange
    2.5.    Reproduction in plants    3.2.     The senses                                                         3. Genetics and heredity
    3.      The Human Machine         3.3.     Coordination                                                       3.1.     DNA and RNA
    3.1.    The skeleton                                                                                          3.2.     Genetic engineering
    3.2.    Joints, muscles and                                                                                   Cell division
    movement                                                                                                      Inheritance
    (Unit 3 continued in Term 2)                                                                                  Variation, selection and
                                                                                                                  evolution




                                                                      37
                                                                                                            Biology
    FORM 1                           FORM 2                              FORM 3                               FORM 4

    Unit 3 continued from            4.     Introduction to              3.     Diversity of organisms        4. Micro-organisms and
    Term 1)                          Inheritance and Genetics            3.1.   Characteristics of living     humans
    3.3.    Food and diet            4.1.   Cell division, DNA &         things                               1.1.   Diseases
    Digestion and Excretion
                                     RNA inheritance                     3.2.   Feeding                       1.2.   Immunity
    Breathing
    3.6.    Transport                4.2.   Variation                    3.3.   Breathing                     1.2.   Biotechnology
T   3.7.    Reproduction in animal   4.3.   Mutation                     3.4.   Reproduction
E                                    4.4.   Evolution                    3.5.   Growth and change
R   4.     Environmental education                                       3.6.   Movement and
M   4.1.   Different types of        5.       Classification of living   locomotion
    environment                      things                              3.7.   Sensitivity
    4.2.   Food chains and webs      5.1.     Classification
2   4.3.   Populations               5.2.     Animal kingdom             4.    Ecology and
    4.4.   Humans and their          5.3.     Plant kingdom              Ecosystems
    environment                      5.4.     Micro-organisms            4.1.  Interdependence
                                     5.5.     Bacteria                   4.2.  Human impact
    5.     Health Education
    5.1.   Microbes and disease      5.6.     Viruses                    4.3.  Ecosystems
    5.2.   Drugs and health          5.7.     Fungi                      4.4.  Populations
    5.3.   Personal Health




                                                                   38
                                                                                                                              Biology

        FORM I
Topic                   Objectives

1.Introduction to
Biology
1.1.Definition of       -To define Biology and appreciate the applications of biology in everyday life .
Biology
1.2.Characteristic      To state the main characteristics of living things i.e (move, feed , grow, use their           Observation
 of living things       senses and reproduce difference between living and non living things

                            Project: collect various things , examine them and classify

1.3.    The cell               To state that animal and plants are made of cells                                      Experiments
                               To list the parts of the cell and their functions (not in detail)
                               To state the difference between the animal cell and the plant cell
                               To classify tissues in organisms
                               To explain the link between cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms To
                                use the microscope, know the microscope- parts and their function (include hand
                                lens), calculation of magnification.
                               To see Cell structure as seen under light microscope. (differences between plant and
                                animal cells).


Classification living   To show the difference among the living organisms & classify their characteristics             Experiments
things                  To give a brief history of classification
                        To explain the process of monoculture
1.5 Respiration         To explain that the process of respiration releases energy from food and that this process     Experimental
                        takes place in cells                                                                           measuring
                        To distinguish between the process of aerobic and anaerobic respiration                        amount of food




                                                                                          39
                                                                                                                                 Biology
1.6 Movement of         To explain the mechanism of which substance accesses the cell membrane                          Experimental of
substances across                                                                                                       movement of
the member              Practical                                                                                       solutes/water
Diffusion               i) Observe, draw, and state functions of light microscope.ii) Prepare and observe temporary
Osmosis                 slides of plant cells.
                         iii) Estimate plant cell size
                          iv)Diffusion demonstration using available substances e.g. KMNO4, coloured plant extract.
                          v) Osmosis demonstration using leaf petioles, irish potatoes (any other appropriate locally
                        available plant tissues can be used).
                        vi) Plasmolysis using onion epidermal cells vi) Plasmolysis using onion epidermal cells
2.Introduction to
Green Plants
2.1.Structure and       To differentiate between the main parts of the green plants                                     Discovery
functions               To describe the structure and functions of the main parts of a plant (root, stem, leaves)
2.2.Transportation      To show that plants take in water and mineral salts through the roots and then is transported   Demonstrate
                        To state that the phloem carries the food
                        To show that there are green plants which have vascular tissues and those which have not
                                                                                                                        & activity
2.3 Nutrition in plants To show that plants need light, water and carbon dioxide to grow                                Practical
Photosynthesis          To test a leaf for starch                                                                       activities
2.4. Tropism            To explain that plants respond to external stimuli
2.5.Reproduction in     To describe the process of sexual reproduction in plants including pollination and
plants                  germination
3.      The Human
Machine
3.1 The skeleton        To describe the main parts of the skeleton                                                      Observation
and Joints              To show how the framework of the skeleton supports and protects the body
                        To describe the main types of joints (ball and socket, hinge, fixed) and their functions
3.2 Muscles and         To explain the meaning of antagonistic pair of muscles                                          Demonstrate
movement                To explain the process in which muscles move bones
3.3 Food and diet       To identify the main types of food (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals,       Practical work
                        water and roughage/cellulose) and examples of foods containing each food type
                        To test foods for the presence of starch, glucose, protein and fat
                        To explain the importance of food for the human body
                        To appreciate the advantages of a balanced diet for a healthy body
3.4 Digestion and       To state the main parts of the digestion system                                                 Observation
Excretion               To state the main parts of the excretory system
                        To describe why food undergoes a process of digestion



                                                                                        40
                                                                                                                                   Biology
                         To explain how the body eliminates waste products
3.5 Breathing            To state the main parts of the respiratory system                                                Experiment
                         To describe the process of breathing in and breathing out
                         To describe how the lungs enable gas exchange to take place
3.6 Transport            To state the main parts of the blood (plasma, red cells, white cells and platelets) and the      Observation
                         function of each part
                         To state the main parts of the circulatory system
                         To describe how blood transports substances throughout the body
3.7 Reproduction in      To describe the reproductive system in males and females
animals                  To describe how the female gamete is fertilised by the male gamete
                         To describe the process of birth
4.Environment
Education
4.1 Different types of   To explain the meaning of the terms environment, habitat, population, community,                 Practical (field
environment              ecosystem                                                                                        visits)
                         To explain the living and non-living factors that surround living thing and their influence on
                         each other
                         To discuss the importance of environmental living things
                         To discuss the impact of environmental pollution
                         To discuss how to have control of environmental integrity (stop erosion)
                         To discuss urban environmental health hazards: Garbage, industrial waste, water pollution
4.2. Food chains and     To learn about food chains and webs and the energy flow through a food chain
webs                     To use the terms consumer, producer, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore
                         To describe the function of scavengers and decomposers are essential in an ecosystems

4.3. Populations         To show why animals and plants must compete for resources                                        Practical work
                         To describe what animals and plants will compete for in their environment                        about counting
                         To describe the environmental pressures which can prevent a growth in population                 population
                         To explain that there can be a predator-prey relationship between populations
4.4.Humans and their     To describe the impact of humans on their environment (population, using pesticides and
environment              fertilisers, natural resources, pollution) in your region.
5.Health Education




                                                                                           41
                                                                                                                                 Biology
5.1.Microbes and        To identify the different types of microbes that can cause disease (viruses, bacteria, fungi,   Demonstrate by
disease                 protozoa)                                                                                       using chart,
                        To describe how disease can be spread and prevented                                             diagrams,
                        To learn the symptoms of common diseases (dysentery, diarrhoea, T.B., skin disease,
                        malaria, typhoid, influenza, venereal disease, trachoma)
                        To be aware of the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including STD HIV and
                        AIDS
5.2. Drugs and health   To describe the affects of smoking on health                                                    Visits of
                        To show that drugs (non-medical) can affect a persons health                                    hospitals &
                        To be aware of kat chewing effects among the population and its hazards to human being          police stations
5.3. Personal health    To learn the importance of a healthy diet, healthy teeth, personal hygiene and exercise in
                        maintaining personal health
                        To have a personal and community awareness of health issues in Somaliland


       FORM II

Topic                                 Objectives
1.    Cells
1.1.  Cells and tissues               To describe the structure and function of each part of a plant and animal cell          Experiments
                                      To prepare, observe and draw plant and animal cells                                     observations
                                      To describe how the cells of an organism are organised (cell – tissue – organ)
                                      To define and give examples of tissues, organs and systems
                                      To recognise that cells are specialised to have different functions
                                      To give examples of different types of specialised cell
1.2.    Chemicals and living cells    To describe the chemical composition of the cell in terms of water, proteins, lipids,   Practical
                                      carbohydrates, salts and vitamins
                                      To describe how enzymes work and the effects of temperature and pH on an enzyme
                                      To recall what is meant by enzyme specificity
1.3.    Energy from respiration       To explain the process by which energy is derived from respiration                      Experiment
                                      To differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Diffusion, osmosis and active         To demonstrate how substances enter and leave cells through the cell membrane by        Experiment &
transport                             diffusion and osmosis                                                                   observation
Phagocyctosis pinocytosis             To explain the processes of diffusion and osmosis (more detailed)
exocytosis                            To explain what is meant by active transport
                                      To explain how phagocyctosis pinocytsis and exocytosis take place
2.      Nutrition



                                                                                          42
                                                                                                                         Biology
2.1.     Photosynthesis and    To describe the process of photosynthesis and write the equation                        Practical work
nutrition in plants            To explore that the rate of photosynthesis may be limited by light intensity, carbon
                               dioxide concentration or temperature
                               To observe and describe experiments to test photosynthesis
                               To describe how leaves are adapted for photosynthesis
                               To explain gaseous exchange in plants in terms of respiration and photosynthesis
                               To appreciate how the products of photosynthesis are utilised by the living plant
                               To state which minerals are needed for healthy growth and how they can be obtained
2.2.    Nutrition in animals   To describe what food is used for in animals                                            Observation &
                               To describe the digestion and use of carbohydrates and proteins                         practical work
                               To discover the important minerals (iron, calcium, iodine, phosphorus) and vitamins
                               required and their functions
                               To explain the importance of dietary fibre and water in the diet
                               To discuss the need for a balanced diet and for special dietary requirements for some
                               groups of people
                               To describe how food can be preserved and processed
                               To explain why food additives are added to food and why they can be harmful
2.3.    Digestion              To describe the structure of the human digestive system                                 Practical &
                               To describe the structure and function of the alimentary canal                          observation
                               To describe the structure and function of teeth
                               To describe the process of digestion, including the role of enzymes, stomach acid
                               and bile
                               To explain the process of absorption of digestive materials
                               To describe the use and storage of digested food
                               To state the functions of the liver
3.      Sensitivity and
Coordination
3.1.    Skin and temperature   To specify the structure and function of the skin                                       Practical work
control                        To explain how body temperature is regulated by the skin
3.2.    The senses             To state the structures which detect stimuli are called sense receptors and where       Practical
                               these are found
                               To describe the sense organs (ear, nose, eye, skin, taste) and their functions
                               To appreciate the importance of the ear in maintaining balance
3.3.Coordination               To determine the structure & function of endocrine glands.                              Practical
Endocrine system               To name the main glands of the endocrine system & the hormones they produce.            Demonstration
Nervous System                 To describe the function of some hormones (adrenaline, progesterone, estrogens,         about
                               testosterone, insulin, throxine ADH)                                                    transmission of



                                                                                43
                                                                                                                           Biology
                                  To recall the structure & function of nervous system                                   impulse
                                  To distinguish between the central nervous system & peripheral nervous system          Demonstration
                                  To describe the structure & function of nerve cells                                    about knee-jerk
                                  To explain synapsis & how the massage travel through the nerve cells.
                                  To explain what is meant by reflex action & reflex are

4.      Introduction to
Inheritance and Genetics
4.1.    Variation                 To describe the types of variation (continuous and discontinuous), with examples       Observation
                                  and their causes
Cell division, DNA & RNA          To describe a chromosome                                                               Observation
Inheritance                       To explain the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division and gamete                experiment
                                  formation
                                  To give a definition of „gene‟ and describe where they are found
                                  To determine the meaning of inheritance
                                  To explain the meaning of alleles, dominant, recessive, phenotype, genotype,
                                  heterozygous , homozygous
                                  To explain how parents pass on information to their offspring and the mechanism of
                                  inheritance
                                  To describe the structure and functions of DNA & RNA
                                  To describe the process of DNA replications
                                  To recite the triple code
                                  To describe transcription & translation during protein synthesis and that they are
                                  controlled by enzymes
4.3.   Mutation                   To show that mutation is a source of genetic variation and it has a number of causes
4.4.   Evolution                  To explain how new species can be formed                                               Observation
                                  To explain what is meant by evolution
                                  To appreciate that fossils are evidence of evolution and that Natural Selection
                                  provides a mechanism for evolution
5.     Classification of living
things
5.1.   Classification             To study the history of classification                                                 Observation
                                  To use the nomenclature of organisms
                                  To study the 5 kingdoms (Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Plants and Animals)
                                  To use keys to identify organisms
5.2.   Animal Kingdom             To identify and describe the main groups of the animal kingdom (annelids,              Observation
                                  arthropods, molluscs, vertebrates



                                                                                   44
                                                                                                                                      Biology
                                       To describe the characteristics of the structure of vertebrates (fish, amphibia, reptiles,
                                       birds, mammals)
5.3.    Plant Kingdom                  To identify and describe main groups of the plant kingdom (algae, bryophytes, and            Practical
                                       vascular plants (ferns, conifers, flowering plants))
5.4.    Micro-organisms                To recite the term micro-organism includes viruses, bacteria, protoctista and some           Observation &
                                       fungi and algae                                                                              practical
                                       To describe techniques for culturing micro-organisms
5.5.    Bacteria                       To describe the characteristics and structure of bacteria                                    Practical
                                       To specify beneficial and non-beneficial affects of bacteria
5.6.    Viruses                        To describe the characteristics and structure of viruses                                     Observation
5.7.    Fungi                          To describe the characteristics and structure of fungi                                       Experiment

       FORM III
Topic                     Objectives
1.      Flowering
plants
1.1.    Plant structure   To name the structure and function of the leaves (including epidermis, stomata, mesophyll and veins)
and function              To name the structure and function of the stem (including epidermis and vascular bundles)
                          To name the structure and function of the roots (including the outer layer and root hairs)
                          To name the structure and function of buds (including bud formation and growth)
1.2.   Transport in       To explain how water is transported by transpiration
plants                    To explain the function of the vascular bundles of a plant (xylem and phloem)
                          To explain the mechanism of mineral uptake
                          To explain the functions of water and minerals (e.g. magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in
                          plants
                          To understand the mechanism involved in the distribution of photosynthetic products through the plant
1.3.    Reproduction      To describe the reproductive parts of the flower
                          To understand the mechanism of pollination and fertilisation
                          To explain how plants are adapted to wind and insect pollination
                          To describe how fruit and seeds are formed
                          To describe how fruit and seeds can be dispersed by wind, animal and explosive methods
1.4.   Propagation        To describe vegetative and artificial propogation
1.5.   Seed formation     to distinguish between cotyledons and dicotyledons
and germination           to describe the structure of a seed
                          to describe the process of germination including the factors which affect germination (water, oxygen,



                                                                                           45
                                                                                                                                 Biology
                         temperature)
                         to explain phototropism and geotropism
                         to show the advantages of tropic responses
2.     Human
physiology
2.1.   Circulatory and   To describe the function of the blood
lymphatic system         To state the composition of the blood and the function of the different types of blood cells
                         To explain the diagrammatic structure of the heart chambers and main blood vessels connected to the
                         heart
                         To describe the mechanism of the circulation of blood (with a diagram)
                         To explain the organs of the lymphatic system and their functions
                         To describe how blood transfusions can be made safely
2.2.   Respiratory       To describe the structure of the lungs
system                   To explain the processes of inhaling ad exhaling
                         To describe how gas exchange takes place and the factors that affect the mechanism
2.3.   Excretory         to differentiate between the excretory organs and their roles (lungs, kidneys, liver, skin)
system                   to describe the structure and function of the kidney
                         to show how the kidney regulates the water content of the body (osmo-regulation)
                         to appreciate the importance of maintaining constant internal environment and the process of
                         homeostasis
2.4.   Skeleton and      to describe and understand the structure and function of the skeleton
Muscular system          to describe and understand the structure and function of muscles
                         to name the different types of muscles in the human body
                         to explain the mechanism of muscle contraction and relaxation
                         to demonstrate how muscles aid in movement and the antagonistic action involved in it
2.5.   Reproductive      to describe the male and female reproductive systems
system                   to explain how the male and female gametes are produced
                         to explain the process of fertilisation
                         to describe the development of the embryo from conception to birth
                         to describe the changes that take place in boys and girls at puberty
3.Diversity of
organisms
3.1.Characteristics of   to state the basic activities of life which all living organisms carry out.
living things
3.2.     Feeding         to explain the ways in which organisms can get their food (autotrophs, heterotrophs, saprotrophs, and
                         parasites)
3.3.    Breathing        to explain the different mechanisms by which living things breathe



                                                                                          46
                                                                                                                                Biology
                       to describe the importance of the surface area to volume ratio in breathing
3.4.   Reproduction    to describe sexual and asexual reproduction with examples
                       to recognise that fertilisation can be internal or external
3.5.   Growth and      To state the phases of growth of organisms can involve cell division, enlargement, changes in shape
change                 and metamorphosis
3.6.   Movement        to describe how an organism can move
                       to name the means for locomotion (flagella, cilia, appendages, muscles, and wings)
3.7.     Sensitivity   to describe how organisms respond to stimuli
4.       Ecology and
Ecosystems
4.1 Interdependence    to explain how the organisms depend on each other for energy flow and recycling of organic materials
                       to explain how food chains may be described quantitatively using pyramids of numbers and pyramids
                       of biomass
                       to describe the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle
4.2 Human impact       to discuss how population size, economic factors and industrial requirements impact on the
                       environment
                       to describe how humans can affect food webs (hunting, agriculture, pesticides, eutrophication
                       to describe the causes and affect of pollution (air, water, agriculture)
                       to explain how pollution can be reduced (through reducing pollution, waste disposal, recycling,
                       biological control)
4.3.   Ecosystems      to describe different ecosystems such as terrestrial and aquatic
                        to describe how the distribution and relative abundance of organisms in a habitat can be explained in
                       terms of adaptation, competition and predator-prey relationships
4.4.   Populations     to describe how populations can grow and the limits to growth




                                                                                    47
                                                                                                                  Biology
 FORM IV
Topic                        Objectives
Micro-organisms and humans
Diseases                     to explain what is meant by the terms health and disease
                             to name the different categories of disease and to give one example of each
                             to explain the terms pandemic, epidemic and endemic
                             to state that infectious diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi or protozoa
                             to state the ways that diseases can be transmitted (through air, contamination of food and water, by vectors,
                             contagion) and controlled
                             to describe the causes of cholera, malaria, AIDS and TB and explain how these diseases are transmitted
                             to discuss the roles of social, economic and biological factors in the prevention and control of cholera, malaria,
                             AIDS and TB
                             to be aware of the world-wide importance of infectious diseases
                             to outline the role of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious disease
Immunity                     to explain the meaning of the term immune response
                             to explain the difference between the terms antibody and antigen
                             to describe the role of phagocytes and lymphocytes in defence against pathogens
                             to distinguish between B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes in fighting infection
                             to distinguish between active, passive, natural and artificial immunity
                             to describe the function of antibodies
                             to explain how vaccination can control disease
Biotechnology                to define biotechnology as the application of living organisms, systems or processes in industry
                             to the traditional uses of biotechnology in the region e.g. souring of milk, production of ghee from milk,
                             fermentation of dough, the rotting of hides and skins for making leather, the sissal fibre production
                             to describe the processes involved in producing fermentation products, antibiotics, single-cell proteins, enzymes
                             and sludge digestion

Genetics and Heredity
DNA and RNA                  to explain the terms chromosome, gene, genome
                             to describe the structure and function of DNA and RNA
                             to describe the process of DNA replication
                             to state that a gene is part of a DNA molecule, made of a sequence of nucleotides which codes for the construction
                             of a polypeptide
                             to describe the way in which the nucleotide sequence codes for the amino acid sequence in the polypeptide
                             to describe how transcription and translation take place during protein synthesis
                             to appreciate that the synthesis of enzymes is controlled by DNA



                                                                         48
                                                                                                                          Biology
Genetic Engineering                  to outline the principles of genetic engineering
                                     to discuss the applications, hazards and ethics of genetic engineering
Cell division                        to explain the function and process of cell division (mitosis and meiosis)
                                     to explain the meaning of the terms haploid, diploid, zygote, homologous pair of chromosomes, centromere,
                                     autosome and chromatid
Inheritance                          to explain that genetics is the study of inheritance of characteristics by offspring from their parents
                                     to explain the meaning of the terms allele, single factor inheritance, dominant and recessive, genotype and
                                     phenotype, homozygous and heterozygous
                                     to describe inheritance patterns between parents of the same genotype and of different genotypes, including the
                                     occurrence of the 3:1 ratio
                                     to give some examples of hereditary diseases
                                     to explain how sex in mammals is determined by X and Y chromosomes
                                     to describe the process and benefits of selective breeding
Variation, selection and evolution   to state that variations within a species may be inherited or acquired and to give examples of each case
                                     to describe how, during meiosis, the maternal and paternal chromosomes are randomly distributed between the
                                     gametes
                                     to explain how new combinations of genes can arise at fertilisation
                                     to explain the terms discontinuous and continuous variation and give examples of each
Cell Biology
Cell structure                       to describe and interpret the structure of typical animal and plant cells as seen using the light micropscope and the
                                     electron microscope
                                     to describe the differences and similarities between animal and plant cells
                                     to recognise and explain the functions of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus,
                                     mitochondira, ribosomes, lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma (cell surface) membrane, centrioles, cilia and the nucleus
                                     (including nuclear envelope and nucleolus)
                                     to compare and contrast the structure of a prokaryote cell and the structure of a eukaryotic cell
                                     to explain how cells are organised into tissues and give examples of tissues (including squamous epithelium and
                                     ciliated epithelium, xylem and phloem
Carbohydrates                        to use and understand the terms macromolecule and polymer
                                     to describe the importance of and basic structure of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides and
                                     polysaccharides
                                     to describe the formation and breaking of a glycosidic bond by condensation and hydrolysis respectively
                                     to relate the structures of the polysaccharides starch, glycogen and cellulose to their functions in living organisms
Lipids and proteins                  to describe the structure and formation of the most common type of lipid, the triglyceride
                                     to relate the structures of triglycerides and phoshpolipids to their functions in living things
                                     to use and understand the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic, unsaturated and polysaturated as they apply to lipids
                                     to describe the basic structure of amino acids, the basic component of proteins



                                                                                49
                                                                                                                  Biology
                            to describe the formation and importance of the peptide bond
                            to describe the primary structure of polypeptides and proteins and how it affects their secondary and tertiary
                            structure
                            to describe the importance of hydrogen bonds, disulphide bonds, ionic bonds and hydrophobic interactions in
                            maintaining the three-dimensional structure of proteins
                            to describe how the structures of globular (e.g. haemoglobin) and fibrous (e.g. collagen) proteins are related to their
                            functions
Water and inorganic ions    to explain the properties of water and its importance in cell biology
                            to describe the functions of some inorganic ions required by living organisms e.g. Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-,
                            PO43-, Fe2
Enzymes                     to explain that enzymes as globular proteins which act as catalysts
                            to describe the significance of the active site in an enzyme
                            to describe how enzymes catalyse a reaction by reducing the activation energy
                            to give some examples of enzyme catalysed reactions
                            to describe how enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, temperature, pH and competitive inhibitors can
                            affect the rate of an enzyme catalysed reactions
Cell membranes              to describe and explain the structure of a cell membrane in terms of the fluid mosaic model
                            to explain the functions of the components of the cell membrane (phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, glycolipids
                            and glycoproteins
                            to outline the role of the plasma membrane and the roles of membranes within cells
                            to describe the four basic mechanisms of transport across the plasma membrane (diffusion, osmosis, active and bulk
                            transport
                            to describe the effects on animal and plant cells of immersion in solutions of different water potential

Nutrition and Respiration
Autotrophic nutrition       to explain that photosynthesis is a form of autotrophic nutrition
                            to describe the significance of photosynthesis in terms of its effect on plant metabolism, food chains and
                            composition of the air
                            to outline the process of photosynthesis in terms of the process that takes place in the specialised organelles, the
                            chloroplasts
                            to describe and explain the conditions required for photosynthesis (light, chlorophyll in chloroplasts, carbon
                            dioxide, water, suitable temperature)
                            to explain why the leaf can be described as „the factory for photosynthesis‟ in terms of leaf structure
                            to describe, in detail, the mechanism of photosynthesis as a set of reactions in two stages - the light-dependent stage
                            and the light-independent stage
                            to name the products of photosynthesis (glucose, starch, amino acids and proteins, nucleic acids and lipids)
                            to describe and explain the differences between C3 and C4 plants in terms of photosynthesis



                                                                        50
                                                                                                                          Biology
Heterotrophic nutrition            to define and use the terms heterotrophic, holozoic, saprotrophic and parasitic nutrition
                                   to describe holozoic nutrition of mammals
                                   to describe the essential nutrients required by the body and their functions
                                   to describe the structure and function of the human gut, including the structure and functions of the mouth, teeth,
                                   oesphagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine
                                   to describe the process by which digested food is absorbed and assimilated
Respiration and gaseous exchange   to describe how the process of respiration releases energy
                                   to differentiate and describe the two types of respiration (aerobic and anaerobic)
                                   to explain the function and importance of the respiratory surface
                                   to describe the process of gaseous exchange in plants, small animals and large organisms
                                   to explain the process of tissue respiration which involves reduction reactions in which sugar is typically oxidised
                                   to carbon dioxide, and oxygen is reduced to water
                                   to describe the 3 major phases of respiration of glucose – glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, the electron-transport system
                                   to explain the occurrence and process of anaerobic respiration
        PRACTICALS
Practical activity 1               Visit hospitals
Practical activity 2               Learn about childcare (prenatal and post natal Childcare (prenatal and post natal in the hospital
Practical activity 3               Demonstration activity- Dissect a small mammal to show reproductive organs
Practical activity 4               Observe and draw the structure of kidney

Practical activity 5               Observe permanent slides of mammalian skin
Practical activity 6               Examine live / preserved specimen or photographs of representative of major divisions of plantae kingdom,
                                   animmalia phyla
                                   ii) Construction of dichotomous keys using various plants and animals.
                                   iii) Using dichotomous keys to identify organisms

Practical activity 6               -i) Compare root nodules from leguminous plants from poor and rich soils. ii) Estimate population size using
                                   sampling methods iii) collect, record, analyze, interpret data from ecological studies. iv)Use of food chains to
                                   construct food webs. V) Calculate ratios of producers to consumers.

Practical activity 7               -i) grow bread mold and examine using hand lens, ii) examine spores in a sorus of a fern, iii) examine various types
                                   of wind and insect pollinated flowers and relate their structure to function, iv)collect, classify and dissect fruit and
                                   seeds and relate their structure to mode of dispersal.

Practical activity –8              i) demonstrate knee jerk activity.




                                                                               51
                                                                                                            Biology
Practical activity –9   i) observation of exoskeleton in arthropods

Project work 10         – measure length of internodes/breath of leaves/height of plant over a period time and present data obtained inform
                        of graphs, charts and histograms

Practical activity 11   – i) measure and record heights of classmates and represent date inform of graphs, ii) demonstrate mitosis and
                        meiosis by using coloured threads, plasticine and clay, iii) finger printing and tongue rolling
Practical Activity 12   Compare vertrebral limbs of horses humans, monkeys,
                        Compare wings of birds and insects




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                                                                                                                          Business Studies

                                                                      BUSINESS STUDIES
The Business education syllabus for forms three and four incorporates fundamental aspects of the various business disciplines aimed at providing the leaner with
opportunity to acquire basic business knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for the development of self and the nation.
Business Education takes into account the need to address contemporary issues and trends in business practice and current economic issues in society. The teachers
are therefore expected to update themselves on the use of technology such as computers, electronic cash registers and other resources. The teachers are also
advised to employ participatory instructional methods to enhance student learning.
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
The Business Education course will enable the learner to:
    1. Acquire necessary business knowledge and skills for self development and the nation.
    2. Apply necessary entrepreneurial knowledge and skills.
    3. Develop an understanding of business ownership and control
    4. Enhance communication skills for effective running of a business
    5. Develop ability for inquiry, critical thinking, creativity and rational judgment.
    6. Appreciate the need for ethical practice in carrying out business activities.
    7. Develop positive attitude towards work.
    8. Enhance co-operation and good inter-personal relation in the business.
    9. Appreciate the need for measuring business performance.
    10. Develop a firm foundation for further studies and training.




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                                                                                                                       Business Studies




Topics/subtopics Objectives                              Concepts                                   learning –teaching                 Learning
* By the end of the topic the learner should be                                                     Experiences                        Resources
able to:-

1. 1 Business in community                          1.1.1Meaning of business                        Discuss business in the locality   Reference books
*                                                   1.1.2 Importance of business                                                       Pictures of shops,
a) explain the meaning of business studies          business opportunities                                                             Food stuffs,
b) explain the importance of business studies       1.1.3 business environments (internal &                                            Pictures of
 c) identify business activities in the community   external)                                        answer questions on business      buildings
e) explain how environment influence business                                                       activities in the local area       Pieces of cloth
1.2 Human needs
*                                                                                                                                      Pictures of people
(a) Classify human wants                            1.2.1 Satisfaction of human wants               classify human wants               from newspapers
b) state meaning of goods and services              1.2.2 characteristics of human wants                                               or charts
                                                    1.2.3 types of human wants                                                         associated with
                                                    1.2.4 meaning of goods and services                                                different
2 Entrepreneurship                                                                                                                     businesses
a) explain the meaning of entrepreneur              2.1.1 meaning of entrepreneurship               Role play starting of a business
b) name the qualities of an entrepreneur            2.1.3 Qualities of a good entrepreneur          Discuss qualities of a good
c) explain the nature and rewards of risk taking    2.1.3 nature and rewards of risk taking         entrepreneur; reasons for
d) identify business opportunities in their local   2.1.4 starting a business/legal requirements    success and failure of
area                                                2.1.5 Government and other support for risk     businesses
e) name government and other support for risk       taking
taking                                              2.1.6 Factors that may hinder entrepreneurial   out of class activity on           Business people
f) state reasons for success and failure of         development                                     businesses in the surrounding      interviewed –
enterprises                                         2.1.7 Factors that cause Business failure                                          sample questions
                                                    2.1.8 Local government taxes; central                                              for students to ask
g) explain local and central government taxes       government taxes and zakat tax                  discuss taxes required             tax documents,
required for business operation                                                                                                        central
h) describe factors that influence location of a    2.1.9 factors considered when locating a        discuss location of businesses     government tax
business                                            business                                                                           certificates



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                                                                                                                                       Map of Somaliland
2.2 Finance                                          2.2.1 meaning of finance                         Discuss meaning of finance,
*a) Explain the meaning of finance in                2.2.2 sources of business finance                sources of finance
b)describe sources of finance to a business          2.2.3 business plan
c) prepare a simple business plan                    2.2.4 budget                                     Prepare simple business plan
d) prepare a simple business budget                                                                   and budget
                                                                                                      assignments

3. The ownership and control of Business             3.1.1 -sole proprietorship:-                      answer questions about sole     Products from sole
3.1 Sole Proprietorship                              formation,                                       proprietors in the community     proprietorship
*                                                    3.1.2 sources of capital, liability,             discuss formation, source of     businesses –
a) Explain characteristics of sole proprietorship:   3.1.3 Advantages and                             capital                          shops, markets
formation, source of capital, advantages and         Disadvantages.
disadvantages

3.2 Partnership                                      3.2.1 Partnership- set up, 3.2.2 ownership and   Students role play partnership   Pictures of banks
*describe partnership business including set up,     control,                                         business                         Money
ownership, control, liability, types; partnership    3.2.3 liability,                                 Prepare partnership deed         Samples of
deed; dissolution advantages and disadvantages       3.2.4 partnership deed and articles of                                            business plans
                                                     association                                                                       and budgets
                                                     3.2.5 dissolution, advantages and
                                                     disadvantages
3.3 Cooperatives
*i) Explain meaning and formation of co-             3.3.1 meaning of co-operatives                   Discuss people coming
operatives societies                                 3.3.2 principles of cooperatives                 together to do business
ii) name cooperative principles and explain          3.3.3 Types of co-operatives                     Give local examples of
sources of capital                                   3.3.4 Role of ministry of                        cooperative societies
iii) Describe types of co-operative societies        cooperatives/commerce
iv) Explain the role of ministry of cooperative
development/ commerce
                                                     3.4.1 Types:-private companies, and public       Discuss companies in the
3.4 Companies                                        companies.                                       region, formation, sources of    partnership
*i) explain formation of companies                   3.4.2 sources of capital- shares and stocks      capital                          business products
ii) explain ways of raising capital- stocks and      3.4.3 Formation-memorandum of                                                     and organization



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                                                                                                                           Business Studies
shares                                             understanding, articles of association,             Prepare simple memorandum           e.g Gaafane
iii) describe memorandum of understanding and      certificate of trading                              of association and articles of      products
articles of association                            3.4.4 Dissolution                                   association


3.5 Public Corporations                            3.5.1 public corporations/                          Discuss meaning of meaning of
*                                                  3.5.2 features,                                     public corporations,
d) Describe characteristics of public              3.5.3 formation and management                      characteristics, formation
corporation:- formation, source of capital         3.5.4 sources of capital                                                                Traditional saving
                                                   3.5.5 liability                                                                         & loan (Hagbad),
                                                   3.5.6 advantages and disadvantages                                                      Hargesia charcoal
                                                                                                                                           Production
4 Home Trade
4.1 Home Trade                                     4.1.1 Trade                                         Discuss the importance of trade
*a)Define trade                                    4.1.2 importance of home trade                      to the local society
b) Explain the importance of home trade            4.1.3 chain of distribution                         Explain chain of distribution and
c) Describe the role of chain of distribution in                                                       its importance
trade


4.2 Retail trade                                   4.2 Functions of retailers                          Discuss functions of retailers,
*                                                  4.3 Types of retailers in the country-small scale    types of retailers in the
a) explain the functions of retailers              and large scale retailers                           community.
b) Describe types of retailers                                                                         assignment                          Posters of
                                                                                                                                           companies.
                                                                                                                                           Chart showing
4.3 Wholesale Trade                                                                                                                        memorandum of
*a) Describe the functions of a wholesaler        4.3.1 Functions of wholesalers                       Students dramatize chain of         understanding,
b) should explain services offered by wholesalers 4.3.2 services of wholesalers to consumers and       distribution                        Articles of
to retailers and consumers                        to retailers                                                                             association

c) Explain HIV/AIDs and STDS effects on
business                                           4.3.2 Effects of HIV/AIDs and STDS on               Discuss diseases and how to
                                                   businesses                                          avoid



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                                                                                                                          Business Studies

5. Management of People within a Business
5.1 management of people                                                                                                                  Pictures showing
*                                                                                                      Discuss management in              public corporations
a) define the term management                       5.1 meaning of management                          relation to school management      e.g., Borama
b) name the functions of management                 5.12 functions of management (planning,                                               Water Project
c) recognize the need for effective                 organizing, coordinating, controlling, staffing)   Explain functions of
office/personnel management                         5.1.3 methods of management-                       management
d) should describe the various methods of           -leadership styles
management                                          -delegation                                        Role play delegation, motivation
e) explain sources of problems facing               -teamwork                                          in the classroom
management                                          methods of motivation
                                                    5.1.4 Sources of problems facing management                                           Trade items, chart
                                                                                                                                          showing chain of
                                                                                                                                          distribution
5.2 Time management                                 5.2.1 Time management                              Discuss the importance of time,
By the end of the topic the learner should be       5.2.2 Time tables/Diaries                          use of diaries
appreciate the importance of time management
in business                                                                                            Prepare time tables



                                                                                                                                          Resource person
6. Business Communication                           6.1.1 Definition of communication                  Act types of communication         from local
 *                                                  6.1.2 Oral communication                           Discuss factors that contribute    business
a) define communication                             6.1.3 Written communication –business letters,     to effective oral and written      community
b) describe characteristics of effective oral       memorandums, e-mail, minutes                       communication
communication                                       6.1.4 Nonverbal communication                       role play non-verbal
c) write good business letters, memorandums,        6.1.4 Barriers to effective communication in       communication
circulars, minutes                                  business
d) Explain role of non- verbal communication in
business                                                                                                                                  Chart showing
d) explain barriers to effective communication in                                                                                         chain of
business                                                                                                                                  distribution



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                                                                                                                                  Business Studies
                                                                                                                                                   Pictures of local
7. The Office                                            .1 Definition of the office                          Discuss the meaning of office        wholesalers
 *                                                       7.2 Function of the office                           and functions of the various
a) describe the functions of the office                  7.3 Office staff (secretary, clerks, manager etc.)   cadres of office staff.
b) explain function of office staff (secretary, clerk,   7.4 office equipment (computer, fax machine,
manager etc.)                                            typewriter, franking machines, photocopier,          Operate computer, use                Photographs of
c) use various office equipment                          calculators                                          calculators etc.                     people with
d) demonstrate use of simple filing system               7.5 Simple filing for business                       Visit office -see                    HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                              use various office equipment.
8 Auxiliary services in Business                                                                              file documents
8.1 Money and Banking                                    8.1.1 Money –types of money, origin, functions,      Discuss money and functions
*a) define money                                         8.1.2 characteristics                                                                     Organization chart
b) explain the functions of money                        8.1.3 Barter system                                  Role play exchange with money
c) Describe characteristics of money                                                                          and barter system             Pictures of people
d) Explain barter system and its application in                                                               Answer questions on exchange Money to explain
present days businesses                                                                                       of goods                      salaries

                                                                                                                                                   Oranges, sweets
8.2 Banking                                                                                                   Observation and interviewing of
*a) Define banking                                       8.2.1 Meaning of banking                             resource person
b) explain types of banks                                8.2.2 Types of banks                                 Visit to financial institution
c) Describe the different functions of money             (commercial banks, finance institutions, non         around school
d) Explain the different accounts one can operate        bank institutions, Islamic banking system)           participated in the writing of the
in the bank                                              8.2.3 Functions of banks                             syllabus and training for
e) Describe the type of loans offered by banks           8.2.4 bank accounts                                  business education.
f) appreciate the role of Central Bank in the            8.2.5 cheques                                        Discuss role of Central bank
country                                                  8.2.6 Loans (short term, long term, credit cards)
                                                         8.2.7 Central Bank
8.3 Insurance
*a) Define and explain the importance of                 8.3.1 definition of insurance, risk,                 Discuss risks, business loss,        Time tables
insurance to business                                    8.3.2 importance of insurance                        compensation,                        Diaries, clock face

b) Describe the principles of insurance                  8.3.3 Principles of insurance –utmost good           Discuss the principles
                                                         faith, indemnity etc.



