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					HIGH ORDER THINKING
  SKILLS QUESTIONS
       2008-09
 SUBJECT: HISTORY

   CLASS : XII

                      1
           KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
                   JAIPUR REGION


CHIEF PATRON *     SH K P CHAMOLA
                        Asstt commissioner
                        KVS (RO) JAIPUR

PATRON             *   1.     Mrs. S. Mirdha, E.O.
                       2.     Sh. H.C. Chawla, E.O.
                       3.     Sh. N.K. Bharadwaj, E.O


CONVENER           *    Smt Raj Aggarwal
                        Principal
                        K.V. No.1 Jaipur



RESOURCE PERSONS
            1.  Sh. Prahalad Singh
                PGT (History) K V Churu

              2.   Sh. D.C. Srivastava
                   PGT (History) K V No.2 Jaipur

              3.   Sh. H H Lall
                   PGT (History) K V 1 AFS Jodhpur

              4.   Sh. Dileep Srivastava
                   PGT (History) K V Bharatpur

              5.   Sh. D K Sharma
                   PGT (History) K V 1 AFS Suratgarh

              6.   Sh. Raghavendra Lalsantania
                   PGT (History) K V 1 Jaipur




                                                        2
                       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

      The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan enjoys enviable reputation
among all educational institutions in India. It has become the torch-
bearer in the field of education. As a giant step towards greater
excellence, the Honorable Assistant Commissioner KVS Jaipur
region Dr. K.P. Chamola has taken it as a challenge to improve the
results of CBSE Class-XII examinations in History. The task of
preparing and developing a High Order Skills Questions' as a
powerful tool to materialise the dream was assigned to me as a
convenor along with a team of highly experienced and talented
teachers of History.

      I wish to extend my heart-felt thanks to our Honorable Assistant
Commissioner Dr. K.P. Chamola for magnificent faith and trust he
posed in me while assigning the task and for his encouragement and
constant guidance throughout the great endeavour. It is a pleasure to
record my gratitude to our esteemed Education Officers Mrs. S.
Mirdha, Sh. H.C. Chawla, Sh. N.K. Bharadwaj for their valuable
support, suggestions and motivation provided to me from time to
time. I wish to offer my thanks to P.G.Ts Sh. Prahalad Singh KV Churu,
Sh. D.C. Srivastava KV No.2 Jaipur, Sh. H.H. Lal KV No.1 AFS Jodhpur,
Sh. Dileep Srivastava KV Bharatpur Sh. D.K. Sharma KV 1 AFS Suratgarh
& Sh. R.L. Santania KV 1 Jaipur for their concerted hard-work and
diligence in the production of this High Order Skills Questions.

                                                Smt. Raj Aggarwal
                                                Convenor & Principal
                                                 K.V. No. 1 Jaipur


                                                                       3
                          INDEX

S No.         Topic                                                  Page


1.      Bricks, Beads and Bones, The Harappan Civilisation             5-9
2.      Kings, Farmers and Town- Early states and economics            10-15
3.      Kinship, Caste and Class- Early Societies                      16-25
4.      Thinkers, Beliefs and buildings- Cultural Development          26-36
5.      Theough the eyes of travelers, perceptions of society          37-46
6.      Bhakti-Sufi traditions- Changes in religious beliefs.          47-55
7.      An imperial capital- Vijaynagar                                55-62
8.      Peasants, Zamindaras and the state                             63-72
9.      Kings and chronicles- The Mughal courts                        73-79
10.     Colonialism and the country side- Exploring official archives 80-85
11.     Rebels and the Raj- Revolt of 1857 and its representations     86-93
12.     Colonial cities – Urbanisation, Planning and architecture     94-103
13.     Mahatma Gandhi & the nationalist movement                    104-110
14.     Understanding partitions- Politics, memories experiences     111-116
15.     Framing the constitution- The beginning of a new era.        117-121




                                                                            4
                                    CHAPTER 1
                        BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES
                         (The Harappan Civilisations)
Q1.        How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one.
Ans. The following examples show that the Harappan culture was an urban
           one:
      a)      The cities were well planned and thickly populated.
      b)      The road were straight and wide.
      c)      The houses were made of burnt bricks and contained more than
              one storey.
      d)      Every house had a well and a bathroom.
      e)      The drainage system was excellent with house drains emptying
              into street drains.
      f)      The citadel of Harappa had public buildings.
      g)      Lothal had a dockyard and was an important trading centre.
      h)      After the decline of the Harappan culture, town planning was
              forgotten and there was absence of city life for about a thousand
              years.
Q2.        “Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than
           that of the other Civilizations”. Explain it by your arguments?
Ans.i) The major reason behind our poorer knowledge about the Indus
           Valley Civilization than that of the other Civilizations is that the script
           of that age has hitherto not been deciphered. Hence, we have only
           know about the period and development of this Civilization on the
           basis of more speculation.
ii)        The easy method behind seeking knowledge about other Civilizations
           such as that of Egypt, Mesopatamia, China etc. was the deciphering of
           their scripts. Scripts is that sole basis through which we can gather
                                                                                    5
       through knowledge about the art, literature, customs, dresses, function
       and religion etc. of any Civilizations
Q3.    Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in
       Harappan society
Ans. Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no
       rulers and that everybody enjoyed equal status. Others feel there was
       no single ruler but several that Mohenjodaro had a separate ruler,
       Harappa another and so forth yet others argue that there was a single
       state given the similarity in artefacts, the evidence for planned
       settlements the standardized ratio of brick size and the establishments
       of settlements near sources of raw material. As of now, the last theory
       seems the most plausible as it is unlikely that entire communities
       could have collectively made and implemented such complex
       decisions.
i)     There are indications of complex decisions being taken and
       implemented in Harappan society. Take for instance the extraordinary
       uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery seals weights
       and bricks.
ii)    Notably bricks though obviously not produced in any single centre,
       were of a uniform ratio throughout the region, from Jammu to
       Gujarat. We have also seen that settlements were strategically set up
       in specific locations for various reasons.
iii)   Besides, labour was mobilised for making bricks and for the
       construction of massive walls and platforms.
       Who organized these activities ? I think the rulers might have
       performed all these works.
       Under the guidance and supervision of the rulers plans and layouts of
       the city were prepared. Big buildings palaces forts, tanks wells,
                                                                             6
        canals, Granaries were constructed. Roads lanes and drains were also
        constructed and cleanliness was maintained under the over all
        supervision of the ruler.
        The ruler might have taken interest in economy of the state or city
        states. He use to inspire the farmer to increase agricultural production.
        He use to motivate the craftman to promote different handicrafts.
        Internal as well as external trade was promoted by the ruler. He use to
        issue common exceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements.
        During the natural calamity such as flood earthquake, epidemic etc.
        the ruler use to provide grains and other eatables to the affected
        people. He use to play active role to defend cities or state from foreign
        attack.

                                    ikB&1
        bZV] euds rFkk vfLFk;ka ¼gM+Iik lH;rk½

iz01- vki ;g dSls dg ldrs gS fd gM+Iik laLd`fr ,d ukxjh; lH;rk Fkh \

m0      fuEufyf[kr mnkgj.k ml ckr dks n’kkZrs gS fd gM+Iik laLd`fr ,d

        ukxjh; lH;Rkk FkhA

   1-      uxj lqfu;ksftr vkSj ?kuh vkcknh okys FksA

   2-      lM+ds lh/kh vkSj pkSM+h FkhA

   3-      ?kj iDdh yky bZaVksa ds cus Fks vkSj ,d ls vf/kd eaftyk esa

           FksA

   4-      izR;sd ?kj esa dqavk o Luku?kj FksA

   5-      ty fudklh dh mRre O;oLFkk Fkh tks eq[; ty fudklh ls tqM+h

           FkhA

                                                                               7
  6-     gM+Iik uxj esa lkoZtfud Hkou ns[kus dks feys gSA

  7-     yksFky esa Mksd;kMZ feys gS ftlls irk pyrk gS fd eq[; O;kikfjd

         dsUnz jgs FksA

  8-     gM+Iik laLd`fr ds iru ds ckn uxj fu;kstu yxHkx Hkwy x;s vkSj

         uxj thou yxHkx gtkj o"kZ rd ns[kus dks ugha feykA

iz02- vU; lH;rkvksa dh vis{kk flU/kq ?kkVh dh lH;rk ds fo"k; esa gekjh

       tkudkjh de D;ksa gS \ vius rdZ ls O;k[;k djasA

m0     ¼1½ ml dky dh fyfi vkt rd Ik<+h ugha tk ldh gSA

       ¼2½ dsoy iqjkrkfRod vo’ks"kksa dk v/;;u djrs gq, vuqeku ds

            vk/kkj ij gh flU/kq ?kkVh lH;rk ds fo"k; esa ¼lH;rk dk le; o

            fodkl vkfn dk½ Kku izkIr dj ik, gS tcfd vU; lH;rkvksa ds

            lEcU/k esas tkudkjh dk eq[; vk/kkj mudh fyfi dk Ik<+k tkuk

            gSA

iz03- gM+IikbZ lekt esa 'kkldksa }kjk fd;s tkus okys laHkkfor dk;ksZ

dh ppkZ dhft,A

m0     fo}kuksa dh jk; gS &

¼1½ gM+IikbZ lekt esa 'kkldksa }kjk tfVy QSlys ysus vkSj mUgsa

       dk;kZfUor djus tSls egRoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;s tkrs FksA os blds fy, ,d

       lk{; izLrqr djrs gq, dgrs gS fd gM+IikbZ iqjkOkLrqvksa esa

       vlk/kkj.k ,d:irk dks gh ys] tSlk fd e`nekaMksa] eqgjksa] ckaVksa

       rFkk bZaVksa ls Li"V gSA

¼2½ cfLr;ksa dh LFkkiuk ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysuk cM+h la[;k esa

       bZaVksa dks cukuk] 'kgjks esa fo’kky nhokjsa] lkoZtfud bekjrsa]

                                                                       8
     muds fu;kstu djus dk dk;Z] nqxZ ds fuekZ.k ls igys pcwrjksa dk

     fuekZ.k dk;Z ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysuk] yk[kks dh la[;k esa

     fofHkUu dk;ksZ ds fy, Jfedksa dh O;oLFkk djuk tSls egRoiw.kZ

     vksj dfBu dk;Z laHkor% 'kkld gh djrk FkkA

¼3½ dqN iqjkrRofon ;g ekurs gS fd flU/kq ?kkVh dh ledkyhu lH;rk

     eSlksiksVkfe;k ds leku gM+IikbZ yksxksa esa Hkh ,d iqjksfgr

     jktk gksrk Fkk tks izklkn ¼egy½ esa jgrk FkkA yksx mls iRFkj

     dh ewfrZ;ks esa vkdkj nsdj lEeku djrs FksA laHkor% /kkfeZd

     vuq"Bku mUgha ds }kjk fd;k ;k djk;k tkrk FkkAgka ;s lR; gS fd

     gM+Iik lH;rk dh vkuq"Bkfud izFkk,a vHkh rd Bhd izdkj ls le>h

     ugha tk ldh gS vkSj u gh ;g tkuus ds lk/ku miyC/k gS fd D;k tks

     yksx bu vuq"Bkuksa dk fu"iknu djrs Fks mUgha ds ikl jktuSfrd

     lRrk gksrh FkhA

¼4½ dqN iqjkrRofon bl er ds gS fd gM+IikbZ lekt esa 'kkld ugah Fks

     rFkk lHkh dh lkekftd fLFkfr leku FkhA nwljs iqjkrRofon ;g ekurs

     gS   fd   ;gka   dksbZ   ,d   ugh   cfYd   dbZ   'kkld   Fks   tSls

     eksgutksnMksa] gM+Iik vkfn ds vius vyx&vyx jktk gksrs FksA

     dqN vkSj ;g rdZ nsrs Fks fd ;g ,d gh jkT; Fkk tSlk fd iqjkoLrqvks

     esa lekukvksa] fu;ksftr cfLr;ksa ds dPps eky] bZaVksa ds vkdkj

     fu’fpr vuqikr rFkk cfLr;ksa ds dPps eky ds L=ksrksa ds lehi

     laLFkkfir gksus ls Li"V gSA vHkh rd dh fLFkfr esa vafre ifjdYiuk

     lcls ;qfDrlaxr izrhr gksrh gS D;ksafd ;g dnkfpr laHko ugha yxrk



                                                                       9
   fd iwjs ds iwjs leqnk;ksa }kjk bdVB~s ,sls tfVy fu.kZ; fy;s rFkk

   dk;kZfUor fd;s tkrs gksaxsA




                       CHAPTER 2

          KINGS, FARMERS AND TOWNS
Early States and Economics (About 600 BCE-600 CE)
      jktk] fdlku vkSj uxj vkjfEHkd jkT; vkSj
                        vFkZO;oLFkk,a
       ¼yxHkx 600 bZ- iwoZ ls 600 bZ- rd½

                                                                 10
Q4.   Discuss the evidence for craft production in early historic cities. In
      what ways is this different from the evidence from Harappan cities ?
Ans. Excavation have been conducted at a number of early historic cities.
      We have got several evidences for craft production in these cities.
      i)     People make bowls and dishes of every fine type of pottery
             with a glossy finish. These pottery is know as the northern
             black Polished ware (NBPW).
      ii)    The fine earthern pottery was probably used by rich people in
             towns.
      iii)   In early cities ornaments, tools, weapons, vessels, figurines,
             made a wide range of materials such as gold, silver, copper,
             bronze, irory, glass, shell and terracotta.
      Differences :
      i)     Traces of houses and different structures have also been
             recovered in early historic cities. However they are unlike the
             Harappan cities.
      ii)    The Harappan did not know the used of iron. Therefore we can
             say they did not make different tools and implements of iron.
             On the other hand we get sufficient evidences that iron was
             used by the early historic cities people.
Q5.   Examine the sources of knowledge with us to know about India of the
      Maurya Age ?
Ans. 1.      Indica of Magasthenese : Indica is an important text by
      Magasthenese which serve as the source of information about
      Mauryan India. It depicts the contemporary administration, society,
      political and economic condition of India in the most significant way.
      2.     Kautilya’s Arthashastra: Kautilya‟s Arthashastra too throws
      light on the various phases of contemporary India.
                                                                             11
       3.     Vishakh Dutta’s Mudrarakshas : This significant text
       delineates the destruction of Nanda dynasty at the hands of
       Chandragupta Mayurya.
       4.     Jain and Buddha Literature : The literature of both of these
       religious bears information regarding the contemporary Indian society
       along with it politics etc.
       5.     Inscriptions of Asoka. The Inscriptions of Asoka located at
       several places also throw light on the administration, religion, society,
       caste system etc. of the Mauryan age.
Q6.    This is a statement made by one of the best known epigraphists of the
       twentieth century, D.C. Sircar: There is no aspect of life, culture and
       activities of the Indians that is not reflected in inscriptions. Discuss.
Ans.
I.     Introduction : Inscriptions are very important as a source of history
       reconstruction. D.C. Sircar has correctly urged that there is no aspect
       of life, culture and activities of the Indians that is not reflected in
       inscriptions. Generally , inscriptions were commissioned by those
       whose achievements / activities / ideas were recorded in them.
              Inscriptions are virtually permanent records. Some inscriptions
       carry dates. Others are dated on the basis of paleography or styles of
       writing with a fair amount of precision. For instance the letter was
       written like this c.250 BCE by C. 500 CE it was written like 500 A.D.
II.    Description of gifts made to religious institution and description given
       by inscriptions.
       Votive inscriptions give us descriptions about gifts made to religious
       institutions. These mention the name of the donor, and sometimes
       specify his/her occupation as well.

                                                                                   12
III.   Information about people of the Mauryan age and inscriptions: They
       tell us about people who lived in towns: washing folk, weavers,
       scribes, carpenters, potters, smiths, including goldsmiths and
       blacksmiths, officials, religious teachers, merchants and kings.
       Sometimes organizations of craft producers guilds or srenis are
       mentioned in inscriptions and texts. These probably procured raw
       materials regulated production and marketed the finished produce.
IV.    Information about trade and inscriptions: Around the same time there
       is evidence for long distance trade, historians combine evidence from
       a variety of sources to reconstruct and understand this process.
iz04- vkjafHkd ,sfrgkfld uxjks esa f’kYidyk ds mRiknu dh ppkZ dhft;sA

       gM+Iik ds uxjksa dh rqyuk esa ;g fdruk fHkUu gS \

m0     vkjafHkd ,sfrgkfld 'kgjksa dk vusd LFkkuksa ij mR[kuu fd;k x;k

       gSA bu 'kgjks esa gesa vusd LFkkuksa ij f’kYi mRiknu ds izek.k

       feys gSA

¼1½ yksx mRd`"V Js.kh ds dVkjs vkSj Fkkfy;ka cukrs Fks ftu ij fpduh

       dybZ p<+h gksrh FkhA mUgsa mRrjh v’osr ikWfy’k e`rHkkan ls

       tkuk tkrk gSA

¼2½ e`rHkkan ds lkFk&lkFk bu uxjks esa xgus] midj.k] gfFk;kj] crZu

       vkSj lksus pkanh] dkaL;] rkacs] gkFkh nkar] 'kh’ks] 'kq} vkSj

       iDdh feV~Vh dh ewfRkZ;ka Hkh cukbZ tkrh FkhA

¼3½ bu uxjks esa oL= cquus dk dk;Z] c<+bZfxjh e`nHkkaM cukus dk

       dk;Z] vkHkw"k.k cukus dk dk;Z] yksgs ds vkStkj] midj.k oLrq,a

       vkfn rS;kj djus dk dk;Z Hkh gksrk FkkaA laHkor% lqUnj feVVh

       ds crZu dsoy /kuh yksxksa ds }kjk iz;ksx eas yk;s tkrs FksA
                                                                           13
¼4½ vusd ckj f’kYidkj vkSj mRiknd oxZ viuh Jsf.k;ka cukrs Fks tks

       f’kYidkjksa ds fy;s igys rks dPps eky dks [kjhnrh Fkh fQj muds

       }kjk rS;kj fd;s x;s eky dks cktkj esa csprh FkhA f’kYidkj uxjks

       esa jgus okys laHkzkr yksxksa dh c<+rh ekax dks iwjk djus ds

       fy;s vusd izdkj ds midj.kksa dk bLrseky djrs FksA

Hksn

¼1½ ;|fi edkuksa vkSj Hkouksa ds vo’ks"k ns’k esa bu vkjafHkd

       'kgjks esa Hkh <wa<s x;s gS ysfdu ;s 'kgj dbZ ekeyks esa

       gM+IikbZ 'kgjks ls fHkUu gSA

¼2½ gM+Iik ds yksx bu izkjafHkd 'kgjks ds yksxksa ds leku yksgs ds

       iz;ksx dks ugh tkurs FksaA blfy;s ge ;g dg ldrs gS fd izkjafHkd

       'kgjks ds f’kYidkj yksgs ls fofHkUu izdkj ds vkStkj vkSj midj.k

       ugha cukrs Fks ysfdu gesa ;g izek.k feyrk gS fd izkjafHkd 'kgjks

       ds yksx cM+h ek=k esa yksgs ds vkStkj] midj.k vkSj oLrq,a

       cukrs FksA

iz05- ekS;ksZ ds jktuSfrd bfrgkl ds eq[; L=ksr D;k gS \

m0¼1½       eSxLFkuht dh bafMdk & ekS;Zdkyhu Hkkjr ds fo"k; esa

       Kku izkIr djus ds fy;s eSxLFkuht }kjk jfpr ^bf.Mdk^ egRoiw.kZ

       xzaFk gS ftlesa rRdkyhu 'kklu O;oLFkk] lekt] jktuSfrd o vkfFkZd

       voLFkk ij egRoiw.kZ fooj.k feyrk gSA

¼2½ dkSfVY; dk vFkZ’kkL=& dkSfVY; dk vFkZ’kkL= Hkh rRdkyhu

       Hkkjr ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ij izdk’k Mkyrk gS ftlls ekS;ksZ ds

       ckjs esa irk pyrk gSA

                                                                     14
¼3½ fo’kk[kknRr eqnzkjk{kl & bl izeq[k xzaFk esa uan oa’k dk

     pUnzxqIr }kjk uk’k dk o.kZu gSA

¼4½ tSu vkSj ckS} lkfgR; & tSu vkSj ckS} nksuks /keksZ ds lkfgR;

     esa rRdkyhu lekt] jktuhfr vkfn dh tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gSA

¼5½ v’kksd ds vfHkys[k & LFkku&LFkku ij yxs v’kksd ds

     vfHkys[kks ls Hkh ekS;Zdkyhu iz’kklu] /keZ] lekt vFkZO;oLFkk

     vkfn ij izdk’k iM+rk gSA

iz06- ;g chloh 'krkCnh ds ,d lqfo[;kr vfHkys[k 'kkL=h Mh lh fljdkj dk
     dFku gS %Hkkjrh;ks ds thou] laLd`fr vkSj fØ;kvksa dk ,slk
     dksbZ vax ugh gS ftudk izfrfcac vfHkys[kks esa ugh gSA ppkZ
     dhft;sA
m0
¼1½ izLrkouk & bfrgkl dh jpuk dh n`f"V ls vfHkys[k cgqr gh

     egRoiw.kZ L=ksr gSA vfHkys[k fo’ks"kK Mh lh fljdkj us Bhd gh

     dgk gS fd Hkkjrh; ds thou laLd`fr] vkSj fdz;kvksa dk dksbZ vax

     ugh gS ftudk izfrfcac vfHkys[kks esa Hkh gqvk gsA lkekU;r%

     vfHkys[kks esa mUgh yksxksa dh miyfC/k;ksa@xfrfof/k;ksa vksj

     fopkjksa dks fyfic} fd;k tkrk Fkk tks mUgsa fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij

     LFkkfir djus ds fo"k; esa fu.kZ; ysrs FksA

           vfHkys[kks esa efgykvksa vkSj iq:"kksa }kjk /kkfeZd

     laLFkkvks dks fn;s x;s nku dk fooj.k gksrk gSA vfHkys[k ,d rjg ls

     LFkk;h lk{; gksrs gSA vusd vfHkys[kksa esa buds fuekZ.k dh

     frfFk [kqnh gksrh gS] dqN dh frfFk dk fu/kkZj.k ij mu ij fy[kh xbZ

     fyfi dh cukoV ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, yxHkx
                                                                     15
     350 bZ0 iwoZ0 esa o.kZ vA bl izdkj fy[kk tkrk FkkA 500 bZ0 esa

     ;g ds :Ik esa fy[kk tkus yxkA

2-   /kkfeZd laLFkkvksa }kjk vU; nku izkIr djus okys fo"k;ks esa

     vfHkys[kksa }kjk fn;k x;k fooj.k & fofHkUu vfHkys[kks esa

     jktkvksa ;k laLFkkvksa ;k O;fDr;ksa }kjk eafnjksa] fogkjksa ;k

     Lrwiks vkfn dks fn;s x;s Hkw nkuksa vFkok nku jkf’k;ksa dk

     mYys[k izkIr gksrk gA buesa nku nsus okys uke ds lkFk&lkFk

     mlds O;olk; dk Hkh mYys[k feyrk gSA

3-   ekS;Z ;qx ds fo"k; ls lwpuk,a vkSj vfHkys[k & vfHkys[kksa ls

     gesa uxjks eas jgus okys] /kksch] cqudj] fyfid] c<+kbZ] dqEgkj]

     Lo.kZdkj] ykSgdkj] vf/kdkjh] /kkfeZd xq: O;kikjh vkSj jktkvksa ds

     ckjs esa fooj.k fy[ks gksrs gSA

     dHkh&dHkh mRikndska vkSj O;kikfj;ksa ds la?kksa ;k Js.kh dk

     Hkh mYys[k feyrk gSA ;g Jsf.k;ka laHkor% igys dPPks eky dks

     [kjhnrh Fkh fQj muls lkeku rS;kj dj cktkj esa csp nsrs FksA

4-   O;kikj ds ckjs esa lwpuk vkSj vfHkys[k & yxHkx blh le; ds

     nkSjku gesa vfHkys[kks ls ls nwj&nwj ns’kksa ds lkFk Hkkjrh;

     O;kikfjd lEcU/k ds ckjs esa tkudkjh feyrh gSA tks Hkh gks gesa

     ;g ekuuk iM+sxk fd bfrgkldkj] bfrgkl ds iw.kZ fuekZ.k vkSj mls

     le>us ds fy;s vfHkys[kksa dk lgkjk gh ugh ysrs cfYd fofHkUu

     ,sfrgkfld L=ksrksa ij tksj nsrs gSA




                                                                    16
                     CHAPTER 3
KINSHIP, CASTE AND CLASS EARLY SOCIETIES
                (C 600 BCE-600 CE)
   ca/kqRo] tkfr rFkk oxZ vkjfEHkd lekt ¼yxHkx 600 bZ- iwoZ
                        ls 600 bZ-rd½

                                                          17
Q7.   How the Manusmriti has define the features and functions of
      chandalas? What some Chinese travelers have written about them ?
Ans. (i)     The Manusmriti (compiled c. 2nd century (CE) laid down what
      it described as the duties of the chandalas. They were expected to live
      outside the village use discarded bowls with dogs and donkeys as their
      wealth. They were to wear the clothes of the dead and eat out of
      broken dishes wear ornaments of black iron and wander constantly.
      They were not to walk about in villages and cities at night. They had
      to handle the bodies of those who had no relatives and act as
      executioners.
      (ii)   Much later in the account of his travels the Chinese Buddhish
      monk Fa Xian (5th century CE) wrote that the untouchables had to
      sound a clapper in the streets of the town to warn the people of their
      presence. Another Chinese pilgrim Xuan Zang (7th century CE)
      observed that executioners and scavengers were forced to live outside
      the city and their houses were marked.
Q8.   Textual traditions are one of the major sources for understanding the
      process of changes. Explain the statement in about 100 words.
Ans. Textual traditions are of the major sources for understanding changes
      in the economy and polity. Some texts laid down norms of social
      behaviour. Others described and occasionally commented on a wide
      range of social situation and practices. And we can catch a glimpse of
      some social actors from inscriptions. Each of these sources is written
      from the perspective of some social categories. So we need to keep in
      mind who composed it and for whom. We also need to consider the
      language of the text, and ways in which it circulated.

