The HydroHelp series of hydro design and cost programs - a

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The HydroHelp series of hydro design and cost programs - a Powered By Docstoc
					           The    HydroHelp         series of hydro design and cost programs
                    - a description with examples of program screens.

       A series of programs called HydroHelp has been developed to allow engineers to obtain an initial
assessment of a hydro site, with a minimum of site data. All programs use Microsoft Office, Excel 2003
on Windows XP. Some data on charts may be lost if run on older versions of Microsoft Windows.

        The programs do NOT include any hydrologic or financial analysis. However, hydrologic
data can be entered into the programs by defining the operating hours on the turbines. The program will
then calculate the energy taking into account conduit losses and all equipment efficiencies.

        The user starts by using HydroHelp 1 for turbine selection (See the detailed description for this
program). At 2.0Mbytes, the HydroHelp 1 is the smallest in the series. Nevertheless, it guides the user
through the turbine selection process from a total of 28 types of turbines, ranging from very low head
“pit” units to high head multi-jet impulse units.

       Once the type of turbine has been selected, the user proceeds to the other programs, HydroHelp 2
for Francis turbines in surface powerplants, HydroHelp 6 for Francis turbines in underground
powerplants, HydroHelp 3 for impulse turbines or 4 for Kaplan turbines, both in surface powerplants.
HydroHelp 5 for pump-turbine developments is described elsewhere.

         HydroHelp programs 2, 3, 4 and 6 guide the user through the design process, providing the user
with prompts in the adjacent “Comment” cell, as to the options available, and the best choice. All the user
has to do is hold the cursor over a yellow “Comment” cell, and a box opens to provide detailed
instructions on data entry. For this reason, the programs do not require a manual. The programs are
intended for use by relatively inexperienced hydro engineers, by providing an “expert guide” throughout
the project design process. The programs calculate quantities and costs, based on the data input, for all the
required structures, including dams (concrete, embankment central core or homogeneous, weir) and the
electro-mechanical equipment, from initial clearing to the substation and transmission line. There is no
upper limit on project size. The lower limit is at about 1MW, since micro- turbine costs and construction
“sweat equity” are not covered by the programs. All cost data has been updated to North American 2008
costs. Equipment prices are based on using European or American equipment.

         The HydroHelp programs have a large data input sheet. It includes all instructions on data entry.
Data entry cells are blue, comment cells are yellow, and red cells on the same line indicate that either
iteration is needed or there is a restriction on the data range, where the data must be below or above a
number provided in an adjacent cell. For example, the program will calculate the upper surge level in a
surge tank, and if the tank is in rock, the level of rock at the tank, must be above the upper surge level. All
cells with restricted data entry must be re-checked after completing data entry, to ascertain that they are
still within the design limits.

         There are several warnings to check the more important data entry if this is outside defined limits
– for example, if the turbine net head has not been iterated close to the program-defined head, a warning
will be shown. Another example is excessive speed rise on load rejection triggers a warning, with
instructions for correction of data entry. If negative quantities are accidentally generated due to incorrect
input data, a warning will appear adjacent to the cost line, and at the end of the cost sheet. All programs
crash on a negative quantity, so care is needed in data entry. Where the user is using the automatic
iteration feature in Excel, the program will NOT recover from a negative quantity crash, so frequent
saving to file is suggested during data entry.
        All HydroHelp programs have an input sheet where all input data is grouped. Although there is a
large amount of data input, 186 to 235 items in each program, all can be derived from maps and a casual
site inspection with a GPS position locator, without having to resort to surveys and geotechnical
investigations. A full site investigation is necessary if the assessment indicates an economic project. The
following is an example of the design options available in all programs.

         DATA INPUT SHEET - HYDROHELP 2 FOR FRANCIS TURBINED SURFACE POWERPLANTS

                                      BAKER                                       Estimate date           5-Jan-09

          Fixed options for design of all alternatives of powerplant and conduit.
     6    Currency, Canadian $ = 1, USA $ = 2.                                                1
     7    Turbine distributor, steel casing = 1; concrete casing = 2.                         1   Comment
     8    Horizontal turbine layout, maximum runner throat size, m.                         1.7   Comment
     9    Maximum allowable speed rise on full load rejection, %.                            50   Comment
    10    Runner diameter limit for umbrella generators, m.                                 3.5   Comment
    11    Turbine inlet valve below crane, yes = 1, no = 0                                    1   Comment
    12    Powerhouse crane capacity limit for single crane, tons.                          350    Comment
    13    Project design standard utility = 1, industrial = 2.                                1   Comment
    14


        The end result is a comprehensive pre-feasibility cost assessment with a 3-page detailed cost
estimate listing quantities, unit prices and costs. Typical input data would be length of pipeline, whether
buried or above ground, length of tunnel, crest length of dam, headwater and tailwater elevations, as
shown in the following partial example from the input sheet for the Francis program -

    14
    15                  Turbine characteristics.                                  Comment                      55.99
    16    Rated head in m. Iterate to equal Cell F15                     56.00    Gross head =                 58.35
    17    Rated PLANT flow in cubic meters per second                    60.00    Plant MW =                   29.45
    18    Required number of units.                                           2   Unit flow=                   30.00
    19    Normal tailwater elevation in meters           =              290.00    Comment         Note -
    20    Tailwater temperature in degrees celcius        =                 10    Comment         submergence is
    21    Required runner submergence "S" meters =                        4.00    Comment         positive below
    22    Specified runner cavitation coefficient "k" =                  0.006    Comment         tailwater, negative
    23    Manual # runner blades (13, 15, 17 or 19)      =                  13    Comment         above.
    24    Runner blade number, manual (1), or automatic, (2). -------   =                    2      Comment
    25    Runner manufacturing factor "R"                 =                 5.6   Comment
    26    Plant capacity factor. Iterate to equal Cell F26.              0.596    Comment                      0.595
    27    Rated load servomotor stroke (0.9 to 0.97)        =             0.97    Comment
    28
    29                    Generator characteristics.
    30    Utility (1), industrial (2) quality generator.  =                  1 Comment             Comment
    31    Generator power factor (0.85 to 0.95)           =               0.90 Freq. Hz =                         60
    32    Generator inertia ratio "J", calc. "H" value in F32            2.050 Comment                          3.57
    33
    34                     Project hydraulics.                              Comment
    35    Normal +ve waterhammer design for penstock %              47.5 Comment
    36    Allowable negative waterhammer on penstock %              40.0 Comment                          40
    37    Design for turbine-induced runaway waterhammer - yes (1), no (2).                               2
    38

         Comment cells provide instructions for the user. The following is an example of the comment cell
on line 21 describing preferences on unit submergence –


                                                                                                                        2
           Submergence is positive below tailwater, and negative above tailwater. See Cells G21 and
           M21 for runner diameter and shaft alignment.