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                                                                                                                           Business Studies
c) explain the types of insurance
                                                      8.3.4 Types of insurance (life assurance, fire,   Interview insurance persons
                                                      transport, accident, blood compensation Somali
                                                      traditional insurance)                                                              Mobile phones
                                                                                                        Discussion                        Radio calls
8.4 Warehousing                                       8.4.1 Functions of warehousing                    functions of warehouses           Paging services
*a) Describe the functions of warehouse to                                                                                                Computer
businesses                                            8.4.2 Types of warehouses (sea port, inland       Assignment                        letters
b) Explain the types of warehouses                    terminals)

                                                      8.5.1 definition of transport
8.5 Transport                                                                                            Discuss role of transport; new
*a)explain the meaning of transport                   8.5.2 modes of transport                          trends in transport               Picture of Office
b) appreciate the role of transport in carrying out                                                                                       Chart showing
business operations                                   8.5.3 New trends in transport-containerization,                                     office staff
c) describe new trends in transport (pipelines,       pipeline                                                                            Computers,
containerization)                                                                                                                         Staplers
                                                                                                                                          Typewriters
                                                                                                                                          Fax machine
8.6 Sales Promotion                                                                                                                       Paper punch
*                                                                                                       role play good customer           Calculators
a) explain the meaning of sales promotion             8.6.1 meaning of sales promotion                  relation                          Folders
b) describe the various methods of sales                                                                Prepare advertising slogans,
promotion (advertising, discounts, gifts, customer    8.6.2 methods-advertising, discounts, customer    pictures and broadcasting
relation) that may use in their business              relation,                                         messages
                                                                                                        Visit businesses                  Coins, notes, any
9.0 Pricing Determination                             9.1 definition of price                           Students construct demand         goods available
*                                                                                                       curves and supply curves on
                                                      9.2 price determination-demand and supply
a)define price                                                                                          graph Discuss other ways of
                                                      forces
b)Describe the various ways of determining price                                                        price determination
of a good or service                                  -government, supplier or producer fixing price
c)explain the meaning of demand and supply
d) use demand and supply curve to determine
equilibrium price
e)explain other ways of determining price of



                                                                                      59
                                                                                                                         Business Studies
goods and service

10 International Trade                                                                                                                    Resource person
*                                                    10.1 meaning of international trade              Class discuss trade between         Credit cards
a) explain the meaning of international trade                                                         countries
b) describe documents used international trade       10.2 reasons for international trade             Observe and construct
c) explain international currencies and exchange                                                      documents used in international     Sample bank
                                                     10.3 documents used in international trade
rates                                                                                                 trade                               cheques, coins,
d) explain barriers to international trade           10.4 international currencies and exchange       Interview resource persons          notes
e) name benefits of economic integration             rates                                            Convert money from local
                                                                                                      currencies to other international
11. Measuring business performance                   10.5 barriers to international trade             currencies                          Pictures of
                                                                                                                                          buildings, accident
11.1 Double entry system                             10.6 Economic integration (COMESA, EU, AU)                                           scenes
*
a) describe the nature and purpose of accounting     11.1.1 nature and purpose of accounting
b) define business transaction                                                                        Calculate problems using            Show persons
c) use bookkeeping equation                          11.1..2 Types of accounts                        bookkeeping equation                compensated after
d) demonstrate correct usage of double entry                                                          Make records in the books of        accident
rules                                                11.1.3 Rules of double entry                     original entry from appropriate     Resource persons
e) describe the different source documents in                                                         source documents.
business recording                                   11.1.4 source documents                          assignments                         Pictures of
d) solve accounting problems                                                                                                              warehouses,
                                                     11.1.5 Types of books of original entry (sales
                                                                                                                                          stored goods
                                                     day book, purchase day book
                                                                                                                                          Pictures of donkey
                                                                                                                                          carts, lorries aero
12.1 Types of ledgers                                12.1.1 Types and format of a ledger              Construct ledgers accounts in       planes, ships
*                                                                                                     their books
a) construct and label the divisions of the ledger   12.1.2 Purpose for each ledger                   Demonstration of recording in
b) explain the purpose of each ledger                                                                 ledger accounts                     Advert slogans,
c) record transactions in each ledger                12.1.3 Balancing ledger accounts                                                     posters,
d) balance each ledger                                                                                Record in ledger accounts and       newspapers, radio
e) prepare a trial balance and correcting errors     12.1.4 Trial Balance                             assignment



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                                                                                                                     Business Studies
revealed by trial balance                                                                         Preparing trial balance-
                                                                                                  assignments                       Goods in the
                                                                                                                                    market and price
12.2 Cash Book                                  12.2.1 Purpose of cash book                       demonstration and Students        tags
a) explain the purpose of the cash book                                                           practice recording in cash book
b) describe the types of the cash book          12.2..2 types of cash books (one, column, three
c) prepare and balance the cash book            column cash books)                                                                  Maps, globes,
d) explain the purpose of the petty cash book                                                     Record in petty cash book
                                                12.2.3 Balancing the cash book
e) record in the petty cash book and balance.                                                                                       Currencies of
                                                12.2. 4 Petty cash book                                                             different countries,
                                                                                                                                    news papers
13 Business Final Statements                    13.1 purpose of trading, profit and loss account Discuss purpose of final
*                                               and balance sheet                                accounts                          Source
a) Describe the purposes of trading account,                                                                                       documents-
profit and loss account and balance sheet       13.2 Formats of each statements                   Draw formats of the trading      invoices, cash
b) draw the formats of each of the statements                                                     account, profit and loss account payment vouchers
c) prepare a trading account                    13.3 Trading account                              and balance sheet
d) prepare a profit and loss account                                                              Preparation- final statements,   Computers-peach
e) Prepare a balance sheet                      13.4 Profit and loss account                                                       tree accounting
                                                                                                                                   package
                                                13.5 Balance sheet
                                                                                                                                    Ledger books,
                                                                                                                                    charts, computers

                                                                                                                                    Cash payment
                                                                                                                                    vouchers, bank
                                                                                                                                    cheques, petty
                                                                                                                                    cash vouchers
                                                                                                                                    Chart showing
                                                                                                                                    final statements,
                                                                                                                                    computers, trial
                                                                                                                                    balance
                                                                                                                                    statements




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                                                                                     Business Studies
SUMMARY –
Course code/unit               Topic                                       periods
Form Three Courses             Definition of business
1.0 Business in community      Satisfaction of human wants                     10
                               Importance of business
2.0 Entrepreneurship skills    Meaning of enterprise
                               Meaning of entrepreneur
                               Qualities of a good entrepreneur
                               Risk taking
                               Business idea
                               Business opportunities                         18
                               Location of a business
                               Government taxes
                               Causes of business failure
3.0 Ownership and control of   Sole proprietorship
business                       Partnership
                               Private companies
                               Public companies                               18
                               Co-operative societies
                               Government participation in business
                               Chain of distribution
4. 0 Home trade                Retail trade (small and large)
                               Wholesale trade



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                                                                                             Business Studies
                                     Trends and in trade – HIV/AIDS                 12
5.0 Management of people in a        Definition of management
business                             Functions of management
                                     Methods of management
                                     Leadership styles-delegation, teamwork          16
                                     Time management
6.0 Business Communication           Purpose of communication
                                     Types: verbal communication
                                     Written communication
                                     Non-verbal communication
                                     Medium of communication                         14
                                     Barriers to effective communication


7.0 The Office                       Definition of office
                                     Function of office
                                     Office staff
                                     Office equipments
                                       Computers, photocopiers
                                        Typewriters, adding machines, telephones,
                                     etc.                                                8
                                     Office Filing                                   96
Form Four Courses
8.0 Auxiliary services in business   Money



                                                                               63
                                                        Business Studies
Characteristics of money functions of money
Barter system
Banking
Functions
Types of banks                                      7
Loans by banks
Bank accounts
Insurance- importance
-Principles of insurance
-Types of insurance policies
Warehousing
-Functions                                          4
-Types of warehouses
Transport importance
-modes of transport                                 2
-Trends (containerization pipelines)


Product Promotion-
-methods of product promotion                       2
 (Discounts, advertising, customer relation)
                                                    3




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                                                                                        Business Studies
                           Definition of price
                           Meaning of demand
                           Factors that influence demand
                           Demand curve
                           Meaning of supply                                        6
                           Factors influence supply
                           Supply curve
                           Equilibrium price
                           Price fixing by government, suppliers, and
                           producers
10.0 International Trade   Meaning of international trade
                           Documents used in international trade
                           Currencies and exchange rates
                           Forms of economic integration (COMESA, WTO,          4
                           EU, AU)
                           International Finance institutions (IMF, World
                           bank, ADB)
11.0 Measuring Business    Business transaction
performance- Bookkeeping   Bookkeeping equation
equation                   Double entry
                           Rules for recording assets, liabilities, capital,    10
                           expenses, income
                           Ledger accounts



                                                                           65
                                                                                                                  Business Studies
                                    Source Documents
                                    Purchase journal, sales journal
                                    Returns in and out journals
                                    General journal
                                                                                        12
12.0 Types of ledgers               Cash Book
                                    One column cashbook
                                    Two column cashbook
                                    Three column cashbook                                3
                                    Petty cash book


13.0 Final Statements               Trading, profit and loss account
                                    Balance sheet                                         4
                                                                                          94


GRAND TOTAL                                                                             190




                                                                       APPENDIX
1.     .
      Business knowledge and skills are needed to be able to run their businesses profitability
      The Faculty of Commerce at Amoud University and other universities need to train people who have some background knowledge of business education from
       secondary school.
      The teachers chosen for training need to have a strong business education background.
      The Ministry of Education is requested to help the teachers by providing more in- service training on business education.


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                                                                                                                            Business Studies
     More teachers of business education should be trained as soon as possible to meet the potential high demand in secondary schools.
     Women should be encouraged to teach business education in order to help the future business women.
     Secretarial Studies be introduced in secondary school to cater for those students who may not want to pursue business education especially girls ho may want
      to be secretaries.

2.1 Assessment of syllabus- Piloting stage- it is recommended that the use of observation of student learning in the classrooms, interviews of teachers and students
and student assessment of their learning may be conducted. From the teacher’s student records, the students’ performance will reveal the status of the syllabus in
terms of its effectiveness in meeting the objectives stated. This will form part of the formative evaluation during implementation stage. Decisions will then be made on
whether to reduce or increase the learning experiences Summative evaluation will be done at the end of the second year, form four when students sit the final
secondary examination. Decisions can be made on the syllabus based on the final assessment.
2.2 Assessment of student learning
Teachers should give continuous assessment in form of assignments and test as part of learning activities. This will be kept in the students’ progress records by the
teacher. This will show individual student progress in learning business education. The marks may not be treated as part of final assessment at end of form four.
Teachers are also encouraged to give projects to encourage integration of skills. Assessment of this may be individual or group depending on the initial arrangement
by the teacher.
Final assessment at the end of form four. Two papers have been recommended. Paper I will test general knowledge of students on the subject. The examination will
be in form of objective type questions- matching, multiple choice or true/false. Time – 2 hours
Paper 2 – The examination will mostly be application of skills and knowledge learned. The paper will be in form of essays and problems from accounting. Time 2 hours
3. Strategy for Implementation- The strategy for implementation of the business education syllabus will include the following: i) Resources- these include training of
teachers and availing the necessary books and other learning resources. .
Teachers should be given additional in- service training during the implementation to help them overcome any problem that may arise especially in handling content.
Advisory and supervisory services should be put in place to guide the teachers during implementation. There will be need of a person specialized in business
education to oversee the implementation and help the teachers
Business Education Evaluation




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                                                                                                                            Business Studies
The business education course for forms three and four students in Somaliland will be evaluated at the end of form four. Two papers of two hours each will be
administered. The suggested names are Business Education Paper 1 (one) and Business education Paper 2 (two)
Paper I – composed of section A and section B. The student will be expected to answer a total of 20 questions. Section A composed of 12 objective type questions
(multiple choice, true false and matching questions) which may have several questions each. Marks for this section will be 50.
Section B – Students are expected to answer eight short answer questions. Total marks 50. Total marks for the two sections is100 marks.
Paper 2 – The paper will have section A and section B. Section A to contain 10 compulsory short answer question and a total marks of 40.
Section B- composed of six essays and accounting problems. The student shall be expected to answer any four. Total marks for the section will be 60 marks. A total
mark for paper 2 is 100.
The student will be evaluated by getting the mean of the two papers. The mean mark attained will be taken as a true reflection of the students’ level of mastery of
business education kn1.1
SCHEME OF WORK
The scheme of work serves as the main THREAD on which all lesson plans are based. It is based on the content presented in the syllabus. This gives organized
contents for student learning. In it the teacher shows when the concepts are taught and the method that the teacher will use. It also indicates the learning resources for
each concept. The syllabus will also show times of tests and examinations. It has space for remarks where the teacher writes comments about each lesson.
         Form/Grade ……..                        Term …….
Instructional objectives
1. By the end of the topic students will able to describe functions of business
2. By the end of the topic students should be able to explain and classify human wants
 week    lesson              Topic/subtopic           objectives           methodology     Remarks




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                                                                                                                         Business Studies
 1       1                  Business                By the end of the
                            -Meaning                courses: students     Answer
                                                    should be able to:    questions
                            -functions              list functions of
                                                    business

                            Human needs             explain human

                            - Definition of needs   needs

         2
                                                    describe qualities    Discuss
                            Entrepreneurship
                                                    of a good             topics
                            skills
                                                    entrepreneur
                            Qualities of
 2       3
                            entrepreneur                                  Role play the
                                                                          activities of
                            -Rewards of
                            entrepreneur            list taxes required
                            Legal requirements
                                                    By end of lesson
                            Sources of finance      student be able to Observe and
                                                    explain sources    describe
         4                   -Meaning               of finance         licenses
                            -Sources of finance
                                                                          Describe
 3                                                                        sources of
         5                                                                finance




                                                                           LESSON PLAN
Lesson plan is a detailed plan prepared for conducting a lesson. It shows the objective of the lesson. The objective must be clearly written. The objective must be
measurable, specific, stated in behavioural terms and should indicate time of expected achievement. The objectives must start with the prefix “By the end of the lesson
students should be able to…”


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                                                                                                                     Business Studies
FORMAT
Business Education                          lesson number class Date
Major Topic: Business
Lesson Topic Human Needs
Lesson Objective(s)By the end of the lesson the learner should be able to explain the human needs
Step/time Content                           Methodology (teachers/pupil activities                            Learning resources
1 5min      Introduction                    Students discuss what happens in the society                      References books
            Business in the surrounding                                                                       Pens, soap, biscuits


            Definition of needs             Students answer questions on their needs
II 15 min   Anything that need to be                                                                          Pictures     of      foods,
            satisfied in human beings                                                                         vehicles, shoes
            -food, clothes, shelter         Class discuss business in the surrounding and how they satisfy
            Business and satisfaction of    human needs
III 15
            human needs
                                                                                                              Pictures of business in
                                                                                                              the town/village
            Pupil exercise                  Students answer questions about topic in exercise books/teacher
                                            goes round checking and helping individual students
                                            Review the lesson. Teacher corrects any misconception.            Exercise books
IV 5min
            conclusion                      Gives assignment for further practice                             pens
            Summary points1.

V 5min




                                                                                70
                                                                                                                 Chemistry


CHEMISTRY                                                                                   Introduction

The Somaliland Chemistry Syllabus 2000 has been prepared in consultation with the Secondary School chemistry teachers of Somaliland, the Ministry
of Education, the Head of Curriculum, and with advice from CfBT under the European Union funded Institutional Support for Secondary Education in
Somaliland project. Reviews were subsequently made in 2001 and in 2006 (with advice from UNESCO).

The syllabus outlines the learning outcomes for each topic. References are given to the key textbooks generally available in schools. Teachers are
encouraged to use these textbooks to assist them achieve the learning outcomes. They are also encouraged to use additional materials, books and
particularly experimental work where appropriate. The overview of the syllabus on page 5 also provides a guide as to which topics should be taught in
Terms 1 and 2.

The first review of the syllabus took place in January 2001. Following this review some minor amendments were made to the syllabus and the Form
IV syllabus developed.

From September 2006 the latest revised syllabus will lead to two examinations, at the end of form II and at the end of form IV. The amendments,
although not extensive, reflect this fundamental change.

In the future to comply with a secondary education system split into science, vocational and arts streams it was proposed that the sciences are offered
as 3 separate subjects (chemistry, physics and biology), as at present, for the science stream, 2 subjects for the vocational stream (physical science and
biology), and 1 subject (general science) for the arts stream, summarized as follows:-

Stream         Subject No.     Subject
Science        3               Chemistry        Physics             Biology
Vocational     2               Physical science                     Biology
Art            1               General science

Aims of Somaliland Chemistry Syllabus
    To develop the scientific language and chemical terminology required to enable students to study chemistry effectively in English.

    To develop the abilities, skills and appropriate knowledge relevant to chemistry that will empower the students to realize their full potential and
     to specialize in this discipline.
    To develop students‟ ability to use experimental chemistry and to enable students to use experimental techniques as a means to acquire
     scientific knowledge, understanding and skills.


                                                                            71
                                                                                                              Chemistry

    To enable students to communicate their ideas effectively through appropriate means (including diagrams, tables, graphs, charts) and using
     appropriate scientific and mathematical conventions.

    To develop in students critical thinking and problem solving abilities.

    To enable students to relate and apply their scientific knowledge and skills so as to increase their understanding of the environment and their
     everyday life so they can make positive contributions to the development of society.

    Emphasize chemistry as a way to meet the human resource needs of the country.

    Lay the knowledge base for the students‟ access to form IV and hence to tertiary education within Somaliland and abroad.
Crucial Cross Cutting Issues to be studied
    Health Education (e.g. HIV/AIDS awareness).,Khat chewing, Environmental Education, Gender issues
   Emphasize environmental issues such as:-

      Water supplies
      Non biodegradable plastic bag pollution
      Fossil fuel burning (more pollution as car numbers increase)
      Recycling to reduce waste and pollution
      Burning trees (firewood and limestone)
In chemistry all physical things can be taken as examples of chemical structures and systems. Some examples taken from everyday life:-
      Human beings as individual chemical systems- e.g. reducing acidity in the stomach to combat indigestion.
      Rusting and corrosion          Car batteries
      Aluminium sheet production             Making dough (CO2 production)
      Cooking         Salt making
      Burning kerosene        Biogas         Khat chewing as an example of drug abuse (amphetamine intake)
Practical skills development:
: Increase the number of specific practical exercises to:-
      Improve estimating, measuring, recording and graph drawing skills
      Improve observational and manipulative skills
      Make deductions which develop critical thinking when interpreting results to make conclusions.
      Improve calculating skills from experimental results




                                                                          72
                                                                                                               Chemistry


    Form I                          Form II                                Form III                                Form IV


    1.      Introduction to         1.     More about matter               1.      Acids, bases and salts          1.      Atomic Structure
    Chemistry                       1.1.   Pure substances                 1.1.    Acids                           1.1.    Composition of matter
    1.1.    Pure substances and     1.2.   Gases                           1.2.    Alkalis                         1.2.    Electrons in atoms
    mixtures                        1.3.   Solutions and solubility        1.3.    Neutralisation                  1.3.    Periodic patterns
    1.2.    Matter                                                         1.4.    Making salts
    1.3.    Physical and chemical   2.     Using the periodic table                                                2.     Bonding and structure
    changes                         2.1.   More about the atom             2.     Metals                           2.1.   Ionic and covalent
    1.4.    Separating mixtures     2.2.   Trends within a group           2.1.   Properties of metals and         bonding
T                                   2.3.   Trends across a period          non-metals                              2.2.   Electronegativity
E   2.    Mixtures, elements and                                           2.2.   Reactivity and the reactivity    Shapes and structures
    compounds                       3.     Bonding                         series                                  Metallic bonding
R   2.1.  Mixtures, elements and                                           2.3.   Using metals
                                    3.1.   Compounds                                                               Intermolecular forces
M   compounds                       3.2.   Ionic bonding and ionic
    2.2.  Structure of the atom     compounds                              3.      Electrolysis                    3.      Moles and stoichiometry
1   2.3.  Periodic table            3.3.   Covalent bonding and            3.1.    Redox reactions                 3.1.    Reacting masses
    2.4.  Combining elements        covalent compounds                     3.2.    Electrolysis                    3.2.    Volumetric calculations
                                                                           3.3.    Uses of electrolysis            3.3.    Gas volumes
    3.      Materials               4.      Air, Earth and Water           3.4.    Electrolysis calculations
    3.1.    Metals and their ores   4.1.    Air and its uses
    3.2.    Reactions of Metals     Air pollution
    3.3.    Rusting                 4.3.    Water and the water cycle
    3.4.    Recycling               4.4.    Hard and soft water
    3.5.    Using materials
    (to be completed in Term 2)


    Form I                          Form II                                Form III                                Form IV


    (Unit 3 from Term 1 to be       5.     The mole                        4.      Non-metals                      4.      Energy in Chemistry
    completed)                      5.1.   Masses of atoms                 4.1.    Hydrogen                        4.1.    Enthalpy changes
                                    5.2.   The mole                        4.2.    Nitrogen                        4.2.    Bond enthalpies



                                                                      73
                                                                                                                           Chemistry
          4.      More about physical          5.3.    Formula                          4.3.   Oxygen                          4.3.    Measuring and
          and chemical changes                 5.4.    Concentration of solutions       4.4.   Sulphur                         calculating bond enthalpies
          4.1.    The kinetic theory of        5.5.    Molar gas volume                 4.5.   Chlorine, bromine and
          matter                                                                        iodine                                 5.      Organic chemistry
          4.2.    Changing state               6.     Chemical reactions and                                                   5.1.    Basic concepts
          4.3.    Combustion and               equations                                5.      More organic chemistry         5.2.    Reaction mechanisms
          oxidation                            6.1.    Molecular equations and          5.1.    Alkanes                        5.3.    Polymers
          4.4.    Thermal decomposition        calculations                             5.2.    Alkenes                        5.4.    Halogenalkanes
T         4.5.    Equations                    6.2.  Making and breaking                5.3.    Alcohols
          4.6.    Rates of reaction            compounds                                5.4.    Carboxylic acids
E
                                               6.3.  Oxidation and reduction
R         5.        Acids and bases            6.4.  Precipitation                      6.       Rates and Equilibria
M         5.1.      Introduction to acids      6.5.  Neutralisation                     6.1.     Rates of reaction and
          5.2.      Acids and indicators       6.6.  Energy changes                     measuring rates
          5.3.      Properties of acids                                                 6.2.     Changing the rate of a
2         5.4.      Neutralisation             7.     Introduction to Carbon            reaction
          5.5.      Properties of bases and    and organic compounds                    6.3.     Collision theory
          alkalis                              7.1.   Carbon and its compounds          6.4.     Catalysts
                                               7.2.   The carbon cycle                  6.5.     Reversible reactions
                                               7.3.   Fossil fuels
                                               7.4.   Chemicals from oil
                                               7.5.   Plastics


FORM 1
Topic                               Learning Outcomes, the student will be able:-                                                      Skills
1.    Introduction to               to describe the meaning of chemistry and how chemistry relates to everyday life, environment
Chemistry                           and society
1.1.   Pure substances and          to distinguish between pure substances and mixtures
mixtures
1.2.    Matter                      to understand the concept of matter
                                    to know the physical states of matter, their properties and their inter-relationship
1.3.    Physical and chemical       to identify simple physical and chemical changes
changes




                                                                                   74
                                                                                                                      Chemistry
1.4.   Separating mixtures     to separate mixtures using an appropriate technique (including filtration, distillation,           Observation,
                               evaporation and chromatography) based on simple practical exercises                                handling equipment

2.   Mixtures, Elements and
Compounds
2.1.  Mixtures, elements and   to define and identify elements, mixture and compound
compounds                      to distinguish between mixtures and compounds
                               to know that elements can be represented by symbols and know the names and symbols of at
                               least 30 common elements
2.2.   Structure of the atom   to describe the structure of an atom in terms of the nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons      Drawing
                               to draw diagrams to represent simple atoms
                               to know the meaning of atomic and mass numbers in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons
                               to arrange electrons in the energy levels of an atom

2.3.   Periodic table          to understand the terms „group‟ and „period‟ as they relate to the periodic table
                               to know the names and positions of groups I, II, VII, O and the transition elements.
                               to understand the arrangement of elements in the periodic table in terms of their arrangement
                               of electrons
                               to use the periodic table to identify atomic and mass numbers
                               to know the position of metals and non-metals in the periodic table
                               to use the properties of metals and non-metals to identify a substance as a metal or non-metal
2.4.   Combining elements      to give a definition of a molecule
                               to give some examples of elements that consist of molecules (H2, O2, N2)
                               to understand that elements can combine together to form compounds
                               to understand that compounds can be represented by formulae which indicate the elements that
                               make up that compound
                               to introduce the concept of valency and apply it to write correct molecular formulae of
                               simple compounds.

3.     Materials               to identify sources of materials, for example the air, earth, fuels
3.1.   Metals and their ores   to know that metals are found in nature combined with other elements as a metal ore
                               to describe some uses of common metals, for example aluminium, iron and copper
3.2.   Reactions of Metals     to know and observe the reactions of metals with acids, water and air                              Observation,
                               to be aware that some metals are more reactive than others                                         handling equipment
                               to know and observe that a more reactive metal will displace a less reactive one in solution



                                                                             75
                                                                                                                       Chemistry
                                 by using the reactions of metals, be able to relate metals to their uses
                                 simple practical exercises to illustrate these properties
3.3.     Rusting environmental   to observe and be able to identify the conditions necessary for rusting
issues                           to understand how to prevent rusting
3.4.     Recycling               to explain the advantages of recycling
environmental issues             to give examples of materials which can be recycled
                                 to describe the factors that influence whether a materials is recycled
Using materials                  to explain why certain materials are suitable for uses, e.g. certain metals for construction
everyday life examples           purposes because they are strong or light, electrical conductors & insulators, etc.

4.     More about physical &
chemical changes
4.1.   The kinetic theory of     to describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of particles
matter                           to describe the properties of solids, liquids and gases in terms of moving particles
                                 to explain diffusion in terms of the kinetic theory of matter
4.2.    Changing state           to explain changes of state in terms of the kinetic theory of matter
4.3.    Combustion and           to understand that combustion and respiration are chemical changes that involve the addition
oxidation                        of oxygen
4.4.    Thermal decomposition    to know that some substances break down with heat into 2 or more simpler substances
                                 Demonstrations, e.g. heating of CuSO4.5H2O, CuCO3, Cu(NO3)2, ZnCO3, etc.
4.5.     Equations               to write word equations for familiar reactions
4.6.     Rates of reaction       to understand that reactions can take place at different speeds                                    Observation,
                                 to observe some of the factors that can affect the speed of a reaction (temperature,               handling
                                 concentration, surface area, catalysts)                                                            equipment,
                                 Simple test-tube based practical to illustrate this, e.g. Mg + HCl of various concentrations,      graphs
                                 action of heat on Fe + HCl, etc.
5.       Acids and Bases
5.1.     Introduction to acids   to identify some everyday substances as acids
5.2.     Acids and indicators    to use indicators to classify solutions as acidic, neutral or alkaline
                                 to know that pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution
                                 Demonstation of various indicators
5.3.     Properties of acids     to know the properties of acids                                                                    Observation,
                                 to observe and explain the reactions of acids with metals and carbonates                           handling
                                 perform simple practical test-tube exercises to show these properties                              equipment,
                                                                                                                                    interpretaion
5.4.     Neutralisation          to give a simple definition of neutralisation in terms of a reaction between and acid and alkali



                                                                               76
                                                                                                                        Chemistry
                                   to observe a neutralisation reaction done as a teacher demonstration.
5.5.    Properties of bases and    to give a definition of a base and an alkali                                                       Observation,
alkalis                            to know the properties of bases and alkalis                                                        handling
                                   perform simple practical test-tube exercises to show these properties                              equipment
Form II
Topic                                Learning Outcomes, the student will be able to:-                                                 Skills

1.      More about matter

1.1.    Pure substances              to explain the properties of solids, liquids and gases in terms of kinetic theory
                                     to know that the melting point and boiling point of a substance depends on the particles in it
                                     and the presence of impurities can affect the melting and boiling points
1.2.    Gases                        to explain how the pressure of a gas changes with volume and temperature
                                     to explain how the volume of a gas changes with temperature
1.3.    Solutions and solubility     to understand and be able to use the terms „solution‟, „solute‟, „solvent‟ and suspension        Graph inter-
                                     to understand the terms „miscible‟ and „immiscible‟                                              pretation
                                     to know the difference between a soluble substance and an insoluble substance
                                     to know that substances have different solubilities and that solubility increases with
                                     temperature
                                     to interpret solubility curves
2.      Using the periodic table

2.1.    More about the atom          to know the three fundamental particles, protons, neutrons and electrons and their relative
                                     charges and masses
                                     to know that every atom has equal numbers of protons and electrons
                                     to use atomic and mass numbers to determine the structure of an atom
                                     to know that isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
2.2.    Trends within a group        to describe the physical and chemical properties of Groups I, II, VII and 0
                                     to understand that elements within one group have similar properties and show gradual
                                     changes in physical and chemical properties through the group
2.3.    Trends across a period       to use Period 3 to discuss the trends across a period                                            Skills

3.      Bonding
3.1.    Compounds                    to understand why elements form compounds
                                     to know what an ion is and be able to write the formula of an ion



                                                                                77
                                                                                                                       Chemistry
3.2.  Ionic bonding and ionic       to understand that ionic bonds are formed as result of a transfer of electrons                 Deduction
compounds                           to represent the formation of ionic bonds using diagrams
                                    to write the formula of ionic compounds
3.3.    Covalent bonding and        to understand that covalent bonds are formed as a result of sharing of electrons               Drawing
covalent compounds                  to represent the formation of covalent bonds using diagrams                                    Deduction
                                    to write the formula of covalent compounds

4.     Air, Earth and Water
4.1.   Air and its uses             to know how the composition of the atmosphere and how it is maintained
                                    to describe how to measure the percentage composition of oxygen in the air
                                    to describe some uses of air
4.2.   Air pollution                to describe the causes of air pollution
environmental issues                to know some ways to reduce air pollution
4.3.   Water and the water cycle    to know the importance of water to living things
environmental issues                to understand how water is recycled in the water cycle
                                    to describe the process of water treatment to ensure a safe supply of drinking water
                                    to describe how sewage can be treated
4.4.   Hard and soft water          to explain the difference between hard and soft water and the difference between permanent
environmental issues                and temporary hardness
                                    to know the advantages and disadvantages of hard and soft water
                                    to describe methods of softening water



5.     The mole
5.1.   Masses of atoms              to understand and be able to use Relative Atomic Masses (RAM) and Relative Molecular           Skills
                                    Masses (RMM)
5.2.   The mole                     to understand what a mole is in terms of Avogadro‟s number
                                    to calculate the mass of 1 mole a substance
                                    to calculate the number of moles of a substance
5.3.   Formula                      to understand the formulae of compounds in terms of how many moles of the different
                                    atoms combine together and how many grams of the different elements combine together
                                    to know the difference between empirical and molecular formula
                                    to calculate empirical and molecular formula
5.4.   Concentration of solutions   to understand the concentration of a solution in terms of the number of grams of a solute
                                    dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution
                                    Practical demonstration by preparing various solutions of different concentrations



                                                                               78
                                                                                                                   Chemistry
5.5.   Molar gas volume           to know the molar gas volume of any gas at r.t.p. is 24 dm3                                     Calculation
                                  to calculate the volume of any gas given the mass of gas or number of moles

6.       Chemical reactions and
equations
6.1.     Symbol equations and     to write balanced molecular equations for a large sample of familiar reactions
calculations                      to use equations to calculate the number of moles, the mass and the volume (for gases) of
                                  substances taking part in a reaction                                                            Calculation
6.2.  Making and breaking         to know that there are reactions which can be used to break down compounds
compounds                         (decomposition, electrolysis, fermentation and cracking)
                                  to know that there are combination reactions which can be used to make compounds
6.3.   Oxidation and reduction    to explain oxidation and reduction reactions in terms of gaining and losing oxygen and
                                  hydrogen
6.4.   Precipitation              to describe what a precipitate is and how it is formed and perform simple practical test-tube   Observationhandlin
                                  exercises to show a range of precipitation reactions                                            g equipment
                                  to describe some uses of precipitation reactions
                                  Solubility rules
6.5.   Neutralisation reducing    to describe neutralisation as a type of chemical reaction in which an acid reacts with a base   Observationhandlin
stomsch acidity                   to form a salt and water                                                                        g equipment