                                                                          18
Q9.    The following is an excerpt from the Mahabarta in which Yudishtra,
       the eldest Pandava speaks to Sanjaya a messenger :
       Sanjaya convey my respectful greetings to all the Brahmanas and the
       chief priest of the house of Dhritarashtra. I bow respectfully to teacher
       Drona……I hold the feet of our preceptor Kripa…. (and) the chief of
       the Kurus, the great Bhishma. I bow respectfully to the old king
       (Dhritarashtra). I greet and ask after the health of his son Dhritarashtra
       and his younger brother……. Also greet all the young Kuruwarriors
       who are our brothers sons and grandsons….. Greet above all him who
       is to us like father and mother, the wise Vidura (born of a slave
       woman)…. I bow to the elderly ladies who are known as our mother.
       To those who are our wives you say this, “I hope they are well
       protected… Our daughters in law born of good families and mothers
       of children greet on my behalf. Embrace for me those who are our
       daughters…… The beautiful fragrant well dressed courtesans of ours
       you should also greet. Greet the slave women and their children greet
       the aged the maimed (and) the helpless.
              Try and identify the criteria used to make this list in terms of
       age, gender kinship ties. Are there any other criteria ? For each
       category explain why are placed in a particular position in the list.
Ans. The criteria had been used to make this list the terms of age gender
       and kinship ties in brief ca be mention in this way :
i)     First of all respect should be paid to all the Brahamans and the chief
       priest of the ruler.
ii)    Secondly Guru Dronacharya should be honoured.
iii)   The great old man Bhismpitama was given place of honour at third
       position.

                                                                               19
iv)    After that Yudhisthira bow respectfully to old king and his young
       brother to all these people he considered like his father and then he
       should respect to female members of Kuru family as his mothers –
       Kinship were honoured.
v)     At next place Yudhisthira showed honoured to Vidhura born of a
       slave women. After that the elderly ladies and daughters and mother
       of children were given respect.
vi)    There is other criteria also respect should be shown equally to all elder
       persons whether they are from royal families or they are Brahamans
       or from any other Varnas because age should be given first of all
       regard without considering gender and blood relation.
vii)   Yudhisthira put his list of honour keeping of view the old traditions of
       Brahamans text (books) and maintaining the old social order generally
       followed during the epic age.
Q10. This is what a famous historian of Indian literature Maurice
       Winternitz, wrote about the Mahabarata: “just because Mahabarata
       represents more of an entire literature….. and contains so much and so
       many kinds of things….. (it) gives (s) us an insight into the most
       profound depths of the sold of the Indian folk”….Discuss.
Ans. There are several literary sources to reconstruct ancient Indian history.
       Mahabarata is one of them. This is a famous historical source. Its
       importance has been recognized in not by Indian historian but also by
       foreign and western historian for example Maurice Winternitz wrote
       about great epic just because the Mahabarata represents more of an
       entire literature. It contains to so many kinds of hints related with
       different aspects of the Indian lives. It we study this vast book it gives
       us and inside into the most perfound depth of the soul of the Indian
       people. For example Mahabarata was written in Sanskrit, a language
                                                                              20
meant also exclusively for priests and elites. However the Sanskrit
used in simpler than that of the Vedas. Therefore it was probably
widely understood.
      Historians usually classify the contents of the present text under
two broad heads sections that contain stories designated as the
narrative and section that contain prescriptions about social norms
designated as didactic. This division is by no means watertight – the
didactic sections include stories and the narrative often contains a
social message. However generally historians agree that the
Mahabarata was meant to be dramatic moving story and that the
didactic portions were probably added later.
      Interestingly the text is described as an itihasa within early
Sanskrit tradition. The literal meaning of the term is thus it was which
is why it is generally translated as history. Was there a real war that
was remembered in the epic ? We are not sure. Some historians think
that the memory of an actual conflict amongst kinfolk was preserved
in the narrative others pint out that there is no other corroborative
evidence of the battle.
      Who wrote the Mahabarata. This is a question to which there
are several answers. The original story was probably composed by
charioteer bards known as sutas who generally accompanied
Kshatriya warriors to the beattlefiled and composed poems celebrating
their victories and other achievements. These compositions circulated
orally. Then, from the fifth century BCE, Brahmanas took over the
story and began to commit it to writing. This was the time when
chiefdoms such as those of the Kurus and Panchalas around whom the
story of the epic revolves, were gradually becoming kingdoms. Did
the new things want their itihasa to be recorded and preserved more
                                                                     21
     systematically ? It is also possible that the unpheavals that often
     accompanied the establishment of these states, where old social values
     were often replaced by new norms, are reflected in some parts of the
     story.
              The Mahabarata, like any other major epic, contains vivid
     descriptions of battles, forests palaces and settlements. This book
     described not only Kinship, political life of that period but also social
     priority based on caste, sex and social classes. We can find about
     some major feature of family life such as ideal of patriliny, different
     forms of marriage and rules related with marriage system the social
     position of women however mothers important in the society. Social
     differences prevailed in the social system of India. Some thrones were
     occupied even by known Kshtriya kings. The epic also deals about jati
     and social mability etc.




iz07- euqLe`fr esa paMkyksa dh fo’ks"krk,a vkSj dk;Z dks fdl izdkj

     mYysf[kr fd;k x;k gS \ dqN phuh ;kf=;kas us muds ckjs es D;k

     fy[kk gS \

m0

1    euqLe`fr esa p.Mkyksa ds drZO;ksa dh lwph feyrh gSA mUgsa

     xkao ds ckgj jguk gksrk FkkA os Qsasds gq, crZuksa dk

     bLrseky djrs Fks ejs gq, yksxksa ds oL= rFkk yksgsa ds

     vkHkw"k.k igurs FksA jkf= esa os xkao vkSj uxjks esa py&fQj

     ugha ldrs FksA lEcfU/k;ksa ls foghu e`rdksa dh mUgsa


                                                                           22
     vaR;sf"V djuh iM+rh Fkh rFkk of/kd ds :Ik esa Hkh dk;Z djuk

     gksrk FkkA

2-   phu ls vk;s ckS} fHk{kq Qk&f’k,u ¼yxHkx ikapoh 'krkCnh

     bZLoh½ dk dguk gS fd vLi`’;ksa dks lM+d ij pyrs gq, djrky ctkdj

     vius gksus dh lwpuk nsuh iM+rh Fkh ftlls vU; tu mUgsa ns[kus

     ds nks"k ls cp tk;ssA ,d vkSj phuh rhFkZ;k=h 'oSu&Rlkax

     ¼yxHkx lkroh 'krkCnh bZLoh½ dgrk gS fd of/kd vkSj lQkbZ djus

     okyksa dks uxj ls ckgj jguk iM+rk FkkA

iz08- lkfgfR;d ijaijk,a ifjorZu izfØ;kvksa dks le>us ds fy;s izeq[k

     L=ksrks esa ls ,d gSA yxHkx 100 'kCnks esa bl dFku dh O;k[;k

     dhft;sA

m0   ca/kqRo tkfr izFkk rFkk oxZ ;k o.kZ O;oLFkk vkfn vkjafHkd

     lekkftd izfdz;kvksa dks le>us ds fy;s bfrgkldkj lkfgR;d ijEijkvksa

     dk mi;ksx djrs gSA dqN xzaFk lkekftd O;ogkj ds ekunaM r; djrs

     FksA vU; xzaFk lekt dk fp=.k djrs Fks vkSj dHkh dHkh lekt es

     ekStwn fofHkUu fjoktksa ij viuh fVIi.kh Hkh izLrqr djrs FksA

     vfHkys[kksa ls gesa lekt ds dqN ,sfrgkfld vfHkuk;dksa dh >yd

     feyrh                                                          gSA

     ge ns[ksaxs fd izR;sd xzaFk ¼vkSj vfHkys[k½ ,d leqnk; fo’ks"k

     ds n`f"Vdks.k ls fy[kk tkrk Fkk]vr% ;g ;kn j[kuk t:jh gks tkrk gS fd

     ;s xzaFk fdlus fy[ks] D;k fy[kk x;k vkSj fduds fy;s budh jpuk

     gqbZA bl ckr ij Hkh /;ku nsuk t:jh gS fd bu xazFkksa dh jpuk esa

     fdl Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx gqvk rFkk budk izpkj izlkj fdl rjg gqvkA ;fn

                                                                      23
     ge bu xzaFkksa dk iz;ksx lko/kkuh ls djs rks lekt esa izpfyr vkpkj

     O;ogkj vkSj fjoktksa dk bfrgkl fy[kk tk ldrk gSA

iz09- fuEufyf[kr vorj.k egkHkkjr ls gS ftlesa T;s"B ikaMo ;qf/kf"Bj nwr

     lat; dks lEcksf/kr dj jgs gSA

     lat; /k`rjk"Vª x`g ds lHkh czkge.kksa vkSj eq[; iqjksfgr dks esjk

     fofur vfHkoknu nhft,xkA eSa xq: nzks.k ds lkeus ureLrd gksrk

     gwaA eSa d`ikpk;Z dk pj.k Li’kZ djrk gwa ¼vksj½ dq: oa’k ds

     iz/kku Hkh"e dsA eSa o`} jktk ¼/k`rjk"Vª½ dks ueu djrk gwaA

     eS amuds iq= nq;ksZ/ku vkSj muds vuqtksa ds LokLF; ds ckjs

     esa iwNrk gwa rFkk mudks 'kqHkdkeuka, nsrk gwa eSa mu lc

     ;qok dq: ;ks}kvksa dk vfHkuanu djrk gwa tks gekjs Hkkbz] iq=

     vksj ikS= gSA loksZifj eSa mu egkefr fonqj dks ¼ftudk tUe nklh

     ls gqvk gS½ ueLdkj djrk gwa tks gekjs firk vkSj ekrk ds ln`’k gS-

     ---- eSa mu lHkh o`}k fL=;ksa dks iz.kke djrk gwa tks gekjh

     ekrkvksa ds :Ik esa tkuh tkrh gSA tks gekjh ifRu;k gS muls ;g

     dfg,xk fd ^^eSa vk’kk djrk gwa fd os lqjf{kr gS^^------ esjh vksj ls

     mu dqyo/kwvksa dk tks mRre ifjokjks esa tUeh gS vkSj cPpksa

     dh ekrka, gS vfHkuanu dhft,xk rFkk gekjh iqf=;ksa dk vkfyaxu

     dhft,xk^^ lqUnj lqxaf/kr] lqosf’kr xf.kdkvksa dks 'kqHkdkeuk,a

     nhft,xkA nkfl;ksa vkSj mudh larkuksa rFkk o`} fodykax vkSj vlgk;

     tuksa dks Hkh esjh vksj ls ueLdkj dfj,xk^^A

           bl lwph dks cukus ds vk/kkjksa dh igpku dhft,&mez] fyax

     Hksn] o ca/kqRo ds lanHkZ esa \ D;k dksbZ vU; vk/kkj Hkh gS \

                                                                      24
     izR;sd Js.kh ds fy, Li"V dhft, fd lwph esa mUgsa ,d fo’ks"k

     LFkku ij D;ksa j[kk x;k gS \

m0   bl lwph esa ftu vk/kkjksa dks blds fuekZ.k gsrq ekU;rk nh xbZ

     gS mudh igpku djrs gq, ge ;g dg ldrs gS fd mezz] fyax] cU/kqRo

     ds lanHkZ esa lkFk&lkFk xq: f’k"; ds lEcU/k] jktk ds izfr lEeku]

     ekrkvksa ds izfr vfHkuanu fo’ks"k :Ik ls /;ku esa j[ks x;s gSA

1-   bl lwph esa loZizFke lcls cM+s ikaMo ;qf/kf"Bj us dkSjoksa ds

     nwr lat; dks lEcksf/kr djrs gq, vius jkT; vFkok {ks= ds lHkh

     czkge.kksa vkSj eq[; iqjksfgr dks viuk ouhr vfHkokn izLrqr fd;kA

     oLrqr% egkdkO; dky esa lHkh {kf=; iwjs czkge.k o.kZ dk

     vfHkUkUnu lEeku djrs Fks D;ksafd mUgsa lekt esa mudh fo}rk]

     Kku vkfn ds fy;s loksZPp LFkku lkekftd <kaps esa dsoy fn[kkus

     ds fy;s ugh cfYd O;ogkfjd <kaps esa Hkh izkIr FkkA

2-   czkge.kksa ds mijkar ;qf/kf"Bj us xq: nzks.k ds izfr g`n; ls ureLrd

     gkssj vius lEeku dh vfHkO;fDr dhA os nzks.k dh rjg d`ikpk;Z dks

     Hkh lEekuuh; ds fy;s xq: ekurs FksA

3-   mUgksus dq:vksa ds iz/kku vkSj lcls mez esa cM+s Hkh"e

     firkeg dks lEeku fn;k D;ksafd os viuh ;ksX;rk ds lkFk&lkFk mez

     vkSj vuqHko dh n`f"V ls Hkh lEekuuh; Fksa

4-   ;|fi /k`rjk"Vª dksjoksa ds firk Fks ysfdu mUgsa Hkh ;qf/kf"Bj us

     lEeku fn;k D;ksafd os o` vksj ikaMo ca/kq ds lkFk jDr ds }kjk

     lEcfU/kr gksus ds lkFk&lkFk gfLrukiqj ds ujs’k Hkh FksA



                                                                      25
5-   ;qf/kf"Bj e;kZnk iq:"kksRreksa esa ls ,d FksA os egkHkkjr ds ;q}

     'kq: gksus ls iwoZ bl dky dk vPNk izek.k nsrs gSA balkfu;r muds

     O;ogkj vkSj fopkjksa ls vfHkO;Dr gksrh gSA ;|fi lkfgR;dkjksa us

     nq;ksZ/ku dks ,d vPNs ik= ds :Ik esa mifLFkr ugh fd;k gS ysfdu

     T;s"B ikaMo ;qf/kf"Bj us 'kgtknksa esa ls Js"B nq;ksZ/ku vkSj

     mlds vusd NksVs HkkbZ;ksa ds ckjs esa jktnwr lat; ls iwNdj

     f’k"Vkpkj dk fuokZg fd;k vkSj viuh 'kqHkdkeuk,a mls izLrqr dhA

     fulansg ;g f’k"Vkpkj dk rdktk gSA

6-   ,d u;s lEcU/k ds :Ik esa ge vuqPNsn ;k mi;qZDr vorj.k dh vxyh

     iafDr ls ;g tkurs gS fd ml dky esa ,d ohj nwljs ohj ;k ;ks}k dk

     lEeku djrk FkkA lat; ls ;qf/kf"Bj us dgk] ^^eSa mu lc ;qok dq:

     ;ks}kvksa dk vfHkoknu djrk gwa tks gekjs HkkbZ] iq= vkSj ikS=

     gSA^^

7-   ;qf/kf"Bj vxyk vk/kkj lEeku dk ckSf}d Lrj dks cukrs gSA fonqj

     egkerh oDrk FkkA og fo}kuks esa loksZifj FkkA fulansg mudk

     tUe ,d nklh dh dks[k ls gqvk Fkk ysfdu ;qf/kf"Bj tUe ds vk/kkj ij

     vk/kkfjr o.kZ O;oLFkk esa ;dhu ugha j[krk FkkA mlus ckSf}d Lrj

     ds vk/kkj ij fonqj dks ueu fd;k vksj mUgsa vius firk vkSj ekrk ds

     lg`n; crk;kA

8-   ;qf/kf"Bj us fL=;ksa] fo’ks"kdj o`}k fL=;ksa vksj mldh ekrk dh

     mezz ds ukfj;ksa ds izfr viuk ueLdkj] lEeku lat; dks nsus ds fy;s

     dgkA ;g bl ckr dk izrhd gS fd dqyhu oxZ ds yksx Hkh bl ns’k esa

     ukfj;ksa dk cgqr lEeku djrs FksA mUgksus 'kh?kz gh vius

                                                                    26
     NksVs HkkbZ;ksa] iq=ks] ikS=ksa vkfn dh ifRu;ksa ds fy;s

     mEehn trkbZ gS fd og iw.kZr;k lqjf{kr gksaxsA mlus dqy

     o/kqvksa dks tks mRre ifjokjksa esa tUeh gS vkSj cPpks dh

     ekrk,a gS mudk vfHkuanu ds fy;s lat; dks dgk A

iz010-    Hkkjrh; lkfgR; ds izfl} bfrgkldkj ekSfjl foaVjfoV~t us

     egkHkkjr ds ckjs esa fy[kk Fkk fd ^^pwafd egkHkkjr lEiw.kZ

     lkfgR; dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gS cgqr lkjh vkSj vusd izdkj dh phts

     blesa fufgr gS ¼og½ Hkkjrh;ksa dh vkRek dh vxk/k xgjkbZ dks

     ,d varn`f"V iznku djrk gSA^^ ppkZ dhft;sA

m0   izkphu Hkkjrh; bfrgkl fuekZ.k gsrq vusd ,sfrgkfld L=ksr miyC/k

     gSA muesa ls egkHkkjr Hkh ,d gSA ;g ,d izfl} ,sfrgkfld L=ksr

     gSA blds egRo dks u dsoy Hkkjrh; bfrgkldkjksa us cfYd if’pe

     bfrgkldkjksa us Hkh Lohdkj fd;k gSA Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa bfrgkldkj

     ekSfjl foaVjfoV~t us bls ,d egku dkO; dgk gSA muds vuqlkj ;g ,d

     lkfgfR;d d`fr ds :Ik esa lEiw.kZ izkphu Hkkjrh; lkfgR; dk

     izfrfuf/kRo djrk gSA bldk vkdkj cM+k fo’kky gS D;ksafd bldh

     fo"k; lkexzh cgqr foLr`r gSA blesa cgqr lkjh vkSj fofHkUu izdkj

     dh oLrqa, fufgr gSA tgka rd bldk lkekftd egRo gS ;g yksxksa ds

     thou ds vusd Ikgyqvksa] o.kZ O;oLFkk] tkfr O;oLFkk fL=;ksa

     dks lkekftd lEeku] fofHkUu izdkj ds fookg] lkekftd euksjatu ds

     lk/ku] /kuqfoZ/kk ikfjokfjd lEcU/k] jktuhfr esa dqyhu efgykvksa

     dh :fp vkfn dks Nwrk gSA fo}ku bfrgkldkj Bhd gh fy[krs gS fd og

     ¼vFkkZr egkHkkjr½ Hkkjrh;ksa dh vkRek dh vkxk/k xgjkbZ dks

                                                                   27
,d varjn`f"V iznku djrk gSA egkHkkjr dh jpuk laLd`r Hkk"kk esas

gqbZA fulansg ,d lkfgfR;d Hkk"kk dh vksj bldks Ik<+us fy[kus

esa izk;% bldk iz;ksx czkge.k] iqtkjh vksj fof’k"V ifjokjksa ds

yksx gh djrs Fks tks Hkh gks EkgkHkkjr esa ftl laLd`r dk iz;ksx

fd;k x;k gS og osnksa ds fy;s iz;ksx dh xbZ laLd`r ls vf/kd ljy gS

blhfy, bls vf/kd T;knk la[;k esa yksxksa }kjk laHkor% le>k tk ldk

A

      bfrgkldkj bl xazaFk dh fo"k;oLrq dks nks eq[; 'kh"kZdksa

ds vUrxZr j[krs gS vk[;ku rFkk mins’kkRed&vk[;ku esa dgkfu;ksa

dk laxzg gS vkSj mins’kkRed Hkkx esa lkekftd vkpkj&fopkj ds

ekunaMksa dk fp=.k gS fdUrq ;g foHkktu iwjh rjg vius esa

,dkadh ugh gS mins’kkRed va’kks esa Hkh dgkfu;k gksrh gS

vkSj cgq/kk vk[;kuks esa lekt ds fy, ,d lcd fufgr jgrk gSA vf/kdrj

bfrgkldkj bl ckr ij ,der gS fd egkHkkjr oLrqr% ,d mins’kkRed

Hkkx esa ukVdh; dFkkud Fkk ftlesa mins’kkRed va’k ckn esa

tksM+s x;sA

      vkjafHkd laLd`r ijEijk esa egkHkkjr dks ^bfrgkl^ dh Js.kh

esa j[kk x;k gSA bl 'kCn dk vFkZ gS & ,slk gh FkkA D;k

egkHkkjr esa lpeqp esas gq, fdlh ;q} dk Lej.k fd;k tk jgk Fkk \ bl

ckjs esa ge fuf’pr :Ik ls dqN ugha dg ldrsA dqN bfrgkldkjksa dk

ekuuk gS fd Lotuksa ds chp gq, ;q} dh Le`fr gh egkHkkjr dk eq[;

dFkkud gSA vU; bl ckr dh vksj bafxr djrs gS fd ges ;q} dh iqf"V

fdlh vkSj lk{; ls ugh gksrhA

                                                                28
                  ikB&4
fopkjd] fo'okl vkSj bekjrsa] lkaLÑfrd fodkl
   bZlk iwoZ 600 ls bZlk laor~ 600 rd
Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings, Cultural
             Developments
          (600 BCE to 600 CE)

                                              29
Q.1 Why had Magadha become the centre of the new religious
    movement?
Ans. (i) The people of Magadha responded readily to the
     Budhism
         because they were looked down upon the orthodox
         Brahmanas.
     (ii)    The role of the rulers of the Magadha. They took
             keen interest on spreading the religion in India as
             well in other countries.
     (iii)   The wealth of Magadha also helped in spreading
             new religious movements.