           Optimum submergence for horizontal units:-
           Runner diameter less than 1.8m. = about -2.5m. that is shaft center well above tailwater.
           Runner diameter over 1.8m. = about 0.5 runner diameter, (below tailwater) - both measured to
           one half runner radius above shaft centerline.
           Optimum submergence for vertical units;-
           About one runner diameter below tailwater. Usual range is from 0.7 to 1.5 runner diameters.
           Do NOT submerge unit more than about 2 runner diameters below tailwater. Deep
           submergence may require use of compressed air to mitigate any rough operation, and this
           is very expensive.

         The programs calculate all basic structure dimensions, from reservoir wave heights and the
corresponding average rip-rap size on the dam, to the capacity of the powerhouse crane. All hydraulic
computations are undertaken, such as governor open-close times, surge tank design, relief valve size,
conduit friction losses, and provide a chart on suitability for isolated operation. Schematics are provided
for surge and waterhammer levels. Sufficient dimensions are shown on typical generic sections of the
required structures, to allow a draftsman to produce general drawings for the project. Charts are provided
for turbine efficiency and for overall project efficiency, including conduit losses. Water to wire costs for
the generating equipment are developed, along with cost of all ancillary electromechanical equipment,
from intake gates to spillway gates and powerplant elevators. The following illustrates the program output
data, all copied from the HydroHelp 2 program –

        Surge tank module – calculates all tank parameters.

 84
 85     Surge tank size and cost calculation.                 ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
 86     Surge tank used, (1), not used (0).                                1
 87     Surge tank in steel =1, in rock exc. = 2                           2
 88     If in rock, conc lining (1), no lining, (0)                        0
 89     Elevation rock at top of tank, if in rock, m.                   340 Comment
 90     Elevation at surge tank tee, meters .                           335 Comment
 91     Tank diameter based on min for stability (1), or larger, (2)                    2
 92     Tank min. diam for stability, m.                                 7.9 Tank cost $M           0.166
 93     If tank diameter is larger, select diameter, m.                    9 Comment
 94     Turbine rated head, m.                                         56.0
 95     Upstream conduit length, meters.                                305
 96     Acceleration head loss to tank, m.                             2.47
 97     Retardation head loss to tank, m.                              1.84 Surge in tank as a % of
 98     Elevation of top of tank, meters.                             359.4 turbine head             15.1
 99     Elevation of bottom of tank, meters.                          338.7 Should be less than 15%.
100     Tank height, top to bottom, meters.                            20.8
101     Surge tank height from T to roof, m=                           24.4 Should not > 112m.
102                                                                                                       Page 9

         Schematic of conduit hydraulics as developed by the program. Note that program will select less
expensive HDPE pipe if suitable for pipe diameter and head. For large diameter pipes, the program can
select Wheholite pipe if the pressure and diameter is within the range of such pipe. The programs include
instructions to eliminate the HDPE and Wheholite pipe options if desired.




                                                                                                                   3
   Total length of steel pipe which can be
      substituted with HDPE pipe, m.                       335             Schematic for calculation of HDPE pipe length - for pipeline and penstock.

Maximum diameter for Sclairpipe, m.                        1.475                   Waterhammer at end of penstock, m.                                    372.1
                                                                                             Waterhammer % = 32.2
Maximum diameter for Weholite pipe, m.                      3.2                                                                                   Note - static head
                                                                                                                                               condition governs, since
                                                             Max theoretical length of HDPE penstock pipe, m. --- > 85.0
                                                                                                                                                waterhammer always
Selected maximum length of HDPE penstock pipe, minimum = 50m. =            85                                                                      less than 100%.
                                               Type of pipe selected --- > Weholite
                                             Waterhammer level at end of pipeline, m. ---- > 355.1
Static head at end of steel or HDPE pipe, m. ---------- >    15.2                                                                              Static head at end of pipeline
                                                                                                                                                 and start of penstock, m.

                             Intake                                                           351.0 Flood level, m.                                                   86.5


Head at beginning of pipe, m
                                                                                                                       16.0
                             11.4                                                  Max head on HDPE pipe, m.

Elev, pipe center, m.                                                                                         30.0                 Static head at end of penstock,
                    339.6                                                                                                                   at turbine, m.
                                                                                   Max head on HDPE pipe, m.           30.0                                    65.4

Steel or HDPE pipe length, m. -------------- >       255                                            Elevation at surge tank tee                          Static head at end of
                                                                                                        or end of pipeline.                              steel or HDPE pipe,
             Max theoretical length of HDPE pipe, m. --- > 255.0                                                          335.0                                   m.
                                           Type of pipe selected --- >             Weholite
Selected maximum length of HDPE pipeline pipe, minimum = 100m. =                   250                                                                      48.9


Total length from intake to surge tank or end of conduit, m. ---------- >          305.0                                   200                     300.0 Penstock length, m.

Pipe diameter in meters ------------------------ >   2.685                         Steel or HDPE pipe length, m.                                         Powerhouse

Penstock diameter in meters ----------------- >      2.500

                                                                    Elevation of end of penstock = turbine casing centerline, m.
                                                                                                                                   285.6




Programs will provide dimensioned generic drawings for all structures suitable for using in a report, as
shown in the following example of a Francis- turbined powerhouse section, and a table of unit efficiency
along with an efficiency chart.

     84
     85                                        Chart 2. Francis turbine efficiency versus power
     86
                              96
     87
     88
     89                       92
             Efficiency %.




     90
     91
     92                       88
     93
     94
     95                       84
     96
                                                                                                         At constant rated head
     97
     98                       80
     99                             50               60                      70                   80                   90                    100                   110
    100                                                             Turbine power ratio to rated power %
    101




                                                                                                                                                                             4
 72                                                               Powerhouse width and crane span will
 73   Figure 2. Vertical section through small Francis unit.         increase to cover valve if needed.
 74   Runner diameter less than about 2.2m, and only one               17.00
 75   draft tube gate per unit.                                 Crane span=          15.46           300.80
 76   5.18                                                                                           292.63
 77                                        Crane rail level, m. 296.94
 78                                                                                                  289.94
 79
 80                                                                                                                                                                           290.94
 81
 82
 83                                                                                                                                                                             6.00
 84                                                                                                                                                                             2.89
 85                                                                                                                                                                           287.94
 86
 87                                                                                                                                                                           294.72
 88                                                                                                                                                                            290.0
 89
 90                                                                                                                                                                           286.47
 91
 92
 93                                                                                                                                                                           290.00
 94
 95
 96                                                                                                                                                                             2.48
 97
 98
 99   6.56                                                                9.04                         1.32
100                                                       284.23 Draft tube access level.
101   280.36                                                                         281.26 DT gate sill El.
102   Turbine inlet valve (not shown) distance between flanges=           5.09 meters.
103                                                                                           Page 15

             155
             156                                                                     Chart 3. Project speed regulation capability.
             157                   Chart for speed regulation assessment.
             158                   Twater/Te                                                                           Tmech/Tg          Tm/Tg             Tm/Tg
             159                                                 0.4                                              0.0            0.563              0.818             1.115
             160                                                                                                  0.4                Projects in 1.145
                                                                                                                                 0.775                                1.535
                   Water start time / Effective governor time.