6.6.   Energy changes             to identify reactions as exothermic or endothermic                                              Observation
                                  to calculate the energy change in a reaction                                                    handling equipment
                                  to explain the energy changes that take place in a reaction in terms of bond energies           Interpretation,
                                  Simple experiment to calculate the heat given out by methylated spirit in a spirit lamp         Calculation
7.     Introduction to Carbon
and organic compounds
7.1.   Carbon and its compounds   to understand the importance of carbon and its compounds (carbon dioxide, carbonates,
                                  organic compounds)

7.2.   The carbon cycle           to describe and explain the importance of the carbon cycle
7.3.   Fossil fuels               to describe the formation of coal, oil and natural gases
environmental issues              to describe the problems associated with fossil fuels, pollution increases with more cars on
                                  the road
7.4.   Chemicals from oil         to know a hydrocarbon is formed from hydrogen and carbon only
                                  to explain how compounds can be obtained from oil by fractional distillation
7.5.   Plastics environmental     to know that plastics are polymers formed from chemicals obtained from oil



                                                                            79
                                                                                                                          Chemistry
issues                                 to know some uses of plastics
                                       to recognise the advantages and disadvantages of using plastics, non-biodegradable plastic
                                       bags from Khat as a pollution hazard



FORM 3
Main Topic                        Learning Outcomes, the student will be able:-

1.       Acids, bases and salts

1.1.     Acids                    to use the pH scale to measure the strength of acids, use pH = -log[H+(aq)]
                                  to classify acids according to their strength
                                  to write equations for the reactions of acids with carbonates, metals, alkalis and metal oxides
                                  to understand that acids contain hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
                                  to construct ionic equations from molecular equations
                                  to understand why acids can be strong or weak in terms of dissociation
1.2.     Alkalis                  to understand that alkalis contain hydroxide ions
                                  to understand why bases can be called proton acceptors
                                  to classify alkalis according to their strength
                                  to write equations for the reactions of alkalis with ammonium compounds
                                  to understand why bases can be strong or weak in terms of dissociation
1.3.    Neutralisation            to explain that neutralisation reactions involve the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to
everyday life stomache            form water
indigestion                       to describe some everyday neutralisation reactions, e.g. stomache pH increase
1.4.     Making salts             to know that a salt is formed when an acid reacts with a base
                                  to prepare a soluble salt from a suitable acid and an insoluble salt by precipitation
                                  to describe methods of preparing a soluble salt (acid and metal, acid and insoluble base or acid and alkali)
                                  to describe how to prepare an insoluble salt by precipitation
                                  to know some example of salt preparation in industry
                                  Simple practical exercise to prepare a solid sample of a salt
2.     Metals
2.1.   Properties of metals &     to describe the physical and chemical properties of metals
non-metals                        to compare the properties of metals and non-metals




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                                                                                                                        Chemistry
Reactivity and the reactivity   to describe the reactions of some metals with oxygen, water and acids
series                          to rank metals in order of reactivity according to their reactions with oxygen, water and acids
                                to understand that metals can act as reducing agents
                                to understand that carbon can reduce some metals to their ores
                                to understand that a more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from solutions of its compounds
                                to explain and be able to apply the reactivity series
                                to describe a chemical cell and the importance of the reactivity series to choosing the two metals in a
                                chemical cell
Using metals                    to relate the uses of a metal to its properties
everyday life examples          to explain what an alloy is and give some uses of common alloys
aluminium sheet production,     to describe in detail the extraction, properties, uses and corrosion of aluminium and iron
local crafts to make axes,
knives etc. from Fe
3.       Electrolysis
3.1.     Redox reactions        Valency tables and Oxidation numbers
                                to know that oxidation and reduction ocuur simultaneously and that these reactions are called redox
                                reactions
                                to be able to describe redox reactions in terms of electron transfer, based on electrode potential tables,
                                and oxidation numbers.
Electrolysis                    to identify substances as conductors or insulators
everyday life examples          to describe electrolysis as the breaking down of a compound by the passage of a direct electric current
car batteries, dry cells        to describe the apparatus required for electrolysis and be able to identify the anode and cathode
                                to know that an electrolyte is a liquid which allows a current to pass through it
                                to explain what happens during the electrolysis of a given electrolyte (molten and solutions), including
                                writing half equations for the reactions at the cathode and anode
                                to describe electrolysis in terms of oxidation and reduction
                                to describe the factors that affect the products of electrolysis (selective discharge, concentration)
3.3.    Uses of electrolysis    to describe some uses of electrolysis (extracting metals, purifying metals, electroplating, anodizing)

3.4.     Electrolysis           to understand that the amount of substance formed during electrolysis is directly proportional to the sixe of
calculations                    the current and how long it flows
                                to calculate the amount of a substance deposited during electrolysis
4.      Non-metals
4.1.    Hydrogen                to describe the properties and uses of hydrogen
                                to explain how and why hydrogen could be used as a fuel in the future
Nitrogen                        to describe the properties and uses of nitrogen
                                to describe the nitrogen cycle



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                                                                                                                      Chemistry
                                 to describe the properties and uses of ammonia
                                 to describe the manufacture of ammonia in industry by the Haber Process
everyday life fertilizers        to understand some of the problems associated with fertilisers
Oxygen                           to describe the laboratory preparation and of oxygen
everyday life, respiration,      to describe the properties of oxygen and a test for oxygen
rusting                          to know when basic oxides, acidic oxides and neutral oxides are produced
4.4.    Sulphur                  to describe the extraction of sulphur
                                 to know that sulphur has two allotropes, monoclinic and rhombic sulphur
                                 to describe the properties and uses of sulphur
                                 to describe the properties and uses of sulphur dioxide
                                 describe the manufacture of sulphuric acid by the Contact process
                                 to describe the properties and uses of sulphuric acid
Chlorine, bromine and iodine     to describe the manufacture of chlorine in industry and the laboratory preparation
everyday life, OCl- ion for      to describe the properties and uses of chlorine
bleachin , Iodine for wounds     to know some common compounds of chlorine
Antisceptic.                     to describe the properties and uses of bromine and iodine and their compounds
                                 to describe the extraction of bromine from sea water
5.       More organic
chemistry
Alkanes                          to classify hydrocarbons as alkanes
everyday life, burning of        to name simple alkanes
kerosene, candles, butane and    to understand that members of a homologous series have the same general formula, similar chemical
petrol as a fuel or to produce   properties and show a gradual change in physical properties
light. Cigarette lighters.       to know hydrocarbons burn in air to produce water and carbon dioxide (with excess oxygen) and water and
                                 carbon monoxide (with limited oxygen)
                                 to describe some properties of alkanes
                                 to know that isomers are compounds with the same formula but different structures
Alkenes                          to classify hydrocarbons containing a double bond as alkenes
everyday life, source of         to name simple alkenes
plastics through polymers        to describe some properties of alkenes
PVC, polythene, etc.             to know that saturated hydrocarbons are less reactive than unsaturated
                                 to describe a test to identify between alkenes and alkanes using bromine water
Alcohols                         to identify alcohols as organic compounds containing the –OH functional group
                                 to name simple alcohols
                                 to identify alcohols as primary, secondary or tertiary
                                 to know that alcohols exhibit isomerism
everyday life drinking of        to describe the properties of ethanol



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                                                                                                                             Chemistry
alcohol as drug abuse against       to explain the importance of ethanol
Islamic values.                     to describe two methods of producing ethanol, by fermentation and from ethene
5.4.    Carboxylic acids            to identify caroboxylic acids as organic compounds containing the –COOH functional group
everyday life lemon juice,          to name simple carboxylic acids
vinegar, fruits                     to describe some properties of carboxylic acids
                                    to know that esters are produced from a reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
6.     Rates and Equilibria
6.1.   Rates of reaction and        to understand that reactions take place at different rates
measuring rates                     to measure quantitatively the rate of a reaction
                                    to interpret graphs relating to the rate of a reaction
Changing the rate of a reaction     to know that the rate of a given reaction can be changed by changing the conditions of the reaction
Everyday life, slow rusting and     to understand the effects of temperature, concentration of a solution, and surface area of a solid, on the rate
corrosion, temperture affects       of a reaction
fermentation of dough.              to understand that a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction without itself being changed chemically
                                    Practical exercises to show how temperature, concentration, surface area and catalysts affect reaction
                                    rate
6.3.    Collision theory            to understand that reactions can only occur when particles collide
                                    to use the collision theory to explain why changing the temperature/concentration/surface area can change
                                    the rate of a reaction
Catalysts                           to explain how catalysts work
everyday life, biochemical          to give some example of the use of catalysts
reactions of plants & animals       to understand that enzymes are biological catalysts
need enzymes                        to explain how enzymes work
                                    to give some examples of the uses of enzymes
Reversible reactions                to understand that some reactions are reversible
Everyday life, photo chromatic      to understand that reversible reactions can reach a state of dynamic equilibrium in a closed system
lenses in spectacles.               to know that certain reactions can be reversed if the conditions are changed
                                    to use Le Chatelier‟s principle to increase the yield of products for reversible reactions

FORM 4
Main Topic                        Learning Outcomes, the student will be able to:-
1. Atomic Structure
1.1. Composition of matter        to describe the distribution of mass and charge within an atom
                                  to use atomic and mass numbers to deduce the numbers of protons, electrons and neutrons in atoms,
                                  ions and isotopes
                                  to define and identify isotopes of an element



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                                                                                                                       Chemistry
1.2. Electrons in atoms      to explain the terms first ionisation energy and successive ionisation energies of an element
                             to explain how ionisation energies are influenced by nuclear charge, atomic radius and electron
                             shielding
                             to use successive ionisation energies to identify the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom
                             to explain the terms prinicpal quantum number, sub-shells (s, p, d, and f) and orbitals
                             to describe the shapes of s and p orbitals
                             to explain the order in which electrons fill up the shells and orbitals
                             to deduce and write the electronic configuration of atoms up to Z = 36 and ions given the atomic
                             number and charge
1.3. Periodic patterns       to classify the elements into s, p and d blocks
                             to describe the periodic patterns of electronic configurations, atomic size (radii), electrical
                             conductivities, melting point and boiling point
                             to describe the periodic patterns of first ionisation energies including interpreting graphs of atomic
                             number and ionisation energy

2. Bonding and Structure
2.1. Ionic and covalent      to describe ionic bonding in terms of the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
bonding                      to describe covalent bonding in terms of a pair of electrons shared between two atoms
                             to know that in molecules atomic orbitals combine to produce  and  molecular orbitals
                             to use dot and cross diagrams to describe the formation of ionic bonds, covalent bonds and dative
                             covalent (co-ordinate) bonds
2.2. Electronegativity       to describe ionic bonds and covalent bonds in terms of polarisation
                             to know that electronegativity is the ability of a bonded atom to attract electron charge
                             to describe changes in electronegativity across the periodic table
                             to use Pauling’s electronegativity tables to explain bond polarity and to deduce the type of
                             bonding present in a substance.
2.3. Shapes and Structures   to describe and explain the structures and properties of ionic and covalent compounds
                             to describe the lattice structure of sodium chloride
                             to describe and explain the shapes of simple molecules using the electron-pair repulsion theory
2.4. Metallic bonding        to know the atoms in a metal are held together by metallic bonds which are the forces between
                             delocalised electrons and positive ions
                             to explain the properties of metals in terms of metallic bonds

Intermolecular forces        to describe intermolecular forces (van der Waals‟ forces), based on instantaneous and permanent
everyday life, water is a    dipoles
liquid and not a gas         to describe the giant molecular structures of diamond and graphite
                             to describe hydrogen bonding between molecules containing –OH, -NH and F-H



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                                                                                                                         Chemistry
                               to use hydrogen bonding to describe and explain the properties of water
                               to use kinetic theory and bonding to describe the physical properties and structures of elements and
                               compounds
3. Moles & stoichiometry
3.1. Reacting masses           to define the terms relative atomic mass, relative isotopic mass, relative molecular mass and relative
                               formula mass, based on the 12C scale
                               to define the mole in terms of Avogadro‟s constant and molar mass as the mass of 1 mole of a
                               substance
                               to perform calculations involving reacting masses and use those calculations to deduce
                               stoichiometric relationships
                               to calculate percentage composition
                               to calculate empirical and molecular formula using composition by mass
3.2. Volumetric calculations   to express concentrations of solutions in mol dm-3 or molarities
                               to use titrations to determine the reacting volumes of two solutions using an indicator to show the
                               end-point of the reaction
                               to use titrations to determine an unknown concentration of one of the reactants
                               to perform calculations involving volumes and concentrations of solutions in simple acid-base
                               titrations, and use those calculations to deduce stoichiometric relationships
                               do Practical exercise – Acid base titration
3.3. Gas volumes               to know that equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules under the same
                               conditions
                               to know that at room temperature and pressure one mole of any gas occupies approximately 24.0
                               dm3
                               to use reacting volumes of gases to determine the stoichiometry of a reaction
4. Energy in Chemistry
4.1. Enthalpy changes          to know all chemical reactions involve a transfer of energy, usually in the form of heat energy, which
                               can be described as an enthalpy change
                               to define and identify enthalpy changes as exothermic (H +ve) or endothermic (H -ve)
                               to construct enthalpy profiles for a reaction
                               to define and use the terms standard enthalpy changes, standard enthalpy change of reaction (Hr )
                               standard enthalpy of combustion (Hc ) and standard enthalpy of formation (Hf )
4.2. Bond enthalpies           to describe reactions in terms of the bonds being broken and the bonds being formed
                               to define and use the terms bond energy and bond enthalpy
                               to use bond energies to calculate enthalpy changes for chemical reactions by considering the
                               enthalpy of the bonds broken and the enthalpy of the bonds formed
4.3. Measuring and             to perform and describe experiments to calculate enthalpy changes
calculating enthalpy changes   to use experimental data to calculate enthalpy changes



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                                                                                                                     Chemistry
                           to state and use Hess‟s Law to calculate enthalpy changes
                           do Practical exercise – Heat of Neutralisation and Heat of Solution
5. Organic Chemistry
5.1. Basic concepts        to interpret and use the terms nomenclature, molecular formula, general formula, structural formula,
                           displayed formula, skeletal formula, homologous series, and functional group
                           to construct molecular models of organic compounds given the name/formula
                           to apply the international rules for the systematic naming of organic compounds
                           to know that alkanes are „saturated‟ hydrocarbons and alkenes are „unsaturated‟ hydrocarbons
                           to describe and explain different types of isomerism (see practical exercise)
                           do Practical exercise – Making Organic models to show Isomerism
                           recall that different isomers of an alcohol (primary, secondary) can give different products
                           (aldehydes, ketones) on oxidation with acidified dichromate ions.
                           to describe the practical techniques used in preparing organic cmpds (reflux, distillation, vacuum
                           filtration, separation of immiscible liquids in a separating funnel & recrystallisation)
                           to calculate the percentage yield of a reaction
6.2. Reaction mechanisms   to explain the two ways in which a bond can be broken (homolytic fission and heterolytic fission)
                           to explain the terms free radical, electrophile and nucleophile and be able to identify each one
                           to describe how homolytic fission leads to the mechanism of free radical substitution in alkanes,
                           typified by methane and chlorine in terms of initiation, propagation and termination reactions
                           to describe simply how heterolytic fission leads to the mechanism of electrophillic addition, typified
                           by bromine and ethene to form 1, 2 dibromoethane
6.3. Polymers              to give examples of synthetic and natural polymers
                           to explain the influences of chain length, intermolecular forces, branching and cross-linking on the
                           properties of polymers
                           to describe addition polymerisation of alkenes, for example ethene and propene
                           to identify in a given section of polymer, the monomer from which it was obtained
                           to describe condensation polymerisation as involving a condensation reaction between two
                           monomers
6.4. Halogenoalkanes       to classify the halogenoalkanes as primary, secondary and tertiary halogenoalkanes
                           to explain the rates of hydrolysis of primary halogenoalkanes in terms of relative bond enthalpies of
                           the C-Hal bond
                           to describe the uses of halogen compounds
                           to describe the environmental impact of the use of CFCs and the measures being taken to reduce the
                           damage caused by CFCs




                                                                             86
                                                                                                             English

ENGLISH

YEARS 1 AND 2
Overall Aims:
    To enable students to use English as a medium of education and as a means of access to knowledge in their Secondary Schools.
    To be able to express views and respond to views expressed by others in a wide variety of topics relevant too their life and to the development
      of Somalia including:
          o Peace and stability
          o protection of the environment
          o health issues
          o respect for others in society.


Learning Outcomes

Students will have sufficient English to be able to

      Read their textbooks to find out necessary information
      Use their textbooks to answer questions set by their subject teachers
      Use the school library to access information
      Read silently and access information without help
      Understand simple explanations and definitions given in English and match these to diagrams, pictures, and to the words defined
      Take simple notes from textbook passages and from listening to teachers
      Ask questions in order to elicit, clarifications, explanations and information
      Recognise and use the simple mechanics of writing including punctuation and capitalization accurately
      Be able to use the simple present, past and future tenses to express appropriate time.
      Use a vocabulary range of approximately 1000 active words when writing or speaking and understand and respond to texts using a vocabulary
       range of some 2500 words
      Give and understand and respond to simple instructions, especially classroom language and instructions
      Use appropriate adjectives and pronouns to form simple descriptions of objects , people and processes.
      Read, enjoy and express an opinion on a range of simplified readers at the level of JAWS level 3, and 4.


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                                                                                                                   English
        To be able to read and discuss in English a range of issues relevant to their daily life and to their survival including such areas as Health
         Education, Conflict resolution, Environment and their own cultural values.




YEARS 3 AND 4
Overall Aims:
    To enable students to use English as a medium of education and as a means of access to knowledge in higher education after they leave school.
    To make it possible for students to operate in English internationally
    To develop an awareness of the society‟s values including valuing peace and stability, protection of the environment and respect for others in
      society.


Learning Outcomes:

By the end of form four students should:
    have sufficient English to be able to follow further studies in school and after leaving school
    be confidant using English with strangers, visitors and other non-Somali speakers
    be confidant using English with Somali speakers when required by circumstance
    be able to use English as the language of communication in any study or academic situation
    reach the level of proficiency in all four skills required by overseas universities and other institutions of higher education for study purposes
       (e.g.IELTS level 6 or First Certificate pass C)
    develop a critical and analytic approach to issues and to things they read or hear
    appreciate and differentiate a variety of different literary works




As an Outcome of Learning to Read students will be able

a.       read texts silently, extensively and intensively both within and outside the classroom independently of any teacher or teaching aids.


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                                                                                                                English
b.     understand information and transfer it to other forms e.g. notes, pictures, charts, tables
b.     understand order, specific facts and distinguish these from ideas and opinions
c.     read using different strategies to match different purposes e.g. scan, skim and read intensively and extensively
d.     read and understand a variety of different types of texts including public notices, advertisements, instructions, stories and newspapers
e.     evaluate what is read and select what is relevant to a particular reading purpose
f.     read and take notes or summarise what they have read
g.     read and enjoy a range of different novels, stories and plays that have not been simplified and are set in familiar cultures. E.g. African Writers
       Series




As an Outcome of Learning to Write students will be able

a.     present information logically
b.     write at several different levels of formality appropriately
c.     complete forms, write postcards, advertisements, instructions and short letters
d.     express views and opinions logically in writing
e.     reorder ideas appropriately within an essay format
f.     narrate stories and clearly indicate chronological order
g.     communicate ideas effectively and clearly in written form
h.     describe common scenes, people, activities and processes in clear simple language making comparisons as necessary
i.     write about themselves, their life and their environment
j.     write brief but clear instructions and give directions
h.     report events that they have seen or heard about with reasonable accuracy
i.     write a variety of compositions of one or two pages in length expressing opinions on a range of issues including peace, conflict resolution,
       gender, respect for others and for hard work, environment and health issues.


In Listening students should be able to

a.     understand spoken information and convey it in other forms
b.     select information from a speech or lecture that is relevant to their purpose
c.     listen and take notes or summarise what they hear



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                                                                                                              English
d.     recognise attitudes and opinions of the speaker
e.     distinguish facts from opinions
f.     recognise a appreciate a range of literary forms such as plays, dialogues, poems and oratory when listening.


In Speaking students should be able to

a.     maintain appropriate social dialogues
b.     ask for information, give information and present opinions clearly
c.     express feelings appropriately
d.     use language at several levels of formality
e.     give short presentations and lectures orally from notes
f.     present a longer speech from prepared notes
g.     describe common scenes, people, activities and processes in clear simple language
h.     write about themselves, their life and their environment
i.     write brief but clear instructions and give directions
h.     ask and answer higher order questions


Levels of vocabulary and structures

Students will be expected to understand and operate with the main structures of English including accurate ways of expressing past, present and future,
modality and conditionality. They will be expected to understand a range of formal and complex language structures in the context of longer texts but
they will not be expected to produce very formal language or more advanced combined structures such as future perfect continuous, past perfect
continuous or complex reported speech.

On leaving Secondary School students should be able to operate with a basic vocabulary using between two and three thousand words in writing and
speaking related to common topics in their subject areas and daily life.
They should have a considerably expanded recognition vocabulary of very five thousand words including vocabulary specific to the subjects they study
in English.
They should also have the ability to infer the meaning of new words they meet in context and the ability to read and understand texts that include a
number of words they do not know.

Assessment of language skills



                                                                          90
                                                                                                               English

1.     At present there are no national assessment of the listening and speaking skills. Such assessment should however be carried out at the school
level.

2.      The national exam will test students on their reading and writing skills and on their general level understanding and use of basic vocabulary and
structures. Assessment of reading and writing should be based on the learning outcomes listed above and thus the reading and writing outcomes
become the primary assessment objectives against which the form four national school-leaving exam will be set.

Thus the exam will include reading comprehension of passages that have not been seen by the students (unseen texts), vocabulary that should be
known to them and vocabulary that may be new to (thus testing their ability to infer meaning from context and word formation), and writing tasks that
expect them to produce written essays and paragraphs using simple but reasonably accurate English.
Marks will be deducted for basic grammatical and vocabulary errors that affect the ease of comprehension of their writing.

However, each school is free to select appropriate textbooks from the recommended list that can deliver the learning outcomes specified..




                                                                           91
                                                                                                                  Geography


GEOGRAPHY
AIMS

To enable students to:
    acquire a basic knowledge of physical geography
    explain the elements and control of weather and climate by understanding the dry climate
    read and interpret maps in different physical features.
    be aware of the major economic and human activities of the region
    appreciate the regional geography of the region
    acquire basic knowledge of mathematical geography such as: use of parallels and meridians and the effect and results of movements
    describe the internal and external forces that shape the earth
    more about weather and climate
    the appreciate the importance of physical setting in determining human and economic activities
    explain population geography

   FORM ONE

    TOPIC                      SUB-TOPIC                                OJECTIVES: .At the end of the topic, the
                                                                        learner should be able to:
                                  Definition of geography               Explain the terms geo, and graph
    INTRODUCTION                  Main branches of geography.           Describe the branches of geography
    TO GEOGRAPHY.                 Relation ship between                 Explain the relationship between
                                   geography and other subjects.            Geography and other disciplines.
                                  Importance of studying                Explain the importance of studying
                                   geography.                               Geography.
                                  The composition of the solar          Describe the composition of the universe.
    THE EARTH AND                  system
    THE SOLAR                     The earth‟s structure. (Size,           Describe the structure of the atmosphere.
    SYSTEM                         shape and position in the solar         Explain the effects of the rotation of the
                                   system.).                                earth.
                                  Rotation and the movement of            Describe how solar and lunar eclipses
                                   the earth.                               occur.



                                                                             92
                                                                                                Geography
                  Solar and Lunar eclipses              Distinguish between solar and lunar
                                                          calendars
                  Solar and Lunar calendar


MAPS AND MAP      Maps, pictures and plans              Explain the difference between pictures,
WORK                                                      plans and maps.
                  Types of maps and their uses.         Discuss the uses of different types of
                                                          maps.
                  Map scales :( types, conversions      Identify the types and uses of scales.
                   and sizes.)
                  Measuring ground distance             Explain how to measure distance on a
                                                          map
                  Calculation of areas on a map         Calculate the size of a given area on a
                                                          map.
                  Directions: (Compass and               State direction both by compass and
                   Bearing directions)                    bearing between given points on a map.

WEATHER           Definition of the term Weather        Explain the term Weather
                  Factors affecting weather             Explain the factors influencing weather.
                  Structure and composition of          Describe the structure and the
                   atmosphere.                            composition of the atmosphere.
                  . Elements of Weather and their        Explain how instruments for measuring
               measurements (sun shine, temp,             weather elements are used.
               humidity, precipitation, pressure         Analyze and interpret data on Weather
               wind etc)                                  conditions.
                General atmospheric pressure            Describe the general pressure and wind
                   and wind circulations.                 circulation systems.
                Evaporation, condensation and           Explain the processes involved in
                   precipitation.                         formation of different types of rainfall.

                Weather and Climate.                    Distinguish between weather and climate.
CLIMATE         Factors influencing climate             Explain factors that influence climate.
CLIMATE


                                                           93
                                                                                             Geography

               Human activities and climate          Explain how human activities are affected
               Temperature variation with             by climate.
                 latitudes                            Explain temperature variation away from
                                                       the equator.

               Distribution of land and water      Describe the distribution of land and
                masses                               water bodies on the earth‟s surface.
HYDROSPHERE
               Water cycle                         Explain the processes involved in the
                                                     hydrological cycle.
               Water on land                       Distinguish between lakes, oceans and
                                                     seas.
               Infiltration and soil moisture      Understand the processes involved water
                                                     in infiltration in different soils.
               Under ground water and its uses.
                                                    Identify the sources of underground water
                                                     and its uses.




                                                        94
                                                                                                  Geography
                  Definition of natural vegetation        Explain the term vegetation
NATURAL
VEGETATION        Factors affecting the distribution      Discus the factors influencing the
TYPES OF THE       of natural vegetation                    distribution of vegetation
WORLD.
                  Forests                                 Identify and describe the characteristics of
                                                            major vegetation types of the world.

                  Grasslands                              Evaluate the importance of grasslands.

                  Desert vegetation.                      Explain how to manage desert vegetation

                  Conservation and management             Recognize the importance of conservation
                                                            and management of vegetation (What is
                                                            being done in Somaliland?)



                  Definition of soil                      Explain the terms: soil, soil profile, and
SOILS.                                                      soil catena and soil erosion.
                  Factors affecting soil                  Discuss the factors responsible for soil
                   development.                             formation.
                                                           Classify soils according to their
                  Types of soils                           formation.
                                                           Discuss the composition of soil.
                  Properties of soil                      Discuss the importance of soils.
                  Significance of soils                   Explain the causes of soil erosion
                  Soil erosion                            Discuss ways and means of managing and
                  Management and conservation              conserving soils in Somaliland.
                   of soils in Somaliland.




                                                             95
                                                                                                          Geography
                                                                  FORM TWO

TOPIC         SUB-TOPIC                                     OBJECTIVES: At the end of the topic,
                                                            the learner should be able to:
                 The lithosphere.                           Explain the term Lithosphere.
LITHOSPHERE      Structure of the earth                     Identify and describe the three layers
                 Plate tectonics theory and movement           that make up the earth.
                 Continental drift theory.                  Explain the Plate tectonics theory
                                                             Discuss the Continental Drift theory.
ROCKS                Define rocks                               Explain the term rock
                     Classification of rocks according          Classify rocks according to mode of
                      to mode of formation.                         formation.
                     Characteristics of rocks                   State and describe characteristics of
                                                                    rocks
                     Distribution of major rock types in        Account for the distribution of major
                      Somaliland.                                   rock types in Somaliland.
                     Significance of rocks                      Identify major types of rocks and
                                                                    their uses within the local
                                                                    environment.

                 Definition of folding                        Explain the term folding.
                 Processes involved in folding.               Explain the processes of folding.
                 Types of folds and resultant features.       Describe the types of folds and the
FOLDING                                                         resultant landforms.
                 Significance of folding to man               Evaluate the importance of folding to
                                                                man.




                                                                         96
                                                                                                          Geography

               Definition of faulting:                      Explain the term Faulting
FAULTING       Processes involved in faulting.              Explain how faulting takes place.
               Types of faults and resultant features.      Describe different types of faults, and
                                                              the resultant landforms.
               significance of faulting to human            Explain the significance of faulting to
                  activities                                  man.

VOLCANICITY    Definition of the term volcanism.            Explain the term volcanism.
               Features as a result of volcanism.           Explain formation of intrusive and
                                                              extrusive landforms.
                 World distribution of volcanic belts.      Account for the world distribution of
                                                              active volcanic zones.

                 Significance of volcanicity to human       Explain the significance of volcanicity
                  activities                                  to man.

               Definition of the term Earthquake.           Explain the term Earthquake.

EARTHQUAKES
               Causes of earthquakes.
                                                             Explain the causes of earthquakes.


               Measurement of earthquakes.                  Describe how earthquakes are
                                                              measured.
               Distribution of major earthquake
                  zones of the world.                        Account for the distribution of the world
                                                              earthquake belts.
                 Effects of earthquakes.
                                                             Explain the effects associated with
                                                              earthquakes.




                                                                        97
                                                                                                          Geography
                     Definition of the term weathering      Explain the term weathering.
                     Agents of weathering
                     Types of weathering                    Explain the factors affecting weathering.
WEATHERING
                  Significance of weathering. (to           Explain the different types of
AND                man and the physical                       weathering.
                   environment)                              Discuss the importance of weathering to
MASSWASTING
               Definition of the term mass wasting.          man.
                                                             Explain the term mass wasting.
               Factors influencing mass wasting.
                                                             Discuss the factors affecting the nature
               Types of mass wasting.                        and speed of mass wasting.
               Effects of mass wasting to man and
                  the environment                            Distinguish between different types of
                                                              mass wasting.
                                                             Evaluate the effects of mass wasting to
                                                              man and the environment.
RIVERS         Action of rivers: (Erosion,                  Describe the processes involved in river
                  transportation and deposition)              erosion, transportation and deposition.

               Drainage patterns                            Distinguish between different river
                                                              patterns
               Features due to river action (Eros
                  ional and depositional)                    Describe the landforms resulting from
                                                              river action on the earth‟s surface.
                 The significance of rivers
                                                             Explain the significance of rivers to
                                                              man.




                                                                        98
                                                                                                                 Geography
                    Definition of population.                   Explain the term population.

                    Factors affecting population growth.        Explain the factors influencing
POPULATION           (fertility, mortality and migration)         population growth.
(Introduction)
                    Factors affecting population                Explain the factors influencing
                     distribution in Somaliland.                  population distribution in Somaliland.




     FORM THREE

                                                                      OBJECTIVES: At the end of the
 TOPIC                    SUB-TOPIC                                   topic, the learner should be able to:

 MANAGEMENT AND                  Definition of management and                 Explain the terms conservation
 CONSERVATION OF                  conservation                                  and management
 THE
 ENVIRONMENT                     The need for conservation                    Explain why it is necessary to
                                                                                conserve and manage the
                                                                                environment

                                 Environmental problems in                    Assess the impact of selected
                                  Somaliland (Gulley erosion sheet              environmental hazards on the
                                  erosion, deforestation,                       environment and human
                                  overgrazing garbage and plastic               beings.
                                  bags)


                                 Environmental management and                 Discuss measures taken in
                                  conservation in Somaliland.                   managing and conserving the
                                                                                environment in Somaliland.



                                                                              99
                                                                                                       Geography
                      Definition of Settlement and            Explain the terms settlement and
SETTLEMENT             urbanization.                            urbanization.
                      Factors affecting the location of       Explain the factors influencing
                       settlements.                             settlements and settlement
                                                                patterns.
                      Functions of settlements.               Explain the different types of
                                                                settlements and their functions.
                      Urbanization.                           Account for the growth of major
                                                                urban centers in Somaliland.
                      Problems of urbanization                Discuss the effects of urbanization.
                      Rural settlements                       Explain the functions of rural
                                                                settlements

CLIMATIC TYPES            Hot climates of the world               Describe the climatic and
(REGIONS) OF THE             - Equatorial rainforest                vegetation characteristics of
WORLD                        - Tropical Monsoon                     the selected climatic types.
                             - Tropical desert                     Account for the causes of
                                                                    aridity and desertification.
                                                                   Explain the effects and
                                                                    possible solutions to aridity
                                                                    and desertification.
                        Warm temperate climates.                  Describe the climatic and
                   Western type (Mediterranean) to be               vegetation characteristics of
                   studied in detail                                warm temperate Western type
                                                                    of climate.
                   Temperate interior and Eastern Margin-
                   mention as the other two in this                Name warm temperate interior
                   category.                                        and Eastern as the other two
                        Cool temperate climates                    types of Warm temperate
                   Western type-(to be studied in detail)           climates.
                   Cool temperate interior and Eastern –           Describe the climatic
                   mention as the other two in this                 characteristics of the cool
                   category.                                        temperate western type.
                                                                   Name the other two cool



                                                                100
                                                               Geography
   Tundra region            temperate types of climates.
                             (Interior and Eastern).
   Mountain region
    (Vertical zoning )      Analyse and know the
                             problems of and set- backs of
                             the harsh climates of the polar
                             region
                            Explain the vertical zoning of
                             climatic belts in mountain
                             regions




                         101
                                                                                                       Geography
                            Interpretation of human                  Identify and describe human
MAPS AND MAP                 activities on topographical               activities on topographical
WORK.                        maps.(economic activities,                maps
                             settlements)
                            Enlargement and reduction of             Enlarge and reduce parts of
                             maps                                      topographical maps.

                            Drawing of cross-sections.               Construct cross-sections
                                                                       from topographical maps

                            Calculation and interpretation           Calculate and interpret
                             of vertical exaggeration and              exaggeration and gradient
                             gradient
                                                                      State position of places on a
                            Position of places by use of              map by use of latitudes and
                             latitudes and longitudes.                 longitudes.

LAKES                        Definition of lake.                      Explain the term lake

                             Formation and classification             Describe the processes
                              of different types of lakes.              involved in the formation
                                                                        of different types of lakes
                             Importance of lakes
                                                                       Explain the importance of
                                                                        lakes to man.

                        Distinction between oceans and                 Explain the difference
                         seas                                            between oceans and seas.

OCEANS ,SEAS &          Horizontal water movements                     Discuss the causes of
THEIR COASTS             (ocean currents,Tides,Waves)                    water movements

                        Wave action and the resultant                  Describe landforms as a



                                                              102
                                                                                                         Geography
                        landforms (Erosional and                          result of wave erosion and
                        depositional)                                     deposition.
                       Types of coasts (submerged,                      Describe the
                        emerged and coral coasts)                         characteristics of the types
                                                                          of coasts.
                       Significance of oceans coasts and                Outline and explain the
                        coastal features.                                 importance of coastal
                                                                          areas to human beings.


    FORM 4


                        SUB-TOPIC                 OBJECTIVES: At the end of the
TOPIC                                             topic, the learner should be able
                                                  to:
                     Definition of the term         Explain the meaning of the
AGRICULTURE           agriculture.                      word agriculture.


                     Factors influencing                Discuss factors affecting
                      agriculture.                        agriculture.

                     Types of agriculture               Describe the salient features of
                                                          different types of agriculture.
                     Crop farming
                       Cereals                           Describe the necessary
                         Maize                            growing conditions for the
                         Rice                             selected crops.
                         Sorghum
                         Wheat
                      Beverage crops
                           Sugar



                                                                  103
                                                                                    Geography
                      Tea
                      Coffee
                                             Describe the necessary growing
          Oil crops                           conditions for oil crops.
                                          .
               Groundnuts                     Explain the growing conditions
               Sesame                         for each of the named fruit.