Q.2 How far the Indian Rulers were responsible for the
    preservation of the Stupa of Sanchi?
Ans. The role played by Rulers of India special the rulers of
     Bhopal could protect the many monuments. The role of
     the kings of Bhopal for protection of Sanchi monuments
     is as under.
     (i)     In nineteenth century Europeans were very much
             interested in structure at Sanchi. In fact, the
             French requested Shahjehan Begum for permission
             to take away eastern gateway, which was the best
             preserved, to be displayed in a Museum in French.
             For a while some Englishmen also wished to do the
             same but fortunately both the French and the
             English were satisfied with carefully prepared
             plaster cast copies and the original remained at the
             site, part of the Bhopal state.
     (ii)    The ruler of Bhopal, Shahjehan Begum and her
             successor Sultan Jehan Begum provided money for
             preservation of the ancient site. She funded the
             Museum that was built there as well as the guest
                                                               30
             house where she lived. She funded the publication
             of the volumes as well.
     (iii)   So if the Stupa complex has survived, it is in no
             small measure due to wise decisions of Begums and
             to good luck in escaping from the eyes of railway
             and to carry away to the Museums of Europe.



Q.3 Why do you think the Budha advised his followers to be
    lamps unto yourselves?
Ans. We think the Budha advised his followers to be lamps
     unto yourselves because he regarded the social world as
     the creation of human according to him is has no divine
     origin. Therefore he advised rulers and chief of the
     families to be human and athetical according to him.
     Only individual efforts were expected to transformed
     social relation. It was also expected to lead to self
     realisation and nirbhan, literally the blowing out of the
     ego and desire, and thus and the cycle of suffering for
     those who renounced the world. According to Budhist
     tradition, his last words to his followers were "I am
     reaching the end to my life."

Q.4 Why do you think men and women joined the Sangha?
Ans. We think men and women joined the Sangha to study
     Budhism and its texts more systematically and regularly.
     They wanted to become the teachers of the dharma.
     These Sangha were good place to lead to simple life in
     required environment. They desired to process only
     essential requisites for survival, such as a robe and bowl
     to receive food colleted once a day from the liaty, to whom
     they taught the dharma.

Q.5 Evaluate the circumstances which were responsible for
    the spread of Buddhism?
                                                              31
Ans. (i)   Appropriate atmosphere in 600 BC as many bad
     evils                                         were
           practiced in the society.
     (ii)    Effect of royal family, people also followed the king.
     (iii)   Use of simple Pali language of common people.
     (iv)    The teachings of Lord Buddha were usual
     (v) Kept away           this   religion   from    unnecessary
     expenditure
     (vi)    Away from casteism
     (vii) Ideal preacher of this dhurma
     (viii) Patronage by the state.
     (ix)    Boddh monasteries
     (x)     Acceptability of change.

Q.6 Explain the differences between the Hinyana and
    Mahayana sets of Buddhism on the basis of the concept
    of Bodhisata?
Ans. By the first century CE, there is evidence of changes in
     Buddhist ideas and practices. Early Buddhist teaching
     head given importance to self efforts in achieving
     nibbana. Besides, the Buddha was regarded as a human
     being who attained enlightenment and nibbana through
     his own efforts. Gradually the idea of a saviour emerged.
     It was believed that he was the one who could ensure
     salvation. Simulanetously the concept of the Bodhisata
     was also developed. Bodhisata were perceived as deeply
     compassionate being who accumulated merit through
     their efforts but used this not to attain nibbana and
     thereby abandon the world, but to help others. The
     worship of images of t he Buddha and Bodhisattas
     became an important part of this tradition.


                                                                  32
      This new way of thinking was called Mahayana.
Literally the „Great vehicle‟. Those who adopted these
beliefs described the older tradition as Hinayana or “the
lesser vehicle”
 Boddha dharm was divided into two different sects
named Hinayana and Mahayana. The differences between
them were the following :
          Mahayana                        Hinayana
1.   They    treated      Lord They treated the Lord
     Buddha as deity and Buddha as a symbol of
     worshipped his idol.      idealism and purity.
2.   They over stressed belief They       believed     the
     and devotion.             religious teachings only
                               after getting it confirmed
                               on the basis of debate.
3.   They used Sanskrit.          Their entire literature
                                  was in Pali language.
4.   They thought it essential They stressed pure and
     to follow the religious good conduct to attain
     rules    to     attain the the objective of live.
     objective of life.
5.   The word meaning of          The word meaning of
     Mahayana is the greater      Hinayana is the lesser
     yana (or bigger ship). The   yaan (or shorter ship).
     sect believes that every     The followers of this sect
     body should care for his     believes that everybody
     own 'nirvana' as well as     should care only for his
     for the salvation of         own      'nirvana'      or
     others.                      salvation because this
                                  philosophical thought is
                                  concerned     to     every
                                  person individually.

                                                          33
Q.7 Assess the importance of Budhism for the enrichment of
     Indian culture.
Ans. The contribution of Buddhism to the enrichment of
     Indian culture was as below :

     (i)     Buddhism created and developed a new awareness
             in the field of intellect and culture. It taught the
             people not to take things for granted but to argue
             and judge them on merits. To certain extent the
             place of superstition was taken by logic.

     (ii)    In order to preach the doctrines of the new religion
             the Buddhists compiled a new type of literature.
             They enormously enriched Pali by their writings.

     (iii)   The Buddhist monasteries developed as great
             centres of learning and can be called residential
             universities. Mention may be made of Nalanda and
             Vikramshila in Bihar, and Valabhi in Gujarat.

     (iv)    The first human statues worshipped in India were
             probably those of the Buddha. The panels found at
             Gaya in Bihar and at Sanchi and Bharhut in
             Madhya Pradesh are illuminating examples of
             artistic activity.

     (v)     The Gandhara and Mathura Schools of sculptures
             were purely based on the Bodh subjects and its
             culminated the art of Indian Sculptures.




Q.8 Read this short inscription and answer :

          In the year 33 of the Maharaja Huvishka (a
     Kushana ruler), in the first month of the hot season on
     the eighth day, a Bodhisatta was set up at Madhuvanaka
                                                               34
       by the bhikkhuni Dhanavati, the sister is daughter of the
       bikkhsi Buddha Mitra, who known the Tipitaka, the
       female pupil of the bhikkhu Bala, who known the
       Tipitika, together with her father and Mother.

(i)    How did Dhanvanti date her inscription?

Ans. The first month of the hot season (i.e. summer) on the
     eighth day and in the year 33 of the Maharaja (i.e. the
     emperor) named Huvishkas

(ii)   Why do you think she installed an image of the
       Bodhisatta?
Ans. To show that Mahayana sect of Budhism was becoming
     popular day by day and Bodhisatta were considered
     impresent and great personality in Buddhism during the
     reign of the Kushana rulers.

(iii) Who were the relatives she mentioned?
Ans. She had mentioned her own mother's sister named
Buddhamita.

(iv) What Budhist text did she know?
Ans. She knew the Tipitaka, the Buddhist text.

(v)    From whom did she learn this text?
Ans. She learnt this text from bhikkhuni Buddhmita.

Q.9 On an outline world map, mark five countries to which
    Buddhism spread.


Q.1 ex/k u;s&u;s /kkfeZd vkanksyuksa dk dsUæ D;ksa cuk\

       (i)   D;ksafd ex/k dh turk iqjkus fopkjksa dks R;kxus esa
             ges'kk rS;kj jgrh Fkh vkSj u;s /kkfeZd fopkjksa dks viukus
             o QSykus esa viuk iwjk lg;ksx nsrh FkhA
                                                                     35
     (ii)    ex/k ds 'kkldksa dk buesa ;ksxnku jgkA os ges'kk /kkfeZd
             fo'oklksa dks vius ns'k o ckgj QSykus esa lgk;rk o lg;ksx
             nsrs Fks tSls v'kksd us ckS) /keZ ds çpkj gsrq viuh iq=kh
             o iq=k dks fons'kksa esa HkstkA

     (iii)   ex/k dh vkfFkZd le`f) dk Hkh u;s /kkfeZd fopkjksa ds
             QSykus esa ;ksxnku jgkA

Q.2 lkaph ds Lrwi ds laj{k.k esa Hkkjrh; 'kkldks dh csxeksa dh
    Hkwfedk dk ewY;kkdu dhft,A
     Hkkjr ds fofHkUu Hkkxks es QSys gq;s fofHkUu Lekjdks es ls
           vxzsth dky es vusd dky ds xrZ es lek x;sA ysfdu dqN
           'kkldks us vius ;ksxnkuks ls fo’ks"k :i ls Hkksiky ds 'kkldks
           us lkWph tSls Lekjdks dks cpk fy;kAbuds }kjk Lekjdks
           cpkus ds fy;s fn;k x;k ;ksxnku fuEu izdkj ls gSA

     (i)     mUuhloha lnh ds ;wjksih;ksa esa lkaph ds Lrwi dks ysdj
             dkQh fnypLih FkhA Ýkalhfl;ksa us lcls vPNh gkyr esa cps
             lkaph ds iwohZ rksj.k }kj dks Ýkal ds laxzgky; esa çnf'kZr
             djus ds fy, 'kgtgka csxe ls Ýkal ys tkus dh btktr ekaxhA
             dqN le; ds fy, vaxzstksa us Hkh ,slh gh dksf'k'k dh
             lkSHkX;o'k Ýkalhlh vkSj vaxzst nksuksa gh cM+h lko/kkuh
             ls cukbZ IykLVj çfrÑfr;ksa ls larq"V gks x;sA bl çdkj ewy
             Ñfr Hkksiky jkT; esa viuh txg ij gh jghA

     (ii)    Hkksiky ds 'kkldksa 'kkgtgka csxe vkSj mudh
             mÙkjkf/kdkjh lqYrku tgka csxe us bl çkphu LFkku ds
             j[kj[kko ds fy, /ku dk vuqnku fn;kA mlus /keZ'kkyk fuekZ.k]
             iqLrdky; O;oLFkk o xzaFkksa dh jpuk ds fy, lgk;rk çnku
             dhA

     (iii)   csxeksa ds le>nkjhiw.kZ fu.kZ; dk gh ifj.kke gS fd lkaph ds
             Lrwi dks jsyos foHkkx o ;wjksfi;ksa }kjk vU;= ystkus ls mls
             cpk;k tk ldkA

Q.3 vki ds }kjk ;g lkspus dk D;k dkj.k gS fd cq) us vius vuq;kf;;ksa
    dks ;g ijke'kZ fn;k fd os Lo;a vius fy, T;ksfr cusa\

                                                                      36
     ge lksprs gSa fd cq) us vius vuq;kf;;ksa dks ;g f'k{kk nh fd os
     Lo;a vius fy, T;ksfr cusa D;ksafd os ekurs Fks fd lekt dk fuekZ.k
     balku us fd;k Fkk u fd bZ'oj usA blfy, mUgksaus jktkvksa vkSj
     x`gifr;ksa dks n;koku vkSj vkpkjoku gksus dh lykg nhA ,slk ekuk
     tkrk Fkk fd O;ÆDrxr ç;kl ls lkekftd ifjos'k cnyk tk ldrk gSA cq) us
     tUe e`R;q ds pØ ls eqÆDr] vkReKku vkSj fuokZ.k ds fy, O;fDr
     dsfUær gLr{ksi vkSj lE;d~ deZ dh dYiuk dhA fuokZ.k dk eryc
     Fkk vga vkSj bPNk dk [kRe gks tkuk ftlls x`gR;kx djus okyksa
     ds nq%[k ds pØ dk var gks ldrk FkkA ckS) ijEijk ds vuqlkj vius
     f'k";ksa dk vafre funsZ'k Fkk] ^^rqe lc vius fy, [kqn gh T;ksfr
     cuks D;ksafd rqEgsa [kqn gh viuh eqfDr jkLrk <wa<uk gSA

Q.4 vkids vuqlkj L=h&iq#"k la?k esa fdl ç;kstu ls tkrs Fks\
     ge lksprs gSa fd iq#"k vkSj efgykvksa us ckS) la?k esa blfy,
     ços'k fd;k D;ksafd ogka os /keZ dk vf/kd fu;fer vkSj O;oÆLFkr
     <ax ls v/;;u] euu] mikluk] /kkfeZd fo"k;ksa ij fopkj&foe'kZ dj
     ldsaA os ogka /keZ dh lEiw.kZ f'k{kk çkIr dj ml Kku o n'kZu dks
     O;ogkj esa yk ldsaA gj ckS) fHk{kqd ogka jgdj fu;eksa dk ikyu
     djuk] lk/kkj.k thou O;rhr djuk] vuq'kklu esa jguk] mfpr <ax ls vius
     fopkjksa dh vfHkO;ÆDr djuk vkSj fHk{kk ekaxdj vius Lo;a dk
     Hkkstu vkfn tqVkuk lh[k ldsA
     la?k esa jgrs gq, ckS)&fHk{kqd v/;;u] v/;kiu dj ldrs Fks vkSj
     fuokZ.k ds fy, crk;s x;s ekxZ fl)karksa vkSj f'k{kkvksa dk vuqlj.k
     djds eks{k çkIr dj ldrs FksA

Q.5 mu ifjfLFkfr;ks dk ewY;kdu dhft;s tks ckS) /keZ ds izpkj&izlkj ds
    fy;s mRrjnk;h cuhA
     (i)     Hkkjr esa ckS) /keZ ,sls le; esa o ,sls okrkoj.k esa QSyk tc
             czkge.kh; lekt es vusd çdkj dh tVhyrk;s O;kIr FkhA
      (ii)   egkRek cq) Lo;a ,d jktdqekj Fks] muds R;kx] vfgalk] lR;]
             ca/kqRo vkfn Hkkoukvksa ls yksxksa esa muds çfr J)k tkx
             mBhA
     (iii)   ikyh tSlh ljy Hkk"kk ds ç;ksx ls turk dks le>us esa dfBukbZ
             ugha gqbZA

                                                                       37
      (iv)   ckS) /keZ ds mins'k lR; o vfgalk ij vk/kkfjr Fks tks
             O;kogkfjd Hkh Fks ftUgsa vklkuh ls viuk;k tk ldrk FkkA
      (v)    ckS) /keZ ;K] gou vkSj i'kq cfy tSls O;; ls nwj FkkA
      (vi)   ckS) /keZ esa lHkh tkfr;ksa dk Lokxr FkkA
      (vii) ckS) /keZ ds çpkjd vkn'kZ vkpj.k okys FksA vr% yksxksa
            us mudk vuqlj.k fd;kA
      (viii) v'kksd] dfu"d o g"kZ tSls jktkvksa }kjk laj{k.k feyus ls bldk
çpkj gqvkA
      (ix)   ckS) eBksa ls fHk{kqvksa o fHk{kqf.k;ksa dks vkn'kZ o
             R;kxiw.kZ thou O;rhr djus dk okrkoj.k feyukA
      (x)    ckS) /keZ esa le; ds lkFk egk;ku 'kk[kk ds :i esa ifjorZu ls
             yksxksa dks vlqfo/kk ugha gqbZ vkSj cq) dh ewfrZ iwtk
             djus dh vuqefr ls bl /keZ dk vkSj foLrkj gqvkA

Q.6 cksf/klrk dh vo/kkj.kk dks vk/kkj ekurs gq;s ghu;ku o egk;ku
    lEiznk;ks ds e/; vUrjks dks Li"V dhft;sA



      Ekwy ckS) /keZ es fuokZ.k izkIr djus ds fy, O;fDrxr iz;klks ij
      T;knk tksj fn;k tkrk FkkA Loa; cq) dks Hkh ,d euq"; ekuk tkrk Fkk
      ysfdu izFke lnh ds vkl&ikl ,d eqfDrnkrk dh dYiuk mHkjus yxh ftls
      ckf/klrk dgk tkrk FkkA cksf/klrksa dks ije d:.kke; tho ekuk x;k tks
      vius lRdk;ksZ ls iq.; dekrsa FksA ysfdu os bl iq.; dk iz;ksx nqfu;k
      dks nq%[kks esa NksM nsus ds fy;s vkSj fuCcku izkfIr ds fy;s
      ugh djrs FksaAcfYd os nwljksa dh lgk;rk djrs FksaA cq) vkSj
      ckSf/klrks dh ewfrZ;ks dh iwtk bl ijEijk dk ,d egRoiw.kZ vax cu
      x;hA fparu dh bl u;h ijEijk dks egk;ku ds uke ls tkuk x;k rFkk
      iqjkuh ijEijk dks ghu;ku ds uke ls lacksf/kr fd;kA

      bues ewyr% fuEufyf[kr vUrj FkkA

             egk;ku                                 ghu;ku

             1-        egk;ku er ds ekuus           ghu;ku okys xkSre cq)
                       okys xkSre cq) dks           dks vkn'kZ vkSj ifo=krk
                                                                        38
                     nsork ekudj mudh             dk çrhd     iq#"k   ekurs
                     ewfrZ dh iwtk djrs           gSaA
                     gSaA

            2-       ;g fo'okl vkSj J)k ij        ;s fdlh Hkh ckr dks rdZ
                     vf/kd cy nsrs gSaA           dh dlkSVh ij dl dj fo'okl
                                                  djrs gSaA

            3-       buds   }kjk   laLÑr          budk iwjk lkfgR; ikyh
                     Hkk"kk ij tksj fn;k          Hkk"kk esa FkkA
                     x;kA

            4-       budk fo'okl Fkk fd           budk fo'okl Fkk fd thou
                     thou dk y{; çkIr djus        dk y{; çkIr djus ds fy,
                     ds     fy,   /kkfeZd         'kq) rFkk vPNs deks± ij
                     fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk         cy nsuk pkfg,A
                     vko';d gSA

            5-       budk lkspuk Fkk fd           ghu;ku dk vFkZ NksVk
                     vius eks{k ds lkFk           ;ku gSA budk lkspuk
                     nwljksa ds fuokZ.k ij        Fkk fd eks{k dh çkÆIr
                     /;ku nsuk pkfg,A             ds fy, tho dks Lo;a dks
                     vFkkZr ckSf/klRo in          fpark o ç;Ru djuk pkfg,A
                     izkIr djuk mudk y{;
                     FkkA

Q.7 Hkkjrh; laLÑfr dks le`) cukus esa ckS) /keZ ds ;ksxnku dk
    ewY;kdu dhft;saA

     Hkkjrh; laLÑfr dks le`) cukus esa ckS) /keZ dk fuEu ;ksxnku jgk
     &
     (i)    ckS) /keZ us f'k{kk o laLÑfr ds {ks=k esa ;g Hkko iSnk fd;k
            fd fdlh ckr ij rdZ ds vk/kkj ij lgh mrjus ij gh fo'okl djuk
            pkfg,A blls va/kfo'oklksa ij çfrca/k yxkA
     (ii)   xkSre cq) ds mins'kksa ds ladyu ls gekjh laLÑfr esa ikyh
            Hkk"kk ds lkfgR; esa fodkl o o`f) gqbZA

                                                                      39
        (iii)   ukyUnk] foØe'khyk o cYyHkh tSls fo'ofo|ky; ckS) /keZ dh
                gh nsu gS ftuds dkj.k bu dsUæksa ls Kku dh xaxk iwjs
                Hkkjr o fo'o esa QSyhA
        (iv)    ckS)x;k] lkaph o Hkjgwr dh ewfrZ;ka bl ckr ds mnkgj.k gS
                fd ckS) /keZ us ewfrZdyk dks egku~ ;ksxnku fn;k gSA
        (v)     ewfrZdyk dh xa/kkj o eFkqjk 'kSfy;k fo’kq) :i ls ckS) fo"k;ks
                ij vk/kkfjr FkhA ftlus Hkkjrh; ewfrZdyk dks ,d u;h ijkdk"Bk ij
                igqWpk;k A



              Q.8 egkjkt gqfo"d ¼,d dq"kk.k 'kkld½ ds rSarhlosa lky
        esa xeZ ekSle ds igys eghus ds vkBosa fnu f=kfiVd tkuus okys
        fHkD[kq cy dh f'k";k] f=kfiVd tkuus okyh cq)ferk ds cgu dh csVh
        fHkD[kquh /kuorh us vius ekrk&firk ds lkFk e/kqoud esa
        cksf/klRo dh ewfrZ LFkkfir dhA

(i)     /kuorh us vius vfHkys[k dh rkjh[k dSls fuÆ'pr dh\


                rSarhlosa lky esa xeZ ekSle ds igys eghus ds vkBosa
        fnuA

(ii)    vius vuqlkj mUgksaus ckSf/klRo dh ewfrZ D;ksa LFkkfir dh\
              rkfd /khjs&/khjs ckS) /keZ esa efgyk fHk{kqvksa dk çHkko
        vkSj ewfrZ iwtk c<+sA cksf/klRo fuokZ.k çkIr O;fDr gksrs FksA

(iii)   os vius fdu fj'rsnkjksa dk uke ysrh gS\
                viuh eka dh cfgu ¼ekSlh½ cq)ferk dkA

(iv)    os dkSu&ls ckS) xzaFkksa dks tkurh Fkh\
                ckS) xzaFk f=kfiVd dksA

(v)     mUgksaus ;s ikB fdlls lh[ks Fks\
                viuh ekSlh cq)ferk lsA


                                                                            40
                 fo'o ds js[kk ekufp= esa fdUgha ,sls ikap jk"Vªksa
      dks n'kkZvks tgka ckS) /keZ QSykA




                               Lesson-5

               Through the Eyes of Travellers

High order Thinking Skill Question and Answers :

      Q.1 What are the comparisons that Ibn Battula makes to give his

readers an idea about what coconuts looked like?

      Ans The following is how Ibn Battuta described the coconut :
                                                                        41
(i)    These trees are among the most peculiar trees in kind and most

astonishing in habit. They look exactly like date palms, without any

difference between them except that the one produces nuts as its fruits and

the other produces dates.

(ii)   The nut of a coconut tree resembles a man's head, for in it are what

look like two eyes and a mouth, and the inside of it when it is green looks

like the brain and attached to it is a fibre which looks like hair. They make

from this cards with which they sew up ships instead of (using) iron nails,

and they (also) make from it cables for vessels.

Q.2    What, according to Bernier, were the problems faced by peasants in

the subcontinent ? Do you think his description would have served to

strengthen his case ?

             Ans Yes, I think his description would have served to

strengthen his case. Following problems were faced by peasants in the

subcontinent :

(i)    Owing to crown ownership of land, landholders could not pass on

their land to their children. So they were averse to any long, term investment

in the sustainance and expansion of production.




                                                                           42
(ii)     It had led to the uniform ruination of agriculture excessive appression

of the peasantly and a continuous decline in the living standards of all

sections of society.

(iii)    Of the vast tracts of country constituting the empire of Hindustan,

many are little more than sand, or barren mountains.

(iv)     Even a considerable portion of the good land remains untilled for

want of labourers.

(v)      Many of whom perish in consequence of the bad treatment they

experience from Governors.

(vi)     The poor people, when they become incapable of discharging the

demands of their rapacious lords, are not only often deprived of the means of

subsistence, but are also made to lose their children, who are carried away as

slaves. Thus, it happens that the peasantly, driven to despair by 50 excessive

a tyranny, abandon the country.

               Q.3Do you think Al-Biruni depended only on Sanskrit texts for

his information and understanding of Indian Society ?




         Ans. No, Al-Biruni did not depend only on Sanksrit texts for his

information and understanding of Indian history for it be mention following

facts.
                                                                             43
(i)     Travellers often compared what they saw in the subcontinent with

practices with which they were familiar.

(ii)    Each traveller adopted distinct strategies to understand what they

observed. Al-Biruni for instance, was aware of the problems inherent in the

task he had set himself.

(iii)   According to him, Sanskrit was so different from Arabic and persian

that ideas and concepts could not be easily translated from one language into

another.

(iv)    In spite of his acceptance of the Brahmanical description of the caste

system. Al-Biruni disapproved of the notion of pollution.

