ladders by TPenney


									Ladders are a Safety Tool To Use and Respect

Because what goes up will come down with you on it!


• According to an article in Wikipedia, a ladder is depicted in a Mesolithic rock painting that is at least 10,000 years old, in a cave in Valencia, Spain. Modern ladders are believed to have been conceived by the Hebrews and Egyptians.



• EXTENSION LADDERS – Type IA, 300 lbs. Industrial, Heavy Duty – Type I, 250 lbs. Industrial – Type II, 225 lbs. Commercial – Type III, 200 lbs. Household

• Not extending the side rails 3’ above the upper landing surface • Not removing defective ladders from service
• Standing on the top rung of a step ladder

• Not securing portable ladders

• NOT WHEN LADDERS ARE USED CORRECTLY. – Use 3 point of contact when climbing – Keep body perpendicular to the ladder – Make sure ladders are being inspected – Make sure bottom of shoes/boots clean – Use 1:4 ratio

Portable Ladders Introduction
• The chief hazard when using a ladder is falling. A poorly designed, maintained, or improperly used ladder may collapse under the load placed upon it and cause the employee to fall. • The three major topics of portable ladders are shown to the left.



Portable Ladders - Types
• The various types of portable ladders include:
– Stepladder - A self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, having flat steps and hinged back – Single ladder - A non selfsupporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of but one section. Its size is determined by overall length of the side rail



Portable Ladders - Types
– Extension ladder - A non selfsupporting portable ladder adjustable in length.

• All of these ladders must meet O.H. & S.’s requirements.



• O.H. & S.’s requirements for portable ladders are listed here. • Stepladders longer than 20 feet shall not be used. • Stepladders shall be equipped with a metal spreader or locking device of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the front and back sections in the open position. • Single ladders longer than 30 feet shall not be used.



• Extension ladders longer than 60 feet shall not be used. • Ladders shall be maintained in good condition at all times. • Ladders shall be inspected frequently and those which have developed defects shall be withdrawn from service for repair or destruction and tagged or marked as “Dangerous, Do Not Use.”



Proper Use
• Proper use of ladders is essential in preventing accidents.


Even a ladder in good condition can be a serious safety hazard when used by workers in a dangerous way.
O.H. & S. standards require the safety precautions listed below.
– Ladders shall be placed with a secure footing, or they shall be lashed, or held in position.




Proper Use
– Ladders used to gain access to a roof or other area shall extend at least 3 feet above the point of support. – The foot of a ladder shall, where possible, be used at such a pitch that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is one-quarter of the working length of the ladder (the length along the ladder between the foot and support). – The worker shall always face the ladder when climbing up or down.



Proper Use
• Here are more safety precautions required by O.H. & S. standards.
– Short ladders shall not be spliced together to make long ladders. – Ladders shall never be used in the horizontal position as scaffolds or work platforms. – The top of a regular stepladder shall not be used as a step. – Both hands shall be used when climbing or descending ladders. – Metal ladders shall never be used near electrical equipment..



Fixed Ladders
• A “cage” is a guard that is fastened to the side rails of the fixed ladder or to the structure to encircle the climbing space of the ladder for the safety of the person who must climb the ladder. Cages shall extend a minimum of 42 inches above the top of a landing, unless other acceptable protection is provided. Cages shall extend down the ladder to a point not less than 7 feet nor more than 8 feet above the base of a ladder.





Fixed Ladders
• Another feature of fixed ladders is the landing platform which provides a means of interrupting a free fall and serves as a resting place during long climbs. • When fixed ladders are used to ascend to heights exceeding 20 feet (except on chimneys), landing platforms shall be provided for each 30 feet of height or fraction thereof.



Fixed Ladders
• When cages are used, except that, where no cage, well, or ladder safety device is provided, landing platforms shall be provided for each 20 feet of height or fraction thereof. • Ladder safety devices may be used on tower ladders, water tank ladders, and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in lieu of cage protection. No landing platform is required in these cases.



Fixed Ladders
• The preferred pitch of fixed ladders is between 75 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal. Fixed ladders shall be considered to be substandard if they are installed within the pitch range of 60 and 75 degrees with the horizontal. Substandard fixed ladders are permitted only where it is found necessary to meet conditions of installation. This substandard pitch shall be considered as a critical range to be avoided, if possible.





Fixed Ladders
• Ladders having a pitch in excess of 90 degrees with the horizontal are prohibited. As with all ladders, fixed ladders shall be maintained in a safe condition and inspected regularly.