          Horticulture
              Mango
                                           Explain problems facing fruit and
              Guava                           Horticulture farming in developing
              Lemon                           countries.
              grapes
                                             Explain characteristics of
            Pastoralism in Somaliland
                                              pastoralism
            Problems facing
              pastoralism in               Describe problems facing pastoral
              Somaliland                    communities in Somaliland.

              Definition of forest and          Explain the meaning of the
               forestry                           terms forest and forestry
FORESTY
              Factors affecting the             Discuss the factors influencing
               distribution of natural            the distribution of natural
               forests.                           forests.

              Importance of forests             Evaluate the significance of
               and forest products.               forest and forest products.

              Problems affecting                Analyse the problems facing
               forestry in Africa                 forests and forests in Africa.

              Management and                    Discuss ways and means of


                                                          104
                                                                                 Geography
                 conservation of forests         conserving forests.
                 (Refer to any African
                 country )
                          .

                Definition of mineral,       Explain the meaning of the
MINING AND       mining and Rocks.             terms mineral, mining and
MINERALS.                                      Rocks.

                Characteristics of           State the characteristics of
                 minerals.                     minerals.
                                              Describe and explain the
                                               factors affecting occurrence of
                Factors affecting             minerals.
                 occurrence of minerals       Explain the factors affecting
                 and mining.                   mining.

                                              Understand different types of
                Mining methods                minerals and how they are
                                               mined and utilized


                Effects of mining on         Explain the effects of mining
                 the environment. .            on the environment.


                Significance of mining       Explain the significance of
                 to a country                  mining to a country
                                              Explain the contribution made
                A case study of
                                               by mining to national economy
                 mining Gold in South
                                               of one of the selected
                 Africa or Petroleum in
                                               countries.
                 Saudi Arabia




                                                         105
                                                                                                      Geography



MANUFACTURING                    Definition of industry           Explain the meaning of the
INDUSTRIES                        and Industrialization.            terms industry and
                                 Types of industries.              industrialization.
                                 Factors that affect              Classify and describe types of
                                  location and                      industries.
                                  development of                   Explain the factors that
                                  industries.                       influence the location and
                                 Distribution of                   development of industries.
                                  factories in Somaliland          Account for the distribution of
                                 Significance of                   factories in Somaliland.
                                  Industrialization.               Explain the role played by
                                 Problems of                       industries and factories.
                                  industrialization and            Discuss the problems of
                                  their possible                    industrialization and suggest
                                  solutions.                        their possible solutions.
                                 Case study on:
                                      Car and electronics          Compare and contrast aspects
                                      industry in Japan             of industrialization in the
                                                                    selected country.

POPULATION                   Population structure (Age-       Describe population structure.
                              sex pyramid)
(continued from form 2)      Consequences of                  Analyze the consequences of
                              population growth and             population growth and structure.
                              structure.

                             Population problems of           Explain the problems faced in
                              under population.                 countries experiencing under
                                                                population.
                             Family planning methods       .Analyze the demographic trends in
                              vs. Islamic/Somali culture.   Somaliland with regard to the Somali
                                                            culture and the Islamic law.


                                                                              106
                                                                                         Geography
                  Family planning methods.         Compare and contrast population
                                                    trends between Somaliland and the
                                                    selected developed country.
              A case study on population:
              Somaliland and Sweden
STATISTICAL                                     Study the methods of collecting
METHODS                                         population statistics
                 Definition of fishing and
FISHING           fisheries.                       Explain the term fishing and
                 Factors influencing fishing       fisheries
                                                   Explain factors influencing
                 Distribution of world             fishing.
                  fishing grounds                  Account for the location of the
                                                    major fishing grounds of the world
                 Types and methods of
                  fishing                          Describe types and methods of
                                                    fishing.
                 Fishing industry in
                  Somaliland                       Discus the marine fisheries in
                                                    Somaliland.
                 Significance of fishing
                  industry in Somaliland.          Explain the importance of fishing
                                                    in Somaliland.
                 Problems facing fishing
                  industry in Somaliland and       Discuss the problems facing
                  their possible solutions.         fishing industry in Somaliland and
                                                    suggest possible solutions.
                 Management and
                  conservation of fishing          Explain ways and means of
                  grounds.                          managing and conserving marine
                                                    fisheries of the world.




                                                                  107
                                                                                                               History

HISTORY
Introduction

The History teachers when teaching the revised History syllabus should enhance the development of skills that will harmonise classroom teaching with
real life situations. The teacher should encourage student-involvement in their own learning process by way of collecting data and information
particularly through oral history and traditions- a very rich legacy in Somaliland. Topics on Somali History should therefore be taught to develop such
skills.
The revised syllabus when taught also aims to sharpen the students critical and analytical skills through class debates on historical issues and concerns
such as Khat, HIV/AIDS and environmental degradation.
In addition the teachers should encourage the students‟ research skills and analysis of data through projects related to local historical issues such as
environmental change and degradation, and histories of local landmarks and towns.
The syllabus incorporates topics that encourage students to view first hand the operations of local government, historical sites, parliament and other
institutions.
Teachers are advised to adopt a practical approach by using real-life examples for topics and use any locally available materials

General Objectives
By the end of the course the student learner should be able to:-
    Recognize and appreciate the importance of studying History.
    Acquire knowledge, ability and show appreciation for critical historical analysis of socio-economic and political organizations of African
       societies.
    Promote a sense of nationalism, patriotism and national unity.
    Encourage and sustain moral and mutual social responsibility.
    Identify, assess and appreciate the rich and varied cultures of Somali people and other people.
    Promote a sense of awareness and need for a functional democracy of the Somaliland people and other nations.
    Promote an understanding and appreciation of intra-national and international consciousness and relationships.
    Derive through the study of History an interest in further learning.
    Appreciate the importance of interdependence among people and among nations.
    Identify, assess and have respect for different ways of life influencing development at local, national and international levels.
    Demonstrate the acquisition of positive attitudes, values, and skills for self-reliance.
    Acquire appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.
    Value history as a basis for technological and industrial development.




                                                                          108
                                                                                                           History
    FORM ONE

Main Topic            Sub. Topic                                     Skills and Objectives
An Introduction to    What is History                                     Explain the term History.
History               The sources of African History eg oral              Identify sources of information on History
                      traditions, written sources, languages,             Appreciate the importance of studying History
                      archaeology and anthropology                        Equip learner with the basic skills of data collection to recreate
                                                                             History
African Traditional   Hunting and                                    Appreciate important modes of production and their impact on early
economies             Gathering communities                          African societies beginnings of agriculture - many causes and
                      Pastoralism                                    important consequences
                      Agriculture; indigenous industries and trade
Somali History        Emergence of the Somali people-traditions of         Encourage a critical and analytical approach to histories of
                      origin                                                origin.
                      Movement and expansions and the final                Understand the classifications of peoples
                      settlement                                           Weigh differences and similarities of past traditions, customs,
                      language, culture and religion                        and beliefs to those of the present.

Ancient African       1. Ancient Egypt                               Of ancient civilizations:
civilizations         The pharaohs,                                      Identify the main features and great achievements.
                      Mummification                                      Understand the factors that account for the origins.
                      Farming                                            Use a comparative approach in understanding these.
                      Writing development                                Appreciate the role of the riverNile
                                                                         Appreciate the correlation the correlation between History and
                      2. The Golden Age of Egypt                            Geography.
                      The Middle Kingdom                                 Understand the role and significance of the pharaohs and the
                      The New Kingdom                                       pyramids.
                      Egypt under threat
                                                                         Appreciate the links in the growth and development of these
                      3. Kush Axum Meroe                                    civilisations
                                                                         Highlight the political phenomena of empire building




                                                                      109
                                                                                                            History
Other World Ancient      Mesopotamia (the Sumerians)                         Understand how civilisation began, developed and spread in
Civilizations            Persia                                               Mesopotamia.
                         The Indus valley                                    Appreciate why civilisations began near river valleys.
                                                                             To appreciate the contributions and achievements.
                                                                             Understand the linkages and cultural contributions of other
                                                                              world civilizations
The Classical            The Dark Ages of Greece.                            Appreciate the political evolution in Greece.
Civilization of Greece   The Evolution of the City States                    Understand and appreciate the contribution of the great
                         Sparta                                               philosophers.
                         Greek Thought and Culture                           Evaluate the Greek contribution to Art and Culture.
                         Greek Art
                         Athens in the Golden Age
                         The Greek achievement and its present day
                         significance
The Rise of Macedonia    Macedonia becomes powerful
                         King Phillip and the spread of Macedonian
                         influence                                           Understand how Alexander introduced Hellenistic culture from
                                                                              his empire to the rest of the world.
                         Conquest of Persia and Egypt                        Explain why Alexander‟s successors could not hold Egypt
Alexander the Great                                                           together.
                         The discovery of Aikhanun                           Show how language unified the Mediterranean world

                         Alexandria and the lighthouse

                         New lands and an international age.
An Introduction to       Meaning and importance of „Government‟              Promote a sense of patriotism, nationalism, and integration
Government               The function and political structures of the         through awareness of governance, national unity and
                         Somaliland Government.                               successes.




                                                                        110
                                                                                                        History
FORM TWO

Main Topic          Sub-Topic                                 Skill and objectives
The rise of Islam   Prophet Mohamed and his followers              Understand causes and consequences of the development of the Islamic
                    The prophet‟s Holy wars                           religion
                    His death and the era of the caliphs           Explain how Islam affected the history of the Arab people
                                                                   Identify the Muslim countries of the world today as a result of the
                                                                      conquest of the seventh century
                                                                   Describe the biography of the prophet as well as those of his own
                                                                      caliphs who succeeded him

The expansion of    The AD 611Umayad dynasty                         Understand the causes and consequences of Muslim -Arab conquest
Islam               The Abbasid caliphate                            Identify and discuss the significance Muslim expansion in Asia and
                                                                      Africa and the relationship between the Islamic law and Muslim
                                                                      conquests


Islamization of     Introduction of Islamic religion to the          Understand historical trading links with the outside word and the impact
Somaliland people   Somali people                                     in the Somali people
                    Arab settlements along the coast of              Analyse the causes of Arab settlements
                    Somali
                    The rise of Muslim Emirates along the
                    northern coast of Somalia
Enlightenment and   The philosophies embraced in the                 Understand the power of ideas in shaping political and economic
Revolutions         enlightenment                                     changes
                                                                     Understand the causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution

                    The Industrial Revolution
                    The French Revolution

African before      West African before the colonial period   A comparative approach before and after the partition of Africa
colonial rule       (1800-1875)
                    East Africa (1800-1885)




                                                                     111
                                                                                                          History

European                 Reasons for the scramble                      Identify and describe reasons for the scramble of Africa
invasion of Africa and   The Berlin Conference and the Partition       Understand factors that helped Europeans colonize Africa
the process of           of Africa                                     Chart Europeans possessions after 1884-1885
colonisation             European conquest and                         Analyse events that led to the Berlin conference of 1884-1885 and
                         Establishment of administration.               evaluate its results.
                         Resistance and Collaboration                  Assess colonial resistance and collaboration and weigh its consequences
                         Christianity and the impact on African
                         societies
Somaliland since         Colonial legacy                               Understand political social and economic factors that have shaped
independence             Referendum the abortive coup                   Somalia since independence
                         The military coup of 1969                     Understand the problems of unification
                         The establishment of northern
                         movements
                         S/land since 1991

National integration     Factors promoting national unity              Be aware of factors that promote and those that limit national unity
                         Factors limiting national unity               Identify factors that cause conflicts and offer possible solutions
                         Conflict resolutions
                         Methods of resolving conflicts
                         Processes of resolving conflicts




                                                                       112
                                                                                                    History
FORM 3

   Main topic           Sub-topic                               Skills & objectives
   Three Muslim         The rise of the Ottomans                     Understand the rise and expansion of the Ottomans in the C 15 and
   Empires:             The Conquest of Constantinople                  C 16
   The Ottoman Empire   The Govt and the army                        Interpret events and explain the long term effects of the Turkish
                        The siege of Vienna                             failure to conquer Vienna.
                        Trouble in the empire                        Enumerate factors that led to the empire‟s decline
   The Safavid Empire Iran‟s Shi‟ite empire                          Understand the role of the Safavid empire in the Muslim world.
                        Conflict with the Ottomans                   Explore how the Shi‟ism affects its relations with other countries
                        Reign of Abbas the Great.                       today.
                        Trade and Culture                            Explain the reasons behind the downfall.
                        The downfall
   The Mogul empire     Foundation                                    Appreciate the contribution to history by the empire in India
                        Baber the tiger                               Give suggestions on how to promote the prosperity of a country
                        Prosperity and Decline                        Discuss the importance of effective administration.
                        Islamic Empires in decline
                        Contrast the 3 different empires.
   Europe in the Middle Rise of the nobles and control of the         Understand the causes and consequences of the development of
   Ages                 countryside                                    European civilisation in the Middle Ages.
                        Divine Right of Kings                         Learn the consequences of the introduction of the plough
                        Feudalism in England                          Know about Education in the Middle Ages
                        William the Conqueror
                        The Age of Chivalry
                        The Minor system
                        The growth of towns and trade
                        The spread of knowledge
   Rise and Spread of   The message of Jesus Christ                   Understand the impact of the spread.
   Christianity         The first Christmas
                        Letters of Pliny the Younger
                        Monasticism
                        The spread of Christianity throughout
                        and outside the Roman Empire




                                                                 113
                                                                                                      History
The Christian          Growth of Papal Power                          Write a report on one of the major Christian Crusades and describe
Church in the          Expansion to Spain and Germany                  their intermediate and longer term effects.
Middle Ages            Papal appeal for a crusade.
   Africa              Ghana, Mali and Songhai                        Understand the causes and consequences of the development of
The Sudanic States     Kanem, Borna and Hausa                          the states.
in West Africa                                                        Analyse the influence of trade on the development of the
                                                                       kingdoms and the spread of new religious ideas.
The Forest States of   Akan, Asante, Dahomey, Yoruba, Oyo             Understand the consequences of the rise and fall of these states.
West Africa            and Benin
South-West and         The rise and growth of the Zimbabwean          Describe the role of trade and its development and decline
South Africa           kingdom
                       San, Khoikhoi, etc
Expansion of           The birth of modern society                    Explain factors leading to the development of science and
European power         Europe‟s scientific and technological           technology, the inter-relations of new inventions that led to the
                       advances                                        scientific revolution in Europe.
                       Advances in agriculture and                    Know of the advances in agriculture and manufacturing leading to
                       manufacturing                                   a higher standard of living.
                       Effects of scientific revolution
The unification of     A Unified Italy                                Know the causes and consequences of the unification.
Italy & Germany        The Unification of Germany                     Weigh the problems that arose from the unification and the impact
                       War with Denmark and Austria                    on the rest of Europe.
                       The Franco Prussian War
                       The German Empire

The First World War    The Great Powers                               Understand the causes of the First World War.
                       The pre-war Alliance                           Analyse the events; evaluate the consequences of the war.
                       The Balkan Wars 1912
                       The world at war
                       Results of the world war.
Nationalism in         Factors that led to the rise of African        Understand the causes and consequences of growing nationalism
Africa                 nationalism                                     in Africa, especially after the Second World War.
                       Factors that strengthened nationalism
                       Nationalism in Ghana, Algeria, in
                       Kenya, Somalia (the wars of Mohamed


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                                                                                         History
                Abdillahi Hassan against colonialism)


Democracy and   Definition, types and principles of          Understand the terms: Human Rights and Democracy
human rights    Democracy                                    Identify types of Democracy
                Definition of human rights                   Discuss the principles of democracy
                The Bill of Rights                           Identify the Rights of child
                UN Charter on Human Rights                   Classify and discuss Human Rights
                The Rights of the child
                Classification of Human Rights




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                                                                                                        History
    FORM FOUR

 1. Somalia and Somaliland between     Nationalist Organizations eg. SNS, SNL, NUF       Understand influence of wars on people‟s
the two World Wars to 1960             and USP, and SYL in the South                      thinking and its effects on the birth of
                                       Personalities, eg. Farah Omaar                     nationalism
                                       The effects of the world wars on the rise of
                                       Somali Nationalism
                                       Italian rule over Somalia

2. Independence and Union with         Results of two colonial legacies                  Understand the Pan Somali issues and the
Somalia                                Referendum of 1961 and the abortive coup           isolation of the Republic within a historical
                                       Strains between the North and South                context.
                                       The role of SYL
                                                                                         Understand national feelings. Recognition of
                                                                                          the role of administration and mal-
                                                                                          administration within the Republic
3. The Military coup of 1969           Dictatorship and Scientific Socialism             Understand the causes and consequences of
                                       Suppression of the North                           military coup and dictatorship
                                       The war of 1977 against Ethiopia
                                       The attempted Revolution of 1978
4. The Establishment of SNM            Formation                                         Understand the mass struggle and consequences
                                       Armed Struggle                                     of a dictatorial rule
5. Somaliland and Somalia since 1991                                                     Analyse the problems faced by a newly
                                                                                          proclaimed independent state
6. Pan-Africanism                      Pan-Africanist activities                         Understand principles of Pan-Africanism and
                                       Pan-Africanism in Africa                           their effects on the African people
                                       Pan-Africanism after 1945
                                       The achievements of Pan-Africanism
7. The Organisation of African Unity   The formation of the (OAU)                        Understand the principles of Pan-Africanism
(OAU)                                  The Charter of the OAU                             and the creation of the OAU
                                       The Structure of the OAU                          Make an an assessment of OAU

8. Post-Independence and political     The challenges                                    Compare militarism and democracy, socialism
ideas                                  The developments                                   and capitalism in Africa after independence



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                                                                                                       History
                                       Military coup, socialism and capitalism
Post-Independence challenges and
development
9. The aftermath of the First World    The problems of making a peace settlement        Analyse causes and consequences of treaty
War                                    Versailles settlement                             signed at Versailles, and the problems of war
                                       Self-determination                                and its effects on social order and the effects on
                                       The new map of Europe                             one‟s enemy
                                       The league of Nations
                                       Germany‟s war guilt reparation
10. The post-war shifts in power and   Europe‟s decline                                 Understand causes and the consequences of the
the great depression                   Europe‟s recovery and USA economic power          colonial independence movements
                                       Efforts to maintain peace
                                       Japanese Industrial power                        Recognise the post-war shifts in power away
                                                                                         from Europe and its impact

                                                                                        Recognise the effects of economic events
                                                                                         including the global depression of the 1930s

                                                                                        Recall select, organise and apply this
                                                                                         knowledge to other events
11. Causes of The Second World War     Rivalry and competition                          Understand the causes and consequences of
                                       The rise of dictators                             international hostility in the 1930‟s and the
                                       Muslim‟s programme                                causes of the 2nd WW
                                       Hitler‟s foreign policy aims
                                       Hitler violates the Versailles Treaty            Analyse critically policy trends between the two
                                       The Spanish civil war                             wars
                                       Japan‟s aggressions and the weakness of the
                                       League of Nations                                Analyse fascism and communism as political
                                       Italy‟s annexation of Ethiopia                    ideas, recogising their effects on history

12. The war spreads around the World   The lightning war                                Understand events and consequences of the 2nd
                                       The Japanese surrender                            WW
                                       Effects of the war on Eastern Africa             Use oral history as a source (eg. Interviewing
                                                                                         Somali Soldiers who remember the 2nd World


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                                                                                                           History
                                                                                              War
13. The Troubled Peace and The Cold   Post-war agreements                                    Understand the cost of the 2nd World War and
War                                                                                           the causes and consequences:
                                      Problems of international relations after the 2nd      Learn about the rise of two Super Powers
                                      WW                                                     Understand spread of communism
                                      What caused the Cold War?                              Recognize factors that led to the collapse of
                                      Spread of communism, Cuba, Chile, Détente.              communism in Eastern Europe
                                      The collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe
14. The United Nations Organization   Structure-responsibility                               Interpret events of the 2nd WW
(UNO)                                 Successes and Failures                                 Identifying its trends
                                                                                              (In so doing students will compare and develop
                                                                                              writing skills, weigh causes and consequences)
15. Conflict in the Middle East       Arab unity and interference from the outside           Understand the causes and consequences of the
                                      world                                                   UN in the Middle East
                                      The creation of Israel and Arab Israel wars
                                      Arab-Israel peace negotiations
16. Trade                             Methods of Trade                                       Identify, define, and explain the methods of,
                                      Local and International Trade                           trade
                                      Origins and development of KHAT trade.                 Discuss the origin, development, impact of and
                                                                                              organization of different types of trade.
17. Local Authorities in Somaliland   Types and functions of local authorities               Discuss relationship between local authorities
                                      Challenges                                              and government




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                                                                 MATHEMATICS
Preamble

This Mathematics Syllabus is a product of two curriculum review workshops held by Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNESCO and AET
in March and November 2006. It addresses the recommendations of the review workshops by:
Restructuring the syllabus into two cycles of forms 1 & 2 and 3 & 4. It hopes to address some terminal objectives for forms 1 & 2 and forms 3 & 4. It
has been restructured to enable the Ministry of Education, through the Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board, to examine
Secondary Mathematics at form two and form four levels as independent entities of the school cycle.
Introducing the Core and Extended sections in Mathematics. The core sections will be compulsory for all students while the extended sections will be
optional. The core section concentrates on the basic mathematical skills that are essential to general applications in life and as a continuity to other
tertiary courses like Nursing, Banking, Cashiers, Businesses, Teaching, Building, Electronics, Telecommunications, Industrial Processing, Mechanics,
Plumbers, Carpenters, Artisans, Fitters, Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and General trade. Extended mathematics is suitable for students aspiring for
Engineering courses at degree level etc.
Infusing some cross – cutting issues in society including Health education (HIV / AIDS), Khat Chewing, Environmental Education, Gender Issues and
others in the teaching of Mathematics. To this end, teachers should introduce these issues in their teaching to impart knowledge to students on the
effects of these crosscutting issues in society. These issues can be infused in Mathematics topics like Probability, Statistics, Ratio, Percentages,
Financial Mathematics, Matrices and Similarity in Geometry, among others.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR FORMS 1 & 2

Aims for form 1 & 2                                                                Learning Outcome
The learners should be able to:                                                    Learners equipped with knowledge and skills of:
Carry out calculations based on the four operations of numbers.                    Manipulating numbers and identifying relationships among
Examine patterns, make abstractions and generalize                                 numbers.
Identify shapes by their usual and abstract properties, calculate area and         Applying mathematics in familiar and unfamiliar contexts
volume of solids                                                                   Problem solving skills
Demonstrate plotting skills on the Cartesian plane and solve geometrical           Calculating skills
problems through plotting graphs.                                                  Deductive skills
Demonstrate statistical skills in organization and manipulation of data.           Interpretation of discrete and grouped data
Illustrate problem-solving skills in financial mathematics                         Logical reasoning in mathematical modeling
Obtain geometrical and trigonometrical solutions through drawing and               Communicating mathematically using symbols
calculations.                                                                      Skills of measurement and estimation




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AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR FORMS 3 AND 4

Aims for form 3 & 4                                                         Learning Outcomes
The learners should be able to:                                             The learners equipped with knowledge and skills to:
Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts             Handle mathematical equipment in geometry and trigonometry
related to number theory                                                    Organise, present and interpret statistical data in graphical and tabular
Demonstrate the skills of differentiation and integration of elementary     form.
functions and their various applications.                                   Estimate, measure and calculate to a given degree of accuracy.
Illustrate the skills of graphing linear and non-linear graphs and their    Interpret, discuss and synthesise geometrical information presented in a
applications                                                                variety of forms
Carry out operations on matrices and solve real life problems using         Think critically in three dimensions and in abstract ways.
matrices                                                                    Solve and apply differential calculus in practical problems
Demonstrate statistical skills in a variety of situations                   Formulate and solve linear programming equations in daily life
Formulate and solve problems in trigonometry                                situations.
Apply laws of probability in solving probability problems


EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES DURING MATHEMATICS LESSONS

HIV / AIDS in Statistics: - Relate to rate of spread / death within the community, compare the ratio of affected men to women and draw graphs to
compare the trends. Actual figures from the hospitals can change behaviour among the youth.
Khat Chewing in Ratio, Financial Mathematics and Statistics:- Cost chewing on the domestic and national economy, Health issues like lack of sleep,
loss of appetite, and restlessness, Family issues like divorce i.e discuss the rate of divorce among the chewing population, working culture of the
chewing population and the percentage of families supported by women within the population due to bad chewing habits of husbands.
Environmental Education in Rates and Proportions- Discuss the rate of deforestation, desertification and afforestation, rate of reduction of pasture
lands and water catchments areas‟.
Gender Issues in Statistics, Proportions, Percentages, and Rates of Work:- Compare the ratio of boys to girls in class, maleto female in white colour
jobs other work areas and in politics.




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                                                                                      Mathematics
Mathematics topics have been sub-divided as follows:

S/No         FORMS 1 & 2 TOPICS                   S /No.   FORMS 3 & 4 TOPICS

1            Numbers                              1        Numbers

2            Algebra                              2        Algebra

3            Trigonometry                         3        Statistics & Probability

4            Geometry                             4        Geometry

5            Financial Mathematics                5        Trigonometry

6            Statistics                           6        Financial Mathematics

7            Mensuration                          7        Transformation Geometry

8            Analytical Geometry                  8        Calculus




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Forms I – IV
    Form I                               Form II                             Form III                           Form IV

                                                                                                                   1.     Calculus
    1.      Number 1                     1.      Number 2                        1.     Number 4
    1.1.    Directed Numbers             1.1.    Rational and irrational         1.1.   Limits of accuracy
    Indices and standard form            numbers                                 1.2.   Ratio, proportion and
    Percentages                          1.2.    Arithmetic and geometric        measures of rate
    1.4.    Patterns in mathematics      progressions                                                              2. Statistics
    1.5     Ratio, rate and proportion                                           2.      Algebra 4
    2.      Algebra 1                    2.        Algebra 2                     2.1.    Algebraic
    2.1.    Solving equations            2.1.      Factorisation and fractions   representation and manipulation
    2.2     Simultaneous equations       2.2.      Solving equations             2.2.    Equations and             3. Trigonometry
    3.      Trigonometry 1               2.3.      Inequalities                  inequalities
T   3.1.    Measurement Solids           2.4.      Quadratic equations           2.3.    Functions
E   3.2.    Pythagoras theorem                                                   Graphs of functions
R   3.3.    Angles between lines         3.        Mensuration                   Linear programming
M                                        3.1.      Plane shapes                                                    4..Probability
    4.      Geometry 1                   3.2.      Solid shapes                  3.     Statistics 2
1   4.1.    Plane shapes                                                         3.1.   Handling data
    4.2.    Solids                       4.        Analytical geometry           3.2.   Probability
    4.3.    Volume, capacity and         4.1.      Vectors 1
    surface area                         4.2.      Coordinate geometry
    4.5.    Scale drawing                4.3.      Vectors 2
    4.6.    Analytical geometry
    4.7.    Geometry




    FORM 1




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                                                                                                         Mathematics
                                     FORM 2
                                                                     FORM 3
                                                                                                      FORM 4

    5.     Financial mathematics 1   5.      Number 3                4.     Geometry 3
                                     5.1.    Sets                    4.1.   Loci
                                                                     4.2.   Geometric relationships
    6.      Statistics 1             6.       Algebra 3              4.3.   Mensuration
    6.1.    Collections and          6.1.     Graphs in practical
    presentation of data             situations                      5.     Trigonometry 3
    6.2.    Averages                 6.2.     Straight line graphs   5.1.   Angle properties
                                     6.3.     Indices                5.2.   Trigonometry
T   7.     Trigonometry 2            6.4.     Matrices
E   7.1.   Solving triangles                                         Financial Mathematics 2
R   7.2.   Sine and cosine
M   7.3.   Right-angled triangles                                    7.     Transformation
                                                                     geometry
    8.       Geometry 2                                              7.1.   Vectors
2   8.1.     Similarity                                              7.2.   Symmetry
    8.2      Plane shapes                                            7.3.   Transformations
    8.3.     Circle geometry
    8.4.     Geometrical
    constructions
    8.5.     Areas and volumes of
    similar figures




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                                                                                                                Mathematics
 Somaliland Mathematics Syllabus Form I
                            January 2006
Topic                                    Expected Outcomes:
                                         Students should be able:
1.      Numbers 1
1.1.    Directed numbers                 to add, subtract, multiply and divide by directed numbers
1.2.    Indices, standard form, and      to use laws of indices
logarithms                               to round off numbers to nearest 10, 100 or 1000
                                         to express numbers and decimal fractions in standard form
                                         to apply significant figures in everyday life
                                         to express logarithms of numbers in base 10
                                         to use the theory of logarithms
1.3.    Percentages                      to calculate a given percentage of a quantity
                                         to calculate percentage increase or decrease
                                         to carry out calculations involving reverse percentages
1.4.    Patterns in mathematics          to identify number patterns in a row or sequence
                                         to draw the graphs of number patterns
                                         to write expressions of patterns in algebra
                                         to recognise patterns with shapes
1.5.    Ratio, rate, proportion, and     to compare two ratios
percentages                              to solve problems involving rates and rate of exchange
                                         to divide quantities into given ratios
2.      Algebra 1                        to define the terms equation and unknown
2.1.    Solving equations                to solve linear equations with one unknown
                                         to write equations
                                         to substitute numbers for letters or words in equations
                                         to draw graphs to represent equations
2.2.    Simultaneous equations           to plot the graph of a given equation
                                         to choose an appropriate scale to draw a graph
                                         to solve simultaneous linear equations graphically, by substitution,
                                         or by elimination
                                         to solve the word problems using simultaneous equations
3.1 Trigonometry                         to recognise, name and measure angles
                                         to construct angles

3.2.    Pythagoras theorem                 to use Pythagoras theorem
                                           to recognise Pythagorean triples



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                                      to use square root tables
                                      to calculate square roots using calculators
3.3.   Angles between lines           to define vertical opposite angles and angles meeting at a point
                                      to calculate the size of angles
                                      to define parallel lines
                                      to recognise alternate angles, corresponding angles
                                      to calculate the interior and exterior angles in triangles,
                                      quadrilaterals, polygons
4. Geometry                           to define and recognise triangle, quadrilaterals, parallelograms,
                                      polygons, circle, rhombus
                                      to describe the properties of triangle, quadrilaterals,
4.1.   Plane shapes                   parallelograms, polygons, circle, rhombus
                                      to define and recognise the sector and segment of a circle
4.2.   Solids                         to differentiate between regular and irregular shapes
                                      to recognise and draw cuboids, cube, cylinder, prism, cone and
                                      pyramid, sphere
                                      to identify a cuboids, cube, cylinder, prism, cone and pyramid,
                                      face, edge and vertex and planes of symmetry
                                      to draw and assemble the net of a cuboid and other shapes

4.3.   Volume, capacity and surface   to define and calculate the volume, capacity and surface area of
area                                  cuboids, prisms, cylinders

4.4.   Scale drawing                  to draw scale drawings
                                      to know the points of a compass
                                      to use compass bearings
                                      to define surveying

4.5.   Analytical geometry            to define Cartesian coordinates
                                      to understand how to plot points on a graph
                                      to draw the line graph of a given equation

4.6.   Geometry                       to draw lines without measuring instruments
                                      to construct triangles and parallel lines
                                      to define perpendicular lines
                                      to draw the perpendicular distance of a point from a line
                                      to bisect a given angle



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                                                                                                      Mathematics
                                 to construct angles of 90o, 45o, 60o, 30o

5.     Financial mathematics 1   to calculate profit and loss in Somaliland Shillings and other
                                 currencies
                                 to define and calculate commission and interest in Somaliland
                                 Shillings and other currencies
                                 to calculate price reductions and installment payments in
                                 Somaliland Shillings and other currencies
                                 to use exchange rates to convert currencies

6. ` Statistics
6.1.                             Collection and presentation of data
6.2.     Averages                to understand the difference between averages and mean
                                 to find the average, mean, median and the mode
                                 to construct a grouped frequency table and use it to find the mean
                                 of the grouped data
                                 to identify the modal class of given data

7.     Trigonometry 2            to define and use the tangent of an angle
                                 to find the tangent of an angle by measurement
7.1.   Solving triangles         to describe the complement of an angle
                                 to use degrees and minutes of an angle
                                 to use tangent tables

7.2.   Sine and cosine           to define and use sine and cosine of an angle
                                 to use sine and cosine by using sine and cosine tables
                                 to solve right angled triangles using Pythagoras‟ rule and
                                 trigonometrical ratios

7.3.   Right angled triangles    to prove Pythagoras‟ theorem
                                 to use tan, sin and cos of angles 45o, 60o, and 30o to solve
                                 problems

8.     Geometry 2                to define similarity and identify similar figures
                                 to know the ratio of the corresponding sides in similar figures is
8.1.   Similarity                the same
                                 to calculate the missing sides or angles in two similar figures



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                                                                                                                 Mathematics
                                          to apply the similarity concept to plane shapes and solids
                                          to define enlargement and scale factor
                                          to calculate the scale factor of an enlargement
8.2.   Plane shapes                       to recognise line symmetry and summarise the properties of
                                          symmetrical shapes
                                          to recognise and explain the properties of point symmetry
                                          to show that the transformed figures (images) are congruent
                                          to identify the three basic congruencies: translations, reflections
                                          and rotations
                                          to differentiate between direct and indirect congruencies



8.3.   Circle geometry                    to recognise chords, arcs and segments
                                          to use the theorem of angles in the same segment of a circle and
                                          theorem of angles in a semi-circle
                                          to define a cyclic quadrilateral
                                          to use the theorem of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral




8.4.   Geometrical constructions          to define concurrent lines, circumscribed circles, inscribed circles
                                          and escribed circles
                                          to construct a circumscribed circle, inscribed circle and escribed
                                          circle



8.5.    Area and volumes of similar       to recognise scale factor of similar figures
figures                                   to find the ratio of two similar figures
                                          to find the ratio of the volumes of two similar shapes



Somaliland Mathematics Syllabus Form II



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                                                                                                                   Mathematics
                                                           January 2006
Topic                                     Expected Outcomes:
                                          Students should be able to:

1.      Number 2

1.1.    Rational and irrational numbers   to define rational and irrational numbers
                                          to find square roots
                                          to add, subtract, multiply, divide and evaluate surds
1.2.    Arithmetic and geometric          to define sequence and series
progressions                              to find the sum of arithmetic and geometric progressions
                                          to solve problems involving arithmetic and geometric progressions
2.      Algebra 2

2.1.    Factorisation and fractions       to perform factorising by taking out the common factors
                                          to simplify calculations by factorisation
                                          to find equivalent fractions
                                          to add and subtract algebraic fractions
2.2.    Solving equations                 to solve equations with brackets and word problems involving
                                          fractions
2.3.    Inequalities                      to recognise and use greater than (>), less than (<) , greater than or
                                          equal to (≥) and less than or equal to (≤)
                                          to show inequalities on a number line
                                          to sketch inequalities on the Cartesian graphs
                                          to solve inequalities and show the solution on a line graph
                                          to solve graphically simultaneous inequalities with one or two
                                          variables
                                          to solve word problems involving inequalities
2.4.    Quadratic equations               to factorise quadratic expressions
                                          to solve quadratic equations by factorisation
                                          to solve word problems and real life situations using quadratic
                                          equations
3.      Mensuration