             161                                                                                                 0.39              2.08area numbers, close, with valve.
                                                                                                                                  <<Projectwill
                                                                                                                                   this
             162                                                                                                Projects
                                                                                                                 0.26              0.85
                                                                                                                                  <<Project numbers, open, with valve.
                                                                                                                                 provide speed
                                                                           Projects in this area
             163                                                  actual, close >                             in this           regulation            0.32             1.01
                                                                           will not provide any
             164                                                 0.3
                                                                  actual, open.                              area
                                                                                                                               on isolated            0.26             0.85
                                                                           speed regulation.                 will only
             165                                                                                                 0.32              1.01
                                                                                                                                    <<Project
                                                                                                                               systems for numbers, close, no valve.
                                                                                                            provide                                     Projects in
             166                                                                                                 0.26              0.85
                                                                                                                              small<<Project numbers, open, no valve.
                                                                                                           speed                                 this area will
             167                                                                                          regulation        commercial
                                                                                                                                                provide speed
             168                                                                                          on large           loads.
                                                                 0.2                                                                           regulation on isolated
             169                                                                                         systems.                             systems for industrial
             170                                                                                                                             loads, such as mine
             171                                                                                                                            hoists and electric
             172                                                                                                                            shovels, but NOT for
             173                                                 0.1                                                                      large electric arc
             174                                                                                                                          furnace loads.
             175
             176
             177
             178                                                 0.0
             179                                                       0       0.2        0.4      0.6       0.8          1         1.2        1.4        1.6         1.8
             180
             181                                                                        Mechanical start time / Total governor time.
             182
             183                                                               Chart showing project speed regulation capability.                         Comment




                                                                                                                                                                                  5
         In the cost sheet, the associated program-calculated quantities are shown, along with a suggested
unit cost (for North American projects) so that the user can input an appropriate unit cost. The suggested
unit cost is based on work quantity, use of union or non-union labor and the site frost days. More frost
days and smaller quantity produce higher suggested unit costs. The user has the option of entering other
unit costs. For projects outside North America, the user can enter a fractional inflation factor of about
0.65, assuming use of Chinese electromechanical equipment, and then enter construction unit costs as a
fraction of the suggested unit cost. The fraction would be based on running the program for a recently
constructed nearby hydro project where costs are known, and iterating the cost fraction until a match is
obtained with the project cost. The following is a partial example of the unit price costing sheet –

                                                                                                          Suggested
                            Work item.                                         Unit cost.                 unit cost,
                                                                                             Estimated     based on
                                                                                              quantity.   quantity of
                     Earthwork and clearing.                            Comment                              work.

 10   Clearing, per hectare, $/H                                        $17,100.00                    7.6 $17,089.06
 11   Unit cost of overburden excavation, m3.                               $18.50                 5,954      $18.45
 12   Unit cost of rock excavation, $/m3.                                   $74.00                41,865      $73.78
 13   Unit cost of found excav in sand or gravel for cutoff, $/m3.           $0.00                      0      $0.00
 14   Rock excavation in tunnels, $/m3.                                    $508.00                 4,167     $508.45
 15   Impervious fill in cofferdams, $/m3.                                  $70.00                 2,866      $69.79
 16   Rock fill in cofferdams, $/m3.                                        $96.00                 6,688      $95.91
 17   Impervious fill in dams, $/m3.                                        $55.00                27,885      $55.09
 18   Filter material in dams, $/m3.                                        $84.00                21,688      $83.71
 19   Rock or embankment material in dams, $/m3.                            $73.00               105,342      $73.24
 20   Rock rip-rap, $/m3.                 d50 size, m. =           0.28    $361.00                 1,698     $360.80
 21   Sidehill rock excavation for pipeline, $/m3.                          $61.00                34,409      $60.70
 22   Sidehill overburden excavation for pipeline, $/m3.                     $0.00                      0      $0.00
 23   Side creek crossing, cost per crossing.                             $823,000                      1 $823,186
 24

        Finally there is a detailed 3-page cost estimate with unit prices and quantities. Construction time
and required operating hours are all calculated, producing an estimate of annual operating costs. The last
page includes a preliminary screening, indicating whether the site is attractive. The following is a partial
example of the civil work cost output -

 70
 71     Powerhouse.
 72     Overburden excavation, m3.                                           18.50             1,107           20
 73     Rock excavation, m3.                                                 74.00             1,441          107
 74     Concrete, m3. (Excluding forms, re-bar)                          1,060.00              3,403        3,607
 75     Formwork, m2.                                                      174.00              4,934          858
 76     Reinforcing, kg.                                                      9.00          480,415         4,324
 77     Powerhouse superstructure steel weight, tonnes.                  9,140.00                 120       1,098
 78     Wall area, m2.                                                     214.00                 909         195
 79     Roof area, m2.                                                     285.00                 627         179
 80     Total powerhouse civil work cost. ---------------------------------------------------------- >     10.388
 81
 82     Tailrace.
 83     Tailrace overburden excavation cost. (m3).                              18.50             362         0.007
 84     Tailrace rock excavation cost. (m3).                                    74.00             446         0.033
 85     Sub-total tailrace excavation work. ------------------------------------------------------- >         0.040
 86



                                                                                                                        6
        The cost for all the equipment is also determined as shown in the following –

 88
 89     Cost of major mechanical equipment, summary.
 90     Total cost of spillway stoplog equipment.                                                     0.519
 91     Total cost of spillway gate equipment.                                                        2.178
 92     Total cost low level outlet stoplog or bulkhead gate equipment.                               0.000
 93     Total cost of low level outlet radial gate equipment.                                         0.000
 94     Total cost of low level outlet downstream stoplog equipment.                                  0.000
 95     Total cost of trashrack equipment.                                                            0.069
 96     Total cost of intake stoplog and/or bulkhead gate equipment.                                  0.705
 97     Total cost of intake gate guides and hoist equipment.                                         1.183
 98     Total cost of draft tube gate guide and hoist equipment.                                      0.462
 99     Total cost of powerhouse crane.                                                               0.675
100     Total cost elevators.                                                                         0.000
101     Total powerhouse ancilliary mechanical systems.                                               0.909
102     Sub-total cost of major mechanical equipment, except units and valves.                        6.699
103
104                                                                                              Page 35.
105     BAKER
106
107     Ballpark cost by quantities in millions $. -- Continued
108     Generating equipment and valves.
109     Cost of turbine inlet valve(s), type.                Butterfly                                2.848
110     Cost of relief valve(s).                                                                      0.000
111     Powerhouse station service.                                                                   0.060
112     W/W cost of generating equipment, switchgear and controls.                                   35.249
113     Sub-total cost of W/W equipment, including valve(s).                                         38.156
114
115         Total electromechanical work cost, millions $ ---------------------------------- >      $44.855
116