(v)     Al-Biruni's description of the caste system was deeply influenced by

his study of normative Sanskrit texts which laid down the rules governing

the system from the point of view of the Brahmanas.

        q 4- Do you think Ibn-Battuta's account is useful in arriving at an

understanding of life in contemporary urban centres ? Give reasons for your

answer.

        Ans. Yes, it explain in following points :-

        I. Description - Ibn-Battuta's description about Indian cities is more

useful to know about their population, roads, markets and other properious

facilities.
                                                                           44
      II. Delhi - When Ibn-Battuta reached in Delhi in 14th Century. He

found such type of Delhi.

      (i) The city of Delhi covers a wide area and has a large population.

The rampart round the city is without parellel.

      (ii) Inside the ramparts, there are store-houses for storing edibles,

magazines, ammunition, ballistas and siege machines.

      (iii) There are twenty eight gates of this city which are called darwaza,

and of these, the Budaun darwaza is the greatest.

      III. Ibn Battuta and Indian Cities - Ibn-Bututa found cities in the

subcontinent full of exciting opportunities for those who had the necessary

drive, resources and skills. They were densely populated and prosperious. It

appears from Ibn-Battuta's account that most cities had crowded streets and

bright and colourful markets that were stacked with a wide variety of goods.

Ibn Battuta described Delhi as a vast city with a great population, the largest

in India.

      IV. Markets - The bazaars were not only places of economic

transactions but also the hub of social and cultural activities. Most bazaars

had a mosque and a temple and in some of them at least spaces were marked

for public performances by dancers, musicians and singers.



                                                                            45
      Write in your own words the summary of description of India given

by Al Beruni.




      Ans. Summary of description of India given by Alberuni.

      (1) Social condition

      (2) Religious condition

      (3) Political condition

      (4) Judiciary

      (5) Indian Philosophy

      (6) Historical knowledge

      (7) General Nature


                        ;kf=;ksa ds utfj,
iz'u 1- ukfj;y dSls gksrs gSa vius ikBdksa dks ;g le>kus ds fy,
bCucrqrk fdl izdkj dh rqyuk,¡ izLrqr djrk gS \

mRrj & ukfj;y dh lajpuk dks le>us ds fy, bCucrqrk fuEu izdkj dh rqyuk,¡

izLrqr djrk gS &

      ¼1½ ;s o`{kLo:i ls lcls vuks[ks rFkk izÑfr esa lcls foLe;dkjh

o`{kksa esa ls ,d gSaA ;s gw&cgw [ktwj ds o`{k tSls fn[krs gSaA


                                                                     46
buesa dksbZ varj ugha gS flok; ,d viokn ds & ,d ls dk"BQy izkIr gksrk

gS vkSj nwljs ls [ktwjA

      ¼2½ ukfj;y ds o`{k dk Qy ekuo flj ls esy [kkrk gS D;ksafd blesa

Hkh ekuks nks vka[ksa rFkk ,d eq[k gS vkSj vanj dk Hkkx gjk gksus ij

efLr"d tSlk fn[krk gS vkSj blls tqM+k js'kk ckyksa tSlk fn[kkbZ nsrk

gSA os blls jLlh cukrs gSaA yksgs dh dhyksa ds iz;ksx ds ctk; buls

tgkt dks flyrs gSaA os blls crZuksa ds fy, jLlh Hkh cukrs gSaA

iz'Uk 2- cfuZ;j ds vuqlkj miegk}hi esa fdlkuksa dks fdu&fdu leL;kvksa

ls tw>uk iM+rk Fkk \ D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd mldk fooj.k mlds i{k dks

lqn`<+ djus esa lgk;d gksrk gS \

mRrj & gk¡] eq>s yxrk gS fd mldk fooj.k mlds i{k dks l`n`<+ djus esa

lgk;d gksrkA miegk}hi esa fdlkuksa dks fuEufyf[kr leL;kvksa ls tw>uk

iM+rk Fkk&

¼1½ jktdh; HkwLokfeRo ds dkj.k] Hkw/kkjd vius cPpksa dks Hkwfe

ugha ns ldrs FksA blfy, os mRiknu ds Lrj dks cuk, j[kus vkSj mlesa

c<+ksrjh ds fy, nwjxkeh fuos'k ds izfr mnklhu FksA

¼2½ blh ds pyrs Ñf"k dk leku :i ls fouk'k] fdlkuksa dk vlhe mRihM+u

rFkk lekt ds lHkh oxks± ds thou Lrj esa vuojr iru dh fLFkfr mRiUu

gqbZA



                                                                   47
¼3½ fgUnqLrku ds lkezkT; ds fo'kky xzkeh.k vapyksas esa jsrhyh

Hkwfe;k¡ ;k catj ioZr gh gSaA

¼4½ ;gk¡ rd fd Ñf"k ;ksX; Hkwfe dk ,d cM+k fgLlk Hkh Jfedksa ds

vHkko esa Ñf"k foghu jg tkrk gSA

¼5½ buesa ls dbZ Jfed xouZjksa }kjk fd, x, cqjs O;ogkj ds QykLo:i ej

tkrs gSaA

¼6½ xjhc yksx tc vius yksHkh Lokfe;ksa dh ekaxksa dks iwjk djus

esa vleFkZ gks tkrs gSa rks mUgsa u dsoy thou&fuoZgu ds lk/kuksa

ls oafpr dj fn;k tkrk gS] cfYd mUgsa vius cPpksa ls Hkh gkFk /kksuk

iM+rk gS] ftUgsa nkl cukdj ys tk;k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ,slk gksrk gS fd bl

vR;ar fujadq'krk ls grk'k gks fdlku xkao NksM+dj pys tkrs gSaA

iz'Uk 3- D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd vyfc:uh Hkkjrh; lekt ds fo"k; esa viuh

tkudkjh vkSj le> ds fy, dsoy laLÑr xzaFkksa ij vkfJr jgk \

mRrj & ugha] vyfc:uh Hkkjrh; lekt ds fo"k; esa viuh tkudkjh vkSj le> ds

fy, dsoy laLÑr xzaFkksa ij vkfJr ugha jgkA blds fy, og fuEufyf[kr rF;ksa

dk mYys[k djrk gS &

¼1½ ;kf=;ksa us miegk}hi esa tks Hkh ns[kk lkekU;r% mldh rqyuk

mUgksaus mu izFkkvksa ls dh ftuls os ifjfpr FksA

¼2½ izR;sd ;k=h us tks ns[kk mls le>us ds fy, ,d vyx fof/k viukbZA

vy&fc:uh vius fy, fu/kkZfjr mís'; esa fufgr leL;kvksa ls ifjfpr FkkA
                                                                       48
¼3½ mlds vuqlkj laLÑr] vjch vkSj Qkjlh ls bruh fHkUu Fkh fd fopkjksa

vkSj fl)kUrksa dks ,d Hkk"kk ls nwljh esa vuqokfnr djuk vklku ugha

FkkA

¼4½ tkfr O;oLFkk ds laca/k esa czkã.koknh O;k[;k dks ekuus ds

ckotwn vy&fc:uh us vifo=rk dh ekU;rk dks vLohdkj fd;kA

¼5½ tkfr O;oLFkk ds fo"k; esa] vy&fc:uh dk fooj.k mlds fu;ked laLÑr

xazFkksa ds v/;;u ls iwjh rjg ls xgurk ls izHkkfor FkkA bu xzaFkksa

esa czkã.kksa ds n`f"Vdks.k ls tkfr O;oLFkk dks lapkfyr djus okys

fu;eksa dk izfriknu fd;k x;k Fkk ysfdu okLrfod thou esa ;g O;oLFkk

bruh Hkh dM+h ugha FkhA

iz'Uk 4- D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd ledkyhu 'kgjh dsUæksa esa thou 'kSyh

dks lgh tkudkjh izkIr djus esa bCucrwrk dk o`rkar lgk;d gS \ vius mÙkj

ds i{k esa rdZ nhft,A

mRrj & gk¡] fuEufyf[kr fcUnqvksa esa Li"V fd;k x;k gS &

       ¼1½ o.kZu (Description) & bCucrwrk dk o.kZu vusd n`f"V;ksa ls

mi;ksxh ekuk tkrk gSA mlus Hkkjr ds vusd 'kgjksa fnYyh lfgr dbZ

'kgjksa ds yksxksa dh vkcknh] lM+dksa] cktkj vkSj 'kgj dh pdkpkSa/k

ped vkfn ds ckjs esa mi;ksxh fooj.k fn;k gSA

       ¼2½ fnYyh (Delhi) & tc pkSngoha 'krkCnh esa bCucrwrk fnYyh

vk;k Fkk ml le; rd iwjk miegk}hi ,d ,sls oSf'od lapkj ra= dk fgLlk cu
                                                                    49
pqdk Fkk tks iwoZ esa phu ls ysdj if'pe esa mRrj&if'peh vÝhdk rFkk

;wjksi rd QSyk gqvk FkkA

      1- fnYyh cM+s {ks= esa QSyk ?kuh tula[;k okyk 'kgj gS & 'kgj ds

pkjksa vksj cuh izkphu ¼nhokj½ vrqyuh; gSA izkphjksa ds vanj [kk|

lkexzh] gfFk;kj] ck:n] iz{ksikL= rFkk ?ksjscanh esa dke vkus okyh

e'khuksa ds laxzg ds fy, HkaMkjx`g cus gq, FksA

      2- bl 'kgj ds 28 }kj gSa ftUgsa njoktk dgk tkrk gS vkSj buesa ls

cnk;w¡ njoktk lcls fo'kky gSA

      ¼3½ bCucrwrk vkSj Hkkjrh; 'kgj (Ibn Battuta and Indian Cities) &

bCucrwrk us miegk}hi ds 'kgjksa dks mu yksxksa ds fy, O;kid voljksa

ls Hkjiwj ik;k ftuds ikl vko';d bPNk] lk/ku rFkk dkS'ky FkkA ;s 'kgj ?kuh

vkcknh okys rFkk le`) FksA bCucrwrk ds o`rkar ls ,slk izrhr gksrk gS

fd vf/kdka'k 'kgjksa esa HkhM+HkkM+ okyh lM+ds rFkk ped&ned

okys vkSj jaxhu cktkj Fks tks fofo/k izdkj dh oLrqvksa ls Hkjs jgrs

FksA bCucrwrk fnYyh dks ,d cM+k 'kgj] fo'kky vkcknh okyk rFkk Hkkjr

esa lcls cM+k crkrk gSA

      ¼4½ cktkj (Markets) & cktkj ek= vkfFkZd fofue; ds LFkku gh

ugha Fks cfYd ;s lkekftd rFkk vkfFkZd xfrfof/k;ksa ds dsUæ Hkh FksA

vf/kdka'k cktkjksa esa ,d efLtn rFkk ,d eafnj gksrk Fkk vkSj muesa ls



                                                                       50
de ls de dqN esa rks urZdksa] laxhrdkjksa rFkk xk;dksa ds lkoZtfud

izn'kZu ds fy, LFkku Hkh fpfUgr FksA

iz'Uk 5- vy fc:uh }kjk fn, x, mlds rRdkyhu Hkkjr ds fooj.k dks vius

'kCnksa esa la{ksi esa nhft,A

mRrj& vy&fc:uh }kjk fn, x, Hkkjr ds ckjs esa fooj.k dk lkjka'k &

      1- lkekftd fLFkfr & vy cS:uh ds vuqlkj Hkkjrh; lekt tkfr izFkk ds

dM+s ca/kuksa ls tdM+k gqvk FkkA ml le; cky&fookg vkSj lrh izFkk

tSlh dqizFkk,a ekStwn FkhA

      2- /kkfeZd fLFkfr & mlds vuqlkj Hkkjr esa ewfrZiwtk izpfyr FkhA

eafnjksa esa cgqr lk /ku tek FkkA lk/kkj.k turk vusd nsoh&nsorkvksa

esa fo'okl j[krh FkhA

      3- jktuhfrd n'kk & lkjk ns'k NksVs&NksVs jkT;ksa esa caVk gqvk

FkkA buesa jk"Vªh; Hkkouk dh deh Fkh ;s vkil esa bZ";kZ ds dkj.k

lnSo yM+rs jgrs FksA

      4- U;k; O;oLFkk & QkStnkjh dkuwu uje FksA czkã.kksa dks

e`R;qn.M ugha fn;k tkrk FkkA dsoy ckj&ckj vijk/k djus okys ds gh

gkFk&iSj dkV fn, tkrs FksA

      5- Hkkjrh; n'kZu & Hkkjrh; n'kZu ls vyfc:uh cgqr izHkkfor gqvkA

mlus Hkxon~xhrk vkSj mifu"knksa ds Å¡ps nk'kZfud fopkjksa dh eqfDr

d.B ls ljkguk dh gSA
                                                                     51
     6- ,sfrgkfld Kku & Hkkjrh;ksa dks ,sfrgkfld ?kVukvksa dks frfFk

vuqlkj fy[kus ds ckjs esa cgqr de Kku gSA

     7- lkekU; LoHkko & Hkkjrh; >wBk vfHkeku djrs gSa rFkk viuk

Kku nwljksa dks nsus ds fy, rS;kj ugha gksrs gSaA fgUnw ;g le>rs

gSa fd mlds tSlk ns'k ugha gS] muds tSlk lalkj esa dksbZ /keZ ugha

gS muds tSlk fdlh ds ikl Kku ugha gSA




                                                                  52
                               Lesson-6

                HkfDr vkSj lwQh ijEijk

               Bhakti and Sufi Tradition

Q1:-Discuss the ways in which the Alwars, Nayanars and Virashaivas

expressed critiques of the caste systems.

Ans:- Some historians suggest that the Alvars and Nayanars initiated a

movement of protest against the caste system and the dominance of

Brahmanas or at least attempted to reform the system. To some extent this is

corroborated by the fact that bhaktas hailed from diverse social backgrounds

ranging from Brahmanas to artisans and cultivators and even from castes

considered "untouchable".

*     The twelfth century witnessed the emergence of a new movement in

Karnataka, led by a Brahmana named Basavanna (1106-08). His followers

were known as Virashaivas or Lingayats (Wearers of the linga).

                                                                          53
*     The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and the pollution attributed

to certain groups by Brahmanas. They also questioned the theory of rebirth.

These won them followers amongst those who were marginalised within the

Brahmanical social order.

*     The Lingayats also encouraged certain practices disapproved in the

Dharmashastras, such as postpuberty marriage and the remarriage of

widows.

Q2:- Analyse, with illustrations, why bhakti and sufi thinkers adopted a

variety of languages in which to express their opinions.

Ans:- Bhakti thinkers and different languages which were adopted by them

to express their opinion.

      (i) Early Bhakti Saints Pali, Prakarat Tamil and Malyalam etc.

languages.

      (ii) The Brahmans of South Indian put his views and ideas in Sanskrit

and local languages.

      (iii) Kabir's poems have survived in several languages and dialects,

and some are composed the special languages of nirguna poets.

      (iv) Baba Guru Nanak, Ravidas etc. composed their hymns in various

languages such as Punjabi and Hindi etc.


                                                                          54
      (v) Mirabai compose her Bhajans in Rajsthani and Hindi.

      (vi) Some saint of Maharastra and Gujarati uses Marathi and Gujarati

language.

      According to Sufi thinkers -

      (i) Sufi thinkers also live with peoples. They uses serveral languages.

They uses Hindvi or persian language.

      (ii) Baba Farid used local language. Hindvi persian, Panjabi, Urdu and

some other form of languages are also seen.

      (iii) A different genre of Sufi poetry was composed in an around the

town of Bijapur, Karnataka. These were short poems in Dakhani (a variant

of Urdu) attributed to Chisthi Sufis who lived in this region during the 17th

and 18th centuries.

      (iv) Some Sufi saints give their pledge in Telgu, Malayalam

languages.

Q3:- "Kabir was a famous saint of Bhakti period". Examin that statement.

Ans. Kabir was a famous saint of Bhakti period. That facts is examine by the

following points :

      Kabir's Teachings :



                                                                           55
      (i) Kabir did not accept the caste distinction. He believed that none

could be high or low on the score of caste.

      (ii) Kabir was opposed to customs and rituals. He has opposed

worship, roja-namaj, pilgrimage and haj etc.

      (iii) Kabir believed in the unity of all religions according to him, there

is no distinction between Hindu-Muslim. The destination of both is the same

only the paths are different.

      (iv) His teachings openly ridiculed all forms of external worship of

both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam the pre-eminence of the priestly

classes and the caste system.

      (v) Kabir opposed caste distincition, condemned bad company,

stressed upon - meditation and love. He identified the teacher with God.

Q4:- Explain with examples what historians mean by the integration of cults.

Ans:- From tenth to 17th century the most striking religious features is the

increasing visibility of a wide range god and goddes in sculpture as well as

in religious books at one level, this indicates the continued and extended

worship major dieties Vishnu, Shiva and goodness like Durga, Laxmi -

-     Historians who have tried to understand these developments suggest

that there were at least two processes at work. One was a process of

disseminating Brahmanical ideas.
                                                                             56
-     This is examplified by the composition, compilation and preservation

of puranic texts in simple Sanskrit verse, explicity meant to be accessible to

women and Shudras, who were generally excluded from Vedic learning.

-     At the same time there was a second process at work that of the

Brahmanans accepting and reworking the beliefs and practices of these and

other social categories.

      Example - Through an instance we can say that a local diety whose

image was and continues to be made of wood by local tribal specialists, was

recognised as a form of Vishnu.

      These local deities were often incorporated within the Puranic

framework by providing them with an identity as a wife of the principal

male deities - sometimes they were equated with Lakshmi, the wife of

Vishnu.

iz'u 1- ppkZ dhft, fd vyokj] u;ukj vkSj ohj 'kSoksa us fdl izdkj tkfr izFkk

dh vkykspuk izLrqr dh \

mRrj & dqN bfrgkldkjksa dk ;g ekuuk gS fd vyokj vkSj u;ukj larksa us

tkfr izFkk o czkã.kksa dh izHkqrk ds fojks/k esa vkokt mBkbZA dqN

gn rd ;g ckr lR; izrhr gksrh gS D;ksafd HkfDr lar fofo/k leqnk;ksa ls

Fks tSls czkã.k] f'kYidkj] fdlku vkSj dqN rks mu tkfr;ksa ls vk, Fks

ftUgsa *vLi`';* ekuk tkrk FkkA
                                                                           57
     ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa dukZVd esa ,d uohu vkanksyu dk mn~Hko

buds vuq;k;h ohj 'kSo o fyaxk;r ¼fyax /kkj.k djus okys½ dgyk,A

     vkt Hkh fyaxk;r leqnk; dk bl {ks= esa egÙo gSA os f'ko dh

vkjk/kuk fyax ds :i esa djrs gSaA bl leqnk; ds iq:"k oke Lda/k ij pkanh

ds ,d fiVkjs esa ,d y?kq fyax dks /kkj.k djrs gSaA ftUgsa J)k dh n`f"V

ls ns[kk tkrk gS muesa taxe vFkkZr~ ;k;koj fHk{kq 'kkfey gSaA

     /keZ'kkL= esa crk, x, Jk) laLdkj dk os ikyu ugha djrs vkSj vius

e`rdksa dks fof/kiwoZd nQukrs gSaA fyaxk;rksa us tkfr dh vo/kkj.kk

vkSj dqN leqnk;ksa ds *nwf"kr* gksus dh czkã.kh; vo/kkj.kk dk fojks/k

fd;kAiqutZUe ds fl)kUr ij bUgksus iz’uokpd fpUg yxk;kA

iz'Uk 2- mnkgj.k lfgr fo'ys"k.k dhft, fd HkfDr vkSj lwQh fpardksa us

vius fopkjksa dks vfHkO;Dr djus ds fy, fdu Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;k \

mRrj & HkfDr larksa }kjk fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx &

¼1½ lcls izkjafHkd HkfDr larksa us laLÑr] ikyh] izkÑr] rfey] ey;kye

vkfn Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;kA

¼2½ nf{k.k Hkkjr ds czkã.kksa us LFkkuh; Hkk"kkvksa ds lkFk&lkFk

laLÑr esa Hkh vius mís';] fopkj vkSj n'kZu dks j[kkA

¼3½ e/;dkyhu HkfDr larksa us dchj us in vkSj nksgksa dk LFkkuh;

Hkk"kk vkSj cksfy;ksa esa jpsA


                                                                     58
¼4½ ckck xq: ukud nso] jfonkl vkfn us fgUnh vkSj iatkch Hkk"kkvksa

dk iz;ksx fd;kA

¼5½ ehjkckbZ us cztHkk"kk esa] jktLFkku esa vkSj fgUnh esa in vkSj

Hktu xk, vkSj fy[ksA

¼6½ egkjk"Vª esa dqN larksa us ejkBh vkSj xqtjkr esa dqN HkDr

larksa us xqtjkrh dk iz;ksx fd;kA

      lwQh fopkjdksa }kjk &

¼1½ lwQh fopkjd Hkh turk ds e/; jgrs Fks mUgksaus fofHkUu

Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;kA mUgksaus fgUnoh ;k tulk/kkj.k dks fgUnh

ds lkFk&lkFk Qkjlh Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;kA

¼2½ ckck Qjhn us LFkkuh; Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx fd;kA mudh Hkk"kk esa

fgUnh] Qkjlh] iatkch vkfn dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA

¼3½ nf{k.k Hkkjr esa tks lwQh lar jgrs Fks mUgksaus mnwZ Hkk"kk

ls feyrh&tqyrh nf{k.kh tu&lk/kkj.k }kjk mi;ksx esa yh xbZ Hkk"kk esa

vius fopkj O;Dr fd,A

¼4½ dUuM+] rsyxw] ey;kye Hkk"kk esa dqN larksa us dqN mi;ksx

fn,] xhr&dfork,¡ vkSj xzaFk fy[ksA

iz'Uk 3- Þdchj HkfDrdky dk ,d izfl) lUr FkkÞ bl dFku dh leh{kk dhft,A




                                                                        59
mRrj & dchj HkfDrdky dk ,d izfl) lUr Fkk ftldh leh{kk fuEufyf[kr

fcUnqvksa }kjk dh xbZ Fkh &

        dchj dh f'k{kk,¡ &

        ¼1½ /kkfeZd f'k{kk,¡ & /keZ ds laca/k esa dchj us vR;ar

egÙoiw.kZ fopkj fn, gSaA mUgksaus fdlh /kkfeZd fo'okl dks blfy,

Lohdkj ugha fd;k fd og /keZ dk vax cu pqdk gS vfirq va/kfo'oklksa]

ozr] czkã.kksa ds deZdkaM rFkk rhFkZ vkfn ij dldj O;aX; fd,A

        ¼2½ va/kfo'oklksa dk ?kksj fojks/k & dchj us va/kfo'oklksa dk

tksjnkj fojks/k fd;kA mUgksaus fgUnw&eqfLye nksuksa lEiznk;ksa ds

va/kfo'oklksa ewfrZiwtk] uekt] rhFkZ bR;kfn ij dldj O;aX; fd,A

        ¼3½ HkfDrekxZ ds leFkZd & HkfDr Hkkouk dk dchj us iwjk

leFkZu fd;kA mUgksaus fuxqZ.k fujkdkj HkfDr dk ekxZ viukdj ekuo ds

lEeq[k HkfDr dk ekSfyd :i j[kkA

        ¼4½ leUo;oknh n`f"Vdks.k & dchj us rRdkyhu fgUnw rFkk

bLyke /keks±] laLÑfr;ksa ,oa lH;rkvksa ds la?k"kZ dk MVdj fojks/k

fd;kA

        ¼5½ x`gLFk thou ds R;kx dk fojks/k & dchj ds fopkjkuqlkj lkQ

thou viukus ds fy, x`gLFkh dk lkekU; thou R;kxus dh dksbZ vko';drk

ughaA fuxqZ.k HkfDr /kkjk dchj igys lars Fks tks lar gksdj Hkh var rd


                                                                   60
'kq) x`gLFk cus jgs ,oa 'kkjhfjd Je dh izfr"Bk dks ekuo dh lQyrkvksa dk

vkdkj crk;kA

iz'Uk 4- mnkgj.k lfagr Li"V dhft, fd laiznk; ds leUo; ls bfrgkldkj D;k
vFkZ fudkyrs gSa \
mRrj & bfrgkldkjksa ds vuqlkj laiznk;ksa ds leUo; dk vFkZ &

&     iwtk iz.kkfy;ksa ds leUo; dks gh bfrgkldkj lEiznk; leUo; ekurs

gSaA blds vUrxZr og fofHkUu lEiznk; ds yksxksa ds fo'oklksa vkSj

vkpj.kksa ds feJ.k vkSj muds ihNs Nqis fufgr leku mís';ksa dks

yksxksa ds lkeus j[krs gSaA

&     os /kkfeZd fodkl dh fofHkUu i)fr;ksa vkSj lEiznk;ksa ds fodkl dks

le>us dk iz;kl djrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy, os vkBoha 'krkCnh ds Hkkjr

esa iwtk iz.kkfy;ksa ds laca/k ds ckjs esa vius fopkj fy[krs gSaA

&     bfrgkldkjksa dk lq>ko gS fd ;gk¡ de ls de nks izfØ;k,¡ dk;Zjr

FkhA ,d izfØ;k czkã.kh; fopkj/kkjk ds izpkj dh FkhA bldk izlkj ikSjkf.kd

xzaFkksa dh jpuk] ladyu vkSj ifjj{k.k }kjk gqvkA ;s xzaFk ljy laLÑr

Nanksa esa Fks tks oSfnd fo|k ls foghu fL=;ksa vkSj 'kwæksa }kjk

Hkh xzká FksA

&     blh dky dh ,d vU; izfØ;k Fkh L=h] 'kwæksa o vU; lkekftd oxks±

dh vkLFkkvksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dks czkã.kksa }kjk LohÑr fd;k tkuk vkSj

mls ,d u;k :i iznku djukA



                                                                         61
      mnkgj.k & mM+hlk esa fo".kq ds :i esa txUukFk dh iwtk] fo".kq

dh iRuh ds :i esa y{eh dh iwtkA




                               Lesson-7

                        fot; uxj lkezkT;

                    Vijayanagara Empire

Q.1:- Evaluate the importance of Amar Nayaka System in emergence of

Vijayanagara Empire.