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                                                                                                       Mathematics
3.1.   Plane shapes           to use the trigonometry to calculate area
                              to know the meaning of arc and sector of circles
                              find the length of an arc and the angle an arc subtends at the centre
                              of a circle
                              to find the area of a sector of a circle
3.2.   Solid shapes           to find the area and volume of common solids (cuboid, cylinder,
                              pyramid, cone, and sphere)
                              to add and subtract volumes
                              to identify the frustrum of a cone or pyramid
4.     Analytical geometry
4.1.   Vectors 1              to translate vectors
                              to add and subtract vectors and multiply by a scalar
                              to identify difference of vectors
                              to define unit vectors and null vector
4.2.   Coordinate geometry    to define and find the gradient of a straight line
                              to recognise parallel and perpendicular lines using the gradient
                              concept
                              to sketch graphs of straight lines
                              to find the coordinate of mid-point and length of a straight line
                              to find the equation of a straight line
4.3.   Vectors 2              to recognise position vectors
                              to describe properties of shapes by using vector method
5.     Numbers 3
5.1.   Sets                   to define and use the terms set, elements, subset
                              to use set language, notation and Venn diagrams to describe sets
                              to represent relationships between sets appropriately
                              to identify universal and complement sets

6.     Algebra 3

6.2.   Straight line graphs   to calculate the gradient of a straight line from the coordinates of
                              two points on the graph
                              to calcuate the length of a straight line segment from the coordinates
                              of its ends points
                              to interpret and obtain the equation of a straight line graph in the
                              form of y = mx + c
                              to use graphs to solve simultaneous equations


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6.3.   Indices    to use and interpret positive, negative and zero indices
                  to use and interpret fractional indices
6.4.   Matrices   to display information in the form a of a matrix of any order
                  to calculate the sum and product of two matrices
                  to calculate the product of a matrix and a scalar quantity
                  to use the algebra of 2 x 2 matrices including the zero and identity 2
                  x 2 matrices
                  to calculate the determinant and inverse of a non-singular matrix




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 Form III
                              CORE MATHEMATICS                                              EXTENDED MATHEMATICS
Topic                         Expected Outcomes.                                            Expected Outcomes.
                              Students should be able to:                                   Students should be able to:
1.      Numbers 4             to write numbers to different degrees of accuracy             to obtain upper and lower bounds to solutions of simple
1.1.    Limits of accuracy    to identify the upper and lower bounds for data given to a    problems for data to a specified accuracy
                              specified accuracy

1.2.   Ratio, proportion      to calculate direct proportion and inverse proportion         to express direct and inverse variation in algebraic terms
and measures of rate          to use the ratio method or unitary method to solve
                              problems
                              to increase and decrease a quantity by a given ratio
2.      Algebra               to transform formulae                                         to transform formulae
2.1.    Algebraic             to manipulate algebraic fractions
representation and
manipulation
2.2.    Equations and         to construct equations from given situations                  to solve quadratic equations by factorisation and either by use of
inequalities                  to solve quadratic equations by factorisation and either by   the formula or by completing the square
                              use of the formula
                              to solve simple linear inequalities

2.3.    Functions             to use function notation to describe simple functions         to describe inverse functions using function notation
                                                                                            to form composite functions
2.4.    Graphs of functions   to construct tables of values for quadratic functions         to solve linear and quadratic equations approximately by
                              to draw and interpret graphs of quadratic functions           graphical methods


2.5.    Linear programming    to represent inequalities graphically
                              to use graphs of inequalities to solve simple linear
                              programming problems
3.      Statistics 2          to understand and use mean, medium and mode                   to estimate the median, percentiles, quartiles and inter-quartile
                              to construct and read histograms with equal and unequal       range
                              intervals.                                                    to calculate an estimate of the mean for grouped and continuous



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                           to construct and use cumulative frequency diagrams               date
3.1.   Handling data       to identify the modal class from a grouped frequency
                           distribution
3.2.   Probability         to calculate the probability of an event
                           to calculate the probability of simple combined events
                           using possibility diagrams and tree diagrams
4.     Geometry 3                                                                           to use loci which are at a given distance from a given point; at a
4.1.   Loci                                                                                 given distance from a given straight line; equidistant from two
                                                                                            given points
                                                                                            to use the method of intersection loci for sets of points in two
                                                                                            dimensions
4.2 Geometric              to use the relationships between the areas of similar
relationships              triangles
                           to calculate the scale factor and area factor for similar
                           triangles
                           to use relationships between similar figures
                           to use relationships between volumes of similar solids


4.3.Mensuration            to carry out calculations involving the circumference of a       to solve problems involving the arc length and sector area as
                           circle                                                           fractions of the circumference and area of a circle
                           to carry out calculations involving the area of a                to solve problems involving the arc length and sector area as
                           parallelogram and a trapezium                                    fractions of the surface area and volume of a sphere, pyramid
                           to carry out calculations involving the surface area of a        and cone
                           cuboid and a cylinder
                           to carry out calculations involving the volume of a prism

5.Trigonometry 3           to calculate unknown angles using the angle properties of
5.1.    Angle properties   regular polygons
                           to calculate unknown angles using the angle in a semi-
                           circle
                           to calculate unknown angles using the angle between
                           tangent and radius of a circle
                           to use the angle properties of irregular polygons
                           to use the angle properties at the centre of a circle is twice
                           the angle of the circumference
                           to use the angles in the same segment are equal



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                                                                                                                      Mathematics
                          to use the angles in opposite segments are supplementary
5.2.Trigonometry          to apply Pythagoras‟ theorem                                  to extend the sine and cosine functions to angles between 90o
                          to use the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for acute angles   and 360o
                          to calculate the side or angle of right-angled triangle       to solve problems using the sine and cosine rules and the area of
                          to solve two dimensional trigonometrical problems             a triangle
                          involving angles of elevation and depression                  to solve simple three dimensional trigonmetrical problems
                                                                                        including angle between a line and a plane
Financial Mathematics 2   to prepare simple cash accounts                               to calculate repayments for mortgages and hire purchases
                          to apply some types of taxation such as income tax and        to apply percentage depreciation and inflation to the values of
                          Value Added Tax                                               goods

Transformation geometry   to describe a translation using a column vector               to use the sum and difference to express given vectors in terms
                          to calculate the magnitude of a column vector                 of two coplanar vectors
       7.1 Vectors        to represent vectors by directed line segments                to use position vectors

7.2.     Symmetry         to identify lines of symmetry and planes of symmetry,         to recognise symmetry properties of prisms, cylinders, pyramids
                          to identify shapes which have reflective symmetry and         and cones
                          rotational symmetry                                           to use the symmetry properties of circles

7.3.Transformations                                                                     to recognise and describe reflections, rotations, translations and
                                                                                        enlargements
                                                                                        to use transformations of the plane (reflection, rotation,
                                                                                        translation, enlargement, shear, stretching and their
                                                                                        combinations)
                                                                                        to identify and describe transformations connecting given
                                                                                        figures
                                                                                        to describe transformations using coordinates and matrices




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                                                                                                                        Mathematics

  Form IV
                            CORE MATHEMATICS                                              EXTENDED MATHEMATICS
Topic                       Expected Outcomes.                                            Expected Outcomes.
                            Students should be able to:                                   Students should be able to:
Revision of Forms 1,2 & 3   Revise of all work done in FORMS ONE, TWO AND
                            THREE. especially those found by the pupils to be
                            difficult to understand and remember
                              “ learning only comes with understanding.”
                            Give plenty of exercises and their solutions for all topics
                            in form 1, 2& 3.
                            Go over the past exam papers and their solutions
                            thoroughly.
                            Discuss the students methods of revision and advise how
                            and help them to study for the exam.
                            Let them make mistakes and show the pupils how to
                            correct the mistakes.




1. Calculus                 Understand simple limits and the concept of gradient at a     Find the maximum and minimum coordinates of simple algebraic
                            point, ie δy/δx tends to the limit dy/dx. Differentiation     graphs. Use „change of sign‟ and d2y/dx2.
                            from first principles will NOT be examined but it may be      Know and use s, t, v = ds/dt, a = dv/dt = d2s/dt2 (displacement,
                            shown (if time is available).                                 time, velocity and acceleration in simple Mechanics problems.
                            Differentiate various simple algebraic functions and          Use δy/δx ≈ dy/dx in examples of rates of change.
                            trigonometric functions.                                      Use dy/dx = dy/dt x dt/dx or similar variables in related examples
                            First and Second derivatives only.
                                                                                          Show and use integration as the reverse of differentiation and as
                                                                                          the area under a graph. NO PROOFS NEEDED.
                                                                                          Integrate simple algebraic functions and trig functions and find the
                                                                                          definite
                                                                                              integral.

2. Statistics               Understand why, how and where we use mean, median,            Understand and use dispersion statistics ie mean deviation,




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                                                                                                               Mathematics
                    and mode in discrete and continuous data.                   standard deviation (in the normal distribution), and range,
                    Draw and know how and where to use: pictograms, bar         percentiles and quartiles in frequency and cumulative frequency
                    charts, pie charts, line charts, histograms with unequal    distributions.
                    intervals, frequency & cumulative frequency graphs.


3. Trigonometry     Know radian measure and be able to convert to degrees       Sketch & use the graphs of sec, cosec and cotan.
                    and vice versa.                                             Use the identities sinx/cosx ≡ tanx, sin2x + cos2x ≡ 1, sec2x -tan2x
                    Sketch and use the graphs of sine, cosine, tangent graphs   ≡ 1 in proofs and equations.
                    up to 4πc or 7200                                           Use the expansions of sin (A±B), cos (A ± B) tan (A±B), sin
                    Solve SIMPLE trigonometric equations in the range 00 ≤      2A,cos2A,tan2A , asinx±bsinx ≡ Rsin(x±α) or Rcos(x±α) in
                    x ≤ 3600.                                                   proofs and equations
                    Use the exact values of the sine, cosine and tangent of     Use the principal values of inverse trig.functions, sin-1, cos-1, tan-1.
                    300,450 and 600 (eg. sin 150 = -√3/2 for angles > 900)




4.   Binomial and                                                               Use the Binomial Theorem and Pascal‟s triangle in expansions eg
     Probability                                                                (a ± bx)n where n is an integer. Use of Combinations in the
                                                                                Binomial Theorem. The probability tree and associated examples




                                                                       135
                                                                                                                 Physics

PHYSICS
Aims of Somaliland Physics Syllabus 2000/3
    To develop the scientific language and physics terminology required to enable students to study physics effectively in English.
    To develop abilities and skills relevant to physics.

      To develop students ability to use experimental physics and to enable students to use experimental techniques as a means to acquire scientific
       knowledge, understanding and skills.
      To enable students to communicate their ideas effectively through appropriate means (including diagrams, tables, graphs, charts) and using
       appropriate scientific and mathematical conventions.
      To enable students to relate and apply their scientific knowledge and skills so as to increase their understanding of the environment and their
       everyday life.
      To provide a broad academic as well as practical and pre-vocaional skills.
      To provide the student with general ideas of all the below mentioned topics in order to equip students with sufficient knowledge to use in the
       real world of work.

From September 2006 the latest revised syllabus lead to two examinations, at the end of form II and at the end of form IV. The amendments, although
not extensive, reflect this fundamental change.
In the future to comply with a secondary education system split into science, vocational and arts streams it was proposed that the sciences are offered
as 3 separate subjects (chemistry, physics and biology), as at present, for the science stream, 2 subjects for the vocational stream (physical science and
biology), and 1 subject (general science) for the arts stream, summarized as follows:-
Stream         Subject No.     Subject
Science        3               Chemistry        Physics             Biology
Vocational     2               Physical science                     Biology
Art            1               General science

The Aims and Objectives of the Physics syllabus follow Numbers 2, 3 and 4 exactly of the Somaliland „National Education Policy “Objectives of
Secondary Education”


Crucial Cross Cutting Issues:
In general the revised general curriculum of 2006 addresses the following issues:-
      Health Education (e.g. HIV/AIDS awareness)


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                                                                                                             Physics
      Khat chewing
      Environmental Education
      Gender issues
In Physics the syllabus emphasizes environmental issues such as:-
     Combating pollution eg using alternative energy sources, paying attention to:
     Using wind, solar, sea, geothermal energies instead of burning fossil fuels
     Stopping dumping radioactive waste and
     Stop Global warming

Concentrating on female activities related to Physics:
    Instead of always quoting male names, use female names also:
    In the theory and practical and questioning in the classroom,
    In the exams and textbooks,
    More examples of females and males doing activities related tp Physics not only in the kitchen but using machines, driving and repairing cars
      etc and stress examples of using heat transfer and electricity in the home.
    Role models and examples of female pilots, engineers, nurses, doctors, and eg electricians.
   The teachers should
          o Use Practical examples from real life used in teaching and written into the syllabus
          o Use practical equipment/apparatus for experiments in the lab or the teacher demonstrating experiments.
          o Take Field trips made by the school to places where examples from Physics are used.
          o Increase the number of specific practical exercises to:-
                     Improve estimating, measuring, recording,drawing, and graph drawing skills
                     Improve observational and manipulative skills
                     Make deductions which develop critical thinking when interpreting results to deduce conclusions.
                     Improve calculating skills from experimental results
                     Creative thinking using the discovery method: starting the lesson with practical examples and deducing, instead of learning
                      definitions.




                                                                         137
                                                                                                   Physics
    Somaliland Physics            Syllabus Forms I – IV
                                                                 FORM 3                        FORM 4
    FORM 1                        FORM 2                         1.   Quantity of heat         1. Forces and Motion
    1.    Measurement and         1.Properties of matter         1.1. Heat capacity            1.1. Kinematics
    Units                         1.1 The particular nature of   1.2. Latent heat              1.2. Dynamics
    1.1.  Length, time,scales     matter                         1.3. Gas laws                 1.3. Projectiles Using
    and volume                    1.2 Properties of a material                                 vectors
    1.2.  Mass                                                   2.     Electrostatics         1.4. Motion in a circle
    1.3.  Density                 2. Heat and temperature        2.1.   Electric charge        1.5. Motion and energy
    1.4.  Temperature             2.1 Heat                       2.2.   Electric fields        1.6. Forces and solids
T                                 2.2 Thermal expansion          2.3.   Applications of
E   2.       Force                2.3 Heat transfer              electrostatics                2. Waves
    2.1.     Effects of force     2.4 Temperature                2.4.   Capacitors             2.1. Behaviour of waves
R
    2.2.     Weight                                                                            2.2. Electromagnetic
M                                                                3.      Electrical circuits        spectrum
                                  3.Magnetism
    3.     Motion                 3.1 Magnetic Effect            3.1.    Series and parallel
1   3.1.   Measuring speed        3.2 Temporary and              circuits                      3. Radioactivity
    3.3.   Changing speed and     permanent magnets              3.2.    Direct current        3.1..The nature of
    direction                     3.3 Magnetic fields            3.3.    Safety                radioactivity
    3.4.   Friction and air       3.4 Making magnets             3.4.    Power                 3.2. Effects of nuclear
    resistance                    3.5 Domain theory              3.5 basic electronics         radiation

    4.       Energy
    4.1.     Types of energy
    4.2.     Sources of energy




    Form I                        Form II                        Form III                      Form IV


    5.       Electrostatics and   4.Oscillations and Waves       4.     Light                  4.. Electromagnetic



                                                                      138
                                                                                                     Physics
    simple circuits:treated      4.1.   Oscillations             4.1.     Light                 Induction
    practically .                4.2.   Sound                    4.2.     Reflection            4.1. Electromagnetic
    5.1.    Theory of            4.3.   Light                    4.3.     Refraction            induction
    electrostatics                                               4.4.     Colours               4.2. Applications of
    5.2.    Simple circuits                                                                     electromagnetic induction
    5.3.    Current              5. More about forces            5.       Sound                 Mutual induction
    5.4.    Voltage              5.1 Newton‟s Laws of            5.1.     Transmission of
    5.5.    Resistance           Motion                          sound                          5   REVISION
    5.6.    Electricity in the   5.2 Turning effects             5.2.     Properties of sound
T
    home                         5.3 Equilibrium and stability   5.3.     Musical instruments
E                                5.4 Pressure
R                                6. Work, power and
M                                machines
                                 6.1 Work done
                                 6.2 Power
2                                6.3 Simple machines
                                 6.4 KE and PE
                                 7. Solar System
                                 The solar system
                                 The motion of the Earth
                                 The motion of the Moon
                                 Relate the theory of gravity
                                 to the planets and artificial
                                 satellites.
                                 8. REVISION




                                                                        139
                                                                                                                     Physics


Form I
You can use ANY Physics textbook which provides topics from the syllabus and can be used in teaching or for reference.

Topic                       Objectives                                                                     Real Life Examples
                            At the end of each topic the learner should be able                            Always ask for examples from students
1.     Measurement
and units
1.1.Length, time, volume,   to use rulers, measuring cylinders and stopwatches or digital hand watches     Scales of Measuring cylinders,
Scales                      to be familiar with the S.I. units of measurement for length, time and         rulers,ammeters,voltmeters,galvanometers
                            volume                                                                         ,micrometers, bealers,
                            to learn how to read and understand many examples of scales used in            thermometers.Measure heights of
                            different apparatus (this must be taught thoroughly before                     students;use stopwatches,syringes for
                            instruments and apparatus are used)                                            volume or petrol litres,coke bottles
1.2.    Mass                to show familiarity with the idea of the mass of a body                        Kg mass NOT kg weight,eg in rice,sugar
                            to use a balance to measure the mass of a body                                 in market and shops.
                            to be familiar with the units of measurement of mass kg, gram
1.3.    Density             to calculate the density of a solid and liquid                                 Air, water, iron. Why wood floats on
                            to find the density of an irregular object, for example a stone                water. Displacement.Flour or tea greater
                                                                                                           volume than sugar.
1.4.    Temperature         to appreciate how physical temperature varies                                  Temperature underground and on a
                            to use a mercury and alcohol thermometer to measure temperature                mountain and 10km above and below
                            to be familiar with the units of measurement of temperature, 0F, 0C,0K to      where you are standing. Body and Room
                            understand the difference between heat and temperature                         temperatures.Boiling and ice
2.      Force
2.1.    Effects of force    to describe a force as a push or pull that may produce a change in the size    Find many examples of forces in real
                            and shape of a body                                                            life. Get the students to give
                            to define a force and that it is measured in Newtons                           examples.collapse of weak
                            to use a newton- meter balance to measure force                                building,forces in vehicles, plants
2.2.    Weight              to state that weight is the force due to gravity and is measured in Newtons.   Difference between the mass and weight
                                                                                                           of a man on the Moon or Jupiter and on
                                                                                                           the Earth.Newton. Your own weight in
                                                                                                           Newtons;weight limit
3.      Motion
3.1.    Measuring speed     to define and calculate speed of a bullet, of a tortoise, of light, athlete,   Speed of walking, Bicycle,car,ship,plane,
                            watching a speedometer                                                         rocket



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                                                                                                                             Physics
3.2.    Distance-time        to state how distance, time and show that it can be determined and                   Students journeys by foot, bus, Mark 2
graphs                       represented graphically and that the slope of dist-time graph is speed               etc.
3.3.    Changing speed       to explain that an object in motion will change its speed or direction when          Newton‟s first Law in simple language
and direction                pulled by a force which is not balanced by other forces                              and examples of an object sliding on
                             to state that changing the speed of an object results in acceleration or             glass.Observe cars going round a bend
                             deceleration of the object
3.4.    Friction and air     to state the ways in which force of friction can affect motion                       Walking, shoes soles and car tyres made
resistance                   to describe the effects of air resistance (friction of air)on a feather or a stone   from rubber; heat from friction, sliding
                                                                                                                  objects, car engines and lubrication,
                                                                                                                  Shapes of vehicles especially cars and
                                                                                                                  planes
4.     Energy                to explain how and where we use energy                                               Cooking, Heat in a home, Generator,
4.1 Types of energy          to identify different types of energy (potential, kinetic, elastic, chemical,        hydroelectric power, dynamo, torch
                             electrical, gravitational, sound, heat,light,solar,and wind)                         alternator, human body, pulley, car engine
                             to state the units of energy, joules, kilojoules,Nm
                             to describe energy transformations such that one type of energy can be
                             converted from one form to another
4.2.    Sources of energy    to identify some common fuels                                                        Charcoal used in the kitchen, electricity
                             to state that energy is released when fuels are burnt                                from where?
                             to describe the formation of coal, oil and gas
                             to discuss some problems associated with the use of fossil fuels(non-
                             renewable)
                             to emphasize environmental issues such as:-
                             Combating pollution eg using alternative energy sources, and to
                             identify and discuss some sources of energy other than fossil fuels                  Plastic bags in HARGEISA
                             Dumping plastic bags
                             Using wind, solar, sea, geothermal energies instead of burning fossil
                             fuels
                             Stop dumping radioactive waste
                             Stop Global warming
5.1 Electrostatics treated   to state the difference between a conductor and an insulator                         Nylon materials eg sparks when removing
practically                  to show that an insulating material can be charged by friction                       clothes, combing hair, plastic comb or
                             to state that there are forces of attraction between positive and negative           ruler near water, rubber balloon
                             charges, and forces of repulsion between like charges                                Conductors: most metals, water
                                                                                                                  Insulators: wood,, plastic, paper, rubber
5.2.    Simple circuits      to assemble simple circuits eg torch (bulb, battery, switch)                         Torch, car lights, compare with water
                             to draw simple circuit diagrams using appropriate symbols                            flow, current thru thick and thin



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                                                                                                                             Physics
                               to show that a circuit must be complete for an electric current to flow            conductors
5.3     Current                to state that current is related to the flow of charge                             Show by doing practical:
                               to define an ampere                                                                electric circuits. Compare circuits with
                               to use an ammeter to measure current                                               water pressure.
                               to construct series and parallel circuits
                               to measure and explain the current flow in series and parallel circuits
5.4.    Voltage                to introduce the idea of voltage or potential difference                           Show by doing practical: electric circuits
                               to use a voltmeter to measure potential difference
5.5.    Resistance             to relate resistance to potential difference and current by Ohm‟s Law              Show by doing practical: electric circuits
                               to relate (without calculation) the resistance of a wire to its length and its
                               diameter
                               to measure the resistance of a bulb or similar using Ohm‟s Law
5.6.    Electricity in the     to recognise the difference between supplying electricity using a battery and      fridge, ironing and ask students to
home                           a mains supply                                                                     research this in those homes with
                               to recognise some dangers of electricity in the home                               electricity.

FORM 2 Any textbook can be used in teaching or for reference.
Topic                Objectives                                                                                     Real Life examples
1. Properties of     to explain that matter is composed of particles in order to describe the three states of       Small stones, beans, maize,
Matter               matter (solids, liquids and gases) in terms of particles (molecules)                           Air, water, coca cola, stone.
1.1.    The          to state the kinetic theory of matter (with appropriate models)                                Ice melting, water boiling, steam
particular nature    to use the kinetic theory of matter to describe the processes of changing state, diffusion     condensing, clouds,bad smells and
of matter            and give an idea of Brownian motion (theory only-this will NOT be examined)                    perfume,incense, at a distance
                     To explain that solids have a definite shape wheras gases take the shape of the container.
1.2.Properties of    to give examples of surface tension and give an explanation in terms of intermolecular         water insects, needle or razor on
a material           forces                                                                                         water, small seeds on water, straw for
                     to explain the difference between cohesion and adhesion forces                                 capillary action
                     to describe and explain the effect of capillarity using water and mercury thermometer as
                     examples
                     to show that the use of a material for a particular job depends on the properties of a
                     material (strength, ductility, elasticity, brittleness, and stiffness)
Heat and             to discuss heat and its effects (heat sources eg sun, fire, gas, nuclear, geothermal           Examples of a match (high temp little
temperature          to state that Joules are the units of heat                                                     heat)and a large container of hot
2.1 Heat                                                                                                            water (low temp much heat) to show
                                                                                                                    the difference between heat and temp.




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                                                                                                                             Physics
2.2.Thermal          to describe the thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases and its applications ;boiling   Metals, heat rods, railway lines
expansion            water overflows;                                                                               thermometer, blown tyres due to
                                                                                                                    expansion; cold glass container
                                                                                                                    breaks if hot water is poured onto it;
2.3.     Heat        to describe conduction, convection and radiation as processes of heat transfer                 Kitchen and cooking; metal cutlery
transfer             to describe the properties of, and know which are, good and bad conductors of heat             heat by conduction; heat of
                     to identify and explain some of the everyday applications and results of conduction,           classroom, wooden or plastic handles;
                     convection and radiation especially a vacuum flask                                             Copper and insulators
2.4.Temperature      to state that temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of an object       Thermometer
                     to show that temperature can be measured using alcohol, mercury and a thermocouple,
                     and a bi metallic strip
                     to be familiar with the Celsius and Kelvin scales
                     to state the fixed points for a thermometer (Celsius and Kelvin scales)
                     to describe the structure and action of liquid-in-glass thermometers
3.Magnetism
3.1.Magnetic         to show what a magnet is and observe its effects                                               Iron filings, attraction and repulsion
effects              to state and observe that like poles repel and unlike poles attract                            with magnetic compasses and
                                                                                                                    materials;
                                                                                                                    shoemaker uses a magnet to store
                                                                                                                    nails
3.2.Temporary        to show the difference between a temporary (eg soft iron) and a permanent magnet (eg           Use practical examples. collecting
and permanent        steel) and an electromagnet                                                                    scrap iron by large electormagnet
magnets              to describe an electromagnet and some uses (electric bell, telephone, moving-coil
                     loudspeaker)
                     to describe some simple uses of electromagnets

3.3.                 to understand that a magnetic field is regions of space where magnetic material                Suspending magnet by a string.; iron
           Magneti   experience forces                                                                              filings paper on top of magnet or
c fields             to show the field pattern produced by a bar magnet and proper use of the terms                 using a compass
                     „magnetic flux or lines of force ‟, „neutral points‟, magnetic induction, and „magnetic
                     shields‟
                     to show that the earth possess a magnetic field
                     to describe the magnetic field surrounding a current-carrying conductor or wire using the
                     corkscrew rule
                     to state and use Fleming‟s Left Hand rule
                     to state that the interaction of magnetic fields to produce motion is called the motor
                     effect
                     to explain and show how a simple D.C. motor works



                                                                                           143
                                                                                                                        Physics
3.4.   Making      to show how to make magnets and remove magnetism                                             Use practical examples. Refer to
magnets                                                                                                         textbook
3.5.   Domain      to have a basic idea of the „domain theory‟ of magnetism
theory
4.1                to state that an „oscillation‟ (or vibration) is a forward and backwards movement            Stone hung on stand; ruler
       Oscillati   to use pendulums (grandfather clock in mosque)and springs to illustrate amplitude and        vibrating on desk spring vibrating
ons and Waves      frequency and period                                                                         back and forth, childrens swings;
                   to give a simple explanation of a wave and some examples, e.g. ripples on water, using a     Sea, water in a pond,or in a
                   slinky spring                                                                                washing bowl
                   to state the two types of waves (longitudinal (a rope) and transverse)

4.2    Sound       to state that sound is a longitudinal wave                                                   Loudspeaker, tuning forks, guitar,
                   to show there is a link between the loudness of sound and the amplitude of the vibration     kaman
                   causing it                                                                                   Echo: practice against a wall; drum
                   to show that sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate and that different people have
                   different audible ranges
                   to show that vibrating strings/wires can produce sounds of different pitch depending on
                   the length of the string/wire
                   to state that an echo is a reflection of sound
4.3    Light       to state that light enters our eyes from rays from luminous sources                          Practical eg sunbeams, go behind a
                   to show that in a uniform medium, light travels in a straight line using a ray or a beam     door; or go round a corner, torch at
                   and to state that light travels at a finite speed(this you cannot show)                      night , 3 pieces of cardboard in line
                   to show how shadows are formed (at night from a lamp or torch) ) opaque substances           with a beam of light.; pinhole camera
                   form shadows                                                                                 Make a loud banging sound with two
                   to show that light travels faster than sound (lightning and thunder)                         pieces of wood 100m away and see
                   to name sources of light and recognise luminous and opaque objects (lamps,fire etc)          the bang first before hearing the
                   to explain that non-luminous objects are seen because the light scattered from them          sound
                   enters the eye
                   to show how light is reflected at plane surfaces (in the light and in the dark!)
                   to use lenses to produce images
                   to describe the use of lenses in some simple instruments (e.g.spectacles, binoculars,
                   telescope)
5.More about       to describe simply Newton‟s three Laws of Motion in simple language (NO definitions)         seat belts, acceleration in a vehicle
forces             to give simple examples of „inertia‟ and as „reluctance to change its state of motion‟ see   and braking; baseball bat; bouncing
5.1.               also form 4                                                                                  /kicking a ball; car accidents;
       Newton‟     to state that zero acceleration =constant velocity= no resultant force.                      parachute, planes, cars; razor blade on
s Laws of          to know that the impulse of a force is equal to the change of momentum produced by the       water; smooth objects –no friction
Motion             forceand see form 4



                                                                                    144
                                                                                                                            Physics
                   to explain further (see form 1) what is meant by friction, air resistance and surface
                   tension
                   to state that acceleration is caused by a resultant force acting on the accelerating object
5.2.    Turning    to state that the moment of a force is a measure of its turning effect                          Give many practical examples eg
effects            to use the principle of moments                                                                 Lever , Arm, wheelbarrow, door,
                   to define and calculate the Centre of Gravity for an object                                     spanner, hammer, using stones to
                                                                                                                   balance load on camels, loading ships
5.3.               to explain the conditions for an object to be in equilibrium                                    Unstable and stable objects
       Equilibri   to state the conditions required for an object to float or sink (include density and specific   Ships, wood on water.
um and stability   gravity)
                   to state Archimede‟s principle and use it in real life exmples
5.4.   Pressure    to calculate pressure                                                                           An elephant and a camels feet and a
                   to state the units of pressure                                                                  lady wearing high heel shoes, syringe;
                   to show how to measure pressure of a gas and air (e.g. manometer, barometer)                    wind caused by high and low
                   to state Pascal‟s Principle                                                                     pressure;
                   to explain high and low pressure and the results of each related to weather
                   to explain that pressure in liquids increases with depth (divers; mine; mountain)
                   to show how hydraulic machines are able to use a small effort to lift a heavy load
6.Work, power      to state that work done on an object is equal to the change in the energy of the object         Lifting, pulling, pulleys,, pushing ,
and machines       to show examples of the work done against gravity and friction                                  piston in a motor vehicle: any
6.1 Work done      to state that the magnitude of a force and distance moved is work done.                         movement and a force applied.
6.2.   Power       to relate power to work done divided by time taken using appropriate examples                   Students running upstairs and
                   to state the units of power are watts (W) or joules per second (J/s)                            calculate the power
6.3.   Simple      to describe simple machines (levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wheel and axle)                   Many practical examples
machines           to understand mechanical advantage and efficiency
6.4 KE and         To describe examples of Kinetic energy and Potential energy and relation to work
PE                 done
7. Solar           Describe:                                                                                       Use fruit, balls, and spherical
System             The solar system broadly and particularly the motions of the planets.                           objects to demonstrate.
                   The motion of the Earth: (i) day and night (ii) the seasons (iii) the rising and                Get students to talk about
                   setting of the Sun.                                                                             experiences of observing the sky at
                   The motion of the Moon; (i) eclipses (ii) rising and setting.(iii) tides                        night
                   Relate the theory of gravity to the planets and artificial satellites.

8..                Revision of form 1 and form 2 work and using past question papers:questions                     Get students to talk about their
REVISION           and answers; discuss and study students content difficulties; sample tests and                  revision
                   exams.



                                                                                       145
                                                                                                                      Physics

Form III
Any Physics textbook can be used in teaching or for reference.
Topic                 Objectives                                                                                Real Life Examples
1.Quantity of Heat
1.1.Heat capacity     to state that heat is a form of energy and can be measured in joules                      Water, sand, aluminium and sea
                      to explain what is meant by „heat capacity‟ and „specific heat capacity‟                  water, less heat needed to heat up
                      to solve problems involving heat capacity and specific heat capacity                      sand than water.
                      to give examples of the importance of the high specific heat capacity of water
1.2.Latent heat       to explain the cooling curves of a substance changing state                               Heating, Melting, , boiling,
                      to define the word „latent‟ (of heat)                                                     vaporisation
                      to explain what is meant by specific latent heat of fusion (melting) and vaporisation
                      to describe how to measure specific latent heat
                      to describe some applications of latent heat (e.g. fridge, sweating)
                      to describe what is meant by condensing, freezing or solidifying,
1.3.Gas laws          to explain how the volume of a gas at constant temperature is affected by changes in      Tyres, balloons,
                      pressure (Boyle‟s Law)                                                                    bicycle pump, sealed box of air
                      to explain how the volume of a gas at constant temperature is affected by changes in      decreasing in volume,air will
                      temperature (Charles‟s Law)                                                               increase in pressure.
                      to explain how the pressure of a gas at constant volume is affected by changes in
                      temperature (Pressure Law)
                      to use the general gas equation and the ideal gas law to solve problems

2. Electrostatics     to describe how to detect and show „electric charge‟, charged objects, and „electric      Suspened rods charged postively
2.1.Electric charge   fields‟                                                                                   and negatively, using an
                      to state the unit of quantity of electric charge is the couloumb and one couloumb is      Electroscope, charged rod near hair,
                      the charge on 6.25 x 1018 electrons                                                       water, balloon; a magnet has no
                      to describe what happens when two like charges or two unlike charges are brought          attraction to charged object, comb
                      close together and when a charged object is brought close to an uncharged object          picking up paper
                      to state Coulomb‟s Law and use it to determine the force between two charges F=k
                      q1 q2/r2
                      to show electrostatic induction
2.2.Electric fields   to state that there are electric fields around charged objects
                      to calculate electric field strength and know that electric field becomes weaker as the
                      distance from a charge increases., using V=W/Q
2.3.Applications of   to describe some applications of static electricity (paint spraying, electrostatic
electrostatics        precipitations, photocopying etc.)



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                                                                                                                             Physics
2.4.Capacitors            to describe a capacitor (condenser) and where and why they are used.                        Examples-used in most integrated
                          to describe what happens when a capacitor is charged and discharged (see graph)             electronic circuits in almost all hi-
                          to calculate the capacitance of capacitors connected in parallel and series                 tech electrical equipment.
                          to show that dielectrics can affect the amount of charge stored
3. Electrical circuits    to define and calculate resistivity                                                         Simple electric circuits
3.1.Series and parallel   to use Ohm‟s Law to solve electrical problems
circuits                  to state and show experimentally Kirchoff‟s First and Second laws
                          to calculate the combined resistance of resistors in series and parallel
3.2.Direct current        to describe how a simple cell works                                                         Use batteries, galvanometer
                          to distinguish between primary and secondary cells                                          ammeter, voltmeter,
                          to describe the function of a galvonmeter and how it can be converted to an ammeter
                          and a voltmeter
                          to explain what is meant by direct DC and alternating voltage AC and current
3.3.Safety                to position a switch correctly in a circuit                                                 Home, offices, school electrical
                          to show what is meant by short-circuit                                                      equipment and wiring
                          to show how safety devices in electrical circuits function (including fuses, earthing)
                          to explain the wiring in a domestic plug including symbols/codes used
3.4.Power                 to define and calculate electrical power                                                    Home, offices, school electrical
                          to calculate the cost of electrical energy                                                  equipment and wiring
3.5. Basic                to see the importance of electronics (not examinable)                                       All hi tech electronic circuits
introductory              to state the function of semiconductors and transistors
electronics               to describe the function and symbols of basic electronic components - diode, reeds,
                          thermistor, LDR
4.1.Light                 to state that a beam is a collection of light rays
                          to state light is a wave                                                                    Light rays shining thru Small holes
                          to give evidence to illustrate that light travels in a straight line (pin-hole camera,      in a „bul‟;go round a corner
                          shadows, eclipses) revise form 2 work
4.2.Reflection            to state and use the law of reflection                                                      Use a ray or beam of light and
                          to observe and be able to describe the images formed in curved and plane mirrors            Plane and curved mirrors to show
                          to show the positions of virtual images of plane mirrors using ray diagrams                 the laws of light; in water, in
                          to identify the radius of curvature, centre of curvature, centre of the mirror, principal   mirrors, in shiny surfaces.
                          axis, and focal length of curved mirrors
                          to locate the position of images of curved mirrors with ray diagrams
                          to use and solve problems with the mirror formula
                          to describe some uses of plane and curved mirrors
4.3.Refraction            to describe an experimental demonstration of refraction of light                            Use a ray or beam of light and
                          to state and apply the Snell‟s Law                                                          blocks and lenses; a long stick in




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                          to use diagrams and experiments to show the passage of light through rectangular          water; apparent depth of a pool and
                          blocks, semicircular blocks and a prism                                                   diving into it and finding it is
                          to describe some examples of refraction of light (prism, real and apparent depth, etc.)   deeper.
                          to explain total internal reflection and some uses of total internal reflection (e.g.     Rainbows, mirages.
                          optical fibres, binoculars)
                          to observe and to be able to describe the images formed by concave and convex
                          lenses
                          to locate and calculate the positions of images of concave and convex lenses
                          to calculate the power of a lens
                          to describe how the eye works
                          to describe some uses of lenses (e.g. camera, microscope, telescope)
4.4. Colours              to show what a visual spectrum is and how it is formed                                    Rainbow, examples in glass.
                          to state the primary colours, secondary colours and complementary colours
                          to describe how colours can be produced

5.0 SOUND
5.1.Transmission of       to explain/demonstrate how sound is produced and transmitted                              Any objects which makes sound
sound
5.2.Properties of sound   to give examples of sound being reflected, refracted and diffracted                       Practical example
                          to demonstrate how to measure the speed of sound in air                                   The khat car racing past („kabem‟)
                          to explain simply what is meant by „resonance‟ and an echo
                          to describe and explain the Doppler effect
5.3.Musical               to describe how sound is produced in musical instruments (stringed, percussion and        Guitar, flute,
instruments               wind)                                                                                     Drums etc
                          to define pitch, loudness and quality of sound;
                          to give some uses of ultrasonic waves




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                                                                                                                 Physics

Form IV
Any PHYSICS textbook can be used in teaching or for reference.