         The programs contain design options for use by utilities or entrepreneurs. For utilities, the
quantities for the concrete structures are larger, since utilities prefer to provide more space for repair bays
and around equipment. Also, equipment costs are higher to allow for the more rigorous standards for
testing, inspection and installation demanded by utilities. Other options are also available, such as
whether to use a surge tank or a relief valve on a long conduit, and program or manual optimization of the
conduit size from intake to turbine. The following shows the conduit optimization options –

 135
 136            Conduit from reservoir to powerhouse.                                             Comment
 137     Number of conduits intake to powerhouse.                             1 L/H ratio =                 10.8
 138     Automatic (1) or manual (2) optimization.                            1 Comment
 139     Select pipe diam (m) for manual optimization.                     3.50 Comment.          <<< NOTE
 140     Select penstock diam (m) for manual optimiz.                      3.20                   Comment
 141     Penstock steel ultimate & yield strength, Mpa.                   482.5 Yield, Mpa.              344.7
 142

        Manual conduit optimization is assisted by an index of energy cost shown on the same screen,
allowing the user to find the optimum pipe and penstock diameters. Experience with program use has
indicated that the automatic conduit optimization results in conduit sizes very close to the optimum.
Optimization of unit size and number of units is easily attained, again assisted by an energy cost index
where the user can immediately see the effect of increasing or decreasing conduit size or number of units.


                                                                                                               7
        All generating equipment data is calculated, as shown in the following screen from HydroHelp 2.

 118   Turbine and governor characteristics.                      Select vertical axis.
 119   Turbine draft tube rope frequency, Hz.                              1.389 Comment
 120   Draft tube rope frequency NOT close to conduit L/a frequency --- OK                        OK
 121   Turbine runaway speed at maximum head, rpm.                           579 Nruna/rpm              1.93
 122   Turbine runaway speed at rated head, rpm.                             566 Nruna/rpm              1.89
 123   Turbine runaway flow, m3/s.                                         26.29
 124   Time to reach runaway flow, secs.                                   20.98
 125   Turbine casing inlet diameter, m.                                   2.263 Comment
 126   Turbine inlet/runner diameter ratio.                                 1.21
 127   Max. runner diam, m. & weight in tonnes. D, m =                     2.052 Wt. Tons =             4.58
 128   Runner GD2, tonnes-m2.                                               15.6 WR2 (lbs-ft)         92,596
 129   Effective Gov. close time, without relief valve, secs.                 8.7 Comment
 130   Total governor close time, no relief valve, secs.                    10.3
 131   Speed rise on full load rejection, no relief valve, %.         57.1         Comment
 132   Effective Gov. open time, with/without relief val, secs.               9.2 Tg (open)             10.8
 133   Speed rise on load rejection too high, add inertia/relief valve/surge tank. Comment
 134   Relief valve open time and turbine close time, secs.      Not applicable.
 135   Waterham. on relief valve/turbine opening/closing %.      Not applicable. Comment
 136   Relief valve close time with same waterham, secs.         Not applicable. Comment
 137   Turb. rpm rise, full load rejection, with relief valve, % Not applicable. Comment
 138   Generator characteristics.                                Approximate rotor diam, m.=            4.46
 139   Generator inertia GD2 in tonnes-meters squared.                     474.0 WR2 (lbs-ft)      2,811,707
 140   Generator inertia factor H in kWsecs/kva.                            3.57 Comment
 141   Generator natural frequency, Hz.                                       99 Pole height, m         0.97
 142   Range of generator rotor weight, tonnes. =                           72.3 Comment                54.2
 143   Generator casing diameter and height (Ch), m.                        6.37        Ch =            2.04
 144   Unit mechanical start time, secs. (Includes runner)                  8.20 Comment        Comment
 145   Suggested min. vertical axis unit spacing, m.                       8.310

         The programs include several safety overrides such as preventing the use of too small pipelines.
All programs require some iteration of data, but this task is easily accomplished by following the adjacent
instructions. For example, the programs calculate the head loss in the conduit and corresponding net head
on the turbine at full load. The user has to change the assumed net head until it matches the calculated
head. Another example would be the design of a sand settling basin, where the user has to increase the
basin volume until a match is obtained with the program calculated required volume. For expert users on
HydroHelp 2, 3, and 6 the programs show how to use the Excel iteration in the “Options” +
“Calculations” screen. Automatic iteration does not work on HydroHelp 4 due to the numerous types of
powerplant layouts analyzed by the program.

        The programs all have cost summaries suitable for transfer to a report, as illustrated in the
following examples, again obtained from HydroHelp 2 –

                           Summary of principal civil work quantities.
             Total length of conduit from intake to powerhouse, m.                     605
             Overburden excavation, cubic meters.                                    5,954
             Rock excavation, cubic meters.                                         41,865
             Rock tunnel excavation, cubic meters.                                   4,167
             Concrete, cubic meters.                                                20,580
             Steel penstock and tunnel liners, tonnes.                                 565
             Dam fill materials, cubic meters.                                     166,168
             Total overheads as % of total cost.                                      20.6



                                                                                                           8
                                                       BAKER                  Estimate date               5-Jan-09
                                      Estimated cost, in millions of dollars. $ CAN.

     Site access.                                                                                  2.32
     Clearing at structure sites.                                                                  0.13
     Diversion works.                                                                              1.64
     Embankment dam, and weir spillway.                                                           11.78
     Concrete dam and gated crest spillway.                                                       27.91
     Intake.                                                                                       2.34
     Tunnels and vertical bore.                                                                    2.95
     Surge tank cost, if required.                                                                 0.14
     Steel pipelines and penstocks.                                                                7.68
     Powerhouse.                                                                                  10.39
     Tailrace.                                                                                     0.04
         Total civil work cost, millions $ ------------------------------------------------------- >       67.32
     Transmission and substation.                                                                  0.89
     Cost of ancilliary mechanical equipment.                                                      6.70
     Generating equipment, valves, switchgear and controls.                                      38.16
          Total electromechanical work cost, millions $ ---------------------------------- >               45.75
     Feasibility studies and site investigations.                                           1.37
     Environmental work.                                                                    1.40
     Detailed designs and contract documents.                                               2.85
     Site supervision work.                                                                 4.44
     Contingencies on civil and overheads.                                                15.69
     Contingencies on electromechanical work.                                               3.59
     Interest during construction.                                                          8.06
         Sub-total indirect costs. ------------------------------------------------------------------ >    37.39
     Total project cost, including interest during construction, $M.                            150.5 $ CAN.

         With HydroHelp it is very simple to analyze alternatives such as tunnels or pipes, number and
capacity of units, spillway options, dam crest elevations, conduit diameters and so forth to quickly arrive
at the preferred development, a task requiring many months of intense calculations without the use of the
programs. Once the preferred layout has been determined, it is possible to further refine the project layout
to arrive at:-

             •    The optimum number and capacity of units.
             •    The optimum pipe and penstock diameters.
             •    The optimum dam height and storage volume, in combination with hydrology programs
                  not included with the HydroHelp series.
             •    The optimum combination of spillway gates – crest gates, weirs with or without rubber
                  dam crest control, or low level outlet gates.
             •    The optimum powerhouse location on a river profile which flattens downstream.

