SB 5701 – Social Psychology by dfsdf224s


									                                             Başkent University
                                          Department of Psychology

                           SB 5701 – Social Psychology
                                          Doğan Kökdemir, PhD

What is (not) Social Psychology?

Social psychology is defined as the scientific discipline that attempts to understand and explain how
the thought, feeling, and behavior or individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied
presence of others, (Gordon Alport). Social psychology is studied in both psychology and sociology
(emphasis on person and society, respectively).

                                                    Social psychology should be differentiated from
                                                    other “social” areas in that the former uses
                                                    experimental methodology more often. The major
                                                    aim of the social psychology is to find
                                                    experimentally gathered evidences (cause – effect
                                                    relationships) about human behavior in their social
                                                    environment. If social psychologists are interested
                                                    in the motion picture Grease (1978) they would
                                                    examine the perception of Sandra by Danny and his
                                                    followers, they also try to understand and measure
                                                    the affect, behavior and cognition of the relationship
                                                    and the environment in which the love takes place.

Social psychology is not an arm-chaired science; that is social psychologists do not just theorizing
about the things surround them. Rather they make systematic analyses of the questions under
investigation. Finally, social psychology is a very different and challenging course. It is about you,
by “you” I mean “real you”. Next pages summarize how we achieve to find out your “self”.

Hope to enjoy your journey.


                "It's such a pain, it must be great" -- Leon Festinger
                "I just like it, I don't know why" -- Robert Zajonc
                "My mom wanted me to be President and I said no. So then she
                 asked..." -- Bob Cialdini
                "I looked in the mirror and saw the face of a social psychologist staring
                 back at me" -- Bob Wicklund
                "The first social psychologist I ever met was a real looker" -- Elaine

                          2010 / 2011 Fall Semester – Social Psychology Syllabus – v. 1.2
               PART ONE

     Norman Rockwell - Triple Self Portrait

                                              Social Psychology   2
                                                                                       Chapter IV
                                       Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others

  1. Describe the kinds of information that are important in forming impressions of other people.
  2. Discuss some processes that allow us to move very quickly from observations of behavior to
     inferences of enduring traits.
  3. Explain how motivation and affect can influence person perception.
  4. Identify the assumptions and basic principles of attribution theory, and be able to distinguish
     between the Jones and Davis and Kelley models.
  5. Describe the fundamental attribution error, the actor-observer effect, the false consensus
     effect, and the self-serving attributional bias, and explain why they occur.
  6. Discuss how accurate people are in drawing inferences about the personality and the
     emotional states of others.
  7. Explain the nonverbal cues we use in drawing inferences about others, and indicate which of
     these cues are most important in detecting when others are lying.

                                                                                       Chapter IV
                                        Social Cognition: Understanding the Social World

  1. Define social cognition.
  2. Give examples of how prior expectations, biases in the information selected, and goals,
     desires, and moods can distort social inferences.
  3. Discuss why people are prone to errors and biases in social inference.
  4. Define schemas, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of schematic processing.
  5. Define heuristics, and describe the representativeness, availability, simulation, and anchoring
     and adjustment heuristics.
  6. Explain what factors determine which schemas are selected for processing information.
  7. Explain how schemas can influence behavior in social interactions.

                                                                                       Chapter III
                                                             The Self: Learning about the Self

  1.   Define the "self," and distinguish between the self-concept and self-esteem.
  2.   Explain where self-knowledge comes from.
  3.   Describe cultural differences in the self-concept.
  4.   Describe how beliefs about our current and hoped-for selves are represented in memory, and
       discuss the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies.
  5.   Explain the factors that affect self-regulation.
  6.   Discuss the primary motives that affect how people engage in self-regulation.
  7.   Describe social comparison theory, and indicate when people would engage in upward or in
       downward comparisons.
  8.   Give examples of effective and ineffective strategies of self-presentation.

                                                                                  Social Psychology    3
          PART TWO

    Bian Conero – Black and White

                                    Social Psychology   4
                                                                                         Chapter V
                                                                Attitudes and Attitude Change

  1. Define "attitude," and describe its components.
  2. Discuss how basic learning processes, including association, reinforcement, and imitation,
     can determine a person’s attitudes towards an object.
  3. Define cognitive dissonance, and indicate the conditions under which dissonance after a
     decision is the greatest.
  4. Describe how engaging in attitude-discrepant behaviors can lead to attitude change.
  5. Explain the difference between systematic and heuristic processing, and indicate the
     conditions under which a person is likely to use each.
  6. Discuss how the communicator, the communication, the target of communication, and
     aspects of the situation, such as forewarning and distraction can influence a person’s
     response to a persuasive message.
  7. Discuss the conditions under which attitudes are most likely to determine a person’s

                                                                                        Chapter VI

  1. Define and distinguish between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.
  2. Discuss how social learning through socialization and the media can create prejudice.
  3. Describe consequences of prejudice for its victims, including the effects of stereotype threat
     and attributional ambiguity.
  4. Explain the psychodynamic approach to prejudice.
  5. Describe how intergroup competition theories explain prejudice.
  6. Explain the cognitive bases of prejudice.
  7. Describe social identity theory.
  8. Show how prejudice has changed from "old-fashioned racism" to newer forms of prejudice
     such as symbolic racism, aversive racism, and implicit stereotypes.
  9. Describe various approaches to reducing prejudice, including socialization, intergroup
     contact, and recategorization approaches, and indicate the conditions under which these are
     most likely to be effective.