Topic                     Objectives                                                                         Real life examples
1. Forces and
Motion
1.1. Kinematics           to explain clearly and show practically the difference between scalars             5cm is a scalar and 5cm drawn as a
                          (magnitude or size only) and vectors (size and direction)                          line at a bearing is 0780 is a vector
                          to describe motion in terms of distance, displacement, speed, velocity and         .mass, time, distance. Speed
                          acceleration and understand the difference.                                        ,pressure length, volume, density
                          to draw and interpret dist-time, speed-time, displacement- time, velocity-time     etc are all scalars.
                                                                                                             Weight, displacement, velocity,
                          graphs in order to find distance travelled, displacement, speed, velocity and      force, acceleration (can be both!)
                          acceleration                                                                       are all vectors
                          to use gradients pf line graphs to calculate speed, velocity and acceleration       Practical examples of movement of
                          to use the equations of motion for uniform accelerated motion in a straight        vehicles, running, walking,etc to
                          line, v = u + at, s = ut + at2, v2=u2 +2as and any combination (s =                explain use of all these terms
                          distance/displacement) u = initial velocity and v = final velocity
1.2. Dynamics             to describe motion in terms of forces                                              Real life Practical examples see
                          to describe and use Newton‟s laws of motion in practical examples                  form 2 syllabus: cars and „pool‟
                          to define the Newton as 1 kilogram „force‟ is equivalent to 10 Newtons             balls hitting each other,
                          to explain mass as a measure of the object‟s „inertia‟
                          to define and use momentum in examples
                          to show by formulae that the impulse of a force is equal to the change of
                          momentum produced by the force
                          to explain that the weight of an object is a result of the pull of gravity on it
                          to describe the motion of an object falling under gravity in air
1.3. Projectiles          to use vectors to solve problems involving more than one force                     Practical examples, use students
Using vectors             to resolve vectors into components and solve problems by resolving forces          pushing and pulling each other,
                          and velocities                                                                     pulling a camel or a donkey etc.
                          to describe the motion of an object under gravity                                  stones in the air, pool balls,
                          to describe quantitatively the motion of a projectile given data                   football
1.4. Motion in a circle   to explain what is meant by centripetal force                                      NOT EXAMINABLE
                          to explain why a cyclist or aeroplane banks over when turning



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                         to state Newton‟s law of universal gravitation and G, the universal
                         gravitational constant
                         to explain satellite motion around the Earth
1.5. Motion and          to explain the concept of work and energy                                                   Practical examples, moving
energy                   to calculate work done and define the joule in terms of work done                           objects: on the horizontal,
                         to explain and calculate gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy (PE              vertically, on a slope, moving up
                         and KE)                                                                                     and down.
                         to define and calculate power as work done/time
1.6. Forces and solids   to explain the forces which can affect a material (compression, tension, bending,           Experiment to show Hooke‟s
                         torsion and shear)                                                                          Law
                         to describe the behaviour of springs and wires in terms of load, extension, the spring      Forces acting in buildings and
                         constant and Hooke‟s Law                                                                    vehicles especially in trucks.
                         to explain what is meant by elastic limit and to identify the elastic limit of a material   Springs, elastic material,
                         using a graph
                         to calculate the stress and strain acting on a material
                         to understand how Young‟s Modulus is related to the stress and strain of a material
                         to relate the properties of a material to its use in constructio

2. Waves                 to describe what is meant by wave motion                                                    Give many practical examples
 2.1. Behaviour of       to explain what is meant by progressive waves                                               See sound notes etc
waves                    to distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves
                         to use a model to explain and show the nature and behaviour of waves (transverse
                         and longitudinal)
                         to define and identify the wavelength, frequency, amplitude and period of a wave
                         to define the speed of a wave and use the wave equation
                         to observe and explain the effects of reflection, refraction, polarisation, resonance,
                         interference and diffraction of waves
2.2. Electromagnetic     to describe and learn the main regions of the electromagnetic spectrum                      Relate to everyday life eg Xray,
spectrum                 to describe the effects of waves in each region of the spectrum and their uses              gamma rays from the atomic bomb,
                                                                                                                     microwave oven, radio waves, light
                                                                                                                     waves, infra red heating, dangerous
                                                                                                                     ultra violet radiation etc
3. Radioactivity         To be examined by simple questions only eg graph of half life but not the
                         chemistry
3.1. The nature of       to explain what is meant by „radioactivity‟                                                 –NO experiment should be
radioactivity            to distinguish between alpha, beta and gamma radiation by using their                       performed with radioactive



                                                                                    150
                                                                                                                    Physics
                          properties                                                                            material. Half life can be
                          to describe the effects on a nucleus when alpha, beta or gamma radiation is           demonstrated by lots of small
                          emitted (including writing equations)                                                 stones; radioactive emission
                          to explain and use the idea of half life                                              from the ground
                          to explain what is meant by a radioactive decay series
                          to describe the detection of radiation using photographic plates, a GM tube
                          and a cloud chamber
3.2. Effects of nuclear   to describe some uses of radioactivity
radiation                 to discuss the dangers of radioactivity and the safety precautions necessary
4. Electromagnetic        to explain the conditions necessary for electromagnetic induction to produce          Movement of a strong bar magnet
Induction                 electricity                                                                           inside a coil, or vice versa a coil
 4.1 Electromagnetic      to state and use Fleming‟s Right Hand rule                                            moving inside a strong U magnet to
induction                 to state and use Lenz‟s Law and Faraday‟s Law                                         produce electricity.
4.2. Applications of      to explain some large scale applications (generators) and some small scale            Practical example.in daily life in
electromagnetic           applications (microphone, tape recorder) of electromagnetic induction                 generators, mobile phone,and many
induction                                                                                                       high tech equipment
4.3.     Mutual           to explain what is meant by mutual induction especially in transformers
induction                 to state the principle of the transformer and solve problems involving transformers
                          to show how power is transmitted to houses etc using transformers

REVISION:                 Revision of form 1 to form 4 work and using past question papers: questions
VERY                      and answers; discuss and study students difficulties; sample tests and exams.
IMPORTANT                 Let students see the syllabus and exam papers.


SOME REAL LIFE EXAMPLES (You try to find more)

A. EXPANSION Of SOLIDS
1) Metals are heated so that they expand and can be deformed easily into any shape
2) furniture may crack at night after a warm day
3) cool down a metal to contract to a smaller volume

B. EXPANSION of GASES
Car tyres are inflated with air to allow the expansion of heated air
Car or bicycle pump



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                                                                                                               Physics
C. TRANSFER of HEAT
In a mercury thermometer expansion varies directly as the temperature rise.
In cold countries windows have double glazing to insulate the building and prevent heat loss.
When you stand on a cold floor the heat from your feet travels by conduction to the cold floor and your feet feel cold
On a carpet there is little heat transfer and so your feet feels warm.
By convection: sea winds;cooking Somali tea
By Radiation: white clothes are cooler (reflection) ;vacuum flasks are silvered (reflection); solar panels at the top of houses;
white reflects;black absorbs abut gives out heat quicker.
Heat Capacity:           Cooking with metal pots needs less heat then clay pots-metal has lower specific heat
Sand has much lower specific heat than water and heats up quicker since it needs less heat.
Latent Heat : Ice at 0 degrees Celsius takes the latent heat out of a drink, cools the liquid down but maintains 0 degrees C but loses volume and shape.
Evaporation: Ahmed sweats and loses heat due to hot molecules joining the air, leaving the cols molecules behnd.

D. LIST of EXAMINABLE PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS

Measurement
Know how to use/operate on decimals and fractions of decimals.
Scales: Know how to read simple and more difficult scales (eg on a ruler, thermometer,metre ruler, voltmeter,ammeter, measuring cylinders,digital clocks etc

Length: Using a ruler and tape measure for all different lengths and height in mm,cm,and m and imperial units

Time: Using a stopwatch (digital and analogue) correctly.(in sec,mins, and hours)

Volume: Using a measuring cylinder, eureka can and beaker etc correctly,(in cc,cm3,ml,cl and litres;find the volume of regular and irregulat objects.

Mass and Weight : Using weighing scales to measure mass in grams,mg,and kg;using a spring balance for kg (converted to Newtons) and Newton-metre;
using bathroom scales to measure a person‟s mass/weight in kg and Newtons

Temperature: Using a thermometer to show eg body and water temperatures.

Density: To calculate the density of different objects by finding the mass and the volume

Light
Travels in straight lines Recalling eg sunlight thru the clouds, the „bul‟, thru holes in a dark in room; cant see round corners; pinhole camera, torch beam,
cinema



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                                                                                                                          Physics

Using property of no 1. above: Shadows: a shape in front of a bulb or light source;at night;investigations

Reflection of light: Exact drawing and calculation of laws of refection: using a ray of light, a protractor,a ruler, a pencil, a piece of paper,and a plane mirror.
Reflection of sun from a shiny surface;total internal reflection in a glass block.

Refraction: Recalling in water,in the atmosphere; Exact drawing and calculation of laws of refraction : using a ray of light, a protractor,a ruler, a pencil, a
piece of paper,and a glass block

Using convex and concave mirrors: Exact drawing and calculation of laws of reflection : using a ray of light, a protractor,a ruler, a pencil, a piece of
paper,and a glass block
Using convex and concave lens: formation of real images on the wall or screen. Show spectacles,magnifying lens etc.
Use a ray of light to obtain a rainbow/spectrum on the wall or screen thru a glass block.
Heat and Temperature
a) Heat up a container of water and see and record the temperature changes. Strike match and explain the high temperature and the low amount of heat energy.
Heat capacity: b) From a) Calculate the volume and mass(weigh it) of the water and the temperature change(in degree C) and use the specific heat capacity
of water to calculate the amount of heat energy needed to heat the water in the container of water. Calculate also volume and mass loss at the end . This
experiment demonstrates also conduction, evaporation and convection and radiation (stand near it!)

Why/How does the classroom get hot?

Expansion and contraction : Heat a metal rod and then cool it down with water (be careful!);of a liquid expanding in a thermometer; cold glass container
breaks if hot water is poured onto it. In the kitchen and cooking; metal cutlery heat up by conduction use wooden or plastic handles to stop it

Show good heat conductors (eg metals especially Copper, iron,) or insulators (wood, plastic, cloth etc) in use everywhere.

Latent heat of fusion : Show a lump of ice at a constant 0 degrees C in a soda drink. Simple explanation of how a fridge works. Melting candle and then burning.Wax
solidifying after being molten. Freezing of water and melting of ice

Latent heat of vaporisation Boiling water to steam.
Condensing: Water boiling and becoming steam falling onto a solid substance and condensing back to water.

Electricity
Torch: battery(cell), bulb,switch; Car battery and bulb and wire (switch on and off by disconnecting wire)
Sound, Magnetism, Electrostatics, Waves, Motion, Electromagnetic Induction, Mechanics



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                                                                                                      Somali Language

                                 Muqararka Af-Soomaaliga ee Dugsiyada Sare ee Soomaaliland

Fasalka            Dhuuxid                           Naxwe                           Maanso                      Hawlqabadyo
Fasalka  Ka dib marka ardaydu          Waxa ay baranayaan              Waxa ay baranayaan                 Muqararku waxa uu
Koowaad    akhrido ama dhegeysato           codaynta sida Alifba‟da         qafiyadda maansada .              faraya ardeyda in ay u
           sheeko ,curis ama maqaal         Af soomaaliga ee cusub       Waxa ay fahmayaan jaanta            shaqeeyaan kala
           kale,ama daawadan                kana kooban 23 xaraf.           ama ridmada maansooyinka          ,laba,koox iyo
           riwaayad filim iwm, waxa    Tixraac naxwaha cusub ee             kala duwan.                       wadarba.
           ay ka jawaabayaan           Afsoomaalig .bogga Xaaji          Waxa ay baranayaan oo              Hawlqabadyada waxa
           laylisyo kala nooca sida:   Raabi.                               isticmaalayaan                    ka mid ah:doodo,jilid
        Su‟aalaha caadiga ah sida –     Waxa ay baranayaana kala           maldaheyaasha fudud sida          riwaayado[gaagaban]‟
        maxaa? Yaa ama                      saaridda ama kala qoridda       ekeye .shareere,qofayn iwm.       ciyaarta
        kuma/tuma?,sidee? Waayo?            ereyada la isku raacin       Waxa ay baranayaan erey             ereyada,yeedhis iwm.
        Xaggee? Iwm.                        jirey sidan-                    bixint la xidhiidha qaybaha      Waxa kale oo ka mid
        Dooro jawaabta saxa ah buuxi   Waxay –waxa ay waan- waa             hadalka sida                      ah hawlqabadyada
        meelaha banaan qor curis 15    aan wuu –waa uu.                     tix,tiraab,maanso,                shaqda guriga.
        sadar ah soo gaabi sheekadan    Erayada Afka soomaalig             murti,maahmaah,odhaah            Waxa ay fasalka
        ama qoraalkan rogrog eraygan        [eeg naxwaha cusub ee Af        ,tuduc iwm.                       hortiisa ama dibadiisa
        oo ka samee 10 eray oo kale         soomaaliga].                 Waxa ay fahmayaan                   ku ciyaarayaan hidaha
        weedho gali erayadan isku      Xubnaha hadalka si guud sida         noocyada maansada sida            iyo dhaqanka sida
        beeg erayadan isku macnaha     :magac,fal ,magac-uyaal              kuwa gaagaban,kuwa dhexe          batarka,saylicida iwm.
        ah kuwa isku lidka ah          ,tilmaan iwm.                        iyo kuwa dhaadheer.              Kediska dugsiyada
        iwm.weedho gali ereyadan.       Waxa ay barnayaan in ay        Tusaalooyin:                          waa ay ka qayb
                                            tilmaameeyaan weedho        Waxa ay kala garanayaan wixii         gelayaan.
                                            fudud ,weedho               loo isticmaali jirey                 Khudbado.
                                            culus,weedho                maansooyinka iyo sida hadda       
                                            dhafan,qoraal kooban        loo adeegsado.                     Maansooyin ay
                                            iwm.                         Waxay xoogga saarayaan            curiyeen
                                        Eray bixinta naxwaha               maansooyinka gaaban.
                                            :waxa ay baranayaan erey
                                            bixinta naxwaha .



                                                                        154
                                                                                                       Somali Language




Guud mar Muqararka Cusub ee Af-Soomaaliga Dugsiga Sare

 Fasalka              Dhuuxid                       Naxwe                             Maanso                      Hawlqabadyo
Fasalka    Kadib mark ay ardaydu         1. Qeybta hadalka oo            1. Waxay naqtimayaan erey          1. Dood
Labaad     akhrisato ama ay dhegaysato       faahfaahsan.                   bixintii la xidhiidhay          2. Jilidda
           sheeko ama qoraal oo ay       2. Magaca qeybihiisa oo            maansadii &murtidii             a. Sheekooyin gaagaaban
           fahmaan ,waxa ay ka               faahfaahsan.                   sanadkii hore ,sida suugaanta   b. Riwaayo gaagaaban
           jawaabayaan laylisyo kala     Falka qeybihiisa oo                badaha maansada waxay           c. Ciyaaro ah higaadda
           nooc nooc ah ,                faahfaahsan.                       xoogga saarayaan                erayada
           Sida; ayaa sameeyey?          Tilmaame qeybihiisa oo             maansooyinkaii dhexe sida       3. Yeedhis
           Waayo ?                       faahfaahsan.                       jiiftada,batarka,geeraarka,ko   4. Tartamo kadis
           Sidee u dhacday?              Xidhiidhiye oo faaahfahsan.        olkooliska & dhaantada sidii        suugaaneed ah.
           Dooro jawwbta saxa ah,        3- Astaameynta                     hore loo isticmaali jirey iyo
           Buuxi meelaha banaan.         Waxay baranayaan                   sida hadda loo isticmaalo.
           Rogrog erayadan.              dhammaan astaalaha hadalka
           Weedh gali erayadan.          oo dhan waxay
           Isu beeg erayadan.            astaameynayaan weedh fudud
            Qor curis,soo               weedh culus ilaa bog badhkii.
               gaabiqoraalka ilaa
               labaatan sadar.




                                                                         155
                                                                                                        Somali Language




Guud mar Muqararka Af-Soomaaliga Fasalka Saddexaad ee Dugsiga Sare
 Fasalka      Sheekoyin & Riwaayado                 Naxwe                     Maansooyin                   Erey bixin iyo Layliyo
Fasalka     Marka ay ardaydu bixiyaan     Barashada naxwaha Afka     Qeybaha maansada iyo hab          In ardeyda farsad loo siiyo in
Saddexaad   sheekada riwaayada,ama        soomaaliga ee dugsiga      dhaca maansada xidhiidhka iyo     ay u sheegaan keli keli , laba
            dhegeystaan,daawadaan,ha      sare,tusaale               taariikhda maansada               laba iyo koox koox.
            ka qoraan curisyo,kobcinta    Qurubka                    soomaalida[I] maanso
            qoraalka afka soomaliga       ,weedhaynta,astaameynta    guri;buraanbur;heesaha            Hawlqabadka doodaha jilidda
            ,korinta dareemayaasha        iyo naxwe kale .           dhallaanka;hararka                riwaayadaha abaabulka
            tusaale,maqalka araga iwm.    Tixraac buugga naxwaha     ;caanaha;salsalka;maqash iwm.     cayaaraha hiddaha iyo
            Sheekooyinka iyo              ee uu qoray Xaaji Raabbi   [ii]manso gole :-ciyaaraha        dhaqanka, bandhig
            riwaayadaha halkan galayaa    bogga taariikhda Af        hidaha iyo dhaqanka               suugaaneed, faallooyinka
            waa in ay noqdaan kuwo        soomaaliga sharciga        [heesahooda];hees hawleed         qudbadaha IWM.
            waafaqsan ujeedada            qoraalka xaquuqda          ,xoolaha,subaasha,gamaank,be
            barashada Af soomaaligaee     qoraaga adeegsiga          erah,[dibida],kaluumeysiga,saa    Doodo
            Dugsiga Sare                  qamuuska.                  rka,baarcadaha iwm.               Khudbado, sheekooyin
            Su‟aalo dooro jawaabta        1. Naqtiin xubnaha         [iii]manso geed:                  gaagaaban, dhexe, hal jilid,
            saxa ah,buuxi meelaha             hadalka.               gabayga,geeraarka,masafad,jiif    laba jilitaan
            banaaniwm.                    2. Astaameynta oo dhan     tada,maahmaahaha,weedhaha,        Kediska dugsiyada sare
             Ka jawaabayaan su;aalo          sheeko gaaban hal      murtida:-hal jireed hal           Booqashada meelaha taariikhig
                la xidhiidha sheekada         bog.                   garaad,hal milaal ,hal dhac,hal   a ah iyo goobaha dhaqanka
                ama qoraalka sida         3. Yeele iyo la yeele.     hays iwm.                         iyo cilmiga sida: Madxafka,
                maxaa,waayosheekooyi      4. Weedhayn qurub          Xidhiidhka iyo taariikhda         musiam , idaacadda,
                n maqaalo iyo qoraalo         weedheedyo.            maansada soomaalida               jaamacadda, tiifiiga, xeebaha
                kale oo guud mar ah,mid                              marxalad soo jireen               iyo miyiga
                dhexdhexaad ah ,ama                                  ah,marxalad dhexe,marxalad
                dhaadheer,dabadeed                                   culus ama taa lagu jiro.           Ardaydu waxay isku
                waxay ka jawaabayaan                                  Miisaanka maansada                hagaajinayaan hadal la is
                laylisyo kala nooc                                        soomaalida                     dhaafiyey
                ah,su‟aalo caadi ah .                                 Qafiyad                          Ardaydu waxa ay
                                                                        156
                                                                                                 Somali Language
          Kala dooro                                             Jaanta                           dhagaysanayaan cajalado
          Rog-rog                                                Maansooyinka dhexe sida          oo sheegayaan badaha
          Ka dhex qabo eryga aan la                               jiiftada,geeraarka ,batarka      maansada.
          socon .                                                Dhaantada
          Qor curis 20 sadar ah soo                              Kuwa dhaadheer sida
          gaabi sheekada.                                         gabeyga iyo kebeda.

                                        Manhajka Af-Soomaaliga Fasalka Afraad Dugsiga Sare

Fasalka   Sheeko                        Naxwaha                 Maanso                          Hawlqadab
Fasalka   Marka ardaygu akhriyo ama     Nakhtiin                 Taariikhda maansada           - Doodo
Afraad    dhegeysto sheeko              Falalka af soomaaliga     Soomaaliyeed                  - Jillidda sheekooyinka
          maqaal,meel dhexaad ah ama    Falka qofayneed         - Gabayaagii horem gusbinta     - Riwaayadaha
          dhaadheer,uuna fahmo waa      Tiro                      fariimaha shiirigelinta       - Tartanka qoridda erayo
          inuu ka jawabo su‟aalo kala   Derajo                    qabyaalada.                     adag
          duwan sida:-                  Qodobka Af-Soomaaliga   - Maanso hawleedkii             - Yeedhis
          Waayo,xagee,goorma,kuma       Xubnaha hadalka         - Gabayaagii dhexe –            - Shaqo guri
          su‟aalaha caadiga ah.         Naxwaha sifaynayd         Amaanta geela, fardaha,       - Tartan fasaladda dugsiga
          Imtixaanka caadiga ah         mugga I M.X. Xuseeen      dagaalada qabyaaladeed.       - Booqasho dugsiyo kale
          Imtixaanka fudud              Raabi                   - Faanida reerba reerka uu      - Booqasho degmooyin
          Dooro ta saxa ah              Goorayn fudud             ka badan yahay                - Booqasho gobolo
          Is barbar dhigidda            Goorayn lamaan          - Gabayaagii ka horeeyey        - Samaynta riwaayado
          Fikrado ku jira qoraal        Goorayn dhafan            gumaysiga – Wiil waal,          gaagaaban fasalka hortiisa
          Rogrog kana samee erayga      Koobid                    Salaan Carrabey, Raage        - Keenid dad xaafada oo
          [Nacas]15 eray.                                         Ugaas                           maansooyin tiriya
          Kala dooro mida saxa ah        Qurubka               - Gabayadii casriga ahaa        - Dhiirigelinta hablaha
          Goobaabin gali                Af-Somaaliga            - Amaanta dumarka                 buraabur ka tiriyaan
          Sax erayadan                  Qurub qodob             - Xasan Ganay                     fasalka hortiisa
          Su‟aalah-                     Qurub xidhiidhiye       - Fahmidda dhibaatada           - Gabay samayn gabdhaha
          Gorma,halkee,sharax erayga    Qorub meeleeye            isticmaarka                   - U yeedhis koox qalabka
          dan shaxda hal xidhaale       Qurub diidmo            - Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle          muusiga heeso ku tumaysa
          Qor curis [40] sadar ah.      Qurub jiho                Xasan                         - Dhegeysi moonsooyin,
          Soo ggabi sheeko dheer        Qodob aqoonsi           - Gabayadii xorriyada             heeso IWM fasalka hortiisa
                                        Qodob celcelin            doonka                        - Abaalmarin ardayda ku

                                                                   157
                                                         Somali Language
Qodob su‟aaleed            - Barkhad Cas, Timo-cadde,      dhiiran hawl qabadka
Qodob tusmeed                Cali Sugulle                  noocaas ah.
Qodob lahaansho            - Gabaygii Calan helidda
 Astaamayn                  Timo-cadde - kaana siib
-Hal bog (sheeko dhexe)      kanna saar
- Shan bog (sheko dheer)   - Cali Sugulle – calankaan
                             dhisnay sow ma soo dhicin
                           - Gabayadii Kacaanka
                           - Gabayadii Jabhadda
                           - Gabayadii Gobonimo soo
                             celinta Soomaaliland
                            Hadalka maldahan
                           - Ekeeye
                           - Shareere

                           Fasalka Koowaad

                           Understatement (Dayro)
                           Overstatement (buunbuunin)

                           Fasalka Labaad

                           -   Sillan sugan
                           -   Qofayn

                           Fasallada 3aad/4aad




                               158
                                                                                                     Somali Language

                                 MUQARARKA AF-SOMALIGA DUGSIGA SARE EE FASLAKA 1 AAD

Qaybta          U jeedada Guud                 Tusmo                     Habka wax dhigista iyo                        kaabayaal
                                                                         hawlqabadka
1. Gogol dhig      Dhammaadka qaybtan          Waa maxay suugaani?      Ardayddu waxa ay qeexi                Buugga 1aad ee
   suugaanta       sharaxa suugaanta, ardaydu  Qaybaha suugaanta          doonaan suugaanta qaybaheeda          suugaanta D/sare
                    waxa ay aqoon u             Taariikhda               Waxa ay ardaydu si koox kooxa         Abwaannada iyo dhaqan
                    yeelandoonaan suugaaanta  Suugaanta Somalidda          ah u rogrogidoonaan taariikhda        yaqaannda
                   Qaybaheeda                                              suugaanta umada soomaaliyeed         Cajalado maqal iyo
                   waxa ay si tafatiran uga                              Waxa ay ardaydu iyaga oo koox          muuqal
                    arki doonaan u jeeddayinka                              koox ah kala saaridoonaan,           Internetka sida
                    kala duwan ee suugaanta                                 heerarka ay soo martay                www.Aftahan.com
                    laga leeyahay.                                          suugaanta soomaalidu
                                                                          Ardaydu waxa ay ka doodi
                                                Allayl dumay ( Gabay)      doonaan faraqa u dhexeeya
                                                Allahayow nin ii daran     suugaanta hore iyo tan maanta        Buuga 1aad ee
                                                 (Gabay)                   Ardaydu waxay ay qeexi                suugaanta D/sare
2. Maansada                                     Go‟aha noodoorsha              doonaan maansada iyo             Buugga naxwaha
                     Dhammaadka qaybtan         (gabay)                        qaybaheeda,                       Afsomaliga ee
                        ardaydu waxa si cad ay  Xiinfiniin (Gabay)       Waxa ay si koox koox ah u              X. Raabb
                        u qeexi doonaan         Ooggii horay nagu          falan qayn doonaan waxa u            Internet
                        macnaha ereyga           kaceen (Gabay)             dhaxeeya Gabay iyo Geeraar           Dhaqan yaqaano iyo
                        Maanso iyo              Baroor-diiq (Gabay)        ama Buraanbur iyo Heeso               taariikhyaqaano
                     qaybaheeda kala           koofil (Gabay)           Waxa ay ku loolamayaan
                        duwan                   Arligaa la kala            maansada cida tirisay, sababta,
                                                 boobayaa (Gabay)           goorta, qaybaheeda, dulucda
                                                Sange dhabarkii            ama figrada guud
                                                 (Gabay)                   Ardaydu waxay ay fahmi            Buugga suugaanta fasalka
3.
                                                Hedi hakaa raagto              doonaan mawduucyada kala      1aad
Maahmaahda                                       (Gabay)                        duwan ee ay Maahmaahahu        Buuga kale ee
iyo Murtida        Dhammaadka qaybtan          Qayaash maash                  ku saabsan yihiin                maahmaahda iyo
                    ardaydu waxay ay awoodi      (Gabay)                  Dulucda macne ee                      murtida ah
                    doonaan                     Sidii geel haraadoo        Maahmaahkasta ku qarsoon           Canalado hadii awood

                                                                        159
                                                                                                  Somali Language
            - Furturista                   (Gabay)                   Sida loo adeegsado                     loo helo maqal iyo
            - Maahmaahaha iyo             Ka sabaan ka sabaan          maahmaahaha iyo waxa loo             muuqaal ah
         Murtida                           (Geeraar)                    cuskado                            Dhaqan yaqaan
          Waxay awood u helayaan         Yarad diid (Geeraar)      In uu ardaygu dhowr                  Internet sida
            adeegsiga maahmaaha kala      Dhoomaha Sanaag ama          maahmaahood mid ka doorto oo         www.aftahan.com
            duwan iyo murtida              dhool bari (Hees)            uu ka diyaarin karo curus,        
            Afkooda hooyo                                               maqaal ama sheeko
         Waxay garasho buuxda u           Maahmaahyada ku           In uu ardaygu mawduucyadikala
         yeelanayaan madasha ay ku         qoran buugga                 duwanaa ee maansooyinka uu
         baxday Maahmahkasta iyo          Murtida ku qoran             soo dhigtay mid kasta ka qori
         Murti waliba iyo sida loogu       buugga                       karo dhowr Maahmaahood oo la
         kaabohadalka ee loo cuskado      Sida loo adeegsado           xidhiidhi, sida Fardaha,
                                           Maahmaahaha iyo              Nabadda, IWM
                                           Murtida                  In ay ardaydu garan karaan soona
                                          Maahmaahaha iyo          saari karaan Maahmaahyo ay ku
                                           murtida la hayo iyo      jiraan waxyaabo isku lid ah, si
                                           madashay ku baxeen       maahmaahahu ugu fududaato
                                           iyo dhacdadiiba hadii    In ay ardaydu fahmi karaan
                                           ay suurogashay           maahmaah hab sarbeeba u dhacada
                                                                    iyo kuwo hab toos ah u fasirma.
Heeso howleedyo
 4. Hees             Dhammaadka gaybtan      Hees hawleedyada            Koox koox ayaa ay u               Buugga Nabadshe ee
 howleedyada          heeso                    Geela                        qaadayaan heesaha geela marka      Yusuf Shaacir
                                             Hees hawleedyada              uu sabada yimaado                 Abwaanyada
               hawleedyoda, ardaydu waxa       Lo‟da                      Waxa ay ku luuqaynayaan            Dhaqanyaqaanada
                  kala garasho u yeelan     Heeso hawleedyada               heesta waraabka ee bilowga        Canalado maqal iyo
                  doonaan heeso howleed     Adhiga                          (shifo ku afsaar)                  muuqaala
                  waraabka xoolaha                                        Waxa ay jiibinayaan heesta         Internetyada suugaanta
                                                                            Lo‟da ee waraabka sida “meel       ururiya
                                                                            bur cowsa”
                                                                          waxa ay matalidoonaan lo‟
                                                                            cabaysa iyo nin shubaaya
                                                                         Heesaha waraabka
                                                                            

                                                                   160
                                                                                                         Somali Language
5.            Dhammaadka qaybtan             Xubnaha afka                 Ka dib ardaydu waxa ay falan      Buugga 1aad ee
Xubnaha        ardaydu waxa ay ku waaya        maldahan                      qayn doonaan macnaha erayga          suugaanta D/sare
               arki doonaan xubnaha afka   sida                              maldahe                           Abwaan
afka
               maldahan gaar ahaan kuwa     Shareere                       Waxa ay is barbar dhig ku         Dhaqan yaqaan
maldahan       fudud                        Ekeeye                          samayn doonaan ereyada            Cajalado maqal iyo
                Ekeeye                     Qafayn                          Ekeeye iyo shareere                  muuqaal
                Shareere                                                   Waxa iyaga oo kooxo ah ka         Internet ka sida
                Qofeeyn                                                     doodi doonaan ardaydu             www.aftahan.com
                                                                             ujeedada loo isticmaalo afka
                                                                             maldahan
                                                                            Waxa ay ku baratami doonaan
                                                                             tusaalooyin, Shareere, Eekeeye
                                                                             iyo Qofeeyn

            Dhammaadka qaybtan,
            Ardaydu waxa ay awoodi                 Gurac madoobe          Ka dib markay ardaydu akhrido         Buugga 1aad ee
             doonaan                           iyo guurkiisii (sheeko)           ama dhagaysato, sheeko,               suugaanta afka
6.
            Nooyada sheekooyinka               Tafe dhiig (sheeko)             curis, ama maqaal, waxa ay            soomaaliga
Sheekooy    Qaabdhismoodkooda                  Deeqsi ma deego                 si fahan iyo aftahanimo leh      Abwaan
inka iyo    Fikradda ay xanbaarsan              (sheeko)                        jawaab uga celinayaan way        Dhaqan yaqaan
Curisyad     tahay iyo u jedada laga            Sow talo iskuma kaa             diimaha la xidhiidha sida:-      Cajalado maqal iyo
a            leeyahay                            sheegto (sheeko)           Kuma, tuma, xagee, sidee,             muuqaal
            Waxa ay ku waaayo arki             Saadaasha Roobka            waayo, sababee IWM                   Buugaag sheekooyin ah
             doonaan curisyada iyo               (curis)                    Ardaydu waxay awood u                 oo loo qaybiyo sida
             dhismahooda                        Biyuhu waa                  helayaan kasmada la xidhiidha         buuga Hagardaamo
                                                 halbowlaha nolosha          mawduuca, qaybaha sheekada,          Bare
                                                 (curis)                     shaqsiyadaha iyo sida ay u kala      Buugga fasalka 1aad ee
                                                                             muhiimsan yihiin                      suugaanta
                                                                            In ay ardaydu awoodo soo             Abwaan
                                                                             gaabinta sheeko iyo ka               Dhaqan yaqaan
                                                                             saadaalinta waxa gunaanad ku         Canalado
                                                                             noqon doono                          Internet
                                                                            In ay ardaydu fahamto kana           www.Aftahan.com
                                                                             jawaab celiso waydiimaha la          Buug 1aad ee suugaanta
                                                                             xidhiidha habka qorshaha              afka soomaaliga D/sare

                                                                         161
                                                                                                     Somali Language
                                                                        dhismaha sheeko kasta oo uu        Abwaan
                                                                        dareemi karo sida ficiliyadu       Dhaqan yaqaan
                                                                        iskaga soo daba dhacayaan iyo  Cajalado maqal iyo
                                                                        ilaa figta sheekada, sidoo kale       muuqaal
                                                                        si talaabo talaabo ah ula socon    Buugaag sheekooyin ah
                                                                        karaa gunaanadka sheekada             oo loo qaybiyo sida
                                                                       Ardaydu waxay si fahamleh u           buuga Hagardaamo
                                                                        kala saarayaan noocyada
                                                                        sheekooyinka gaagaban, iyaga       Buugga sheekooyinka
                                                                        oo isla markaasna ku tartamaya        “Ma huraan”
                                                                        habka curinta iyo qoraalka
                                                                        sheekooyinka gaaban,
                                                                        abaalmarina ku mutaysanayaan

              Dhammaadka qaybtan            Hal xidhaale                                                Buugga fasalka 1aad ee
                   ardaydu                   Hal xidhaale Maanso      Waxay ardaydu si garasho iyo      suugaanta
              Waxa ay awood u               Masalo                        fahan firfircoon leh uga       Abwaan
               yeelandoonaan furfurida       Fariimeed                     baaraan degayaan furfurista    Dhaqan yaqaan
7.             helxidhaalayaal kala duwan    Jirrabaad                     Maansooyinka                   Cajalado
Halxidha       ama kala waji ah.             Xisaabeed                     halxidhaalaha leh, iyaga oo    Internet
                                                                            si koox koox ah ugu            Buugga ma Huraan
alah
                                                                            tartamaaya qayb kasta oo       Buugaagta kale ee
                                                                            Maansada ka mid ah                    sheekooyinka ah
                                                                            halxidhaalaha ku jira.
                                                                       Waxa ay sidoo kale ku
                                                                        tartamayaan halxidhaalayaal
                                                                        cusub in ay curiyaan
                                                                        islamarkaasna kooxaha kale ku
                                                                        xujeeyaan iyaga oo hab maanso
                                                                        u dhigaya
              Dhammaadka qaybtan              Warqad qoraal
                 waxa ay ardaydu               Shakhsiyeed                                                Buugaagta luuqadda
                 awoodi doonaan                Warqad shaqo             Ardaydu waxay si fahan iyo           ingiriisiga ee D/sare
                 qoraalka waraaqaha            Warqad ganacsi               garasho leh koox koox u       Kumbiyuutarada
                 sida:-                                                      qodobaynayaan faraqa u        Nuqulada baraha

                                                                    162
                                                                                                  Somali Language
             Warqad shakhsiyeed                                            dhexeeya warqad
             Warqad ganacsi                                                shaqiyeedda iyo warqadda
                                                                            ganacsi iyagoo ka eegaaya
8. warqad
                                                                            dhinacyada qaabka iyo
Corista    Dhammaadka qabtan.                                              nuxurka
               Eray bixinta ardaydu waxay                             Waxa ay si koox koox ah u
                ay ogaan doonaan micnaha                                diyaarinayaan qoraalka
                eray bixinta suugaanta iyo                              waraaqahaas iyaga oo raacaya
                ereyada adag ee buugga,                                 nidaamka hab qoraal ee mid
                                                                        kasta.