         The programs have been successfully tested on several projects of varying capacity and head,
from small hydro sites, to very large mega-projects. Experience has indicated that data input for programs
requires about 2 to 3 hours per development, and several more hours if optimization is undertaken. A full
project pre-feasibility report can be completed within 8 to 16 hours, excluding any time spent inspecting
the site. Since the programs crash on accidental generation of a negative quantity, experience has
indicated that it is preferable to first prepare a sketch of the project arrangement before entering data.

       Program descriptions follow, with typical illustrations only for HydroHelp 3 and 4 since
examples have already been shown for HydroHelp 2.


                                                                                                                     9
    1. HydroHelp 2 Francis. For projects with Francis turbines in surface powerplants. Size 56.2Mb
       with 235 inputs.

         The program produces 36 pages of detailed data on the project. All inputs have been grouped
together on a 7-page input sheet. The program produces charts of; (1) turbine efficiency-flow and (2)
efficiency-power, (3) overall efficiency-flow, (4) generator power-flow, (5) suitability for “off-grid” or
isolated operation, and (6) turbine-conduit efficiency to flow at constant head. There are options for single
or multiple conduits. The program optimizes the conduit diameter, while offering the user a manual
conduit optimization option, with an index of cost/kWh to assist optimization. Conduit losses (through
above-ground or buried pipelines/penstocks, tunnels and shafts) are calculated, and included in the
estimate of energy. There are options for the inclusion of a surge tank, and/or a relief valve, and their
sizes are calculated. Such details as turbine governor open-close times, powerhouse crane span, and wave
run-up on the dam, (concrete, rock or homogeneous) are all determined. For the dam, there are three
diversion options, by tunnel, by pipe through the cofferdams and dam, and by flow through spillway bays
where the ogee is left out. Harmonic interactions between the sound wave travel times for the penstock
and draft tube surge frequency are calculated. 27 generic drawings are provided with dimensions for all
structures, especially the powerhouse, shown in plan and section for both vertical and horizontal axis
units.

    2. HydroHelp 3 Impulse. For projects with impulse turbines. Size 6.4Mb with 186 inputs.

        The program follows the same format as HydroHelp Francis, with an output of 23 pages. All
inputs have been grouped together on a 6-page input sheet. However, in this case, the program selects the
optimum impulse turbine from a list of 13 different types, ranging from small horizontal single jet

    25
    26                                                            Horizontal axis, 2 jet, 1runner impulse
                    RECOMMENDED TURBINE TYPE
    27                                                                           turbine.
    28
    29                             Turbine type                Suitability       Comment       Cost $M
    30    Horiz. axis, 1 jet, 1 runner impulse turbine.        ----YES ----          1          9.419
    31    Horiz. axis, 2 jet, 1runner impulse turbine.         ----YES ----          1          6.114
    32    Horiz. axis, 1 jet, 2 runner impulse turbine.        ----YES ----          1          7.404
    33    Horiz. axis, 2 jet/r, 2 run. impulse turbine.         --------------       1          0.000
    34    Vert. axis, 1 jet, 1 runner impulse turbine.          --------------       1          0.000
    35    Vert. axis, 2 jet, 1 runner impulse turbine.         ----YES ----          1          7.657
    36    Vert. axis, 3 jet, 1 runner impulse turbine.         ----YES ----          1          7.799
    37    Vert. axis, 4 jet, 1 runner impulse turbine.          --------------       1          0.000
    38    Vert. axis, 5 jet, 1 run. impulse turbine.            --------------       1          0.000
    39    Vert. axis, 6 jet, 1 run. impulse turbine.            --------------       1          0.000
    40    Horiz. axis, 1 jet, 1 turgo runer turbine.            --------------       1          0.000
    41    Horiz. axis, 2 jet, 1 turgo runner turbine.           --------------       1          0.000
    42    Horiz. axis BANKI (Ossberger) turbine.                --------------       1          0.000
    43


units to large vertical axis 6-jet turbines. Turgo and Banki (cross-flow) turbines are also included. The
program-selected turbine can be de-selected, if the choice is not suitable for other reasons. Charts are
provided for overall efficiency-flow for the program or user-selected turbine, and the isolated speed
operating characteristic. Spillway options include weirs, with and without rubber dam crest control,
Tainter or flat spillway gates, and Tainter low level outlet gates. The program provides efficiency-flow
and efficiency-power charts for all turbine types. There are options for weir spillways and low level
outlets. The conduit size can be optimized either by the program or manually, and there is an index of cost
per kWh to assist in the manual optimization. There is an option for the inclusion of a surge tank, and size


                                                                                                            10
is calculated. 15 dimensioned generic drawings for all structures are provided. The previous chart
illustrates the turbine options. A dimensioned section through the powerhouse as generated by the
program, with the following being an example for a large unit for a large impulse unit powerhouse –

                                                    BAKER CREEK
 149
 150   Powerhouse plan dimensions.
 151                                            Total length, m.       26.82
                                                                                Unit shaft alignment is
 152          Full width including piping and control rooms, m.        23.26         Vertical
 153                                    Length of repair bay, m.        5.16 As selected by program.
 154                      Distance between unit centerlines, m.        10.33
 155            Powerhouse height, above repair bay floor, m.          20.21
 156   Vertical axis unit                                      Crane span. 9.26              10.26
 157                                 Crane capacity in tonnes. 80.2
 158
 159   3.35
 160                                                                                             346.70
 161                                                                                       El.
 162                                                                                             9.36
 163
 164   5.96                                                                                      330.43
 165
 166                                                                                       El. 4.61
 167
 168                                                                                           9.16
 169                                                                                           Repair
 170                                                                                           bay floor
 171   8.16                                                        Top of                  El. 326.49
                                                                   ogenerator
 172
 173                                                                                           4.83
 174                                                                                       El. 324.33
 175
 176                                                                                             Flood TWL
 177                                                                                             elevation
 178                                                                                             322.00
 179                                                                                             323.01
 180                                                                                             TWL. El, m.
 181                                                                                             317.00
 182
 183                                                                                             318.67
 184   1.098 Valve diameter, m.
 185                                                                                             7.33
 186
 187
 188                    Runner removal passage width, m. 2.33
 189    Note - Impulse units MUST be set above flood level. They cannot operate submerged, unless
 190    tailwater depressed by compressed air, and this is expensive due to high demand for air. Air
 191                demand is high due to loss from enrtainment as water falls off runner.


       A different drawing showing a horizontal axis impulse or Turgo unit powerhouse would
have been generated if the program had selected such a unit.

         The following shows a typical project summary sheet as generated by the program and available
in all programs –



                                                                                                               11
                                       HydroHelp 3 Impulse
           An EXCEL program for optimizing hydro powerhouse capacity and conduit size.