      Ans. The amara-nayaka system was a major political innovation of the

Vijayanagara Empire. It is likely that many features of this sytem were

derived from the iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate.

      There is a important role of this sytem to emerging the Vijayanagara

empire. That shows in the following points :




                                                                        62
(i)     The amara-nayakas were military commanders who were given

territories to govern by the raya. The collected taxes and other dues from

peasants.

(ii)    The amar nayak retained part of the revenue for personal use and for

maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants.

(iii)   These contingents provided the Vijayanagara Kings with an effective

fighting force with which they brought the entire southern peninsula under

their control. Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of

temples and irrigation works.

(iv)    The amara-nayakas sent tribute to the King annually and personally

appeared in the royal court with gifts to express their loyalty.

(v)     Kings occasionally asserted their control over them by transferring

them from one place to another.

Q2:- What do you think were the advantages and disadvantages of enclosing

agricultural land within the fortified area of the city ?

Ans. There are many advantages and disadvantages of enclosing agricultural

land within the fortified area of the Vijayanagara empire.

        1. Abdur Razzaq noted that "between the first, second and third walls

there are cultivated fields, gardens and houses.


                                                                          63
       2. The detailed statements have been corroborated by present day

archaeologists, who have also found evidence of an agricultural tract

between the sacred centre and the urban core.

       3. We knew different sources that in Vijayanagara empire and other

southern kingdom agricultural tracts were incorporated within the fortified

areas. Often, the objective of medieval sieges was to strave the defenders

into submission. These sieges could last four several months and sometimes

even years.

       4. Normally rulers tried to be prepared for adverse situations or

natural calamities by building large granaries within fortified areas. The

rulers of Vijayanagara adopted a more expensive and elaborate strategy of

protecting the agricultural belt itself.

       5. Whenever, Kingdom was attacked by the enemies at the time of

heaping harvest they could easily brunt the dry crops of the farmers. But

these fields was safe in ordinary situation from wild animals.

Q3:- What do you think was the significance of the ritua's associated with

the Mahanavami dibba ?

Ans. The importance of the rituals associated with the Mahanawami dibba.




                                                                           64
      Located on one of the highest points in the city, the "Mahanawami

dibba" is a massive platform rising from a base of about 11000 sq.ft. to a

height of 40 H.

      Rituals associated with the strucutre probably coincided with

Mahanawami (Literally the great ninth day) of the ten-day Hindu festival

during the autumn months of September and October, known variously as

Dushehra (northern India), Durga Puja (in Bengal) and Navaratri or

Mahanawami (in Peninsular India). The Vijayanagara kings displayed their

prestige, power and suzerainty on this occastion.

-     The ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of the

image, worship of the state hourse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other

animals.

-     Dancer, wrestling matches, and processions of caparisoned horses,

elephants and chariots and soldiers, as well as ritual presentations before the

king and his guests by the chief nayakas and subordinate kings marked the

occasion.

-     These ceremonies were imbued with deep symbolic meanings on the

last day of the festival the king inspected his army and the armies of the

nayakas in a grand ceremony in an open field. On this occasion the nayakas

brought rich fifts for the king as well as the stipulated tribute.

                                                                            65
Q4:- What impression of the lives of the ordinary people of Vijayanagara

can you cull from the various descriptions in Vijayanagara empire.

Ans. Ordinary people of this empire scope different languages and followed

different religious tradition.

-     There were small traders and local merchant use to live in cities, trade

cetnre, port town and villages.

-     Peasants, workers, slaves etc. were including in ordinary people.

These were ordinary Brahmans, trader and women also.

-     The workers were called "Vipravinodin" this class consisted of Iron

smiths, Gold smiths, carpenters, sculpture makers etc.

-     In the society there were a few low class people, who were non-

influential. They were Dombar, Mana, Jogi, Paraiyan, Boi, Kallar etc. Some

low caste people were coverted to christianity due to the influence of the

Portugeuses. The evils of caste system and untouchability were practised in

the society.

-     The ordinary people of the Vijayanagar empire lived in ordinary

houses. This is how the sixteenth century portuguese traveller Barbosa

described the houses of ordinary people existed in the society. The men were

sold and purchased. There were some special rules for the slaves.


                                                                           66
                               ikB&7

iz'Uk 1- fot; uxj lkezkT; ds mRFkku esa vejuk;d iz.kkyh ds egÙo dk

ewY;kadu dhft,A

mRrj & vej uk;d iz.kkyh fot;uxj lkezkT; dh ,d izeq[k jktuhfrd [kkst FkhA

,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd bl iz.kkyh ds dbZ rÙo fnYyh lYrur dh bDrk

iz.kkyh ls fy, x, FksA

      bl lSfud iz.kkyh dk fot;uxj lkezkT; ds mRFkku esa egÙoiw.kZ

;ksxnku Fkk ftldk ewY;kadu fuEufyf[kr fcUnqvksa esa fn[kk;k x;k gS &

¼1½ vej uk;d lSfud dekaMj Fks ftUgsa jk; }kjk iz'kklu ds fy, jkT; {ks=

fn;s tkrs FksA os fdlkuksa] f'kYidfeZ;ksa rFkk O;kikfj;ksa ls Hkw&jktLo

rFkk vU; dj olwy djrs FksA

¼2½ vej uk;d jktLo dk dqN Hkkx O;fDrxr mi;ksx rFkk ?kksM+ksa vkSj

gkfFk;ksa ds fu/kkZfjr ny ds j[k&j[kko ds fy, vius ikl j[k ysrs FksA

¼3½ ;s ny fot;uxj 'kkldksa dks ,d izHkkoh lSfud 'kfDr iznku djus esa

lgk;d gksrs Fks ftldh enn ls mUgksaus iwjs nf{k.kh izk;}hi dks vius

fu;a=.k esa fd;kA




                                                                       67
¼4½ vej uk;d jktk dks o"kZ esa ,d ckj HksaV Hkstk djrs Fks vkSj viuh

LokfeHkfDr izdV djus ds fy, jktdh; njckj esa migkjksa ds lkFk Lo;a

mifLFkr gqvk djrs FksA

¼5½ ;s vej uk;d jktk ds fu;a=.k esa jgrs Fks jktk dHkh&dHkh mUgsa

,d ls nwljs LFkku ij LFkkukarfjr dj mu ij viuk fu;a=.k n'kkZrs FksA

iz'Uk 2- 'kgj ds fdyscan {ks= esa Ñf"k {ks= dks j[kus ds vkids fopkj

esa D;k Qk;ns vkSj uqdlku Fks \

      mRrj & fot;uxj 'kgj ds fdyscan {ks= esa Ñf"k {ks= dks pkjnhokjh

ds vanj j[kus ls gekjs fopkj ls vusd ykHk vkSj gkfu;k¡ FkhA bldk fooj.k

bl izdkj gS&

1-    Ñf"k {ks= esa [ksrksa ds vklikl lkekU;r% lk/kkj.k turk vkSj fdlku

jgrs FksA ckxksa vkSj [ksrksa dh j[kokyh djuk vklku FkkA

2-    izk;% e/;dkyhu ?ksjkcanh dk eq[; mís'; izfri{k dks [kk| lkexzh ls

oafpr dj tYnh ls tYnh vkReleiZ.k ¼gfFk;kj Mkyus ds fy,½ ds fy, djuk

gksrk FkkA

3-    ;q)dky esa 'k=qvksa }kjk ?ksjkcanh dbZ eghuksa rd tkjh j[kh tkrh

Fkh ;gk¡ rd fd o"kks± rd py ldrh FkhA vkerkSj ij 'kkld ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa

ls fuiVus ds fy, fdyscan {ks=ksa ds Hkhrj gh fo'kky vUuxkjksa dk

fuekZ.k djokrs FksA fot;uxj ds 'kkldksa us iwjs Ñf"k Hkw&Hkkx dks

cpkus ds fy, ,d vf/kd egaxh rFkk O;kid uhfr dks viuk;kA
                                                                       68
4-    fdykcan [ksrh ;ksX; Hkwfe dks pkj nhokjh ds vanj j[kus ls uqdlku

;g Fkk fd izk;% ckgj jgus okys fdlkuksa dks vkus tkus esa }kjikyksa ls

btktr ysuh gksrh FkhA lkFk gh 'k=q }kjk ?ksjkcanh gksus ij ckgj ls Ñf"k

ds fy, vko';d t:jr iM+us ij cht] moZjd] ;a= vkfn ckgj ds cktkjksa ls ykuk

izk;% dfBu FkkA

5-    ;fn 'k=q i{k ds }kjk dkVh xbZ Qly dks vkx yxkdj tyk fn;k tkrk rks

vkfFkZd gkfu cgqr O;kid gks ldrh FkhA

iz'Uk 3- vkids fopkj esa egkuoeh fMCck ls lac) vuq"Bkuksa dk D;k

egÙo Fkk \

mRrj & gekjs fopkj esa egkuoeh fMCck ls lac) vuq"Bkuksa dk O;kid

egÙo FkkA fot;uxj 'kgj ds lcls Å¡ps LFkkuksa ij egkuoeh fMCck uked

fo'kky eap gksrk Fkk bldh lajpuk ls tqM+s vuq"Bku laHkor% flrEcj

rFkk vDVwcj ds 'kjn eklksa esa euk, tkus okys nl fnu ds fgUnw

R;kSgkj] ftls n'kgjk ¼mÙkj Hkkjr½] nqxkZiwtk ¼ia- caxky½ rFkk

uojkf= ;k egkuoeh ¼izk;}hih; Hkkjr esa½ ukeksa ls tkuk tkrk gS] ds

egkuoeh ds volj ij fu"ikfnr fd, tkrs FksA bl volj ij fot;uxj 'kkld vius :rcs]

rkdr vkSj vf/kjkT; dk izn'kZu djrs FksA

&     bl volj ij gksus okys /kekZuq"Bkuksa esa ewfrZ dh iwtk] jkT; ds

v'o dh iwtk rFkk HkSalksa vkSj vU; tkuojksa dh cfy lfEefyr FkhA u`R;]

dq'rh izfrLi/kkZ rFkk lkt yxs ?kksM+ksa] gkfFk;ksa rFkk jFkksa vkSj

                                                                          69
lSfudksa dh 'kksHkk;k=k vkSj lkFk gh izeq[k uk;dksa vkSj v/khuLFk

jktkvksa }kjk jktk vkSj mlds vfrfFk;ksa dks nh tkus okyh vkSipkfjd

HksaV bl volj ds izeq[k vkd"kZ.k FksA




&      R;kSgkj ds vfUre fnu jktk viuh rFkk vius uk;dksa dh lsuk dk

[kqys eSnku esa vk;ksftr HkO; lekjksg esa fujh{k.k djrk FkkA bl volj ij

uk;d] jktk ds fy, cM+h ek=k esa HksaV rFkk lkFk gh fu;r dj Hkh ykrs

FksA

iz'u 4- fot;uxj lkezkT; ds fofHkUu fooj.kksa ls vki fot;uxj ds lkekU;

yksxksa ds thou dh D;k Nfo ikrs gSa \

mRrj & lkekU; yksxksa ds ckjs esa cgqr T;knk fooj.k izkIr ugha gksrs

D;ksafd lkekU; yksxksa ds vkoklksa] tks vc vfLrRo esa izkIr ugha gq,

gSa &

&      {ks= losZ{k.k bafxr djrs gSa fd bl iwjs {ks= esa cgqr ls iwtk LFky

vkSj NksVs eafnj Fks tks fofo/k izdkj ds laiznk;ksa ds izpyu dh vksj

ladsr djrs gSaA

&      fot;uxj lkezkT; esa lk/kkj.k yksx fofHkUu lEiznk;ksa tSls fgUnw

'kSo] oS".kksa] tSu] ckS) vkSj bLyke ds vuq;k;h jgrs FksA og fofHkUu

Hkk"kkvksa tSls dUuM+] rfey] rsyxw] laLÑr vkfn dk iz;ksx djrs FksA


                                                                       70
&    lkekU; yksxksa esa dqN NksVs O;kikjh vkSj dqN lkSnkxj Hkh

Fks tks xkaoksa] dLcksa vkSj NksVs 'kgjksa esa jgrs FksA buesa

dqN O;kikjh canjxkg 'kgjksa esa Hkh jgrs FksA LFkkuh; oLrqvksa tSls

elkys] eksrh] panu vkfn ds lkFk&lkFk dqN O;kikjh ?kksM+s vkSj

gkfFk;ksa dk O;kikj Hkh djrs FksA

&    fdlku] Jfed] nkl vkfn dks Hkh lk/kkj.k yksxksa esa 'kkfey fd;k tk

ldrk FkkA lkezkT; esa dqN lkekU; czkã.k] O;kikjh vkSj nkl] nkfl;k¡ Hkh

FksA lk/kkj.k yksx Ñf"k dk;ks± ds lkFk&lkFk fofHkUu izdkj ds

rFkkdfFkr NksVs le>s tkus okys dk;Z Hkh fd;k djrs FksA

&    fot; uxj esa Jfedksa dks foizk fouksnf/k;u Hkh dgk tkrk gSA bl

oxZ esa ykSgkj] lqukj] c<+bZ] ewfrZdkj vkfn vkrs FksA




               CHAPTER 8
          fdlku] tehnkj vkSj jkT;
       d`f"k lekt vkSj eqxy lkezkT;
  ¼yxHkx lksygoh vkSj l=goha lnh rd½
 PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE
Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire
(C. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century)
Q. 01.     Discuss, with examples, the significance of monetary
           transactions during the period 16th and 17th century.


                                                                    71
Anns.   The significance of monetary transactions during
        sixteenth and seventeenth centuries :

        (i)     In the early decades of sixteenth century
                farmers were allowed to pay land revenue in
                cash or kind. Due to the facility to pay land
                revenue in cash money, monetary transactions
                played vital role in Indian economy.
        (ii)    Village artisan (potter, blacksmith, barber, etc.)
                use to provide specialized services to the
                villagers. Though most common way of
                compensating them was giving them a share
                of the harvest but their was another system also
                under this system artisans and individual
                peasants, house hold entered into a mutually
                negotiated system of remuneration, most of the
                time goods for services. For example,
                eighteenth-century records tell us a zamindars
                in Bangal who remunerated blacksmiths,
                carpenters, even goldsmiths for their work by
                paying them “a small daily allowance and diet
                money”. This later came to be described as the
                Jajmani system, though the term was not in
                vogue in the sixteenth and seventeenth
                centuries. Such evidence is interesting because
                in indicates the intricate ways in which
                exahnge networks operated at the micro-level
                of the village. Cash remuneration was not
                entirely unknown either.
        (iii)   The seventeenth-century French traveler Jean-
                Baptists Tavernier found it remarkable that in
                “India a village must be very small indeed if it
                has not a money changer called a Shroff.
                (They) act as bankers to make remittances of
                money (and who) enhance the rupee as they
                please for paisa and the paisa for these
                (cowrie) shells”.
        (iv)    An expanding trade brought in huge amounts
                of silver bullion into Asia to pay for good
                                                                72
               procured from India, and a large part of that
               bullion gravitated towards India. This was good
               for India as it did not have natural resources of
               silver.
         (v) As a result, the period between the sixteenth
               and eighteenth centuries was also marked by a
               remarkable stability in the availability of metal
               currency, particularly the silver rupya in India.
         (vi) This facilitated an unprecedented expansion of
               minting of coins and the circulation of money in
               the economy as well as the ability of the
               Mughal state to extract taxes and revenue in
               cash.
         (vii) The testimony of an Italian traveler, Giovanni
               Careri, who passed throught India c. 1690,
               provides a graphic account about the way
               silver traveled across the globe to reach India.
               It also gives us an idea of the phenomenal
               amounts of cash and commodity transactions
               in seventeenth-century India.

Q. 02.   To what extent do you think caste was a factor in
         influencing social and economic relations in
         agrarian society ?

Anns.    Caste as a factor in influencing social and economic
         relations in agrarian society.

         (i)    Sizeable number of major (labourer). Deep
                ineqities on the basis of caste and other caste
                like distinctions meant that the cultivators were
                a highly heterogenous group. Among those
                who tilled the land, there was a sizeable
                number who worked as menials or agricultual,
                labourers (major).
         (ii)   Despite the abundance of cultivable land,
                certain caste groups were assigned menial taks
                and thus relegated to poverty. Though there
                was no census at that time, the little data that
                                                               73
                 we have suggest that such groups comprised a
                 large section of the village population, had the
                 least resources and were constrained by their
                 position in the caste hierarchy, much like the
                 Dalits of modern India. Such distinctions had
                 begun permeating into other communities too.
         (iii)   Muslim halakhoran etc. : In muslim communities
                 menials like the halakhoran (scavengers) were
                 housed outside the boundaries of the village,
                 similarly mallahzadas (literally, sons of boatmen)
                 in Bihar were comparable to slaves.
         (iv)    Direct co-relation between caste and socio
                 economic position : There was a direct
                 correlation between caste, poverty and social
                 status at the lower strata of society such
                 correlations were not so mared at intermediate
                 levels. In a manual from seventeenth century
                 Marwar, Rajputs are mentioned as peasants,
                 sharing the same space with Jats, who were
                 accorded a lower status in the caste hierarchy.
                 The Gauravas, who cultivated land around
                 Vrindavan (Uttar Prades), sought Rajput status
                 in the seventeenth century.
         (v)     Rise in hierarchy of caste : Castes such as the
                 Ahirs, Gujars and Malis rose in the hierarchy
                 because of the profitability of cattle rearing
                 and horticulture. In the eastern regions,
                 intermediate pastoral and fishing castes like the
                 sadgops and Kaivartas acquired the status of
                 peasants.


Q. 03.   Discuss the ways in which panchayats and village
         headmen regulated rural society.

Anns.    Regulation of rural society by Panchayats and
         headmen :


                                                                 74
(i)     Meaning of Panchayat : The village panchayat
        was an assembly of elders, usually important
        people of the village with hereditary right over
        their property.

(ii)    General composition and importance of
        Panchayat decision : In mixed-caste villages,
        the panchayat was usually a heterogeneous
        body.     An   oligarchy,   the   panchayat
        represented various castes and communities in
        the village, though the village menial-cum-
        agricultural worker was unlikely to be
        represented there. The decisions made by
        these panchayats were binding on the
        members.

(iii)   Selection dismissal and main function of
        headman or muqaddam : The panchayat was
        headed by a headman known as muqaddam
        or mandal. Some sources suggest that the
        headman was chosen through the consensus
        of the village elders, and that this choice had
        to be ratified by the zamindar. Headmen held
        office as long as they enjoyed the confidence
        of the village elders, failing which they could be
        dismissed by them. The chief function of the
        headman was to supervise the preparation of
        village accounts, assisted by the accountant or
        patwari of the panchayat.

(iv)    Funding of Panchayat or sources of Income
        Panchayat. : The panchayat derived its funds
        from contributions made by individuals to a
        common financial pool.

(v)     Item of expenditure : These funds were used for
        defraying the costs of entertaining revenue
        officials who visited the village from time to
        time. Expenses for community welfare activities
                                                        75
       such as tiding over natural calamities (like
       floods), were also meet from these funds. Often
       these funds were also deployed in construction
       of a bund or digging a canal which peasants
       usually could not afford to do on their own.

(vi)   Various function of panchayat : One important
       functions of the panchayat was to ensure that
       caste    boundaries     among       the  various
       communities inhabiting the village were
       upheld. In estern India all marriage were held in
       the presence of the mandal. In other words
       one of the duties of the village headman was
       to oversee the conduct of the members of the
       village community “chiefly to prevent any
       offence against their caste”.

(vii) Imposing fines and expulsion from caste and
      community : Panchayat also had the authority
      to levy fines and inflict more serious forms of
      punishment like expulsion from the community.
      The later was a drastic step and was in most
      cases meted out for a limited period. It meant
      that a person forced to leave the village
      became an outcaste and lost his right to
      practise his profession. Such a measure was
      intended as a deterrent to violation of caste
      norms.

(viii) Caste or Jati Panchayat : In addition to the
       village panchayat each caste or jati in the
       village had its own jati panchayat. These
       panchayates wielded considerable power in
       rural society. In Rajasthan jati panchayats
       arbitrated civil disputes between members of
       different castes. They mediated in contested
       claims on land, decided whether marriages
       were performed according to the norms laid
       down by a particular caste group, determined
                                                      76
                 who had ritual precedence in village functions,
                 and so on. In most cases, except in matters of
                 criminal justice, the state respect the decisions
                 of jati panchayats.

          (ix)   Petitions presented by caste panchayat and
                 their impact : Archival records from western
                 India-notably Rajasthan and Maharashtra-
                 contain petitions presented to the panchayat
                 complaining about extortionate taxation or the
                 demand for unpaid labour (beggar) imposed
                 by the “superior” castes or officials of the state.
                 These petitions were usually made by villagers,
                 from the lowest rungs of rural society. Often
                 petitions were made collectively as well, by a
                 caste group or a community protesting against
                 what they considered were morally illegitimate
                 demands on the part of elite groups. These
                 included excessive tax demands which,
                 especially in times of drought or other disasters,
                 endangered the peasants subsistence. In the
                 eys of the petitioners of right to the basic
                 minimum for survival was sanctioned by
                 custom. They regarded the village panchayat
                 as the court of appeal that would ensure that
                 the state carried out its moral obligations and
                 guaranteed justice.