                                                                                       Chapter VII
                                                                                  Social Influence

  1.   Define and contrast the concepts of conformity, compliance, and obedience.
  2.   Compare and contrast the classic conformity studies of Sherif and Asch.
  3.   Describe factors that make people more likely to conform to a group.
  4.   Explain the ways in which a minority of opinion can sometimes change the position of the
       majority of a group.
  5.   Describe and give examples of Raven’s six bases of social power.
  6.   Describe compliance techniques, including the foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face, low-ball,
       "that’s-not-all," and the pique technique.
  7.   Explain how reactance can sometimes limit compliance.
  8.   Describe Milgram’s obedience study, and indicate the factors that increased or reduced
       obedience using this paradigm.

                                                                                   Social Psychology   5
                PART THREE

          Harold Feinstein – Aspring Hands

                                             Social Psychology   6
                                                                                          Chapter IX
                                                                          Interpersonal Attraction

  1. Describe the social needs satisfied by interpersonal relationships, and compare and contrast
     child and adult attachment.
  2. Describe the types of loneliness that can be experienced when social needs are not met.
  3. Explain the effects of proximity, familiarity, similarity (of both attitudes and looks), and
     physical attractiveness on interpersonal attraction.
  4. Describe the personal characteristics that are generally viewed as the most attractive.
  5. Compare and contrast evolutionary and sociocultural explanations for sex differences in the
     characteristics used in mate selection.
  6. Compare and contrast the role of love in mate selection in individualistic and collectivist
  7. Compare and contrast passionate and companionate love, and indicate how these relate to
     Sternberg’s triangular theory of love.

                                                                                            Chapter X
                                                                            Personal Relationships

  1. Define "interdependence" and explain how it changes as a relationship develops.
  2. Explain the basic presumptions of social exchange theory and discuss the limitations of the
      "economic" approach to social relations.
  3. Describe the role of social norms and roles in coordinating our activities.
  4. Describe the different rules of fairness that may operate in a relationship:
  5. Explain the distinction between exchange and communal relationships, and indicate the
      implications of how people evaluate fairness.
  6. Describe the implicit rules that govern the exchange of self-disclosures in relationships,
      including reference to how these norms may differ by stage of relationship, gender, and
  7. Define "intimacy" and compare it to "love."
  8. Define "social power" and describe some determinants of the balance of power in a
  9. Describe the situations in which relationship conflicts are most likely to occur.
  10. Describe how satisfaction and commitment in relationships are related, and compare
      heterosexual and homosexual relationships in this regard.
  11. Explain some ways of thinking and acting that help to maintain committed relationships.
  12. Explain four possible responses to dissatisfaction in a relationship.

                                                                                        Chapter VIII
                                                                                Behavior in Groups

  1. Distinguish between "social facilitation," "social inhibition," and "social loafing," and indicate
     under what conditions each is likely to occur.
  2. Describe the basic principles of social impact theory.
  3. Explain the effects of deindividuation on behavior.
  4. Distinguish between "crowding" and "social density" and indicate the effects that crowding
     may have.
  5. Define "group" and distinguish it from a crowd or an audience.

  6.   Describe the basic features of group structure.

                                                                                     Social Psychology    7
        PART FOUR

                        Social Psychology   8
                                                                                    Chapter XII
                                                                             Helping Behavior

  1. Distinguish between "altruism" and "prosocial behavior."
  2. Explain how the evolutionary perspective, the sociocultural perspective, and the learning
      perspective explain helping behavior.
  3. Describe the steps in Latane and Darley’s decision-making model of helping, and indicate
      what can prevent helping from occurring at each step.
  4. Describe how attribution theory explains who we are more willing to help.
  5. Describe how mood, empathy, personal distress, personality characteristics, and gender
      influence helping.
  6. Define the "bystander effect" and explain why it occurs.
  7. Describe how environmental conditions such as noise, community size, temperature, and
      time pressures can affect helping.
  8. Describe the motives involved in volunteering.
  9. Describe the benefits and the costs of care-taking as a form of helping.
  10. Explain why being helped can engender both positive and negative feelings.

                                                                                     Chapter XI

  1. Define "aggression" and distinguish between subtypes of aggression and between aggression
     and anger.
  2. Discuss factors that create feelings of anger.
  3. Describe the learning perspective on aggression.
  4. Discuss the effect of social norms, fear of punishment or retaliation, learned inhibition of
     aggression, displacement, and catharsis on aggressive behavior.
  5. Summarize the results of laboratory studies, correlational studies, and field experiments on
     the effects of media violence on aggression.
  6. Describe the prevalence and determinants of various forms of intimate violence such as
     spousal abuse, child abuse, rape, and sexual harassment, and discuss sex differences in
     perceptions of these crimes.

                                                                                Social Psychology   9
       Reading Materials for PSK 439 – Social Psychology and Cinema

Main Textbook : Social Psychology (Fifth Edition) by Stephen L. Franzoi

                            “Self Knowledge Bring Happiness” - Yuan Lee

                 Evaluation of Student Performance and Grading

Creative Essays

In PSK 439 Course, there is no formal midterm and final examinations. Rather you are going to be
asked to present your knowledge in a critical and creative manner. Although, the format is similiar
to standard examinations, the actual performance is dependent on your skills in analyzing,
comprehension and written presentation. In addition, for these tasks you will be able to use any
material (books, your notes,… etc.). Most of these exercises will depend on the movies that we will
discuss in class sessions.


Your grade is A; that is 100 (out of 100) at the beginning of the course.

                                                                                  Social Psychology 10

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