                   BAKER CREEK                                                      Date --     5-Jan-09


 6   Project parameters determined by program.
 7   Turbine output at rated head and flow, MW.                    39.84
 8   Powerplant output at rated head and flow, MW.                 77.31
 9   Turbine rated net head, m.
                                                                             Executive summary
                                                                  451.30
10   Conduit average diameter, m.                                  1.983
11   Powerplant average annual generation, GWh.                    334.3
12   Estimated cost, in millions of dollars.                     $100.2 CAN $
13
14   Summary of input data for project.
15   Number of turbines and flow in m3.                                2     Flow, m3               20.00
16   Access road and transmission lengths, km.                       1.2
17   Headpond full supply level, m. (FSL)                         847.30      LSL =                844.00
18   Normal tailwater level at powerhouse, m.                     317.00     Trans. km.                 1
19   Number of water conduits to powerhouse.                           1     Length to head
20   Conduit length, intake to powerhouse, m.                      4,823     ratio ------ >          10.7
21
22   Summary of program output for some parameters.                         Powerplant utilization
23   Overburden excavation, cubic meters.                       110,477 factor, %                    46.0
24   Rock tunnel excavation, cubic meters.                             0 Rock Ex. m3.              21,821
25   Steel penstock and tunnel liner weight, tonnes.               2,381 Turbine runner outside
26   Total concrete volume, cubic meters.                          7,327 diameter, m.                2.12
27           Turbine type selected by program.                Vertical axis, 6 jet, 1 runner impulse
28                                                                           turbine.
      Turbine type eliminated from consideration during
                                                                                    None.
29                   operation of program.
30   Powerhouse footprint, width and length, m.                        23.3 Length, m                26.8
31   Overall turbine + generator + transformer + conduit efficiency at full load, %.                72.67
32   Average overall project efficiency, excluding transmission, for energy calc. %                 81.04
33   Head loss in conduit as a % of rated net head on turbine --------- >           15.63       Comment
34   Speed regulation on an isolated system.               Absolutely no speed regulation capability.
35   Estimated time required for construction, months. -------------------------------------- >         31
36
37   Data input and options selected during data input, may vary for each alternative.
38   Surge tank on conduit.                           No             Diam., m.                       0.00
39   Turbine equipped with inlet valve.               Yes            Diam., m.                      1.098
40   Conduit optimization option.                     By program
41
42   Fixed options for design of all alternatives of powerplant and conduit.
43   Currency, Canadian $ = 1, USA $ = 2. --------------------------------               1
44   Industrial design (1) or Utility design (2) --------------------------------        1 Comment
45   Industrial generator (1) or utility generator (2). ----------------------           1
46   De-sander required at intake, yes = 1, no = 0. ---------------------                0
47   Dam design for extreme flood, no = 1, yes = 2. -------------------                  1
                                                                                            Page 1.




                                                                                                             12
    3. HydroHelp 4 Kaplan. For projects with Kaplan turbines. Size 18.0Mb with 204 inputs.

         The program follows the same format as HydroHelp Francis, with an output of 26 pages.
However, in this case, the program selects the optimum Kaplan turbine from a list of 8 different types of
turbines ranging from horizontal axis bulb units and inclined axis SAXO units to large vertical axis
concrete semi-spiral cased turbines. The selected turbine can be de-selected, if the choice is not suitable
for other reasons. The program includes charts for; (1) turbine efficiency-flow for the selected unit, and
(2) the speed regulation characteristic. The program provides efficiency-flow and efficiency-power charts
for all turbine types. 40 generic drawings are provided with dimensions for all structures, especially the
different types of powerplants, shown in plan and section for both vertical and horizontal axis units.
Diversion options are provided, similar to those for the Francis program. The following shows the turbine
options covered by the program –

  38
  39             Recommended type of reaction turbine, including effect of powerhouse cost.
  40                 Vertical or inclined axis "Saxo" axial flow Kaplan turbine.
  41
  42   Turbine de-selection, see relative cost/MW of suitable W/W equipment plus PH in column F.
  43   Inclined axis very low head Pit Kaplan gear turb.    ------------------ 1           0.00
  44   Horizontal axis mini bulb Kaplan turbine.            ------------------ 1           0.00
  45   Horizontal axis "S" type Kaplan turbine.             ------------------ 1           0.00
  46   Horizontal axis Bulb Kaplan turbine.                 ------------------ 1           0.00
  47   Vert axis small Kaplan turbine, elbow draft tube.    ------------------ 1           0.00
  48   Vert or incl. axis "Saxo" axial flow Kaplan turb.    ---- YES ----      1           1.96
  49   Vertical axis Kaplan turbine, concrete casing.       ------------------ 1           0.00
  50   Vertical axis Kaplan turbine, steel casing.          ---- YES ----      1           2.13
  51                                                                                 Input page 1

         The program will calculate the added cost of draft tube gates capable of closing against the flow
without input from the user, if such is required by the project layout – based on the selected type of
turbine, and the draft tube type is defined as shown in the following figure -


  52
                        BAKER RAPIDS                                Mechanical equipment.
  53
  54    Draft tube gates.                                Width, =          6.04 Height, =        6.01
  55    Number of openings.                                         1 W^2Hh =            748
  56    Head to sill, m.                                          6.4
  57    Sets of gates.                                              1
                                                                       Standard bulkhead draft tube
  58    Monorail hoists.                                            1
                                                                              gates are used.
  59    Gantries.                                                   0
  60    Hoist capacity.                                           7.8
  61                                                     Supply.                Install.
  62    Gates.                                                 0.278                   0.013
  63    Guides.                                                0.000                   0.000
  64    Hoist and lifting beam.                                0.095                   0.009
  65    Total.                                                 0.373                   0.022
  66    Total cost of draft tube gate guide and hoist equipment.                       0.395
  67


       As mentioned, there are generic dimensioned drawings for all structures, and the
following is an example of some drawings for a large spillway –


                                                                                                        13
105   Spillways - drawings.                       BAKER RAPIDS
106
107                                                               Gate hoist
108   SPILLWAY                                                    tower floor
109   CREST GATES                                                 level, m.
110                                                                         317.46
111
112                                                               Max flood El, m.
113   Monorail hoist                              Section B - B           296.00
114   for stoplogs.                               through gate
115   Minimum elev, m.                            centerline.     FSL El, m.
116   305.71                                                               300.00
117
118
119   Service road
120   deck level, m.                                              Spillway gate
121   302.06                                                      sill elevation, m.
122                                                                          286.59
123   LSL El, m.
124   295.00
125                                                               Profile suitable
126   Gate height, m.                                             for a spillway
127   13.4                                                        chute in rock.
128
129                                                               Average found.
130                                                               level, m.
131                                                                         283.91
132
133
134                      LONGITUDINAL ELEVATION                   Hoisthouse
135                                                               access stairs.
136
137   Emergency                                                               6.95
138   exit ladders
139                                                               Stoplog storage
140                                                               area.
141   Number of                                                   Gate width, m.
142   spillway gates.                                                        4.95
143   2
144                                                               Pier width, m.
145                                                                           2.15
146   Total height
147   of structure, m.                                            Total width of
148   36.85                                                       spillway, m.
149                                                                          16.34
150
151
152
153
154
155
156                                                                   Page 12