                           v/;k; 8
                  fdlku] tehnkj vkSj jkT;
                 d`f"k lekt vkSj eqxy lkezkT;
             ¼yxHkx lksygoh vkSj l=goha lnh rd½

iz'u 1-   fdlku] tehankj vkSj jkT; ( Peasants, Zamindars and
          The States)

                                                                  77
             d`f"k lekt vkSj eqxy lkezkT; ¼yxHkx 16oha vkSj 17oha
       lnh rd½

iz-1        fopkjk/khu dky ¼16oha vkSj 17oha lnh½ esa ekSfnzd
            dkjksckj dh vgfe;r dh foospuk mnkgj.k nsdj dhft,A
            i) lksygoha 'krkCnh ds izkjaHk esa fdlkuksa dks udnh
            vFkok thUl esa Hkw&jktLo vnk djus dh NwV nh xbZ FkhA
            fdlkuksa dks udnh esa HkwjktLo Hkqxrku dh lqfo/kk ds
            dkj.k ekSfnzd dkjksckj dks Hkkjrh; voLFkk esa egRoiw.kZ
            Hkwfedk fuokZg djus dk volj feykA
            ii) xzkeh.k f'kYidkj ¼dqEgkj] yksgj] ukbZ] c<+bZ] lqukj½
            xzkeh.k yksxksa dks fo'ks"k izdkj dh lsok,W iznku djrs
            FksA Qly dVus vkSj idus ij izk;% mUgsa Qly dk ,d fgLlk
            fn;k tkrk Fkk ysfdu bl O;oLFkk ds lkFk&lkFk fdlku vkSj
            f'kYidkj ijLij ysu&nsu ds ckjs esa vkil 'krsZ r; djds izk;%
            yksxksa dks udnh esa Hkqxrku djrs FksA
            iii) xkWo esa izk;% LFkkuh; NksVs O;kikjh vkSj ljkQ ik,
            tkrs FksA izk;% mUgsa uxnh esa ysu nsu djus dk vf/kd
            'kkSd Fkk iapk;rsa Hkh vijkf/k;ksa ij udn tqekZus yxkrh
            FkhA vke ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa 'kgjksa vkSj xkWoksa esa
            oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa dk fofue; gksrk FkkA
            vi) mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij] vBkjgoha lnh ds lzksr crkrs gS fd
            caxky esa tehankj mudh lsokvksa ds cnys yksgkjksa]
            c<+bZ vkSj lqukjksa rd dks jkst dk HkRrk vkSj [kkus ds fy,
            udnh ykrs FksA bl O;oLFkk dks ttekuh dgrs Fks gkykafd
            ;g 'kCn lksygoha o l=goha lnh esa cgqr bLrseky ugha
            gksrk FkkA ;s lcwr etsnkj gSa D;ksfd buls irk pyrk gS fd



                                                                     78
           xkWo ds NksVs Lrj ij Qsj&cny ds fj'rs fdrus isphnk FksA
           ,slk ugha gS fd udn vnk;xh dk pyu fcydqy gh unkjn FkkA
v)   l=goha lnh esa Qzkalhlh ;k=h T;ka cSfIVLV rSofua;j dks ;g ckr
     mYys[kuh; yxh fd Hkkjr esa os xkWo cgqr gh NksVs dgs tk,Wxs
     ftuesa eqnzk dh Qsj cny djus okys] ftUgsa ljkQ dgrs gsa] u
     gksaA ,d cSadj dh rjQ ljkQ gokyk Hkqxrku djrs gSa ¼vkSj½
     viuh ethZ ds eqrkfcd iSls ds eqdkcys iSls dhA


iz2 vkids eqrkfcd d`f"k lekt esa lkekftd o vkfFkZd laca/kksa dks
izHkkfor djus esa tkfr fdl gn rd ,d dkjd Fkh\
mRrj& d`f"k lekt ds fofHkUu laca/kksa dks izHkkfor djus esa ,d dkjd
ds :Ik esa tkfr dh Hkwfedk%&
     i) tkfr vkSj tkfr tSls vU; HksnHkkoksa dh otg ls [ksfrgj fdlku dbZ
     rjg ds lewgksa esa ckWVs FksA [skrksa dh tqrkbZ djus okyksa
     esa ,d cM+h rknkn ,sls yksxksa dh Fkh tks uhp le>s tkus okys
     dkeksa esa yxs Fks] ;k fQj [ksrksa esa etnwjh djrs FksA
     ii) ;|fi [ksrh yk;d tehu dh deh ugha Fkh] fQj Hkh dqN tkfr ds
     yksxksa dks flQZ uhps le>s tkus okys dke gh fn, tkrs Fksa bl rjg
     os xjhc jgus ds fy, etcwj FksA tux.kuk rks ml oDr ugha gksrh
     Fkh] ij tks FkksM+s cgqr vkWdM+s vkSj rF; gekjs ikl gSa muls
     irk pyrk gS fd xkWo dh vkcknh dk cgqr cM+k fgLlk ,sls gh
     lewgksa dk Fkk buds ikl lalk/ku lcls de Fks vkSj tkfr O;oLFkk dh
     ikcafn;ksa ls cW/ks FksA budh gkyr dekscs'k oSlh gh Fkh tSlh
     fd vk/kqfud Hkkjr esa nfyrksa dhA
     iii) nwljs laiznk;ksa esa Hkh ,sls HksnHkko QSyus yxs FksA
     eqlyeku leqnk;ksa esa gyky[kksjku tSls uhp dkeksa ls tqM+s
     lewg xkWo dh gnksa ds ckgj gh jg ldrs Fks blh rjg fcgkj esa

                                                                     79
     eYykgtk+nkvksa ¼'kkfCnd vFkZ] ukfodksa ds iq=½] dh rqyuk
     nklks ls dh tk ldrh FkhA
     iv) lekt ds fupys rCkds esa tkfr] xjhch vkSj lkekftd gSfl;r ds chp
     lh/kk fj'rk Fkk A ,slk chp ds lewgksa esa ugha FkkA l=goha lnh
     esa ekjokM+ esa fy[kh xbZ ,d fdrkc jktiwrksa dh ppkZ fdlkuksa
     ds :Ik esa djrh gSA bl fdrkc ds eqrkfcd tkV Hkh fdlku Fks ysfdu
     tkfr O;oLFkk esa mudh txg jktiwrksa ds eqdkcys uhph FkhA
     v)       l=goha lnh esa jktiwr gksus dk nkok o`ankou ¼mRrj
              izns'k½ ds bykds esa xkSjo leqnk; us Hkh fd;k] ckotwn
              blds fd os tehu dh tqrkbZ ds dke esa yxs FksA
              Ik'kqikyu vkSj ckxckuh esa c<+rs equkQs dh otg ls
              vghj] xwTtj vkSj ekyh tSlh tkfr;kW lkekftd tkfr;kW] tSls
              lnxksi o dSorZ Hkh fdlkuksa dh lh lkekftd fLFkfr ikus
              yxhaA


iz3 iapk;r vkSj xkWo dk eqf[k;k fdl rjg ls xzkeh.k lekt dk fu;eu
djrs Fks\ foospuk dhft;sA
mRrj& xzkeh.k lekt dk iapk;r vkSj eqf[k;k }kjk fuxeu %
     i) iapk;r % xkWo dh iapk;r esa cqtqxksaZ dk tekoM+k gksrk
     FkkA vkerkSj ij os xkWo ds egRoiw.kZ yksx gqvk djrs Fks ftuds
     ikl viuh laifRr ds iq'rSuh vf/kdkj gksrs FksA ftu xkWoksa esa
     dbZ tkfr;ksa ds yksx jgrs Fks ogkW vdlj iapk;r esa Hkh fofo/krk
     ikbZ tkrh FkhA
     ii) vYira=% ;g ,d ,slk vYira= Fkk ftlea xkWo ds vyx&vyx
     laiznk;ksa vkSj tkfr;ksa dh uqekbanxh gksrh FkhA fQj Hkh bldh
     laHkkouk de gh gS fd NksVs& eksVs vkSj uhp dke djus okys



                                                                     80
[ksfrgj etnwjksa ds fy, blesa dksbZ txg gksrh gksxhA iapk;r dk
QSlyk xkWo esa lcdksa ekuuk iM+rk FkkA
iii) eqf[k;k ;k eqdn~ne % iapk;r dk ljnkj ,d eqf[k;k gksrk Fkk ftls
eqdn~ne ;k eaMy dgrs FksA dqN lzksrks ls ,slk yxrk gS fd
eqf[k;k dk pquko ds ckn mUgsa bldh eatwjh tehankj ls ysuh
iM+rh FkhA
iv) dk;Zdky% eqf[k;k vius vksgns ij rHkh rd cuk jgrk Fkk tc rd
xkWo ds cqtqxksZa dks ml ij Hkjkslk FkkA ,slk ugha gksus ij
cqtqxZ mls c[kkZLr dj ldrs FksA xkWo ds vkenuh o [kpsZ dk
fglkc&fdrkc viuh fuxjkuh esa cuokuk eqf[k;k dk eq[; dke Fkk vkSj
blesa iapk;r dk iVokjh mldh enn djrk FkkA
v) [kpkZ ¼O;;½ % iapk;r dk [kpkZ ml vke [ktkus ls pyrk Fkk
ftlesa gj O;fDr viuk ;ksxnku nsrk FkkA bl [ktkus ls muds
vf/kdkfj;ksa dh [kkfrjnkjh dk [kpkZ Hkh fd;k tkrk Fkk tks le;&le; ij
xkWo dk nkSjk fd;k djrs FksA nwljh vksj] bl dks"k dk bLrseky
ck<+ tSlh izkd`frd foinkvksa ls fuiVus ds fy, Hkh gksrk Fkk vkSj
,sls tSls fd feV~Vh ds NksVs&eksVs ckW/k cukuk ;k ugj
[kksnukA
vi) dk;Z rFkk mRrjnkf;Ro % iapk;r dk ,d cM+k dke ;g rlYyh djuk
Fkk fd xkWo esa jgus okys vyx&vyx leqnk;ksa ds yksx viuh tkfr
dh gnksa ds vanj jgsaA iwohZ Hkkjr esa lHkh 'kkfn;kW eaMy
dh ekStwnxh esa gksrh FkhaA ;wW dgk tk ldrk gS fd tkfr dh
vogsyuk jksdus ds fy, yksxksa ds vkpj.k ij utj j[kuk xkWo ds
eqf[k;k dh ftEesnkjh esa ls ,d FkkA
vii) vk; ds lzksr% iapk;rksa dks tqekZuk yxkus vkSj leqnk; ls
fu"dkflr djus tSls T;knk xaHkhj naM nsus ds vf/kdkj FksA leqnk;
ls ckgj fudkyuk ,d dM+k dne Fkk tks ,d lhfer le; ds fy, ykxw fd;k

                                                                  81
       tkrk FkkA blds rgr nafMr O;fDr dks ¼fn, gq, le; ds fy,½ xkWo
       NksM+uk iM+rk FkkA bl nkSjku og viuh tkfr vkSj is'ks ls gkFk
       /kks cSBrk FkkA ,slh uhfr;ksa dk edln tkfrxr fjoktksa dh vogsyuk
       jksduk FkkA
       viii) tkfrxr iapk;rsa % xzke iapk;r ds vykok xkWo esa gj tkfr dh
       viuh iapk;r gksrh FkhA lekt esa ;s iapk;rsa vyx&vyx tkfr;ksa ds
       yksxksa ds chp nhokuh ds >xM+ksa dk fuiVkjk djrh Fkha A os
       tehu ls tqM+s nkosnkfj;ksa ds >xM+s lqy>krh Fkh] ;g r; djrh
       Fkha fd 'kkfn;kWa tkfrxr ekunaMksa ds eqrkfcd gks jgh gSa ;k
       ugha vkSj ;g Hkh fd xkWo ds vk;kstu esa fdldks fdlds Åij rjthg
       nh tk,xhA deZdkaMh; opZLo fdl Øe esa gksxkA QkStnkjh U;k;
       dks NksM+ ns rks T;knkrj ekeyksa esa jkT; tkfr iapk;r ds
       QSlyksa dks ekurk FkkA
                                HOTS
                           vH;kl ds fy, iz’u
                        (Exercise for Practice)

iz'u 1-     eqxydky ds v/;;u ds L=ksr ds :i esa ^vkbu&,&vdcjh*
            ds fdUgha rhu l’kDr rFkk nks detksj igyqvksa dh
            foospuk dhft,A

Q.1.        Describe any three strengths and two limitations of
            the “Ain-i-Akbari” as an important documents in the
            study of the mugal period.

iz'u 2-     eqxy dky esa d`f"k lEcU/kksa esa tehankj dsUnz
            fcUnq D;ksa Fks\ O;k[;k dhft,A

Q.1.        Explain why the Zamindars were central to the
            agrarian relation in the Mugal period.



                              CHAPTER-9
                                                                     82
                                Kings and Chronicles

Ques. 1 Evaluate the concerns that shaped Mughal Policies and attitudes
towards Regions outside the sub continents?
The special attention was started on the North West Frontier areas from the
period of Akbar. The Political and diplomatic relations between the Mughal
Kings and the neighboring countries of Iran and Turan hinged on the control
of the frontier defined by the Hindu Kush Mountains that separated
Afghanistan from the regions of Iran and Central Asia.
A constant Aim of Mughal Policy was to check/ prevent outside Potential
danger by controlling strategic out posts- notably Kabul and Qandhar.
      The relationship between the Mughals and ottomans was marked by
the concern to ensure free movement for traders and pilgrims in the
territories under ottoman control, where the important pilgrim centres of
Mecca and Madina were located.
      Qandhar was a bone of contention between safavids and the Mughals,
the fortress town has initially been in the possession of Humayun
reconquered in 1595 by Akbar, in 1622 A Persian army besieged Qandhar.
The ill prepared Mughal army was defeated and had to surrender the fortress
and the city to the safavids.
      The Mughal Emperor usually combined Religion and commerce by
exporting valuable merchandise to Aden and Mokha, Both red seaports and
distributing the proceeds of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and
religious men there.
      On the basis of above mentioned causes we can say that Mughal
emperors were very much vigilant especially to the North West frontier
areas. Strong efforts had been made to control these areas upto the period of

                                                                            83
Sharjahan but later his successors did not pay any attention on such
important areas and this resulted invasion of Nadir Shah and Ahmad shah
Abdali.


Ques No.2 “Sher Shah Suri was the forerunner of Akbar” Prove this
Statement by giving reasonable arguments.
Answer       Shershah Suri was the great Emperor of the Medieval Era. His
works and successes of Shershah Suri were so great that these became ideal
for the forthcoming Rulers.
      Shershah was a hard working and disciplined personality. He was in
favour of equal law for each and everybody and he considered Judgment as
most holy religious work.
      Keeping in view, the general welfare of the people and for the
effectiveness of empire, he divided his empire into „Sarkars‟ and the sarkar
into „Parganas‟.
      The biggest gift of Sher Shah Suri to Akbar is in the area of land
management. He divided the land and the land revenue according to the
produce of the land.
      Sher Shah Suri got shady trees planted along the road sides for
convenience of the general public.
      For the encouragement of the traders and convenience of general
people. He introduced Gold, Silver, and copper coins and a certain amount
of metal was kept in the coins.
      Shershah was the first emperor who adopted religious liberty and
equal behavior. He separated politics to the religion.
             He recruited a vast central permanent army. HE gave cash
payment to the Army, horse branded, getting the description rolls of the

                                                                         84
soldiers recorded and their recruitment and inspection of the troop from time
to time.
      He opened hospitals for the poor. He also encouraged the expansion
of Education.
      He was very much interested in the construction of the buildings. The
tomb of Sahsram is an important construction which is a symbol of
coordination of Mohamadden and local architectural styles.
      By the micro analysis of the above mentioned works/ reforms of the
Shershah. It becomes clear that Akbar adopted many works/ reforms of the
Shershah as it is or by some modifications. Therefore         Shershah can be
called as the forerunner of Akbar.


      Ques No.3 What is Mansabdari system? Evaluate the merits and
demerits of this System.
      Answer The word „mansab‟ is derived from an Arabic word which
means „Fixing the place‟ or rank. The mansabdars were the holders of Ranks
in the emperor‟s service. Every Commander to Public servant was given a
rank of mansab. Each mansabdar was required to maintain a number of
soldiers.
      All officers holding a mansab of 5000 or less were divided into three
classes.
      i.        If the zat and sawar figures were equal, the officers belonged
                to the first class.
      ii.       If the sawar figure was more than half of the zat figure, he
                belonged to the second class.
      iii.      If the sawar figure was less than half of the zat figure, he was
                put in the third class.

                                                                             85
The mansabdars were directly recruited, promoted, suspended and
dismissed by the emperor. Unlike the Jagirdari system, the
mansabdari system was not hereditary. The mansabdars could be
transferred by the emperor upon his sweet will. The mansabdari
troops were recruited by the mansabdar himself. The king however,
laid down general rules for recruitment, maintenance and payment of
troops.
      The mansabdars were highly paid. Akbar preferred to pay them
salaries in cash. After the death of mansabdar his immovable property
was taken by the king. Mansabdar had to maintain the record of
soldiers and horses so that these may come in the use of the king
while required. That is why this system could become the main base
of the power of Mughal Empire. Mansabdars also created situations
for the development of literature. Folk Art and Paintings were also
flourished under the guidance of these mansabdars. There was very
much dissimilarity in the salaries and allowances of the army
regiments of the mansabdars. The soldiers of mansabdars were not
responsible to the centre. Generally such kind of army used to obey
the mansabdar not the army commander.
By evaluating above mentioned merits and demerits, it becomes clear
that during the powerful kings this system contributed in the
expansion and consolidation of the empire but during the weak
successors mansabdars started to be out of control to the king and
became an important cause in time decline of Mughal Empire.




                                                                  86
                               v/;k; 9
                 'kkld vkSj fofHkUu bfro`Rr

iz’u l-1 mu eqn~nks dk ewY;kdu dhft, ftUgkus Hkkjrh; miegk}hi ls ckgj
{ks=ks ds izfr eqxy uhfr;ks o fopkjks dks vkdkj fn;kA
mRrj& vdcj ds 'kkludky ls gh lkefjd egRo ds {ks=ksa ij fo’ks"k fuxjkuh
j[kh tkus yxh Fkh vr% eqxy jktkvksa rFkk bZjku o rwjku ds iMkslh
ns’kks ds jktuhfrd] jktuf;d fj’rs vQxkfuLrku dks bZjku o e/; ,f’k;k ds
{ks=ks ls i`Fkd djus okys fgUnqdq’k ioZrks }kjk fu/kkZfjr lhek ds
fu;U=.k ij fuHkZj djrs FksA
      eqxyuhfr dk ,d izeq[k mn~ns’;] dkcqy ,oa dU/kkj ij fu;U=.k j[kdj
ckgjh jktuSfrd [krjksa dk Hkkjr esa izos’k jksduk FkkA
      vkWVkseu lkezkT; ds lkFk eqxyksa us vius lEcU/k bl izdkj cuk;s
fd os vkWVkseu fu;U=.k okys {ks=ksa esa O;kikfj;ksa vkSj
rhFkZ;kf=;ks ds LorU= vkokxeu dks cjdjkj j[kok lds tgkW eDdk ,oa
enhuk ds egRo&iw.kZ rhFkZLFky fLFkr FksA
      dU/kkj lQkfc;ksa vkSj eqxyks ds chp >xMs+ dh tM+ FkkA ;g
fdyk uxj vkjaHk esa gqek;Ww ds vf/kdkj esa Fkk ftls 1595 bZ- esa
vdcj }kjk iqu% thr fy;k x;kA 1622 bZ- esa ,d Qkjlh lsuk us |sjk Mky fn;k
eqxy lsuk dks iwjh rjg rS;kj u gksus ds dkj.k ijkftr gksuk iM+k vkSj mls
fdyk rFkk uxj lQkfc;ks dks lkSius iMsA
      vkWVkseu jkT; ds lkFk vius lEcU/kksa es eqxyckn’kkg vke rkSj
ij /keZ vkSj okf.kT; ds eqn~nksa dks feykus dh dksf’k’k djrk Fkk og
yky lkxj ds cUnjxkg vnu vkSj vks[kk dks cgqewY; oLrqvksa ds fu;kZr