                                                                                                         Buugga Suugaanta
                                              Eeybixin                Waxa ay Isla                         D/sare fasalka
                                             1. Suugaan                    falanqayndoonaan                  koowaad
                                             2. Maansada                   ereybixinta suugaanta sida    Qaamuusyada Afka
                                             3. Ereyada buugga ee          kuwa ku jira maansada             somaliga
                                             adag                          Maahmaahaha iyo Murtida       Abwaanada
                                                                       hakadoodaan ereyoda adage e      Dhaqan
                                                                        buugga, sida sheekooyinka
9.                                                                      dhaqanka iyo jar iska xoorka.
Eraybixin
ta
Suugaant
a iyo
Erayada
culus ee
casharad
a


                                  MUQARARKA OF-SOMALIGA DUGSIYADA SARE EE FASALKA LABAAD


                                                                    163
                                                                                                  Somali Language
Qaybta            U jeedada gaar                       Tusmo                     Habka wax dhigista iyo hawl        Kaabayaasha
                                                                                           qabadka
1. Maansada      Dhammaadka               Guuranka la‟aado (Gabay)            Ardaydu waxa ay u awood           Buugga
                  qaybtan maansada         Toddobaatan iyo toban (Gabay)        yeelanayaan hab akhriska iyo       suugaanta
                  ardaydu waxa ay          Tolow halay dhoofsho (Gabay)         dhegaysiga maansooyinka kala       dugsiyada sare
                  aqoon u                  Geela (Gabay)                        duwan ee heerkan (F.labaad)        fasalka labaad
                  yeelanayaan              Fiin (Gabay)                        Waxa si ku celcelis leh u         Abwaanada iyo
                 Mowduucyada ay           Guuguule (Gabay)                     dhuuxayaan Gabayada,               dhaqan
                  maansooyinka             Guubaabo iyo garnaqsi (Gabay)        Geeraarada, Jiiftooyinkam          yaqaanada
                  qaybtani ku              Ma anaa (Gabay)                      Buraanburka IWM ee                Cajalado
                  saabsan yihiin iyo       Sheekh Bashir (Gabay)                heerkooda isla markaana si         maqaliyo
                  siday ula                Hammi (Gabay)                        koox koox ah uga                   muuqaalba ah
                  xidhiidhaan              Amaan faras (Geeraar)                baarandegayaan                    Internet sida
                  dhinacyada               Laygu kaa dherer (Gabay)            Ardaydu waxay ay si koox koox      Aftahan.com
                  nolosha bulshada         Hooyo (ees)                          ah ugu tartamayaan mawduuca        iyo kuwo kale
                 Xiliga la tiriyay        Nabi Aman                            ay maanso waliba ku saabsan       Buugga
                  maansooyinkan            Adduun qaalla bixi waa (Gabay)       tahay iyo kaalinta uu              Nolosha (yusuf
                  sida uu ahaa             Maxaa iiga gidhiish ah (Hees)        mawduucaasi kaga jiro nolosha      Shaacir)
                  waayaha nolosha          Nimankaan dukaamada lukiyan…         bulshada ay ka midka yihiin       Buugga
                  bulshadu                  (Gabay)                             Waxa ay ka fekerayaan hadday       Halkaraan ee
                 Suugaanyahannad          Dhoomaha Sanaag ama Dhool bari       jirto noocyo suugaanmeed kale      Abwaan
                  a waqtigaas jiray         (Gabay)                              oo isla mawduucaas ku lugleh       Hadraawi
                  iyo qodobada             Hablaha geeska Africa buugga         sida Maahmaahyo Murti
                  xiisaha lahaa lahaa       (Halkaraan) ee Hadraawi              sheekooyin, Gabayo iyo Iwm
                  ee laga maansoon         Ama cajalada uu ku heesaayo         Iyagoo hadday jiraan shaqo guri
                  jiray                     hadalka khaliif Cismaan Cabdi        uga soo shaqaynaya, lana
                 Farqiga u                Sayid khalifa                        kaashanaya xeel dheeraasha
                  dhexeeya                                                       dhaqanka iyo suugaanta ama
                  isbedelka nolosha                                              buugaaggta
                  bulshada ee hadda                                             Ardaydu waxay si faham sare
                  iyo xilliga.                                                   leh uga jawaab celinayaan
                                                                                 dhammaan waydiimaha la
                                                                                 xidhiidha qaybtan maansada,
                                                                                 sida:- habka gabayga loo dhisay
                                                                                 ama loo qorsheeyay fikradaha

                                                                    164
                                                                         Somali Language
                                                       isdaba yaal ee mowduucyada
                                                       lagu horo marinayo
                                                      Waxay sugayaaanj xaalada, iyo
                                                       cidda, goorta iyo waqtiga, sidoo
                                                       kale waxay fahmayaan dulucda
                                                       ujeeddo ee maansada
                                                      Ardaydu waxay si koox koox ah
                                                       isaga kaashanayaan hellid
                                                       fikradda guud ee maanso kasta
                                                       iyo qaybaheedaba
                                                      Sidoo kale waxay si taxadir leh
                                                       fahmayaan macnaha erayada
                                                       culus iyo lidka erayada
                                                      Ardaydu waxay si koox koox ah
                                                       uga soo saarayaan maanso kasta
                                                       erayada falalka, ah, erayada
                                                       magacayada yada ah, kuwa
                                                       magacuyaalada ah iyo sidoo
                                                       kale kuwa xidhiidhiyaaasha ah
                                                       ee ku jira maanso kasta.
                                                      Waxay ardaydu ku tartamayaan
                                                       fahanka tuducyadu xambaarsan
                                                       maldihidda iyo noocyada ay
                                                       yihiin sida :- Sarbeebta,
                                                       Buunbuuninta, yamxeerada,
                                                       duurxulka, quusinta, xusida
                                                       IWM.




2. Maahmaah-
da iyo Murtida      Maahmaahyo halleyda ah           Ardaydu waxay awood u                  Buugga
                    Maahmaahyada labaalayda ah        yeelanayaan fahmidda iyo kala           suugaanta
                    Maahmaahyada saddexlayda ah       saaridda Murtida iyo                    dugsiga sare

                                             165
                                                                                                    Somali Language
                                         Maahmaahyada tiraabta ah             Maahmaahyada                               fasalka 2aad
                                         Maahmaahyada tixda ah               Waxay awood u yeelanayaan                 Buugaagta Af-
                                         Murtida iyo isticmaalkeeda           mawduucyada kala duwan ee ay               Soomaliga ee
                                                                               ku saabsan yihiin                          Maahmaada iyo
                                                                               Maahmaahayada Marutida                     Murtida
                                                                               sida:- Nabada, lexejeclada,               Abwaanada
                 Dhammaadka                                                   waxbarashada, danta IWM                   Dhaqanyaqaana
                  qaybtan waxay                                               Waxay si koox koox ah ugu                  da
                  ardaydu awoodi                                               tartamayaan                               Cajalado maqal
                  donaan                                                       Ardaydu isticmaalka                        iyo muuqaal ah
                 Furfurista                                                   maahmaahda iyo Murtida iyo                Internetka
                  Maahmaahda iyo                                               waliba sida hufan ee hadalka              www.Aftahan.c
                  Murtida                                                      loogu kaabo.                               om
                 Waxa ay si kasmo
                  furan u awoodi                                                    Ardaydu waxay awood u               Buugga
                  donaan in ay kala      Hees-howleedyada agabka Aqal-              yeelanayaan                          Nabadshe ee
                  saaraan                 Somaliga, sida:-                                Adeegsiga hees                  Yusuf shaacir
                  Maahmaah iyo               - Hararka                               hawleedyada iyo hawlaha             Dhaqanyaqaan
                  Murtida                    - Aloolka                               dhaqan ee loo adeegsado             Cajalado maqal
                                             - Haanta                               Waxa ay kala saarayaan iyaga         iyo muuqaal ah
                                             - Mooyaha                               oo koox koox ah noocyada            Aftahan.com
                                             - Kebedda                               agabka aqal-soomaliga sida:-        Bare
3. Hees                                                                                                                  Abwaan Rag
                                         Hees hawleedyada Badaha iyo           -        Hararka                          ama dumar
Howleedyada
                                          noocyadooda                           -        Kabadda
                                         Hees-hawleedyada beeyada              -        Aloolka
                                                                                -        Hanta
                 Dhammaadka                                                    -        Mooyaha
                  qabytan ardaydu                                            IWM
                  waxay awood u
                  yeelanayaan            Ciyaaraha hiddaha ee gobolada              Aradaydu waxa ay iyaga oo
                 Noocyada heeso             - Sanaag                                 koox koox ah ku tartamaaya
                  howleed iyo                - Sool                                   hees howlaeedyada Badda la         Buugga
                  howlaha dhaqan             - Togdheer                               xidhiidha iyaga oo nooc             Nabadshhe ee
                  ee loo adeegsado           - Saaxil                                 hawleed kasta ku jaan               yuusuf shaacir

                                                                       166
                                                                                              Somali Language
                                              -   Hargeysa                     gaynaya heesta ku habboon ee      Cajalado maqal
                                              -   Awdal                        dhaqan ahaan loogu heeso           iyo muuqaala
                                                                               ama loo adeegsado marka           Internet
                                                                               hawshiisa la hayo                  Aftahan.com
                                                                              Ardaydu waxa ay si faham
                                                                               qoto leh koox koox ugu
                                                                               tartamayaan isku beegidda
4.Ciyaaraha                                                                    heesta iyo howsha
hidaha iyo                                                                    Waxay u awood helayaan in
                                                                               ay jees-hawleed kasta gartaan
dhaqanka
                                                                               waxa loogu heeso iyo waliba
                                                                               waqtiga loogu heeso
                   Dhammaadka
                    qaybtan waxa ay
                    ardaydu garasho
                    dheeraad ah u                                             Baruhu waxa uu tusaale buuxa
                    yeelanayaaan                                               ka siin doonaa ardayda
                    heesaha dhaqan ee     Ekeeye                              ciyaaraha kala duwan ee
5. Xubnaha          ciyaarkasta u        1. Shareere                           dhaqanka ee gobollada dalka
afka maldahan       gaarka ah iyo sida   2. Qofeeyn                           Waxa ay ardaydu isku qaybin
                    loogu dhawaaqo       3. Buunbuunin                         doonaan lix kooxood
                   Waxay awoodi         4. Yamxeero                          Koox kastaaba waxa ay jili
                    donaan garashada     6. Sarbeeb                            doonaan ciyaar gobal u gaar
                    iyo sooban           7. Duurxul                            ah
                    dhigidda ciyaaro     8. Silansugan                        Waxay falanqayn doonaan
                    kala duwan           9. Quusin                             tilmaaha ay ciyaarahu ku kala
                    Fasalka debediisa                                          duwan yihiin
                    xafladaha dugsiga                                         Waxa ay koox koox u qori
                    iyo weliba                                                 doonaan munaaasabadaha loo
                    tartamuda ka                                               ciyaaro
                    baxsan dugsiga                                            Waxa ay ku tartami doonaan
                                            Warqad shakhsiyeed                codka iyo jiibta ciyaaraha
                                            Warqad shaqo                      gobollada
                   Dhammaadka              Warqad wax bixineed(gaaban)      Waxa ay mid mid wax ua            Buugga fasalka
                    qaybtan xubnaha                                            qori doonaan fikradda ay ka        labaad

                                                                    167
                                                                                                     Somali Language
                     afka maldahan                                                    qabaan ciyaaraha hiddaha             Abwaan
                     ardaygu waxa ay                                                                                       Dhaqan yaqaan
                     awoodi donaan                                                   Koox koox isugu xujayn               Cajalado
6. Habka
                     garasho xeel dheer                                               doonaan xubnaha Afka                 Internet sida:-
warqad qorista       oo ay u yeeshaan                                                 Maldahan sida:-
                     xubnaha afka                                                    - Eekeeye
                     maldahan                                                        - Shareere
                                                                                     Ardaybaa tusaale keeni doona
                                                                                      ku saabsan qofaynta iyo
                                                                                      buunbuuninta
                                                                                     Baraha ayaa u sharxaaya sida
                                                                                      loo isticmaalo xubnaha afka
                                                                                      maldahan
                                                                                     Waxa ay ka soo saarayaan
                                                                                      Gabayada, Heesaha iyo
                                                                                      Sheekooyinka xubnaha afka
                                                                                      maldahan
7
Sheekooyinka
iyo curisyada       Dhammaadka                                                                                            Buugga fasalka
                     qaybtan habka                                                     Waxa ay fasal fasal, koox           labaad
                     qoraalka                Sheekooyinka iyo curisyada                koox iyo laba laba isugu diri      Buugaaggta
                     waraaqaha waxa          Sida ban oogta cidla beegsaday            donaan waraaqaha laysu diro         luuqadaha
                     ay dhaqan galin          (curis)                                   sida:-                              ingiriisida
                     donaan si garasho       Cago la‟aantay ciidu igu aragtay         Warqad shakhsiyeed                 www.aftahan.co
                     leh sida loo qoro        (curis)                                  Warqad shaqo                        m
                     waraaqaha               Anigii roonaa bay i rogatay (curis)      Waxa ay hubinayaan oo mid
Riwayad                                      Calas iyo caduur (curis)                  ba ka kale ka eegayaa
                                             Geel badanow lagu sheeg (curis)           astaamaynta sharuud ah kala
                                             Buugga sheekada “Hargardaamo”             ee waraaqaha




                                                                                                                           Buugga fasalka

                                                                         168
                                                                                               Somali Language
                                                                                Ka dib markay akhriyaan            labaad
                                              Riwaayad                          sheeko dhaqmeed ayaa ay ka        Abwaanada
                                              Qaadka iyo howlahiisa             shaqaynayaan haw qabadyada         Afsoomaliga
                                              Xagga caafimaad                   hoose sida:-                      Dhaqan
                                              Dhaqalaha                        Shaqo kooxeed fasalka              yaqaano
                                              Wakhtiga                          dhexdiisa ah                      Cajalado
                                                                                Waxa ay ka soo saarayaan          Buuga sheekada
9. Ereybixinta                                                                   sheeko, weedho, falal kala         Hagardaamo
Suugaaneed                                                                       duwan ay ku jiraan                Bugga
                                                                                Waxa ay laba laba isu              sheekooyinka
iyo Erayada
                    Dhamaadka                                                   waydiinayaan xubnaha Afka          “Ma huraan”
culculs ee           qaytan sheekooyin                                           maldahan
casharada            iyo curisyada
                     waxa ay u awood
                     helayaan ardaydu
                     garashada sheeko
                     dhaqmeedyada              Suuganta
                     iyo curisyada             Maansada                        Waraysi dad wakhtigoodii          Dadwaawaynoo
                    Waxay ka                  Ereyad adag                      qaadku ka lumiyay                  uu ka lumiyay
                     kasbanayaan              1. Naxwe                          Dhegaysi xog waran lacagta         mustaqbalkoodi
                     aqoonta la                      - Ereyayn                   qaadka ku baxda ee sannadkii       i qaadku
                     xidhiidha habka                 - Magacyo                  Maqa l iyo akhris qoraalo ka      Buugga nuqulka
                     sheekooyinka iyo                - Falal                     hadlaaya dad ku xanuunsaday        Baraha
                     curisyada loo qoro              - Qurubyo                   cunida qaadka                     Dalxiis meelaha
                    Waxay u awood            2. Weedhayn                       Dad uu waalay qaadku               subax iyo
                     helayaan curinta                - Weedh fudud                                                  galabba lagu
                     iyo qorida                      - Weedh culus                                                  cuno
                     sheekooyinka             3. hodal iyo qoraal               Ilima bixinta erayada
                     gaagaaban iyoc           4. astaamaynta                     suugaanta
                     curisyada                       - Noocyada                 Sida kuwa ku jira maansada
                                                     - Astaamaynta              Gabayada
                                                                                Geeraarada
                    Dhammaadka                                                 Heesaha
                     riwaayadu arday                                            Ereyada adag ee buugga waxa       Qaamuuska
                     waxay ay nolol                                              ay u baahann yihiin                SOOMAALIG

                                                                       169
                                                Somali Language
    ahaan taaban                micnahooda                            A
    doonaan                    Gooraynta waxa ay ku                 Abwaanada
    dhibaatada qaadka           qaadamayaan cutubkasta                aftahmada
    u leeyahay                  sida:-                                ragga iyo
    bulshada                   Goorayn joogta                        dumarka ah ee
                                ------------- socota                  gobalada jooga
                                ------------- tagto                  Buugga
                                ------------- iyo soo socoto          suugaantee
                               Xirfadaha luqada ku sii               fasalka labaad
                                   casharkasta                       Buuga naxwaha
                               Sida:-                                X. Raabi
                                       1. ----xirfadda dhegeysi      IWM.
                                       2. ----hadalka
                                       3. ----akhriska
                                       4. ----qoraalka
   Dhammaadka
    qaybtan eray
    bixinta ardaydu
    waxa ay garasho
    dheeraad ah u
    yeelan donaan
    eraybixinta
    suugaanta iyo
    erayada adag ee
    buugga
   Dhammaadka
    qaybtan naxwaha
    ardaydu waxay
    xidhiidhin donaan
    qaybaha naxwaha
    ee ereynta,
    weedhaynta hadal
    iyo qoraal iyo
    astaamaynta.


                        170
                                                                                                 Somali Language


MUQARARKA OF-SOMALIGA DUGSIYADA SARE EE FASALKA SADDEXAAD

  Qaybaha            U jeedada                          Tusmo                    Habka wax dhigista iyo hawl           Kaabayaasha
                                                                                         qabadka
1. Maansada    Dhammaadka qaybtan         Maansoonyinka kala ah             Sharxidda iyo faahfaahinta baraha ka    Buugga
                 maansoonyinka waxa        Maandeeq (gabay)                     dib, ardaydu waxay si koox koox ah        suugaanta
                 uu ardaygu awood          Xumaanta qabyaaladda                 ugu tartamayaan ka jawaab celinta         fasalka
                 yeelanayaa dhuuxida          (gabay)                            waydiimaha la xidhiidha:-
                                                                                                                           saddexaad
                 iyo fahamka               Dayax (gabay)                       Tiriyaha maansada, goorta, sababta, iyo
                 maansooyinkii waayadii                                                                                   Abwaan
                                           Tallan baab qabaa (gabay)            dhacdada mawduuca qaybah, sharaxa
                                                                                                                          Dhaqan
                 dagaalkii labaad ee                                             tuduc ka mid ah maansada
                                           Haddii dunida lagu waarayo
                 dunida, waqtigii
                                              (gabay)                           Fikradda guud ama dulucda maansada        yaqaan
                 xoriyadda 1960kii iyo
                                             Túsale waalid (gabay)              iyo dhamaan waxyaabaha lagu              Cajalado
                 ka dib xoriyadda                                                gorfeeyay maansada dhexdeeda              maqal iyo
               Waxay ogaal buuxa u          Gabay xifaaltan ah (nin reer
                                              miyi ah iyo nin reer magaal       Ardaydu waxay si faham Leh koox           muulaal ah
                 yeelanayaan taariikhda                                          koox uga soo saarayaan maansa kasta
                 iyo waayaha nololeed         ah)
                                                                                 wixii qalad af-maldahane la
                 ee bulshada                 Saadaal (gabay)
                                                                                 adeegsaday,
                                             Hubqaad (gabay)
                                                                                Sheegaye nooca af-maldahanaha
                                             sinaan (gabay)
                                                                                Waxay si koox koox ah uga soo
                                             Qodka gubanka soo kacay            saarayaan wixii calamad ah ee u taagan
                                              (gabay)                            wax laysla garanayo sida: Mandeeq oo
                                             Gogosha hay gaynin (gabay)         u taagan xoriyadda
                                              waxa uu ku jiraa sheekada         Waxay ardaydu si koox koox ah isula
                                              Qamaan iyo Barni ee                falanqaynayaan sheekooynka dhaqan ee
                                              muqararka loogu daray              maansayahanadu si dul mar ah ugu
                                              fasalkan                           bixiyeen tusaalayaasha si ay
                                             Waar tolow colka jooja             humaagyada sawiradooda uga dhigaan
                                              (geeraar)                          taabagal
                                             Sidaad tahay gammaan faras        Waxay si koox koox ah u naqdiyayaan
                                              (hees)                             dhammaan maansooyinka qaab
                                             Afku wuxuu la xoog yahay           dhismeedkooda iyo afkaaraha

                                                                     171
                                                                                              Somali Language
                                           (gabay)                          suugaanyahanada
                                          Habboon (hees)
                                          Hud-Hud (hees)


2.
Maahmaahd  Dhammaadka qaybtan            Taariikhda maahmaahaha iyo    Sharraxa iyo faahfaahinta ballaadhan ee
a iyo Muritda maahmaahaha iyo              murtida soomaalida               dhinacyada badan uu ka iftiimiyay ka      Buuga
               murtida, waxa ay           Waxa laga dheehan karo ama       dib, waxa ay ardaydu si koox koox ah       Nabadshe
               ardaydu u awood             laga akhrisan karo ee ay         uga jawaab celinayaan waydiimahan
                                                                                                                       (yussuf
               yeelanayaan sida loo        xambaarsan yihiin               Waa maxay maahmaah iyo mariti?
               akhriyo maahmaahaha                                         Maxay ku kala duwan yihiin?
                                                                                                                       Shaacir)
                                           maahmaahaha iyo murtidu
               iyo murtida, taasi oo u                                                                               Buugga
                                          Faraqa u dhexeeya maahmaah       Goorma ay bilowdeen?
               sahlaysa ardayda, in ay     iyo murtida                     Maxay xambaarsan yihiin oo laga            suugaanta
               si fudud ula soo baxaan
                                          Hababka kala duwan ee            dheehankaraa?                             fasalka
               dulucda macne.
                                           maahmaahda iyo murtidu          Imisa hab ay u sidaan dulucda macne ee     saddexaad
             Waxay ku dhiiranayaan        loogala soo baxo dulucda         ku qarsoon?                               Abwaan
               inay raad raac iyo
               baadhis ku sameeyaan
                                           macne ee ku qorsoon             Mid kasta ka bixi dhowr túsale?           Dhaqan
               maahmaahaha iyo                                             Maahmaahah iyo murtidu ma run baa,         yaqaan
               murtida dhaqankooda                                          waxa ay duluc u yihiin sheeko gaaban?     Buugaagta
                                                                           Qor caddaymo jawaabtaada la xidhidha       dheeraadka
                                                                           Ardaydu waxay si koox koox ah ugu
                                                                                                                       ah ee suugaan
                                                                            tartamayaan maahmaahyo ku saabsan
                                                                            mawduuyo kale duwan sida:-                 ah
                                                                           Dhawr maahmaahood oo geela ku             Cajalado
                                                                            saabsan                                    maqal iyo
                                                                           Dhawr Adhiga ku saabsan                    muuqaal
                                                                           Dhowr noocyada ugaadha la xidhiidha
                                                                           Dhawr noocyada dugaaga ku saabsan
                                                                            iyo sidoo kale dabeecadaha dadka
                                                                            midkasta dhowr ku saabsan
                                                                           Ardaydu waxay si koox koox ah u

                                                                172
                                                                                                Somali Language
                                                                              qorayaan maahmaahyo iyo murti
                                                                              halxaraf ku socda sida:- b,t,j….....y,
                                                                              a,e,i,o,u.
                                                                             Ardaydu waxay si koox koox ah
                                                                              baadhis qoraal ugu samaynayaan
                                                                              mawduucyada ay maahmaahaha iyo
                                                                              murtida dhaqan ku kala abaaran yihiin,
                                                                              sida:-
                                                                             Garsoorka caddaaladeeda, iyaga oo
                                                                              tirada maahmaah iyo murti ee ay soo
                                                                              heleen ku samaynaya baadhis tusaale
                                                                              buuxa iyo maragaba u ah.
                                                                             Habdhaqankii garsoor ee ummaddu ku
                                                                              soo dhaqmi jirtay, kama qoraya faallo
                                                                              sugan
3. Hees
               Dhammaadka qaybtan
howleedyada      hees-hawleedyada waxa    Taariikhda Hees-hawleedyada  Sharrax iyo faahfaahinta dhinacyada,
                                                                                                                        Buugga
                 ay ardaydu si            Sida ay u abuurmaan           badan taabanaysa, ka dhib waxay
                 aftahanimo leh aqoon     Noocyada hawlaha kala duwan                                                  Nabadshe ee
                                                                         ardaydu si koox koox ah ugu
                 ugu yeelanayaan             ee loo adeegsado iyo sababta     tartamayaan hees-hawleed ku kala           Yuusuf
               Hees-hawleedyada             loo adeegsado                    aaddan noocyada hawlaha dhaqan ee          sharaacir
                 dhaqan ee ummaddooda       Hees howleedyada, xoolaha        kala duwan, fasalka dhexdiisa iyo         Abwaanada
               Waxay si garasho leh u       iyo qaybahooda                   shaqo guriba                              Dhaqan
                 kala ogaanayaan            Hees-hawleedyada agabka         Ardaydu iyaga oo u shaqaynaya qaab         yaqaano
                 sababta loo adeegsado       aqal soomaliga                   koox koox ah waxay ku tartamayaan         Cajalado
                 iyo sida ay ku             Hees-hawleedyada beeraha         iyaga oo kooxiba koox ku xujaynayso
                                                                                                                         maqal iyo
                 abuurmeen                  Hees-hawleedyada badaha           Sheegidda hees-hawleedyo “maxaa
               Waxa ay u awood                                                                                          muuqaal
                                            Hees hawleedyada beeyada          loogu heesaa, goormaase loogu
                                                                                                                        Aftahan.com
                 yeelanayaan noocyada
                                            Hees-hawleedyada dhismaha         heesaa”?
                 hawlaha dhaqan
                                             kuwa awrka geediga, dhaanka     Ardaydu markale waxay hees-               Nuqlada
                 dhaqaale ee loo                                              hawleedyada u eegayaan hab baadhisi        baaha
                                             IWM
                 adeegsado                                                    ay la xidhiidho iyo iyaga oo hee-
                                          Sababta wax loo maldaho            hawleedyada ka dhex baadhaaya

                                                                  173
                                                                                                     Somali Language
              Dhammaadka qaytan            Maxay ku kala duwan yihiin           aqoonta laga dheehan karo ee ay            Buugga
4. Xubnaha      xubnaha Af ka                  hadalka maldahan iyo ka aan        xambaarsan yihiiin, taas waxa ay ka         Suugaanta F
                maldahan waxa ay               maldahnayn                         raad raaci ka rtaan iyagoo koox kooxa
Afka                                                                                                                          3aaad
maldahan
                ardaydu ku                    Maldihida fudud                    ah
                                                                                                                             Abwaan
                awooodaysan doonaan           Maldihidda maansada ama           Sharaxa macne ee hees-hawleedyada
                aqoonsiga noocyada             gabayada                          Ereyada muujinaya qalabka farsamo ee       Cajalado
                xubnaha Afka                  Qalabyada ama erayada              la xidhiidha hadba waxa ay heestu ku        maqal iyo
                maldahan                       hadalka lagu maldaho iyo           saabsan tahay                               muuqaala
              Sidoo kale waxa ay              siyaabaha loogu maldaha           Ereyada magacyada ah ee ku jira heesta     Qorallo kala
                awoodayaan ka soo             Kuwa ugu adeesiga badan iyo        sida:- magacyo geel iyo wixii la mid ah     duwan oo
                saarida iyo fahanka afka       sababta                           Waxyaabaha tusaalayaasha lagu               xanbaarsan
                maldahan noocyada                                                 bixinayo                                    qaybaha
                suugaaneed qoraalada                                             Ugu danbayn koox waliba
                                                                                                                              hadalka
                iyo hadalada Afka laga                                            falaanqadeeda baadhiseed bay ka soo
                yidhaahdoba                 Warqad qorista                       jeedinayaan fasalka                         maldahan
                                            Dhacdo ka dhacday fasalka           Saxidda iyo abaal marintana waxa leh       Nuqlada
                                             dhexdiisa                            baraha maadada                              baraha
5.            Dhammaadka qaybtan           Dhacdo meel ka dhacday oo           Dulmarid cashardadii fasalka labaad ee      maadaada
                warqad qoraalka,                                                  af maldahanayaasha iyagoo ka dib
Warqad          ardaydu waxa ay u
                                             wargayska loo gudbinaayo
Qoraalka        awood helayaan, in ay       Qof (C.V) diyaarinaaya si uu u       sharxida qeexan ee tusaalayaasha
                                             shaqo tago (raadsi)                  taaban karo xambaarsan, kuna salaysan
                hore uga maraan
                dhinaca waraaq qorista      Nooca kala duwan ee                  habdhigista casriga ah ee ay ardaydu u
                                             waraaqaha caadiga ah                 dub dhexaadka u tahay
                oo leh qaybaheeda
                                                                                 Ardaydu waxa ay si koox koox ah uga
              Waxa ay kala                                                       aqoonsanayaan qoraalada suugaaneed
                aqoonsanayaan hababka                                             iyo hadalba meelaha
                qorista kala duwan ee                                             afmaldahanayaasha loo adeegsado,
                waraaqaha                                                         iyaga oo isla markaana sheegaya nooca
              Waxa ay garasho                                                    af maldahane ee uu yahay, shayga loo
                cilmiyeed u                                                       isticmaalay, ereyada la adeegsaday,
                yeelanayaan habka mid                                             dhaanka laga eeg iyo sida ay
                kasta loo diyaario iyo                                            suuragalka u tahay ama macquulka
                xubna hoosaadka                                                  Ardaydu iyaga oo koox-koox ah waxay
                dhisme ahaaneed                                                   ay soo diyaarinayaan qoraalo ay