                                                                                   14
       Dimensioned drawings of the powerhouse are developed as shown in the following two
examples, for a large powerhouse, and for a small “SAXO” equipped powerhouse –

364      PAGATO RAPIDS
365   VERTICAL AXIS, LARGE KAPLAN TURBINE - CONCRETE CASE GENERATING UNIT.
366   Headpond flood level, m.     221.75        Tailwater flood level, m.                           212.00
367   Headpond lowest level, m.    221.65        Normal tailwater level, m.                          210.00
368   Powerhouse roof level, m. ----- >   235.85 may not coincide with top of dam.
369   Combination of capacity, head and flow IS suitable for this type of turbine.
370                                                                                          PH roof
371                    Source - Hydro Quebec                                                 level, m.
372                                                                                                 235.85
373   Dam crest                                                                              Crane span, m
374   elev, m.                                                                                         16.70
375       222.15
376                                                                                          Crane hook
377   Elevation top                                                                          over floor, min.
378   of racks,                                                                                       9.60
379   m. 219.25
380                                                                                          PH floor level
381       4.88                                                                                      220.68
382
383         215.81                                                                           DT crane hook
384         8.08                                                                             level, min, m.
385   Intake gate                                                                                    221.05
386   sill level, m.
387         206.92                                                                                     7.06
388   Rack sill,                                                                             Elev. Center
389   m. 208.14                                                                              runner hub, m.
390   Runner diam                                                                                   204.77
391   m. 5.387
392                                                                                          DT gate height
393       13.47                                                                                      10.05
394
395                                                                                          Draft tube sill
396                                                                                                  193.08
397
398                                                                                                 197.94
399
400   Vertical section through unit centerline.
401   Elevation, bottom of draft tube, m.          191.30             Draft tube gate width, m.         7.61
402   Elevation of bottom of runner hub, m.        202.07        Number of draft tube piers = 2
403                    Total width of draft tube, EXCLUDING end piers, m. 16.70                        20.47
404   Elevation of bottom of generator lower bracket.     216.16
405   Elevation of draft tube access gallery 197.94                  Number of intake piers = 2
406   Elevator travel distance, m.             25.01
407   Distance unit centerline to upstream crane rail, m.                     6.67
408   Distance unit centerline to downstream crane rail, m.                   10.03
409   Elevation draft tube gantry hook, m. ----------->        221.05
410   Approximate generator rotor diameter, m. ---- >           10.33          Note - powerhouse and draft
411   Width of PH, upstream wall to end draft tube, m.          37.38         tube dimensions apply to both
412                                                                              concrete and steel cased
413                                                                                        units.
414
415                                                                                             Page 5H



                                                                                                               15
260       BAKER RAPIDS
261   Vertical or inclined axis "SAXO" Kaplan turbine.              Runner diam, m. 3.198
262
263         Alternative arrangements                                                    Note -
264                                                                                  normally this
265                                                                                     type of
266                                                                                   powerplant
267                                                                                 does not have
268                                                                                    a crane.
269                                                                                   Equipment
270                                                                                 installed with
271                                                                                 mobile crane.
272
273                                                                                 Roof top El.
274                                                                                 292.07
275   Source - VATech brochure                                                      Generator
276   e21.60.30 CH 2000 ZB-01                                                       top El.
277                                                                                 286.59
278   Combination of capacity, head and flow IS suitable for this type of turbine.
279   Roof hatch         Arrangement for                                            Approximate
280   square, m.           vertical unit.                                           generator/gear
281               5.46                                                              height, m.
282   El.      287.59                                                               5.83
283   Penstock inlet                                                                275.50
284   diameter, m.                                                                  Turbine floor
285               4.48                                                              elev, m.
286   Butterfly valve                                                               270.27
287   optional.                                                                     Flood TWL
288               8.89                                                              275.00
289                                                                                 Normal TWL
290                                                                                         274.60
291   Runner hub Cl.
292   El.    271.87                                                                 Min. Submerg
293                                                                                 0.4
294              8.00                                                               Gate sill El.
295   Runner diam                                                                   268.19
296   m.        3.198
297   Draft tube         Normal end DT liner                         Optional       Draft tube gate
298   length, m.                                                                    height, m
299             14.20                           Source - Bofors Nohab brochure      6.01
300
301   Unit spacing                                                                  Draft tube gate
302   m.         7.04                                                               width, m.
303                                                                                 6.04
304   Powerhouse
305   width, m.                                                                     Turbine floor
306              13.43                                                              6.48
307   Powerhouse                                                   DT access        Powerhouse
308   length, m.                                                   manhole          floor El, m.
309              14.08                                                              275.50
310   incl. repair bay
311                                                                                   Page 5F



                                                                                                     16
        There are numerous sub-routines within the programs, for example, the following is the data
generated for the dam rip-rap, obtained from HydroHelp 4 –

    17
    18                         Rip-rap design.
    19                         Effective fetch, km.                                                   5 Comment
    20                         Design wind speed, km/hour.                                         100 or m/sec =        27.8
    21                         Max. wave height, m.           And period, secs.                     2.4 Secs =            4.1
    22                         Wave length, m.                And slope a/l                       26.5     a/l =         0.09
    23                         Wave run-up on dam.                                                1.27
    24                         Minimum freeboard, m.                                              3.39
    25                         Weight D50kg rip-rap and average size, Dm.    D50kg =              1494      Dm =         0.83
    26                         Rip-rap thickness (m).                                               1.4
    27



    4. HydroHelp 6 Francis. For projects with underground powerplants.

         HydroHelp 6 is based on HydroHelp 2, with the only change being in the powerhouse sheet,
which has been revised to include an underground powerplant. In addition, the Google Earth sheet has
been revised to plot the shape of the underground excavations on the Google Earth profile, thus allowing
the user to verify structure locations and conduit lengths. Two profiles are plotted, one at a large scale,
suitable for printing on paper about 11x17 inch, and a small-scale profile suitable for inclusion in a report,
as shown in the following illustration. All hydraulic losses and waterhammer-surge calculations are
included in the program, as well as generic dimensioned drawings of all structures.

         1 = Intake and channel.                              5 = Powerplant with elevator shafts to surface.
         2 = Low pressure tunnel.                             6 = Transformer and draft tube gate gallery
         3 = Surge tank.                                      7 = Access tunnel to powerhouse and adjacent galleries.
         4 = Shaft or bore.                                   8 = Tailrace tunnel. 9 = Tailrace outlet and channel.

                                        Section through underground works - free flow tailrace tunnel alternative
                               300
                                        1                            5
                                                                                                          7
          Elevation, meters.