                                                                      87
dks izksRlkgu nsrk Fkk vkSj budh fcdzh ls vftZr vk; dks ml bykds ds
/keZ&LFkyks o Qdhjksa esa nku esa ckWV nsrk FkkA
      mi;qZDr dkj.kks ds vk/kkj ij ge dg ldrs gS fd 'kq:okrh eqxy lezkV
m-i- lhek izkUr ds izfr vR;f/kd lrdZ FksA'kkgtgkW ds 'kkludky rd ml
{ks= ij fu;U=.k ds dkQh l’kDr iz;kl fd;s x;s ijUrq ijorhZ 'kkldks ds }kjk bl
{ks= ds izfr mnklhurk us gh ukfnj’kkg vkSj vgen 'kkg vCnkyh ds
vkdze.k lqfuf’pr dj fn;sA
iz’u la- 2& “’ksj’kkg vdcj dk vxz.kh Fkk”Amfpr rdksZ dh lgk;rk ls bl
dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A
mRrj 'ksj’kkg lwjh e/;;qxhu Hkkjr dk ,d egku 'kkld Fkk ml dh lQyrk,a
vkSj dk;Z brus egku Fks fd os mlds ijorhZ 'kkldks ds fy, vkn’kZ cu x,A
      'ksj’kkg ,d dBksj ifjJeh]deZ’khy vkSj vuq’kklufiz; O;fDr FkkAog
leku U;k; dk i{kikrh Fkk vkSj U;k; dks 'kklu dk ifo= ?kkfeZd drZO;
ekurk FkkA
      'ksj’kkg us vius lkezkT; dks iz’kklu dh lqfo/kk ds fy;s rFkk mles
dk;Zdq’kyrk ykus ds fy, jkT; dks „ljdkj‟ rFkk ljdkj dks ijxuk esa ckWVk
gqvk FkkA
      'ksj’kkg dh vdcj dh lcls cM+h nsu Hkwfe izcU/k ds {ks= es
gSAlkjh Hkwfe dh uki djokdj Hkwfe dj fu;r dj fn;kAyksxks dh lqfo?kk
gsrq lMdks ds fdukjs Nk;knkj o`{k yxok;sA
      O;kikj dks izksRlkgu nsus ds fy, rFkk xjhc turk ds vkjke dks /;ku
esa j[krs gq;s 'ksj’kkg us vusd NksVs&cMs lksus] pkWnh rFkk rkWcs
ds flDds pyk;s Fks mu flDdks esa ,d fuf’pr /kkrq vuqikr Hkh j[kk FkkA
      'ksj’kkg igyk lezkV Fkk ftlus /kkfeZd mnkjrk rFkk leku O;ogkj dh
uhfr dks viuk;kA mlus /keZ dks jktuhfr ls vyx j[kkA
      'ksj’kkg us fo’kky dsUnzh; LFkk;h+ lsuk dk fuekZ.k fd;kAlsuk dks
udn osru] |ksMksa dks nkx yxokuk]lSfudks ds izf’k{k.k vkSj fujh{k.k
uhfr;ks ij fo’ks"k cy fn;kA
                                                                          88
       'ksj’kkg us fu/kZuks ds fy, fu%’kqYd Hkkstuky; vkSj vLirky
[kksys FksAmlus f’k{kk ds izlkj dks Hkh c<+kok fn;kA
       'ksj’kkg us Hkou fuekZ.k esa cgqr :fp yhAfogkj esa lgljke esa
cuok;k x;k mldk edcjk mldh Hkou fuekZ.k dyk dk LFkkuh; rFkk eqfLye
'kSfy;ks es leUo; dk izfrd gSA
'ksj’kkg ds mi;qZDr dk;ksZ dk lw{e fo’ys"k.k djus ij ;g Li"V gksrk gS fd
mlds vkxkeh eqxy’kkld vdcj us bUgh dk;ksZ@lq/kkjksa dks ;Fkkor ;k
FkksMs cgqr la’kks/ku ds lkFk ykxw fd;k gSA vr% 'ksj’kkg dks vdcj dk
vxz.kh ekuk tk ldrk gSA
iz'u la- 3 eulcnkjh O;oLFkk D;k gS\ blds xq.k vkSj nks"kks dk ewY;kdu
dhft,A
mRrj&       'kCn „eulc‟ vjch Hkk"kk ls fy;k x;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS LFkku
;k inAeqxy O;oLFkk es eulc ljdkjh vf/kdkjh dk og in Fkk tks vf/kdkjh
oxZ esa mldk ntkZ] mldk osru vkSj njckj es mldk LFkku fuf’pr djrk
FkkA ;g ml vf/kdkjh }kjk j[ks x, lSfudks] gkfFk;ksa] |qMlokjks ] gdMks
vkfn dh la[;kW ds okjs es Hkh tkudkjh nsrk FkkA
       5000 ;k blls de ds eulcnkjks dks rhu Jsf.k;ks es foHkDr fd;k x;k
Fkk%
1- ;fn fdlh eulcnkj ds tkr vkSj lokj in leku gksrs Fks rks mls izFke Js.kh
dk eulcnkj dgk tkrk FkkA 2- ftl eulcnkj dk lokj in tkr in ls vk/kk ;k mlls
vf/kd gksrk mls nwljh Js.kh dk eulcnkj dgk tkrk Fkk 3- ftl eulcnkj dk
lokj in mlds tkr in ds vk/ks ls de gksrk og r`rh; Js.kh dk eulcnkj dgykrk
FkkA
       lezkV Lo;a eulcnkj fu;qDr djrk Fkk rFkk ogh mldks ÅWpk ntkZ
ns ldrk Fkk ;k inP;qr dj ldrk FkkA
       tkxhjnkjh izFkk dh HkkWfr eulcnkjh izFkk oa’kkuqxr ugh FkhA
lezkV viuh bPNk ls eulcnkj dks LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrk FkkAeulcnkj viuh
lsuk esa HkrhZ Loe djrk Fkk ijUrq lezkV eulcnkjks dh lsuk dks HkrhZ
                                                                             89
djus o mudks izf’k{k.k rFkk osru nsus ds fu;e Lo;a cukrk FkkA
eulonkjksa dks Åaps osru fn, tkrs FksA vdcj budks osru udn nsuk ilUn
djrk FkkAeulonkjks dh e`R;w ds i'pkr mldh vpy lEifRr dks tCr dj fy;k
tkrk Fkk muds fy, vius |ksMks dks nkxuk vius lSfudks ds gqfy;s ntZ
djuk vfuok;Z Fkk rkfd og fuf’pr la[;k es lezkV dh lgk;rk ds fy, iSny lSfud
vkSj |ksMs rS;kj j[ks blh dkj.k ;g eqxy lkezkT; dh 'kfDr dk izeq[k vk/kkj
cu ldhA eulonkjks us lkfgR; ds fodkl ds fy, ifjfLFkfr;kW mRiUu dh ,oa
bUgh ds laj{k.k es yksddyk;sa o yksd fp=dkfjrk Qyh QwyhA
      vdcj ds 'kkludky es eulcnkjkas dh lSU; VqdfM;ks esa osru o
HkRrs dh n`f"V ls vlekurk FkhAeulonkjksa dh lsuk dsUnz ds izfr
mRrjnk;h ugh Fkh lkekU;r% bl idzkj dh lsuk lSfud dek.Mj dh ckr u
ekudj eulonkj ds vuq:i dk;Z djrs FksA
      mi;qZDr iz.kkyh ds xq.k nks"kksa dk ewY;kdau djus ij Li"V gksrk
gS fd 'kfDr 'kkyh 'kkldks ds nkSjku rks bl iz.kkyh us lkezkT; ds
lqn`<hdj.k esa ;ksxnku fn;k ysfdu tc ijorhZ 'kkld detksj gksus yxs rks
eulonkj mPN`a[ky gksus yxs vkSj ;g O;oLFkk eqxy lkezkT; ds iru dk ,d
dkj.k cuhA




                     CHAPTER-10
                mifuos’kokn vkSj nsgkr
              ljdkjh vfHkys[kksa dk v/;;u
                                                                         90
   COLONIALISM AND THE COUNTRYSIDE
       Exploring Official Archives

Q. 01.   What are the problems of using official sources in
         wirting about the history of peasants.

Anns.    Following are the problems in using official sources in
         working about the history of peasants :

         (i)     There are official sources and reflect only British
                 official concerns and interpretation of all
                 events from the outlook and angles of the
                 English. For example, the Deccan riots
                 commission was specifically asked to judge
                 whether the level of Government revenue
                 demand of the cause of the revolt.
         (ii)    Most of the events, revolts and happening
                 have been presented in a biosed manner. The
                 colonial Government and official had their own
                 political, economic, religious, cultural and
                 social interest. The had always tried to present
                 picture of Indian Society people tradition
                 culture and even the achievements.
         (iii)   The sources have been presented and
                 recorded by such clever and naughty people
                 who have intentially presented things with falls
                 evidences also. For example, the Deccan Riot
                 Commission alter presenting all the findings with
                 such evidences which was utilize to give
                 authencity to the report of the commission. The
                 commission has presented this fabricated fact
                 the Government demand was not the cause
                 the peasants angles. It was the moneylenders
                 (again Indian) who were to blames such
                 argument is found very frequently in British
                 colonial records. This shows that there was a
                                                                  91
                 persistent on the part of the colonial
                 government to admit that popular discontent
                 was ever on account of Government action.
         (iv)    Official reports, thus are invaluable sources for
                 the reconstruction of history. But they have to
                 be always read the case and just opposed with
                 evidence called from newspapers, unofficial
                 accounts, legal records and, where possible,
                 oral sources.



Q. 02.   What steps taken by the British East India Company
         to control the Zamindars ?

Anns.    The British East India Company took the following
         steps mainly to maintain its control over the
         Zamindars.

         (i)     The zamindars’ troops were disband, customs,
                 duties abolished, and their cutcheries (Courts)
                 brought under the supervision of collector
                 appointed by the company.
         (ii)    The power to deliver local judgement was also
                 taken away from zamindars. In fact zamindars
                 hold their control and leadership through local
                 caste and other panchayats. They lost their
                 power to organize local police. Over time the
                 collectorate emerged as an altenative centre
                 of authority, severely restricting what the
                 zamindar could do.
         (iii)   In case a Raja (powerful zamindars) failed to
                 pay the land revenue, a Company official was
                 speedly dispatched to his zamindari which
                 explicit instruction “to take charge of the
                 District and to use the most effectual means to
                 destroy all the influence and the authority of
                 the zamindar and his officers.

                                                                92
         (iv)    Some of the scholars believe that some trouble
                 creaters were also used as tools to reduce the
                 influence of Rajahs. For example, when the
                 zamindar despactched their amlah (collector
                 of revenue or representative of zamindar).
                 Some naughty people use to create problem
                 for zamindars. Some ryots deliberately delayed
                 payment. Rich ryots and village headmen
                 jotedars and mandals-were only too happy to
                 see the Zamindar in trouble. The zamindar
                 could therefore not easily arrest his power over
                 them.



Q. 03.   Why was the jotendars a powerful figure in many
         areas of rural Bengal ?

Anns.    The jotedars a power figure in many areas of rural
         Bengal become while several Zamindars were
         facing a crisis at the end of the 18th century, a group
         of rich peasants were consolidating their position in
         the villages. For example, in rural area of North
         Bengal we get reference about a rich class of
         peasent they were known as jotedars.

         Causes :


         (i)     by the early nineteenth century, jotedars had
                 acquired vast areas of land-sometimes as
                 much as several thousand areas.
         (ii)    They controlled local trade as well as
                 moneylending, exercising immense power over
                 the poorer cultivators of the region
         (iii)   A large part of their land was cultivated
                 through share croppers (adhiyars or bargadars)
                 who brought their own plough, loboured in the

                                                               93
                  field, and handed over half the produce to the
                  jotedars after the harvest.
           (iv)   Within the villages, the power of jotedars was
                  more effective than that of zamindars. Unlike
                  zamindars who often lived in urban areas,
                  jotedars were located in the villages and
                  exercised direct control over a considerable
                  section of poor villagers.
           (v)    Jotedars fiercely resisted efforts by zamindars to
                  increase the jama of the village, prevented
                  zamindari officials from executing their duties,
                  mobilized ryots who were dependent on them,
                  and deliberately delayed payment of revenue
                  to the zamindars. In fact, when the estate of
                  the zamindars were auctioned for failure to
                  make revenue payment, jotedars were often
                  amongst the purchasers.

                            v/;k; 10
iz’u 01-   fdlkuksa dk bfrgkl fy[kus esa ljdkjh L=ksrksa ds
           mi;ksx ds ckjs esa D;k leL;k,¡ vkrh gSa \

mÙkj %     fdlkuksa laca/kh bfrgkl fy[kus esa ljdkjh Jksrksa ds
           mi;ksx ds nkSjku vkus okyh leL;k,¡
           (Problems during the use of Government sources to
           write history of farmers)

           1- fdlkuksa ls lEcfU/kr bfrgkl fy[kus ds dbZ L=ksr gSa
           ftuesa ljdkj }kjk j[ks x, jktLo vfHkys[k] ljdkj }kjk fu;qDr
           losZ{k.kdrkZvksa ds }kjk nh xbZ fjiksVksZ o if=dk,sa
           ftUgsa ge ljdkj dh i{k/kj dg ldrs gSa] ljdkj }kjk fu;qDr tkap
           vk;ksx dh fjiksVZ vFkok ljdkj ds fgr esa iwokZxzg ;k lksp
           j[kus okys vaxszt ;kf=;ksa ds fooj.k vkSj fjiksVZ vkfn 'kkfey
           gSA

           2- ,sls ,sfrgkfld L=ksrksa ij n`f"Vikr djrs le; gesa ;g ;kn
           j[kuk gksxk fd ;s ljdkjh L=ksr gSa vkSj os ?kVukvksa ds
           ckjs esa ljdkjh ljksdkj vkSj vFkZ izfrfcafcr djrs gSaA
                                                                      94
           mnkgj.kkFkZ % ¼v½ nDdu naxk vk;ksx ls fo’ks"k :i ls ;g
           tkap djus ds fy, dgk x;k Fkk fd D;k ljdkjh jktLo dh ekax dk
           Lrj fonzksg dk dkj.k FkkA lEiw.kZ lk{; izLrqr djus ds ckn
           vk;ksx us ;g lwfpr fd;k Fkk fd ekax fdlkuksa ds xqLls dh
           otg ugha FkhA

           ¼c½ fjiksVZ dk eq[; lkj ,oa nks"k (Main Gist and
           Defect of the Report) % blesa lkjk nks"k _.knkrkvksa ;k
           lkgwdkjksa dk gh Fkk blls ;g ckr Li"V gksrh gs fd
           vkSifuosf’kd ljdkj ;g ekuus dks dHkh Hkh rS;kj ugha Fkh
           fd turk esa vlarks"k ;k jks"k dHkh ljdkjh dk;Zokgh ds dkj.k
           Hkh mRiUu gqvk FkkA

           ¼l½ ljdkjh L=ksrksa dk egÙo ,oa lko/kkfu;k¡
           (Importance        of    Government      sources       and
           precautions) % ljdkjh fjiksVZ bfrgkl ds iqufuekZ.k ds fy,
           cgqewY; L=ksr fl) gksrh gS ysfdu mUgsa ges’kk
           lko/kkuhiwoZd i<+k tkuk pkfg, vkSj lekpkj i=ksa] xsj&ljdkjh
           o`Ùkkarksa] oSf/kd vfHkys[kksa vkSj ;FkklaHko ekSf[kd
           L=ksrksa ls ladfyr lk{; ds lkFk mudk feyku djds mudh
           fo’oluh;rk dh tkap dh tkuh pkfg,A
iz’u 02-   bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh us tehankjksa ij viuk fu;a=.k
           c<+kus gsrq D;k&D;k dne mBk, \

mÙkj %     bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh us tehankjksa ij viuk fu;a=.k c<+kus
           gsrq fuEu dne mBk,&
           ¼v½ tehankjksa dh lSU; VqdfM+;ksa dks Hkax dj fn;k
x;kA
           ¼c½ lhek 'kqYd lekIr dj fn;k x;k kvSj mudh O;ogkfj;ksa
                dks dEiuh }kjk fu;qDr dysDVj dh ns[kjs[k esa j[k fn;k
                x;kA
           ¼l½ tehankjksa ls LFkkuh; U;k; vkSj LFkkuh; iqfyl dh
                O;oLFkk djus dh 'kfDr Nhu yh xbZA
           ¼n½ le; ds lkFk&lkFk] dysDVj dk dk;kZy; lÙkk ds ,d
                fodYih dsUnz ds :i ls mHkj vk;k vkSj tehankj ds
                vf/kdkj dks iwjh rjg lhfer ,oa izfrcaf/kr dj fn;k x;kA
iz’u 03-   xzkeh.k caxky ds cgqr ls bykdksa esa tksrnkj ,d
           rkdroj gLrh D;ksa Fks\


                                                                    95
mÙkj %   xzkeh.k caxky ds cgqr ls bykdksa esa tksrnkj ,d rkdrokj
         gLrh blfy, Fks] D;ksafd %

         ¼v½ 18oha 'krkCnh ds var esa tgk¡ ,d vkSj dbZ tehankj
             vkfFkZd n`f"V ls ladV dh fLFkfr ls xqtj jgs Fks ogha
             tksrnkj /kuh fdlkuksa ds :i esa vusd xk¡oksa esa viuh
             fLFkfr etcwr fd, gq, FksA
         ¼c½ 19oha 'krkCnh ds 'kq: ds o"kks± ds vkrs&vkrs bu
             tksrnkjksa us tehu ds cM+s&cM+s Hkw&[kaMksa ij
             ¼tks dHkh&dHkh dbZ gtkj ,dM+ esa QSys Fks½
             izkIr dj fy, FksA
         ¼l½ LFkkuh; O;kikj vkSj lkgwdkj ds dkjksckj ij Hkh bu
             tksrnkjksa dk fu;a=.k Fkk vkSj bl rjg ds vusd {ks=ksa
             ds xjhc dk’rdkjksa (Tillers of the land) ij O;kid 'kfDr
             dk iz;ksx fd;k djrs FksA
         ¼n½ izk;% ;s tksrnkj viuh tehu dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx
             cVkbZnkjksa ds ek/;e ls tqrokrs FksA ;s cVkbZnkj ,d
             rjg ls tksrnkjksa ds v/khu gksrs FksA cVkbZnkj
             muds [ksrksa ij esgur djrs FksA vius gy vkSj cSy
             vkfn ykrs Fks vkSj Qly ds ckn dqy iSnkokj dk vk/kkj
             Hkkx tksrnkjksa dks ns nsrs FksA
         ¼;½ dbZ xk¡oksa esa tksrnkjksa dh rkdr tehankjksa dh
             rkdr dh rqyuk esa vf/kd izHkko’kkyh gksrh FkhA ;s
             tksrnkj tehankjksa dh rjg tehuksa ls nwj 'kgjksa esa
             ugha cfYd xk¡o esa jgrs Fks vkSj bl rjg xk¡oksa ds
             xjhc xzkeh.kksa ds dkQh cM+s oxZ ij lh/kk fu;a=.k
             djrs FksA

         ¼j½ tc tehankj xk¡o dh tek ¼yxku½ dks c<+kus dh
             dksf’k’k djrs Fks rks ;s tksrnkj mu tehankjksa dk
             ?kksj fojks/k djrs FksA ;gh ugha tehankjh
             vf/kdkfj;ksa dks tksrnkj muds dÙkZO;ksa dk ikyu
             djus ls jksdrs FksA tks jS;r ¼dk’rdkj ;k tehu tksrus
             okys½ tksrnkjksa ds i{k esa gksrs Fks os tehankjksa
             dk tek] yxku bUgha tksrnkjksa ds b’kkjs ij nsj ls
             Hkqxrku djrs FksA bl rjg tehankjksa dh gkyr [kLr gks
             tkrh FkhA mudh tehankfj;ksa dh uhykeh gksrh Fkh
             rks tksrnkj vius /ku vkSj cVkbZnkjksa ds lg;ksx ls
             tehuksa dks [kjhn ysrs FksA

                            HOTS
                                                                  96
                      vH;kl ds fy, iz’u
                   (Exercise for Practice)

iz'u 1-   vesfjdh x`g;q) us Hkkjr esa jS;r leqnk; ds thou dks
          dSls izHkkfor fd;k \

Q.1.      How did the American Civil War affect the lives of
          ryots in India ?

iz’u 2-   igkfM+;k yksxksa dh vkthfodk laFkkyksa dh vkthfodk
          ls fdl :i ls fHkUu Fkh \

Q.2.      In What ways was the Livlihood of the paharias
          different from that of the Santhals.

iz'u 3-  jktLo jkf’k ds Hkqxrku esa caxky ds tehankj izk;%
pwd D;ksa djrs Fks\
Q.2.     Why Bangal Zamidars defaulted on payment ?




                         ikB&11
                foæksg vkSj jkt
      1857 dk vkanksyu vkSj mlds O;k[;ku
               Rebels and the Raj
   (1857 revolt and its Representation)



                                                           97
1.   Why did the Indian think during British period that their
     religion was in danger?

Ans. (i)   Conservative Indians were angered by the various
     social reforms initiated by the British. The abolition of
     sati, legalizing of widow remarriages were regarded as
     unwanted interference in Indian Social.

     (ii)    Indian sentiments were also hurt by the Christian
             Missionaries.

     (iii)   In 1850, the government passed the Hindu property
             law under which even after converting to
             Christianity one could inherit one's ancestral
             property.

     (iv)    The people's resentment was further fuelled by the
             Maulvis and Brahmins whose cry that their
             respective religions were in danger cloaked their
             selfish interests as these classes now lost their
             former importance.




2.   What was the system of Subsidiary Alliance? How did it
     help the Britishers to consolidate their position in India?
Ans. The Subsidiary Alliance was a Boat of agreement between
     the British and on Indian ruler on the basis of Mutual
     understanding for performing administrative, military
     and political function.
     Provisions of the Subsidiary Alliance:
     (i)     The Indian ruler accepting the Alliance would not
             enter into alliance with any other power.


                                                              98
     (ii)    Would not declare was against any power without
             permission of the British.
     (iii)   World allows the British resident to stay in his
             state.
     (iv)    Would acknowledge       the   Britishers      as   the
             paramount power.
     (v)     Would maintain some British force at his own
             expense in his state.
     (vi)    In return for accepting all these condition, the
             British would protect the Indian ruler from internal
             and external danger.
     Advantages of the Subsidiary System to the British.

     (i)     The British were able to raise army at the expense
             of the Indian rulers.

     (ii)    They were able to raise army at the expense of the
             Indian rulers.

     (iii)   Successful in checking the French.

     (iv)    Increased their control without waging war.

     (v)     Chances of revolts on the part of Indian ruler were
             minimised.

3.   “ A very high degree of Hindu Muslim Unity was observed
     in the 1857 revolt” Explain with example.
Ans. Unity of Hindus and Muslims : A very high degree of
     Hindu-Muslim unity was reflected in the 1857 Revolt.
     There was scarcely a man of either faith who did not
     show unity. An English man wrote, "....... the infanticide
     Rajput, the bigoted Brahman, the fanatic Musalman and
     the luxury living, Martha joined together in the cause.
     Cow killer and the cow-worshipper, the pig hater and the

                                                                 99
     pig eater revolted jointly." Several Hindu rulers accepted
     Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah as their leader. Bahadur
     Shah had many prominent Hindu officers, who fought
     togetherly against the Britishers.
          In Awadh prominent leaders of the revolt belonged
     to both the communities.

4.   Analyse the causes of the unrest against the British rule
     in India.

                                      or

     "The revolt of 1857 came as a culmination of popular
     discontent with British policies and exploitation, "In the
     light of the statement explain the reasons of discontent of
     Indian people before 1857.
Ans. (i)     Ruin of Indian economy
     (ii)    Wealth drain fro India
     (iii)   Decay of Indian handcrafts
     (iv) Dispossession of several Indian rulers from their
     kingdoms.
     (v)     Discriminatory social policies of the rulers.
     (vi)    Interference in religious affairs of the people of India
     (vii) Low salaries to Indian Military personal               as
           compared with their Europeur counterparts
     (viii) Arrogance of the English people.

5.   Did the Revolt of 1857 have a popular character? Give
     reasons in support of your answer.
Ans. Yes, it was a popular Revolt.
     (i)     Participation by civilians.
     (ii)    Common Symbol like chapatis and Red Lotus

                                                                  100
     (iii)   Involvement of several regions
     (iv)    Hindu-Muslim unity.
     (v)     Involvement of the local leaders of different part of
             India.

6.   Explain the causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857.

                                     or

     "The weaknesses of the Revolt were deeper" Explain why
     the Revolt failed inspite of some patriotic leaders.
Ans. (i)     Lack of a common cause
     (ii)    Lack of National consciousness
     (iii)   Uncoordinated efforts
     (iv)    Absence of effective Leadership
     (v)     Lack of Nation wide Dimensions
     (vi)    Loyalty of Several Rulers to the British
     (vii) Lack of Resources
     (viii) Lack of Good Generals
     (ix)    Regular supply of the British forces
     (x)     The British Supremacy on the sea.
     (xi)    British Diplomacy.
     (xii) Hostility of several indigenous rulers.