• Fall from ladders • Struck by falling ladders • Struck by materials falling from ladders

• Tripping over ladders (erect or lying on floor) • Striking persons or objects when carrying ladders • Contact with electrical equipment

Using A Ladder
• Always inspect a ladder before using it • NEVER use a damaged, broken, or bent ladder

Setting Up a Ladder
• Step 1 – Lay ladder flat on ground with feet butted up against wall • Step 2 – Lift ladder’s top while pushing forward to maintain pressure against wall

• Step 3 – Lift ladder overhead. With hands extending ladder to highest point of reach, work hand over hand pushing ladder toward building

• Step 4 – Now you are ready to rest ladder against building

• Step 5 – Lift ladder’s base and move slowly away from building

• Step 6 – Extend ladder using ladder’s rope and pulley system while stabilizing ladder with your foot on ladder’s bottom rung • Ladder should be fully vertical • Lower ladder to rests against building

Safety Tips
• Do not stand above highest on top 3 rungs • Do no extend the center of your body’s torso past either side rail of ladder • Keep at least 3 points of contact when working

More Safety Tips
• Face ladder when ascending and descending • Do not carry tools in hand • Wear proper footwear with non-slip soles • Never leave erected ladder unattended

Recommended Height of a Ladder
16 ft. ladder 13 ft. maximum work height

24 ft. ladder 28 ft. ladder 32 ft. ladder 36 ft. ladder

21 ft. maximum work height 24 ft. maximum work height 26 ft. maximum work height 32 ft. maximum work height

Key OSHA Regulations
• Side rails shall extend at least 3 ft above upper landing • Bottom of ladder should be 1 foot away from wall for every 4 feet the ladder rises

The parts of a step ladder
Never stand on second top or top step! Pail shelf

Step ladders must have a metal spreader bar

Slip resistant steps

Step braces Slip resistant foot pads

The parts of an extension ladder
Guide Pulley system

Fly section Base section

Slip resistant rungs

Rope clamp Gravity spring lock

Slip resistant foot pads

Ladder selection
Always choose the correct ladder for the job.

And never overload a ladder!






375 lbs.
Special Duty Professional Use

300 lbs.
Extra Heavy Duty Professional Use Type IA

250 lbs.
Heavy Duty Industrial Use

225 lbs.
Medium Duty Commercial Use

200 lbs.
Light Duty Household Use

Inspect the rungs, steps or cleats
• Missing rungs. • Bends, dents, cracks, splitting, severely worn.
• Loose or unsecured side rail connections. • Free from grease, oil, mud.

Inspect the rails
• Bends, cracks, splitting. • Loose rail connections.

• Free from grease or oil. • Sharp points, edges or splinters.
• Warning labels and instructions not covered.

• Slip-resistant material is adequate (metal).
• Sharp points, edges splinters or snags.

Ladder placement
Extend the ladder at least 36 inches (3 feet) above the surface served.

3 feet

Tie-off point

Secure ladder to prevent it from displacement.

Use slip resistant feet pads on slippery surfaces.

1/4 D

Ladder placement
4 3 2 1
An easy way to know if the ladder is at the correct 1 angle:

Place the base of non-self supporting ladders out away from the wall or edge of the upper level one foot for every four feet of vertical height (1:4).

Put one foot on the first step of the ladder. Hold your back straight. Extend your arm straight out in front of you. If the ladder is at the correct angle your hand will have a ladder rung on which to rest. See diagram.
Move the base of the ladder away from you if the closest rung to your hand is below your hand. Move the base of the ladder toward you if the closest rung to your hand is above your hand.

Ladder placement

Over half of all ladder accidents are caused by falls when the ladder tips over as a result of poor ladder placement.

Use a wood or plastic wedge or a ladder leveler leg when using ladders on unven surfaces.


Training and Supervision

Adiestramiento y Supervisión

Do’s and don’ts
  

Use only non-conductive ladders near electrical conductors. Set the ladder on solid footing, against a solid support. Never increase the height of a ladder by standing it on other objects, such as boxes, barrels, or by splicing two ladders together.

 Keep ladders away from doorways or walkways, unless they can be protected by barriers.  Pick up the ladder just forward of the center balance point (the ladder should be at a slightly downward angle towards your back). Place your arm through the ladder and on the soft muscle at the edge of the shoulder (ladder should be hanging over the shoulder, not all the way on top of it). Place the opposite hand on the forward section of the ladder to balance and control when moving around corners.
 Climb the ladder carefully, facing it and using both hands. Use a tool belt or hand line to carry materials.


Keep your body centered. Never let your belt buckle pass beyond either ladder rail. If something is out of reach, get down and move the ladder.
If the ladder can’t be moved, get off the ladder, put on a harness and lanyard, and hook-up to an approved anchor.


Never use ladders as sideways platforms, runways, or scaffolds.

Ladders you climb down not walk down like stairs and you always need your HAND FREE OF MATERIALS

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