                                                                    174
                                                                                                        Somali Language
                                                                                      curiyeen oo maldahan, ka dibna si          Buugga qora
                                                                                      hufan oo barahu daadahaynayo ayey           habka loo
  6. Sheekooyinka                                 Sheekooyinka fasalka               fasalka dhexdiisa ugu tartamayaan,
                                                                                                                                  qoro
  iyo Curisyada
                                                     koowaad iyo kuwa labaad oo      Go‟aanka iyo abaal marinta waxa
                     Dhammaadka qaybtan             naqtiin ah                       lehbaraha
                                                                                                                                  waraaqha
                       sheekooyinka iyo             Curisyada buugga fasalka        Baadhis                                    Nuqulka
                       curisyada                     saddexaad ku qoran sida         ardaydu iyagoo u sheegayaana si koox-       baraha
                     Ardayda waxa ay ka            Magaaladii baabaday              koox, waxa ay baadhis ku soo                waraqaha
                       awood siinaysaa              Hawl iyo hogo kaliileed          samaynayaan Haasaawihii dhaqan ee          Internetka iyo
                       ogaaanshaha hab              Geed fadhiisi                    hore ee ku dhisnaa maldihidda hadalka       kumbuyuutar
                       qoraalada sheekooyinka                                        iyo halxidhaalaha iyo sidoo kale u
                                                     Jarabarka gammaanka                                                          ada
                       gaagaaban,                                                     jeedada laga lahaa ka dibna faslka ha
                       sheekooyinka
                                                    Gef iyo guul darro                                                          Buugga
                                                                                      soo jeediyeen, barahuna si loogu daro
                       dhaadheer, curisyada         Sheekadii Qammaan Bulxan
                                                                                      casharada muqararka ha u soo gudbiyo        suugaanta
                       iyo maqaalada IWM             iyo Bari                                                                     fasalka
                                                                                      waaxda manaahijda, haka soo raaciyo
                     Waxa ay ardaydu ku            (bilaw ilaa dhammaad)            magacyada ardayda soo qortay iyo            saddexaad
                       fahmayaan tabaha iyo                                           dugsiyada ay ka tirsan yihiinh, waa wax    Buugga
                       farsamooyinka qoraal                                           qabad muhiim ah.                            sheekooyinka
                       ee ay sheeko                                                  Qoraal xog waran mushkilado ka              “Hagardaamo
                       qorayaashu                                                     dhacay fasalka in ardaydu u gudbiyan,
                       adeegsadaan                                                    maamulaha dugsiga                           ”
                     Waxay ardaydu ka                                               Warbixin koox koox ah oo loo               Buugga
                       korodhsanayaan awood                                           gudbinaayo wargayska kooxda ugu             sheekooyinka
                       sheeko curineed iyo mid                                        fiican                                      “Ma huraan”
                       ay ku naqdiyi karaan                                          Arday kastaa ha diyaaro taxanihiisa        Buugaagta
                       kagana faaloon karaan                                          wax barasho (C.V)                           kale ee
                       sheekeeyinka qoran                                            Laba laba ha isugu diraan waraaqo           sheekooyinka
                                                                                      shakhsiyeed wiilku ha u qro wiil,           oo tusaale iyo
                                                                                      gabdhu ha u qorto warqadda gabadh
                                                                                                                                  kaabid ba loo
7. Doodda iyo
                                                                                                                                  isticmaali
Baanisada
                                                  Dooda iyo Baanis                                                               karo
                                                     - kiis dhiig
                     Dhammaadka qaybtan             - kiis dhaqan                                                               Garyaqaanad
                                                                          175
                                                                                                      Somali Language
                   doodda iyo baanista        - kiis Xoolo                        Sharaxa xeel dheerida leh ee baraha ka         a deegaanka
                   waxa ay ardayd ka          - neef Geela                         dib, ardaydu waxay si koox-koox ah            Dhaqan
                   kasbanayaan waxa ay        - neef Lo‟a                          uga aqoon ogaansanayaan sheekada iyo           yaqaanda
                   tahay dooddu iyo sida     sida dhaqan ahaan garta loo          curisyada
                                                                                                                                  deegaanka
                   loo baano                  qaadi jiray                         Xaladda iyo dejinta sida:-
                                             mudduc, maddaacalay iyo             Meesha, wakhtiga, sababta
                                                                                                                                 Xaakimada
                                              xeerbeegti                          Ardaydu waxa ay si fahan leh u                Waayo
8.                                                                                 ogaanayaan mawduucyada curisyada               aragga
riwaayaddah                                                                        iyo sheekooyika oo sidoo kale la               dhaqnka
a                                                       Riwaayad:                  soconayaan sida mawduuyada loo                 xoolaha
                                            Faraqa u dhexeEmma Gremley"            hurumariyey iyo tallaabooyinka la             Buugga
                                            <e.gremley@africaeducationaltrus       qaadan ama ficilada iska soo daba
                 Dhammaadka qaybtan        t.org>, "mike brophy"                                                                 xeerkii hore
                                                                                   dhacaya ee gaadhaaya figta sheekada
                   riwaayadda waxa ay       <m.brophy@africaeducationaltrus        ama curiska                                    ee Soomalida
                   ardaydu aqoon u          t.org>, "Jonathan Porter"             Waxay si feejignaan leh ula soconayaan
                   yeelanayaan habka        <jdport89@hotmail.com>, "John          xalka sheekada ama curiska ilaa laga        Buugga
                   qorista riwaayadaha, iyo Lowe" <edsjal@bath.ac.uk>,             soo gaadhaayo gabogabaha oo ah               suuggaanta
                   habdhimeedka             "Richard Arden" <r-                    dulucda ama fikradda guud
                   qaybaheeda
                                                                                                                                fasalka
                                            arden@dfid.gov.uk>, "Harvey           Taasi oo ah tan u digayso akhristaha
                 Ardaydu waxa ay u         Smith" <hsmith@cfbtken.co.ke>,                                                      saddexaad
                   awood helayaan in ay        "Malindi Auma"
                                                                                  Ardaydu waxay si buuxda u                   Baraha oo
                                                                                   aqoonsanayaan shaqsiyadaha sheekada
                   gortaan taariikhda       <helen_auma@yahoo.co.uk>,                                                          kaashanaya
                                                                                   ama curisyada ku jiraa iyo sida ay u
                   riwaayadaha              "Terence Driscoll"                                                                  baadhis
                   soomaalida               <drisconsult@ntlworld.com>eya         kal macquulsan yihiin iyo sida ay u kala
                                                                                   muhiimsan yihiin ba iyo waliba sida ay       cilmiyeed
                 Waxa ay awood u           riwaayad iyo maanso ama sheeko
                                                                                   u egyihiin oo ah tilmaanta laga bixiyay      aqoonta
                   yeelanayaan              Halka ay riwaayadu ka soo jeeddo
                   faaqidaadda iyo naqdiga  Taariikhda riwaayadadha soo          Ardaydu waxay si koox-koox ah iyo            riwaayadaha
                   riwaayadaha                  maalida                            keli keliba uga fekerayaan sida ay           SOOMAALI
                                             Qorayaasha riwaayadaha               ficilada isaga soo daba dhacayaan oo ah      da la
                 Waxay baranayaan
                                                                                   “qorshaha sheekada” waa halka laga
                   riwaayad qorayaasha          soomalida iyo riwaayadaha ay                                                    xidhiidha
                                                qoreen                             ogaado qoraaga xariifka ah
                   soomaalida                                                                                                   sida:-
                                             Riwaaddii shabeel naagood oo        Ugu dambayn waxay koox-koox iyo
9.                                                                                 keli keliba u cursan doonaan curisyo        Buugga
                                                qoran
Eraybixinta                                                                        iyo sheekooyin gaagaaban baraha iyo          Masax
suugaanta        Dhammaadka qaybtan
                                                                                   abaal marintaba leh                          faneedka ee
                                                                     176
                                                                                           Somali Language
iyo erayada   eraybixinta suugaanta                                                                                   uu qoray
culus ee      iyo erayada adag waxa                                       Fadlan qor arin qoys ka dhex dhacday       Afrax
casharada     ay ardaydu u awood                                          Eegis sidii loo xalililahaa khilaafka     Qoraalo
              yeelandoonaan dhaqan                                         qoyska
                                                                                                                      qoraal uu
              galinta eraybixin ay                                        Ninka aniga waxa aan rabaa--------------
                                                                                                                      barahu ee
              yaqaanaan                                                   Naagta anuga waxaan rabaa--------------
                                                                           ---                                        siminaarad
                                                                          Garyaqaan:-                                IWM
                                                                           Idinka doonistiinu waxa ay
                                                                      dhammaatay markii aad dhasheen ubedka!
                                                  Erey bixin
                                         Eray bixinta suugaanta
                                                                      Talada keliya ee soconaysaa waa :-           Baraha
                                                                        Ubadka dantooda                           Qaamuska
                                         Cilmi ahaan
                                         Erey ahaan                    Waxbarashada ubadka                        afka
                                         Ereyada adag ee casharada     Dhalaaleynta ubedka                       Abwaano
                                          buuga                         Caafimaadka ubedka                        Aftahannada
                                                                        Mustaqbalka uabedka
                                                                                                                   Buugga
                                                                                                                    suugaanta
                                                                        Barahu isaga oo kaashanaya                 Fasalka
                                                                            aqoontiisa iyo baadhis sugan oo         sadexaad
                                                                            cilmiyeedba waxa uu ka hor
                                                                            riwaayadda
                                                                            Shabeel naagood ardayad u dhigayaa
                                                                            casharada ku xusan tusma muqararkan
                                                                           marka xigta baruhu waxa uu hordhac
                                                                            ballaadhanku bixinayaa riwaayadda
                                                                            buugga fasalka saddexaad ee
                                                                            suugaanta
                                                                           ardaydu waxay iyaga oo kaashanaya
                                                                            baraha si koox ah uga jawaab
                                                                            celinayaan su‟aalahan sida:-
                                                                           waa maxay faraqa u dhexeeya maanso
                                                                            iyo riwaayad

                                                                177
                            Somali Language
          taariikhda riwaayadaha soomalida ka
           qor faallo?
          Sheeg shan riwaayad qore oo soomaali
           ah, oo shaac baxay? Mid kasta na qor
           hal riwaayad oo shaac baxday oo uu
           alifay ama qoray?
          Ardaydu iyaga oo kaashanaya baraha
           waxa ay soo diyaarinayaan riwaayado
           gaagaaban oo ay ardaydu aliftay kano
           hadlays wacyi galin sida:-
          Dhibaatada uu qaadku leeyahay
          Dhawrista deegaanka
          Iyo dhibaatada aqoon la‟aanta

       Waxa ay wada jir u falanqaynayaan
           erey bixinta suugaanta sida:-
                - Suugaan
                - Maanro
                - Maahmaah
                - Murti
                - Baanso
           Ereyada adeg ee buugga iyo kuwa la
            xidhiidha sida:-
           Ereyada adag ee
           Sheekooyinka
           Xubnaha afka meldahan
           Hal xidhaalayaasha IWM




178
                                                                                                        Somali Language



   U jeeddooyinka guud muqararka af soomaaliga

   Dheeftan waxbarashada ardayga D/sare.

   Maadaama uu afka soomaaligu yahay luqadda rasmiga ah ee dalka waa in ardayga dugsiga sare u lahaado.
   1. Aqoon buuxda oo afkiisa ah kana turjumeysa dhaqanka ummadiisa.
   2. Waa in uu naqdiyi karaa isaga oo sababaynaya xallilina kara qodobo hor yaalla sida:-
         - Sheekooyin
         - Gabayo
         - Riwaayado
         - Maahmaaho
         - Halxidhaalayaal iwm.
   3. Waa in uu si buuxda u adeegsan karaa xirfadaha luqudaha sida:-
             a. Dhegeysiga
             b. Hadalka
             c. Akhriska
             d. Iyo qoraalka .
   4. Waa in uu ardayga dugisga sare dhiganayo lahaado dareen, waddaninimo kana kobocsan yahay maskada, ruuxda, ladhaqanka bulshada, kuna niyad
      sanyahay dhaqankiisa, diintiisa oo faraysa in uu iskaashi buuxa la yeesho dadkiiisa iyo dadyawga caalmaka ba.
   5. Waa in uu lahaado himilo iyo higsi ka fog heerka uu joogo hadda.
   6. Waa in uu kalsooni buuxda ku qabo naftiisa cabbirina karaa rayigiisa.

   Fasalka 1 aad iyo 2 aad.

Xirfada     Ujeeddada Bartaha Laga Rabo            Waxqabadka
 1.            a) Dhegaysi gabay si wacan              Ka jawaabid suaalo laga
 Dhegaysiga       loogu tiriyay oo gaaban in uu       waydiiy ogabayga yare ee ay
                  kala soo bixi karo ujeedada         dhagaysteen. Sida:-
                  gabayga.                                  1. Maxay ay ahayd
               b) Dhegaysi Maah maah loo                       qaafiyada gabayg?
                  sheegay in uu weelayn karo,               2. Maxaa looga

                                                                          179
                                                                                Somali Language
             ama uu malayn                                  jeeday gabayga?
          c) Dhegaysi cashar taariikh ah                 3. Sidee ayuu ahaa
             oo bare fiican dhigay                          gabaygu ?
             weedhayn ahdaafta casharka                  4. Wax dhaliil ah
             iyo ujeedada loogu dhigayo.                    malahaa?
                                             -Waydiimo ku saabsan
                                             maahmaada loo sheegay in ay ka
                                             jawaabaan sida:-
                                                 1. Furfurida xigmadda ku
                                                    jirta
                                                 2. Sababaha maahmaahda loo
                                                    cuskado iyo xaalada ay
                                                    wajihantay.
                                             Xusuus wixii laga waydiiyo
                                             casharkii uu dhagaystay satay
                                             sida:-
                                             Goorama? Xaladee? Waayo sidee?
                                             Faahfaahi qodobka
                                             labaad/sedexaad.

Hadalka   d) In uu si fiican oo habaysan u         Arin qasan oo hortaala in
             jeediyo hadal ama qudbad               ay ka hadlaan iyaga oo si
             mawduuc uu fahamsan yahay              ay u xalilanto u
             /tahay                                 sbabaynaaya. Kana
          e) Hadalo dhawr qof ku hadleen            qancinaaya asbaabta wax u
             oo is dhaafdhaafsan in uu si           dhacaa.
             isugu duwi karo soona koobi           Koox koox dood ah oo ku
             karo isagoon micnaha iyo               saabsan shayyo aad isugu
             ujeedada wax baka tagin                dhaw dhaw oo la kala
          f) In uu sharax wacan ka bixin            caddaynaayo firqiga u
             karo wax dhacay.                       dhexeeya.
          g) Sida maskaxda furan ha u              Hadalo kala saaraya
             kala saaro, isaga/iyada oo             farqiga u dhexeeya murti
             sabab u yeelaysa dhawr                 iyo maahmaah.
             sheeko dhaqmeed oo loo                Dood ku saabsan kala

                                                                    180
                                                                                    Somali Language
              dhigay sida ay dhaqan ahaan             saarista cododka xuruufta
              u kala wacan yihiin .                   afka Soomaliga meelaha
           h) Si dadnimo leh ayaa u kala              ay ka kala baxaan ee afka
              qiimaynayaan waxbrashada                qofka sida B labada
              labada fasal ee 8 aad iyo 9             dabnood.
              aad farqiga u dhexeeya                 Waxaaa ay fasal ahaan
              isag/iyada oo ka hadlaaya.              isku diyaarinayaan sidaii
                                                      ay u jeedin lahayeen
                                                      khudbad hadal ah oo toban
                                                      tobana daqiiqo ah.

Akhriska      Maaqaal uu akhriyay oo                 Maqaal ay akhriyeen oo ka
               fahmay. Waa in uu si fiican u           hadlaaya HIV/AIDS ay
               gudbin karaa, si loo helo war           su‟aalo ka samayn karaan
               buuxa                                   sida:-
              Waxa ama qodobo isku jira       -Side loo kala qaada? Waayo?
               sida Maahmaah iyo Murti         -Waa maxay HIV/AIDS?
               waa in ay kala saari karaan.    -I misa nooc aya look ala qaada?
              Waa in ay soo gaabin karaan     -Waa in ay samayn karaan sababo
               sheeko ay akhriyeen             u wado xaadhi kara sida loo ilalin
              Marka ay akhirayaan             laha deeganaka la kharibay.
               ogaysiiso iidhe iyo wararka     -Waxay ay dood ka bixin karaan
               caalamka waa in ay fami         ogaysiis ay akhriyeen iyo iidhe
               karaan waxa ka jira             xayaysiis ah sida:-
               agagaarkooda iyo dunidiba           Maxaa loo xayaysiinayaa
              Waxa ay kala sooci karaan          walax iib u taal?
               sheekooyin ay akhriyeen sida        Waayo sidee iyo wixii la
               ay ugu kala haboon yihiin          mid ah.
               dhaqanka iyo caadada
Qoraalka      In uu si macquula ah ama
               habsan ugu gudbin karo war
               uu maqlay qoraal ahaan.
              In uu awoodi karo ardayga
               ardayada dhawr qoraal oo
               kala hab duwan, kalana heer

                                                                        181
                                                                                                       Somali Language
                  sareeya.
                 Waa in ay abuuri karaan
                  qoraal ah (forms) sawiro
                  waxa ku qoran yihiin (post
                  cards)
                 Xayaysiiska iyo qoraalada
                  gaagaban
                 Waa in ay sharxi karaan
                  dareen caan ah oo ku saabsan
                  dad ama hawlo la
                  qabanayaayo oo dan guud ah.
                 In ay wax ka qori karan
                  nadaafadda deegaankooda
                  olole caafimaad iyo wax
                  lamid ah
                 In ay so diyaarin karaan
                  dhaco ay u joogeen wixii war
                  looga baahnaa.



Xirfada qoraalka fasalada 3 aad iyo 4 aad
      Waa in ay samayn karaan qoraal maqaal ah oo ay ka soo xigteen ilo kala duwan.
      In ay xog ururin karaan ama warar, iyaga oo qoraalkooda adeegsanaya una gudbinaaya dad aan ka warqabin ama wargayska.
      In buug ay akhriyeen ama ay dhigteen si wacan ugala bixi karaan nuxurka ku jira cutubka iyo ka badan.
      In ay kordhin karaan iyaga oo raacaaya sharciyada qoraal hanaanka iyo fartaba.
      In ay samayn karaan warbixin arrin isku qasan iyaga oo u kala horaysiinayya habka ay u kal mudan yiniin una samayn kara hordhac la fahmi karo.
      In ay wax ka qori karaan xaalada cafimaad, dhaqan iyo dhaqaale ee deegaankooda inta heerkooda ah.
      Masuul ama caalin qudbad jeediyay in ay soo koobi karaan qodobada muhiimka ah ee ku jiray meelaha uu culayska saaraayay iyo habka shucuurtiisa
       hadalku dadka u saamaynaysay.
      In ay ku cabiri karaan, qoraalkooduna si macaquula u sharixi karo dareenka bulshada deegaankooda arrin gaar ah ama dhacdo markaas dhacaday.

Xirfada dhagaysiga
    In ay fahmaan ahmiyada dhegaysiga una dhaqan gelin karaan xaqiiq ahaan.

                                                                         182
                                                                                                          Somali Language
       In ay weelayn karaan nuxurka ku jira qoraal loo akhriyay oo ay dhegaysteen.
       In ay si wacan oo kobocsan uga jawaabi karaan qudbad uu jeediyay caalim diimeed ama maado kale o ku saabsan caafimaad bulsho.
       In ay cashar ama qudbad ka samayn karaan ama laga samayn karo war ay ka dhagayasteen raadyawga oo laga xigtay ardayga.
       Inay fahmi karaan nuxurka ku jira gabayga hees ay dhagaysteen. Iyagoo si cad u kala saaraya dhinacyada hadalku khusaya iyo nacfiga ku jira ama wax
        yeelada uu keeni karo.
       In ay kala xukumi karaan iyaga oo sababaynaya dood laba kooxood ka dhexaysa oo ay dhegaysanayeen waxa laysku hayo.
       In ay weelayn karaan iyaga oo dhaqan gelinaya sharciyo loo akhriyey oo ay dhegaysteen.

    Xirfadaha hadalka
    Marka ay hadal noqoto ardayga dugsiga sare waa in uu kara
     Si caadiya la sheekaysan karaa qof kale ama cid kale (bulsho).
     Kalsooni kugudbin karaa macluumad ama war cid warsan karaa, dareenka uu qabo.
     U adeegasan karaa luqudda af soomaaliga hadba munaasibadda laga hadlaayo
     Khudubad ama muxaadaro (lecture) ku gudbin karaa afkiisa.
     Kala bixin kara hadal gaaban ama kooban, soo koobi karaa hadal dheer ama fidsan
     U sharax karaa si fudud hadal cagligal ah hawl qabad iyo hadal dedan.
     Ka hadli karaa naftiis noloshiisa iyo deegaan kiisa.
     Jeedin karaa hadal kooban oo qeexan ama saafan(short and sharp), isla markaana ku qotoma u jeeddada.
     Jeedin karaa hadal ku salaysan dood cilmiyeed maanso af maldahan aragti gaarahaaneed ( personal view) waraysan karaa cid lama la waraysan karo
       (interview and interviewed)
     Bixin karaa amarro sax ah bulshana wacyigelin kara.

Xirfadda akhriska
U jeedo gaar ah:
     Marka ay akhris noqoto ardayga dugsiga sare ku jiraa waa in uu.:-
   Gartaa ama fahma macluumad, unab rogi karaa ama u beddeli karaa macluumad kaas wejiyo kale sidaa sawirro, khariidado sharax iyo xasuus qoraal
    (Notes).
   Ka bogan karaa dhacdooyin gaar ahaaneed iyo amarro isag ka soocaaya wixii ku dheeraad ah dulucda hadalka ee aan meesha ku habboonayn.
   Akhriskiisa u adeegsado tabo kale duduwan si uu u waafajiyo ujeeddooyin dhawr ah, isaga oo dulmar iyo dhakhsoba adeegsanayaa, isla markaana si
    balaadhan uga fakiray mawduuca.
   Waa in uu si dhakhso u akhriyaa una fahmi karaa qoraalo kale duwan oo is ugu jira ogaysiisoyo xayaysiisyo amarro sheekooyin iyo wargsysyo.

                                                                           183
                                                                                                       Somali Language
   Waa in uu quumayn karaa akhriskiisa oo ka dhex dooran kara wixii ku haboon mawduca hor yaala iyo dulucda laga leeyahay waa in uu soo koobi karaa
    ama soo uruin karaa hadal dheer oo uu soo akhryey.




                                                                         184
                                                                                          Teaching

APPENDIX
TEACHING

There are many methods applicable to teaching of secondary schools students. They include the following:
Learner-Centred
This is the most important way of teaching the syllabus. It involves all the students where the teacher is only a guide
or a facilitator but not a lecturer.The pupils frequently ask questions and discuss the lesson, the female pupils are
always involved equally with the males. Pupil activity throughout a lesson is paramount- completing exercises and
reading from the textbooks, performing science experiments, not just copying from the board and tests are frequent.
Small group, large group and whole class discussion
Groups are very good in tapping knowledge and viewpoints from individuals and pooling information for general use.
The size and number of groups depend on the size of the class and the number of sub-topics per discussion topic and
avail For very small classes, it may only be possible to divide the learners into a few groups. Some topics may have
many subtopics and the teacher may want to have as many groups as the subtopics so that each group is allocated a
task.
 Use of pictures and picture strips: Learners are given pictures and instructed on what to look for or what to do with
what they observe. Pictures could be used as introductions to lessons, in group discussions or to reinforce a point. Use
of pictures reduce the need for verbal descriptions and are particularly useful in illustrating processes or are things
which are inaccessible because of distance, location, size (microscopic) etc. A good picture is the next best
alternative to the real thing and a motion picture ( film/video) very nearly the real thing.
Role play: This is used to emphasize certain point especially difficult and controversial ones. Role plays makes
learning fun and leave a long lasting impression on the minds of children. In role play, learners take on roles and
speak and perform as their imagination tells them the persons whose place they have taken and they need neither
scripts nor dress.
Demonstration: When the teacher needs learners to learn a certain skill, he could demonstrate it or have an expert to
do it. Most practical skills are first demonstrated then as learners observe before they are allowed to practice. During
the demonstration, the learners should be arranged in a semi-circle so that all can see the instructor and the
performance. After the demonstration, the learners are given the apparatus and step by step instructions on how to go
about it. They should also be given warnings on probable dangers.
Practicals: Most times, practicals follow a demonstration. The learner tries to do what he/she has seen the
teacher/demonstrator/instructor do. However, there are times that the teacher will allow the learner to do an
experiment that has not been demonstrated so that the learner can find out results and make conclusion for
him/herself. It is important that learners are given all necessary instruction and cautioned on likely dire occurrences
before they start a practical lesson.
Field trip
Field trip refers to an educational visit to a place where teachers believe would give learners a better understanding of
a topic, a subject or a combination of topics and or subjects. A field trip must be arranged well in advance so that the
teacher has time to communicate with the people whom he expects to find at the place of visit. During the time of
arrangement the teachers should do the following:
Write a letter or go personally to the place intended to be visited by class.
 Communication before visit
Inform the authority/owner of the place your intentions, what you would want the students to learn and how you
would want them to learn it e.g. by explanation, demonstration etc
Indicate how many learners you will take and number of staff to accompany them
Enquire about any special regulations to be followed by visitors
Tasks before visit
Inform head of school and get permission and arrange for travel
Meet with other teachers who will accompany you to discuss all matters of the trip and share responsibilities
Inform the students about the visit and what they need to carry /writing materials etc.
Instruct learners on timing and regulations to be followed on the route and at the place of visit the place
Give learners questioners on what to find out during the trip and give instructions on keeping records.

During the visit
Keep with you a record of all learners in the group, Be alert to note any disappearances/account for all at all times,
Be alert for misbehaviour and intervene immediately it is observed
After the visit
Undertake follow-up activities e.g. posing question, asking learners to write an essay on the trip, reading the note
written by the learners during the trip




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THE SCHEMES OF WORK
All teachers do not make the syllabus. It is developed by a panel of curriculum specialists including teachers and the
Ministry of Education or other authorised agency. Teachers process the syllabus into lesson plans from which they
teach their lessons and are therefore referred to as curriculum implementers.
What does the teacher do when s/he receives the syllabus?
The teacher reads the syllabus from one end to the other and tries to understand it thoroughly. S/He then starts to
think on how best to implement it. The first step in implementation is sequencing the topics into some form of order.
The curriculum developer writes a syllabus for the whole country and not for a specific school or region. The way the
syllabus topics are arranged may therefore not be the best or suit every school situation. Every teacher must therefore
look through the topics to see which rearrangement patterns suits her needs best. The sequence can be determined by
climatic conditions, availability of teaching resources during certain seasons, ordering the information from simple to
complex.
The second important step is chunking. This is the act of breaking down each syllabus topics into small portions each
of which can be covered within a single or double lesson. Each such chunk holds enough content for a single or
double period lesson. Through chunking, one syllabus topic may then be taught piecemeal in several lessons.
Normally, each of the syllabus content becomes a lesson topic. However, if the content is too large to be covered in a
lesson, it may be further broken to form a number of lesson topics.
Lesson objectives: The syllabus topic objectives, if coverable within a lesson may be reproduced in the scheme of
work without change. However, if the objective is too broad to be covered in a lesson, it may need to be broken down
to be even more specific in terms of time, and the expected change in learner. So while the topic objective in the
syllabus reads, “By the end of the topic…” the lesson objective in the scheme of work reads, “By the end of the
lesson…..”
The objective in the scheme of work is measurable in that it specifies by use of an active verb what the learner should
be able to do by the end of a specified period of time i.e. by end of the lesson within which it is taught. The proposed
behavioural change must be realistic and achievable within the time limit, apparatus available and the way the
lesson will be conducted.
Time given in an objective makes it time bound in that it tells by what time the expected behaviour change should be
evident. For a lesson to be said to be properly stated, it should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time
bound. In short, it should be SMART.
S=Specific
M= measurable
A=Achievable
R=Realistic
T=Time bound

Specifying the learning/teaching activities: into teacher‟s and learners‟ activities.
  Teacher’s activities: What the teacher will be doing to facilitate learning during the lesson
  Learners’ activities: what the learners will be doing during the lesson so as to acquire knew knowledge, skills
   and/or attitudes
  References and other resources: The teacher will research on references from which he/she can get the
   information on the topic and think of the most appropriate resources including persons who can be enhance the
   teaching of the content hence the achievement of the objective.
Writing the Scheme of work
The scheme is a teacher‟s preparatory document showing a plan, objectives, teacher‟s activities and learners‟
activities covering a period of time from a few weeks, term or year. It is best to scheme for the whole year so that the
teacher can see how to fit all the topics to allocated time. Below is a sample format for a subject.




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       SAMPLE SCHEME OF WORK

Week              Topic and specific                     Contents        Teachers activities                     Learners             Teaching
       Lesson     objectives                                                                                     activities           Reference

1                 Introduction to subject                subject         Introduce the term subject and          Answer teacher‟s     Resource
       1&2        By the end of the topic, the           Branches of     ask learners to tell what they          questions.           Reference
                  learner should be able to:             subject         understand by it.                       Listen to the        Books
                  4. define subject                                      Consolidate learners‟ points and        teachers             Internet e
                  5. state the main branches of                          develop a definition.                   description of
                       subject and describe what                         Demonstrate that subject is a very      various branches
                       they involve                                      wide subject by giving                  of subject
                                                                         appropriate examples and                Write down
                                                                         explaining what each involves           points on
                                                                         Ask learners which branches of          Favourite branch
                                                                         subject they would like to have         of subject and
                                                                         and why                                 read them loudly
                                                                                                                 to the class.
                                                                                                                 Observe pictures
                                                                                                                 and decide the
                                                                                                                 branch of subject
                                                                                                                 involved



       THE LESSON PLAN

       A scheme of work contains lessons to be taught over a period of time. The teacher therefore needs to extract from it
       what is to be taught for each specific period. Below is a sample format of a lesson plan.

       SAMPLE LESSON PLAN
                                                                           LESSON PLAN
       NAME OF SCHOOL: Eid Mbarak Secondary School
       TEACHER’S NAME: Ahmed Mohamoud Sultan

                         Time:
       Date: 07/11/ 2006 From 8.00-9: 30 am                     Form: II                   Roll: 52
       SUBJECT: EXAMPLE Agriculture
       TOPIC: Introduction to agriculture
       SUB-TOPIC: Definition and Branches of Agriculture
       OBJECTIVE(S): By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
          a) define agriculture
                  1. state the main branches of agriculture and describe what they involve
                  2.
       STEP                  TIME      TEACHERS ACTIVITIES                                                          LEARNERS ACTIVITIES
       INTRODUCTION          5 Min.                                                                                 Answer teacher‟s questions
                                       and ask learners to tell what they understand by it.                         lesson.
                                                                                                                    Give their definitions of agr

       PRESENTATION                         Consolidate learners‟ points and develop a definition.                  Listen to the teacher‟s descr
                                            Demonstrate that agriculture is a very wide subject by giving           various branches of agricult
                                            appropriate examples and explaining what each involves:                 Write down points on board
                                                                                                                    Favourite branch of agricult
                                             Write notes/main points on B/b                                         them loudly to the class whe
                                            Ask learners which branches of agriculture they like/would like to      so by teacher.
                                            have and why

       APPLICATION                          Give learners farm products/ pictures of different farming              Observe farm products and p
                                            activities and products and ask them to name the branch of              by the teacher. Decide the b
                                            agriculture shown or producing them                                     agriculture shown in the pic


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                                                                                           Teaching

                                                                                                             which the farm products com
CONCLUSION                          Tell learners to ask questions on the lesson. See whether there are      Ask the teacher questions ab
                                    some who can answer the question before giving your answer. Ask          which you did not understan
                                    learners questions on the lesson. Clarify any points not understood      Answer teacher‟s questions.

EVALUATION                          Test or assessment




Syllabus review
The outcome of both the formative and summative evaluations evaluation should determine the need for syllabus
review and the direction it should take.

SUGGESTED LEARNER ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF TEACHING/ LEARNING
PROCEDURE AND GRADING SYSTEM
  It is important for the teacher to evaluate his/he own teaching and to assess his/her learners‟ performance. By the
end of any given topic, it should be possible to determine whether and or to what extent the intended objectives set
out to be accomplished, have been achieved. The test that measures learner achievement is the same that measures the
effectiveness of the teaching process. For example, when a learner gets a mark such as 95%, it can be seen that s/he
has done well. If all learners have a mark above 80% then it may be said that they all perfumed well and it could be
assumed that the teaching was well done. However, if learners who have been performing well all get a mark under
40% it may mean that there was a problem in the teaching processes

Objective Based Tests
In the syllabus, one or more objectives is/are stated at the beginning of each topic to indicate what needs to have been
accomplished by learners by the end of the topic. Each objective starts with a stem; “By the end of the topic, the
learner should be able to…” followed by a verb. When assessing the learners, the teacher is interested to know
whether the stated objective was achieved. S/He will therefore set a test item using the                same verbs in the
topic/lesson objectives. Even where the teacher does not reproduce the objective in question form, the verb describing
the task set out to be achieved in the objective should be
used in the test item.
 Objectives specify the task the learner should be able to accomplish and therefore what s/he should be tested on e.g.
If the objective reads that the learner should be able to describe…, then, the test item should only require the
candidate to describe but not demonstrate, classify etc. The teacher must therefore always use the verb that
correctly tests either the task set in the objective or a lower level cognitive task than that set out in the objective but
never higher.
Describe is a higher level cognitive operation than name and therefore, description is not called for.

Examples of other verbs used in topic/lesson objectives as indicators of tasks the learner should accomplish and
which should be similarly used in test items to verify the learners acquired ability to perform the task are given here
below:
List, name, explain, differentiate, compose, compare, identify, classify, translate, interpret, state, give a prediction on,
quote, cite, recite, demonstrate, arrange/ rearrange according to.., give a judgement, recite, design, record, define,
calculate, multiply, add, divide, subtract, match, order, rank, , describe, outline, distinguish, restructure, construct
etc.
A good assessment determines whether by the end of the stated period, topic or lesson, the learner is able to perform
the task(s) set out in the objective(s).
Objectives guide the teacher in determining what the learner is expected to do and under those conditions. There may
be no conditions in an objective such as “By the end of the topic, the learner will be able to milk a cow”.
But an objective could stipulate conditions under which the task is to be undertaken .By such stipulation, it is not only
the ability to perform that is at test, but also the proficiency level to which it is performed e.g. “By the end of the
topic, the learner should be able to complete milking a cow within seven minutes.” The task to be accomplished is the
milking to completion while the condition is the time within which it should be accomplished. A candidate may
therefore not get full marks or may even fail if the degree of proficiency is not reached. Some tasks demand that a
certain degree of proficiency be reached for a candidate to be said to have passed
Objectives guide the teacher on whether the test to be given to the learners should be theory or practical. For example,
if the task is that the learner be able to explain something, then the teacher may only ask a theoretical question which
will be answered on paper.
If the task is prepare then the test may be a practical.



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The teacher is able to evaluate his/her teaching through assessment of learners. The number of learners able to
perform the task(s) set out in the objective(s) to a certain extent by the end of the specified time i.e. end of topic,
shows how effective the teaching has been. The results of such an evaluation can help the teacher to determine what
changes are required in future teaching e.g. changes in:-
Teaching methods
Teaching resources
Time given per content areas, etc
Methods of Learner Assessment
      1. Continuous assessment
It is recommended that the teacher carried out continuous assessment. Since, the specific objectives state that learners
will be able to perform certain task(s) by the end of the topic. Therefore, through the teacher may need to test
certain contents before the end of the topic, it is important that a test is done at the end of each topic. Mid-term, an
term and end year examinations are also encouraged. Some methods of testing are:

    (i)        Oral – e.g. for brainstorming on a topic, exploring learners knowledge of a new topic or as an indication
               to the teacher whether the learners are following the lesson.
      (ii)     Short/written quizzes at the end of the lesson or topic-essays etc.
      (iii)    Practical work- in class and field
      (iv)     Observation- to assess psychomotor and affective domain objectives.
      (v)      Practical projects for individuals or groups.
It is important for the teacher to understand that how a task is performed tells not only the competence gained but
also the attitude with which it is done.
Mark award through observation for each task will therefore include the following points, for example:

                 Marking point                                                     % Mark of Total
             a)  Degree of exactness in performance of a task                      40
             b)  Creativity                                                        10
             c)  Timeliness in completing a task, reporting, etc                   10
             d)  Enthusiasm/keenness                                               5
             e)  Care in handling materials                                        10
             f)  Care of the environment                                           10
             g)  Co-operation/teamwork spirit                                      10
             h)  Leadership/planning/organizational                                5
                 abilities/responsibility etc
             Total                                                                 100

At least three tasks preterm should be assessed by continuous assessment tests (CATS) and marks recorded. Marks
for the three (or more CATS) should be averaged and given a termly percentage out of 100. This should form 50%
of the end of term test.

 End term examinations
At the end of each term, learners should sit for the end term examination which should cover all the topics covered
during that period. They should be marked out of 100. The end term marks should be added to the term‟s CAT mark
and averaged to give the final end term grade. All final term grades achieved during the course will be averaged to
make the end of course CAT mark.

    2. Project
During the last year of secondary school, each learner will be expected to carry out a crop growing project from land
preparation to harvesting. This will be marked long the same points used for making CATs as in the table above. The
marks obtained in this should be added to the end of course CAT mark and averaged to make the final overall CAT
grade. The final overall CAT grade should be sent to the National Examination Board to make part of the End
Course Examination grade.
    3. End of course Examination
There should be one 2 Hour (at least) End of Course paper.

The teaching should become more practical and skills orientated.
Observational skills, data management, analysing historical cause and effects, and drawing comparisons from history




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The teaching should make learning relevant to life outside the classroom:
.
  o Hospitals, doctors, first aid etc
  o local eating habits etc
  o Health Education (e.g. HIV/AIDS awareness)
  o Khat chewing
  o Environmental Education
  o Gender issues
  o Environmental issues such as:-
  o Combating pollution
  o Concentrating on female activities related to Biology:
  o Instead of always quoting male names, use female names also:
            In the theory and practical questioning in the classroom,
            In the exams and textbooks,
            More pictures of females and males doing activities related to the subject not only in the kitchen
            Role models and pictures of female: eg nurses, doctors,
            Learning made relevant to daily life. Practical real life skills development:
            Practical examples from real life used in teaching and written into the syllabus
            Using practical equipment.
            Field trips made by the school to places where examples from the subject are used.
  Increase the number of specific practical exercises to:-
            Improve estimating, measuring, recording and graph drawing skills
            Improve observational and manipulative skills
            Make deductions which develop critical thinking when interpreting results to deduce conclusions.
            Improve calculating skills from experimental results
            Creative thinking using the discovery method: starting the lesson with practical examples and
                deducing, instead of learning definitions.




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