                               250                                                    6
                                                                                                               9

                               200
                                                 2
                               150
                                                     4
                                                                         Steel lined section             8
                               100
                                  300                400             500                  600          700              800
                                                                          Length, meters



        The program includes options for either a pressure tailrace tunnel, or a free-flowing tailrace
tunnel. The difference between the two options is illustrated in the following schematics –

  209
  210                                    Tailrace tunnel.
  211                 Tunnel length, m.                                                         170 # of tunnels.               1
  212                 Tunnel - free flow (1) or full pressure flow (2)                             1 Comment
  213                 Design water velocity for tunnel, m/s.                                     2.4 Comment
  214



                                                                                                                                17
  71
  72                                                           Transformer and draft tube
  73            Cable and vent shaft                           hoist gallery.                    Figure 2.
  74                                                                                          Schematic of
  75                                                                              Tailwater   underground
  76                                                                              level.      PH with free-
  77                                                                                          flow tailrace
  78                                                                                           tunnel, and
  79                                                                                           transformer
  80                                                                                              gallery
  81                                                                                          downstream
  82                                                                                              of PH.
  83
  84
  85                                                                           Surge air vent shaft
  86                                                                           diameter, m. 0.0
  87
  88
  89                                                                              Figure 3. Schematic of
  90
                                                                                 underground powerhouse
  91
                                                   Tailwater                     with pressure tunnel and
  92                                               level.                          surge chamber, with
  93
                                                                                    transformer gallery
  94
  95                                                                             upstream of powerhouse.
  96
  97
  98                                                                           Rock between galleries
  99                                                                                   13.0 m. Thick.
 100
 101
 102
 103                                                                                             Page 16


       In all programs, there are drawings for the dams, and where the dam is high, the
sideslopes are steepened to reduce quantities, and this reduction is shown in a schematic –

               High rockfill dams, Type 1. Schematic. Height over 40m, (1), not (0). --- > 1
                                                      1.57
                 Slopes x:1                                   x = 2.02
             x = 1.83
                                                          H/2
             x = 2.52                                                      H 79.7




                Rockfill reduction with steeper upper slopes in dam over 40m high, m3.
                                       Reduction, m3. = 1,061,833
                Upstream reduction, m3.                      642,592 642,592
                Downstream reduction, m3.                    419,241 419,241


       Generic drawings for the dam are included as follows –



                                                                                                           18
     52                           BAKER                                  MAIN DAM
     53
     54                                         Crest elevation, m.      247.66 Width, m.                11.0
     55             Upstream and downstream slopes                  Height, m.          79.7
     56     2.52                                                            2.02 Wall top El           176.00
     57                             240.05                          11.0         Wall bot El            50.00
     58
     59
     60
     61
     62
     63
     64
     65
     66
     67
     68
     69
     70
     71     Upstream cofferdam - option.
     72                                    Dam type 1 - rock fill with central core.
     73
     74     Slurry wall option                                          Cut-off depth, m.                  1.0
     75                                                                    Cut-off slope, x:1 =            1.7
     76                                                            40.3 <--Width at impervious contact, m.
     77



    5. Program printing options and output.

         For printing the output, there are several options as follows:- (1) Print a one-page executive
summary and the cost summary, (2) Print the executive summary and the detailed 3 page cost estimate, or
(3) Print a complete input-output.

        All programs have an un-numbered cover sheet, indicating the estimated project cost, generation
and power output. The next (first) page is a summary of principal data, suitable for inclusion in an
executive summary of the project. The program output pages include all pertinent input data, as defined
by blue cells, calculated structure and equipment dimensions, quantities, charts, structure drawings with
dimensions, and conclude with a detailed estimate of quantities, unit costs, cost extensions and cost of all
electro-mechanical equipment, substations and transmission lines. Overheads for site surveys,
engineering, and interest based on an estimate of construction time, are also included. Calculations are not
protected and can be seen. Changes to the formulae and logic can be made by the user, but are not
recommended due to the program complexity.
                                  _________________________
        Experience has indicated that users have their own programs for undertaking a financial analysis.
However, to assist the optimization processes within the HydroHelp programs, a simple cost per kWh
index is included along with an estimated time for capital recovery. With the latter, a final comment on
development prospects is shown, ranging from “Too optimistic - check input data” to “Not worth further
investigation”.

         Finally, all programs have a smorgasbord of instructions, data, design warnings and approvals at
the side of the data entry cells on the input sheet. The following is a sample from HydroHelp 6.



                                                                                                                 19
                                  Head iteration is correct in auto pipe/penstock optimization mode.

                                  Go to lines 55, 147 and 148 to enter upstream water levels.

                              4.58 Runner diameter, m. and shaft alignment is ----- >       Vertical
                              7.78 <-- Recommended submergence, m.

                                         Red cells in Column G indicate either iteration or some restriction on data entry values is
                                       required - see adjacent comment cell. ESSENTIAL FOR CORRECT PROGRAM OPERATION.
                                           Return to these lines after data entry completion, to check if values are still correct.

                                         12.04 Mechanical start time, seconds.


                                    It may be difficult to obtain an acceptable combination of generator inertia, turbine speed rise, suge tank and relief
                                     valve with a very long conduit on a high head development. Lowest cost usually requires a relief valve as the first
                                                 option, followed by added inertia and lastly a surge tank, the most expensive component.



                                           1% Turbine runaway-induced emergency waterhammer, %.
                                             2 Design for turbine-induced runaway waterhammer - yes (1), no (2).
                                        163% Runaway emergency waterhammer will affect thickness if over this %.
                                  Steel surge tank cannot be used - ground level too high at tank site.
                                  Surge tank height, m. if required.
                                  Surge tank not required - governor time acceptable.                Note - height of a steel surge tank must not exceed
                                         247.6 Top surge level, m if tank used.                        about 112m. The highest steel surge tanks in the
                                         239.8 Bottom surge level, m if tank used.                     world are ar Bay D'Espoir, where height is 111m.
                                  Tank min. diam for stability, m.                                      Cost becomes excessive. Try not to use a surge
                                           3.8 Upsurge in tank as % of turbine head.                      tank in an earthquake zone, since earthquake
Turbine speed rise, %.                                                                                  reinforcement is extremely expensive. Maximum
                                        Speed rise on load rejection is acceptable.                     height for a surge tank in an earthquake zone is
                                                                                                                         lower than 112m.
                                  Not applicable.         Calculated % penstock waterhammer




                                      598.770 Total direct cost dam, spillways and intake.
                                                                                                         Review all surge tank comments
                                         5,300 Calculated total spill capacity, m3/s.
                                                                                                         AFTER completing all input data.
                                     Spillway capacity is OK




                                               Length of each inflatable
                                               rubber dam, m.            Must
                                           0.0 be less than                             51.4 m.
                                          0.20 Rubber dam diameter, m.


                                  Note - Top of spill gate BELOW trashrack sill. OK
                                  No comment.
                                         186.0 Downstream water level (D80), plus half gate height, m.
                                         226.0 Trashrack sill level, m.
                                         203.0 Top of low level sluice, m.
                                  0.0          Flow per gate.




                             The author and the seller do not assume responsibility for the results, conclusions or
                           recommendations resulting from the use or application of the HydroHelp programs, nor
                         for achieving the best possible compromise between competing objectives, nor for achieving
                                                            the desired objective.



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posted:2/26/2011
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