                             ikB&11

iz'u 1.      Hkkjrh;ksa us fczfV’k dky es ;g D;ksa lkspk fd mudk /keZ
      [krjs esa gS\


                                                                  101
     (i)     vf/kdrj Hkkjrh; fczfV'k ljdkj }kjk lrhçFkk ij çfrca/k o fo/kkok
             fookg dks dkuwuh ekU;rk nsus dks] lekt ds vkarfjd
             ekeyksa esa gLr{ksi le>rs FksA
     (ii)    blkbZ fe'kufj;ksa us Hkkjrh;ksa dh /kkfeZd Hkkoukvksa
             dks Bsl igqapk;hA
     (iii)   1850 bZ- esa vaxzstksa us Hkkjrh; lEifÙk dkuwu ikl fd;k
             ftlesa mu Hkkjrh;ksa dks lgqfy;r nh tks blkbZ /keZ Lohdkj
             djrs gSaA
     (iv)    turk ds vlarks"k dks eqYyk o iafMrksa us Hkh c<+k;k fd
             mudk /keZ vaxzstksa ds dky esa vlqjf{kr gSA

iz'u 2.     lgk;d la/kh çFkk D;k Fkh\ blus vaxzstksa dks lkezkT; foLrkj
      esa fdl çdkj lgk;rk dh\



     ykWMZ osystyh ds dky esa Hkkjrh; 'kkldksas o vaxzstksa ds e/;
     ç'kklu] lsok o jktuhfrd dk;ks± ij ijLij le>kSrk FkkA
     'krs± &

     (i)     ftu Hkkjrh; 'kkldksa us lgk;d la/kh ij gLrk{kj fd;s gSa( vius
             jkT; esa vaxzstksa ds vykok vU; fdlh 'kfDr ls le>kSrk ugha
             djsaxsA

     (ii)    vaxzstksa ls fcuk LohÑfr dksbZ ;q) ugha yM+saxsA

     (iii)   ,d vaxzst jsftMsUV dks vius jkT; esa jgus nsaxsA

     (iv)    jkT; dks vius [kpsZ ls ,d vaxzsth QkSth VqdM+h j[kuh
             gksxhA

     (v)     lgk;d la/kh dh 'krs± Lohdkj djus okys jkT; dh lqj{kk dh
             xkjaVh fczfV'k bLV bÆ.M;k dEiuh nsrh FkhA

     lgk;d la/kh çFkk ds Qk;ns &

     (i)     vaxzstksa us bl O;oLFkk ds }kjk dbZ jkT;ksa ij viuk
             fu;a=k.k LFkkfir fd;kA
                                                                        102
     (ii)    Hkkjrh; 'kkldksa ds [kpsZ ls ,d vaxzsth QkSt vaxzstksa ds
             fy, rS;kj gks x;hA

     (iii)   Ýkal dh rkdr ij fu;a=.k yxkus esa lQyrk feyhA

     (iv)    fcuk ;q) ds vaxzsth lkezkT; dk foLrkj gqvkA

     (v)     vaxzstksa ds fo#) foæksgksa esa deh vkbZA




iz'u 3.    “1857 ds foæksg ds nkSjku mPp Lrj dk fgUnw&eqfLye
      rkyesy dk vuqHko gqvkA” dFku dh mnkgj.k lfgr O;k[;k djsaA
     1857 ds foæksg ds nkSjku mPp Lrj dh fgUnw&eqÆLye ,drk
     ns[kus dks feyhA vaxzst bfrgkldkjksa us bldks Lohdkj djrs gq,
     dgk gS fd xk; dkVus okys o xk; dh iwtk djus okys] lqvj ls ?k`.kk
     djus okys o lqvj dks [kkus okyksa ds e/; ,d:irk FkhA dbZ fgUnw
     'kkldksa us cgknqj'kkg dks viuk usrk Lohdkj fd;kA cgknqj’kkg ds
     usr`Ro es vusds fgUnw o ewfLye usrk ,d lkFk vaxsztks ds fo:)
     yMsA
     cgknqj'kkg ds cgqr lkjs lSfud dek.Mj fgUnw Fks rFkk vo/k ds
     çeq[k usrk nksuksa gh leqnk;ksa ls FksA



     iz'u 4.       1857 ds foæksg ds dkj.kksa dk fo'ys"k.k dhft,A
     vFkok
     ^^1857 dk foæksg fczfV'k ljdkj dh uhfr;ksa o 'kks"k.k ds fo#) tu
     vlarks"k dk çn'kZu Fkk** bl dFku ds lanHkZ esa 1857 ds foæksg
     ds dkj.kksa dk fo'ys"k.k dhft,A



     (i)     Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dk iru
     (ii)    Hkkjrh; /ku dk fons'kksa esa iyk;u
     (iii)   gLrf'kYi dk iru
                                                                    103
        (iv)    Hkkjrh; 'kkldksa ds jkT;ksa dh gM+i
        (v)     vaxzsth 'kkldksa }kjk lkekftd HksnHkko
        (vi)    Hkkjrh;ksa ds /kkfeZd ekeyksa eas gLr{ksi
        (vii) ;wjksih;ksa o Hkkjrh; lSfudksa ds osru esa varj
        (viii) vaxzstksa dk tkfrxr vgadkj




iz'u 5.     D;k 1857 dks foæksg vf[ky Hkkjrh; pfj= dk Fkk\ leFkZu
      esa rdZ nsaA
        gka] fuEu rdks± ls ;g fl) fd;k tk ldrk gS fd 1857 dh Økafr dk pfj=
        vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj dk Fkk &
        (i)     vke yksxksa dh Hkkxhnkjh
        (ii)    ,d tSls çrhdksa dk mi;ksx tSls jksVh] dey dk Qwy
        (iii)   ns'k ds fofHké Hkkxksa dk lg;ksx
        (iv)    fgUnw&eqfLye ,drk
        (v) ns’k ds fofHkUu Hkkxkas ds LFkkuh; usrkvksa }kjk Hkkx fy;k
tkukA



        iz'u 6.      1857 ds foæksg dh vlQyrk ds dkj.kksa dh O;k[;k
        djsaA
                                         vFkok
        ^^foæksg dh dfe;ka xgjh FkhaA** bl dFku ds lanHkZ esa ;g
        crkb;s fd foæksg ds jk"Vªh; usrkvksa ds usr`Ro ds ckotwn vlQy
        D;ksa gqvk\
        (i)     mís'; dh ,d:irk dk vHkko
        (ii)    jk"Vªh; psruk dk vHkko
        (iii)   vkilh rkyesy dh deh
        (iv)    ;ksX; usr`Ro dh deh
                                                                       104
(v)    O;kid foLrkj dk vHkko
(vi)   dqN 'kkldksa dh vaxzstksa ds lkFk lgkuqHkwfr
(vii) lalk/kuksa dk vHkko
(viii) lsukifr;ksa ¼;ksX;½ dh deh
(ix)   vaxzstksa dks ckgjh lSfud lgk;rk
(x)    leqæ ij vaxzstksa dk vf/kd 'kfDr'kkyh gksuk
(xi)   vaxzstksa dh dwVuhfr
(xii) dqN LFkkuh; 'kkldksa dh vaxzstksa ds çfr lgkuqHkwfrA




                                                             105
                CHAPTER-12
              vkSifuosf’kd 'kgj
        uxjhdj.k uxj&;kstuk] LFkkiR;
              COLONIAL CITIES
  Urbanisation, Plannings and Architecture


Q1. How did prominent Indian merchants establish themselves
in the colonial city ?

Anns.    Prominent Indian merchant establish themselves in
         colonial city in different phases. They establish
         themselves in all the three metro colonial cities i.e.,
         Madras (Channai), Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta
         (Kolkata).

         First of all these Indian merchants tried to establish
         their relation of the agents of the company. As there
         all colonial cities were trade centre and
         administrative      official. Therefore  the   Indian
         merchants could easily get establish their relation
         with the Europeans. There cities were having
         different types of comforts such as modern hotels,
         restaurant, lodging, boarding, transport fancilities,
         roadways and shipping.


                                                             106
Later on Bombay become a major trade centre of
opium with China. Prominent Indian merchant
played active role in collecting opium from different
places of Rajasthan and Malwa. They use to bring
opium on the back of horses, ponies, camels by road
transport etc. They use to earn a lot of money as
middle man between farmers and companies
agents and officials. Not only East India Company
but some of the government official and later or
other European also participated in illegal trade of
opium. The Indian prominent merchant become
very rich. They constructed big building in all big
cities of colonial period.

As the industrial revolution in England started and
expanded. These colonial cities became entry point
for British manufacture goods and for the expert of
Indian ram materials (which was to be used in large
scale industries and factories of England). The
prominent Indian merchant also participated in
there trade activities.

The introduction of railways in 1853 meant a change
in the fortunes of towns. Economic activity gradually
shifted away from traditional towns which were
located along old routes and rivers. Every railway
station became a collection depot for raw materials
and a distribution point for imported goods. For
instance, Mirzapur on the Ganges, which specialized
in collecting cotton goods from the Deccan,
declined when a railway link was made to Bombay.
With the expansion of the railway network, railway
workships and railways colonies were established
Railways towns like Jamalpur, Waltair and Bareilly
developed.

The Indian merchants included the people of
different communities and castes such as Parsi,
Marwari, Konkani, Arbs, Gujarati. Baniyas, Boras and
                                                  107
        Jews. Some of the members of this community
        invested money in modern big industry, shipping and
        Airlines also. They donated money for construction of
        inns, wells, tanks, temples, Mosque, Churches and
        other places of religion and worships.



Q2.     To what extent are census data useful in
        reconstruction patterns of urbanization in the colonial
        context ?

Anns.   Census data are very useful in reconstructing pattern
        of urbanization in the colonial context.

        (i)     We knew that every colonial government
                believe in colour and racial discrimination.
                There census data provide us the total number
                of the people in this way these data are useful
                of know extact number of population as well as
                the total population of while and balcks.
        (ii)    After knowing the number and exact
                population of white and blacks. It becomes
                easier to prepare town, planning, design its
                formation, provision for future expansion,
                keeping in view living standards, needs and
                style of the whites as well as of the blacks.
                These data also tell us upto what extant total
                number of people or total population had
                been effected adversely by the fearful or
                deadly diseases.
        (iii)   Census data provide us complete information
                about total number of different communities,
                their language, their works and means of
                livelihood as well as about their caste and
                religion also.
        (iv)    The growth of cities was mentioned through
                regular head counts. By the midnineteenth
                century several local censuses had been
                                                            108
                 carried out in different regions. The first all-India
                 census was attempted in 1872. Thereafter, from
                 1881, decimal (conducted every ten years)
                 census become a regular feature. This
                 collection of data is an invaluable source for
                 studying urbanization in India.
           (v)   When we look at these reports it appears that
                 we have heard data to measure historical
                 change. The endless pages of tables on
                 disease and death, or the enumeration of
                 people according their age, sex, caste and
                 occupation, provide a vast mass of figures that
                 creates an illusion of concreatensess. Historians
                 have however, found that the figures can be
                 misleading. Before we use these figures we
                 need to understand who collected the data,
                 and why and how they were gathered. We
                 also need to know what was measured and
                 what was not.

Q3:-        Assess the impact of health and defence needs on
       town planning in Colonial Calcutta.

Ans.       In 1756, Sirajudula the Nawab of Bengal sacked the
           small fort which the British traders had built to house
           their goods. Consequently when Sirajudaula was
           defeated in the Battle of Plassey, the British built a
           new fort. Fort William could not be easily attacked.

           Around Fort William, a vast open space was left
           which came to be known as the Maidan or garer-
           math. This was done so there would be no
           obstructions to a straight time of fire from the Fort
           against an advancing enemy army. Soon the British
           began to move out of the Fort and build residences
           along the periphery of the Maidan. This was how the
           English Settlement in Calcutta started taking shape.
           The vast open space around the Fort became
           Calcutta’s first significant town planning measure.
                                                                   109
             Lord Wellesley was concerned about the conditions
             that existed in the Indian part of the city the fith,
             overcrowding and the poor drainge. He wrote a
             minute (an administrative order) in 1803 on the need
             for town planning and set up various committees for
             this purpose.

             It was believed that creating open places in the city
             would make the city healthier. Consequently many
             bazaars, ghats, burial ground and tanneries were
             cleared or removed.

             After Wellesley’s departure, the Lottery Committee
             carried on with the work of Town Planning. In its drive
             to make the Indian areas cleaner, the committee
             cleared the river bank of encroachment and
             pushed the poor to the outskirts of Calcutta.

             The outbreak of cholera and plague epidemics in
             the 19th century gave a further impetus to town
             planning. The government believed that there was a
             direct link between living conditions and the spread
             of disease. Densely built up areas were regarded as
             insanitary as it obstructed sunlight and circulation of
             air.

Read the following passage carefully. Answer all the questions given after it.

           Escaping to the country side. (Page No. 3/8 Part III)

       This is how the famous poet Mirza Ghalib described what the people
of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857.
Limiting the enemy and driving him before them, the vectors (i.e. the
British) overran the city in all direction. All whom they found in street they
cut down.
       For two to three days every road in the city from the Kashmiri gate to
Chandni Chowk, was a battle field. Three gates, the Ajmeri, the Turocaman
and the Delhi were still held by the rebels at the naked spectacle of this

                                                                          110
vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the colour fled from men‟s faces and a
vast concourse of men and women…. took to precipitate flight through these
three gates. Seeking the little villages and shrewdness outside the city, they
drew breath to wait until such time as might favour their return.



                          Passage Based Questions

Ques No. 1 Who was Mirza Ghalib?                                         1
Ques No.2 What has been described by Ghalib about the people of Delhi
when the British forces occupied the city in 1857?
        3
Ques. No.3 Describe the Role of the „British forces, just after occupying the
city?                                                                    2
Ques No.4 Write the names of all historical gates mention in the above
passage?
        2
                                  ANSWERS
Ans .1 Mirza Ghalib was a famous Urdu Poet of Delhi in 19th Century.
Ans 2. (a) The People of Delhi were driven by the vectors (i.e the British).
Some rebels faced the British forces for two or three days. They kept under
their control the gates of Delhi- the Ajmeri gate, the Turocaman gate and
the Delhi gate.
(b) All the naked spectacle of the vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the
colour fled from men‟s face.
(c) A vast concourse of men and women of Delhi took to percipate flight
through different gates of the city.
(d)Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, the people of Delhi
drew breathe to wait until such time as might favour their return.

                                                                             111
Ans 3 (i) Smiting the Mughal forces, other rebellious troops and the people
of Delhi the British troops occupied most parts of the city in last days of the
meeting of 1857, the forces engaged themselves in overrunning the city in
all direction. (ii) All whom they found in the street they cut down. For two
or three days every road in the city from the Kashmiri Gate to Chandni
Chowk was a battlefield, after three days most of the rebels were forced to
send way to seek shelters in little villages and shrines.



                                 v/;k; 12

iz’u 01-     izeq[k Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa us vkSifuosf’kd 'kgjksa esa
             [kqn dks fdl rjg LFkkfir fd;k \

mÙkj %       izeq[k Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa us vkSifuosf’kd 'kgjksa vFkkZr~
             enzkl ¼psUubZ½] cEcbZ ¼eqacbZ½ vkSj dydÙkk
             ¼dksydkrk½ esa dEiuh ds ,tsUV ds :I esa jguk 'kq: fd;kA
             ;s lHkh cfLr;k¡ O;kikfjd vkSj iz’kklfud dk;kZy;ksa okyh
             FkhA blfy, Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa dks ;g 'kgj lqfo/kktud yxsA ;g
             rhuksa 'kgj canjxkg Fks vkSj buesa lM+ds] ;krk;kr]
             tgktjkuh ds lkFk&lkFk dkykarj esa jsyksa dh lqfo/kk izkIr
             gks xbZA Hkkjrh; xzkeh.k O;kikjh vkSj Qsjh okys 'kgjksa
             esa eky xk¡o ls [kjhndj Hkh ykrs FksA vusd Hkkjrh; O;kikjh
             tc iqjkus vkSj e/;dkyhu 'kgj mtM+ x, rks mUgsa NksM+dj
             os bu cM+s 'kgjksa esa vk x,A mUgksaus O;kikfjd
             xfrfof/k;k¡ djus ds lkFk&lkFk m|ksx&/ka/ks Hkh xk,A viuh
             vfrfjDr iw¡th bu 'kgjksa esa fuos’k dhA O;kikfjd xfrfof/k;ksa
             ds ckjs esa j[ks x, ljdkjh fjdkMksZ vkSj foLr`r C;kSjksa ls
             dbZ izdkj dh tkudkjh izkIr djrs FksA 'kgjksa dh leL;kvksa
             ds lek/kku ds fy, uxjikfydkvksa ls lg;ksx fy;k x;kA vusd
             O;kikjh bu cM+s 'kgjksa ds miuxjh; {ks=ksa esa Hkh jgus
             yxsA mUgksaus ?kksM+kxkM+h vkSj u, ;krk;kr ds
             lk/kuksa dks Hkh iz;ksx fd;kA Hkkjrh; O;kikjh dEiuh ds
             O;kikj esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs FksA eqEcbZ ds
             jgus okys O;kikjh] phu dks tkus okyh vQhe ds O;kikj esa
             fgLlsnkj FksA mUgksaus eqEcbZ dh vFkZO;oLFkk dks
                                                                           112
           ekyok] jktLFkku vkSj fla/k tSls vQhe mRiknd bykdksa ls
           tksM+us esa lgk;rk nhA dEiuh ds lkFk xBtksM+ ,d equkQs
           dk lkSnk Fkk ftlls dkykarj esa ,d iw¡thifr oxZ dk fodkl
           gqvkA Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa esa lHkh leqnk;&ikjlh] ekjokM+h]
           dksad.kh] eqlyeku] xqtjkrh cfu,] cksgjk] ;gwnh vkfn 'kkfey
           FksA
iz’u 02-   vkSifuosf’kd lanHkZ esa 'kgjhdj.k ds #>kuksa dks
           le>us ds fy, tux.kuk laca/kh vkadM+s fdl gn rd
           mi;ksxh gksrs gSa \

mÙkj %     vkSifuosf’kd laca/k esa 'kgjhdj.k ds #>ku dks le>us ds fy,
           tux.kuk laca/kh vk¡dM+s cgqr mi;ksxh gksrs gSa %

           ¼v½ blls 'osr vkSj v’osr (White and Black) yksxksa dh dqy
           tula[;k ;k vkcknh dks tkuus esa lg;ksx feyrk gSA

           ¼c½ 'osr vkSj v’osr Vkmu ds fuekZ.k] foLrkj vkSj muds
           thou laca/kh Lrj] Hk;adj chekfj;ksa ds tula[;k ij iM+s
           nq"izHkko vkfn dks tkuus esa Hkh tux.kuk laca/kh
           vk¡dM=s rqjUr tkudkjh nsus okys ifê;ksa dk dk;Z djrs
           gSaA

           ¼l½ tux.kuk laca/kh vk¡dM+s fofHkUu leqnk;ksa] dk;ks±]
           tkfr;ksa dh tkudkjh nsrs gSaA
iz’u 03-   vkSifuosf’kd dydÙkk esa uxj fu;kstu ij LokLF; vkSj
           lqj{kk dh t:jrksa ds izHkko dk ewY;kadu dhft,A \

mÙkj %     Hkkjr esa mifuos’kokn dk lh/kk izHkko uxj fu;ktu ij
           n`f"Vxkspj gksrk FkkA dEiuh ,oa vaxszth ljdkj us Hkkjr ds
           izeq[k canjxkg okys 'kgjksa dks fu;ksftr <ax ls clkus dk
           fopkj fd;kA bu 'kgjksa esa ,d 'kgj Fkk&dydÙkk] tks caxky
           lwcs dk ,d egRoiw.kZ 'kgj] vaxszth lÙkk dh jkt/kkuh ,oa
           okf.kT; dk dsUnz FkkA dydÙkk 'kgj ds fu;kstu dk izFke
           pj.k ykWMZ osystyh ds dk;Zdky es aizkjaHk gqvkA

           ¼v½ LokLF; % LokLF; ds n`f"Vdks.k ls cgr lkjs cktkjksa]
           ?kkVksa] dfczLrkuksa vkSj peZ’kks/ku bdkb;ksa dks lkQ
           fd;k x;kA buesa ls dqN dks gVk fn;k x;kA 'kgj dk ,d uohu
           uD’kk rS;kj fd;k x;kA blesa lM+d ds fdukjs ,oa vU; voS/k
           dCtksa dks gVkus dh flQkfj’k dh xbZA 1817 esa gStk rFkk
           1896 esa Iysx egkekjh us dydÙkk dks viuh pisV esa ys
                                                                  113
            fy;kA fpfdRld bldh Bksl otg ugha crk ik,] fdarq ^tuLokLF;*
            dh vo/kkj.kk dks cy feykA ljdkj ,oa tkx:d ukxfjd
            ¼n~okjdkukFk VSxksj ,oa :Lre th dksoklth½ ;g ekuus yxs
            fd 'kgj dks LokLF;o/kZd cukuk vko’;d gSA vr5 ?kuh vkcknh
            okyh cLrh rFkk >ksifM+;ksa dks gVk;k x;kA LokLF; ds
            vk/kkj ij OgkbV ,oa CySd Vkmu tSls uLyh foHkktu gq,A

            ¼c½ lqj{kk % dydÙkk 'kgj ds fu;kstu dk Hkkj ljdkj us vius
            Åij blfy, fy;k] D;ksafd ;g 'kgj lqj{kk ds n`f"Vdks.k ls
            laosnu’khy FkkA 1756 esa uokc fljktqn~nkSyk us dydÙkk
            ij geyk fd;k Fkk rFkk dEiuh dks djkjh f’kdLr nh FkhA

            dEiuh us 1757 esa tc fljktqn~nkSyk dksijkftr fd;k mlds ckn
            mlus dydÙkk 'kgj dh fdykacnh 'kq: dh] rkfd vklkuh ls
            dydÙkk ij geyk u fd;k tk ldsA rhu xk¡o lqrkukrh] dksydkrk
            vkSj xksfoUniqj dks feyk dj dydÙkk 'kgj clk;k x;kA QksVZ
            fofy;e ds vklikl [kqyh txg NksM+h xbZ] rkfd geykojksa ij
            vklkuh ls xksyhckjh dh tk ldsA

            bl izdkj ;g Li"V :i ls ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd dydÙkk 'kgj ds
            fu;kstu esa lqj{kk ,oa LokLF; dk O;kid izHkko FkkA



                   “xzkeh.k {ks=ks dh vksj iyk;u ”

1857 esa fczfV’k lsuk }kjk 'kgj ij vf/kdkj djus ds ckn fnYyh ds yksxks
us D;k fd;k bldk o.kZu izfl) 'kk;j fetkZ xkfyc bl izdkj djrs gS%&nq’eu
dks ijkftr djus vkSj Hkxk nsus ds ckn fotsrkvks¼fczfV’k½ us lHkh
fn’kkvks ls 'kgj dks mtkM+ fn;kAtks lMd ij feys mUgs dkV fn;k x;kA nks
ls rhu rd d’ehjh xsV ls pkWnuh pkSd rd 'kgj dh gj lM+d ;q)Hkwfe cuh
jghA rhu }kj& vtesjh] rqdZeku rFkk fnYyh vHkh Hkh fonzksfg;ks ds
dCts es Fks------------A bl izfr’kks/kh vkdzks’k rFkk |`.kk ds uaxs ukp ls
yksxks ds psgjksa dk jax mM x;k] vkSj cMh la[;k esa iq:"k vkSj
efgykW, ----------- bu rhuks }kjks ls gM+cM+k dj iyk;u djus yxsA’kgj ds



                                                                      114
ckgj NksVs xkWoksa vkSj nsoLFkyksa es 'kj.k ys viuh okilh ds
vuqdwy le; dk bartkj djrs jgsA
                         vuqPNsn vk/kkfjr iz’u
1- fetkZ xkfyc dkSu Fkk \
 mÙkj¯ fetkZ xkfyc 19 oh 'krkCnh esa fnYyh dk ,d izfl) mnwZ Hkk"kk
dk dfo FkkA

2- 1857 esa fczfV’k lsuk }kjk 'kgj ij vf/kdkj djus ds ckn fnYyh ds yksxks
ds ckjsa xkfyc us D;k o.kZu fd;k gS\
mÙkj ¼v½ nq’eu dks ijkftr djus ds ckn vkSj Hkxk nsus ds ckn fczfV’k
yksxks us lHkh fn’kkvksa ls 'kgj dks mtkM fn;kA tks lM+d ;q) Hkwfe
cuh jgh rhu }kj& vtesjh] rqdZeku rFkk fnYyh vHkh Hkh fonzksfg;ks ds
dCts esa FksA\
¼c½fczfV’k lsuk ds izfrjks/kh vkdzks’k rFkk |`.kk ds uaxs ukp ls
yksxksa ds psgjs dk jax mM+ x;kA
¼l½ cM+h la[;k es iq:"k vkSj efgyk;s rhuksa }kjks ls gMcM+k dj iyk;u
djus yxsA
¼n½’kgj ds ckgj NksVs xkaoks vkSj nso LFkyksa es 'kj.k ys viuh okilh
ds vuqdwy le; dk bartkj djrs jgsA

3- mi;qZDr x/kak’k es of.kZr pkjks ,sfrgkfld }kjks ds uke fyf[k;sA
mÙkj d’ehjh xsV] rqdZeku xsV] fnYyh xsV] vtesjh xsV
      Ajmeri gate,Turcoman gate, Delhi gate, Kashmiri gate.
mÙkj 4- fnYyh ij dCtk djus ds i’pkr fczfV’k lsuk dh Hkwfedk D;k jgh\
      1857 dh dzkafr ds vfUre funks rd fczfV’k lsuk us fnYyh ds
vf/kdka’k Hkkx ij dCtk dj fy;kA fczfV’k lsuk us lHkh fn’kkvksa ls 'kgj
dks mTkkM fn;kA tks lM+d ij feys mUgs dkV fn;k x;kA nks ls rhu
fnuksa rd d’ehjh xsV ls pkanuh pkSd rd 'kgj dh gj lM+d ;q+)Hkwfe cuh
jghA cMh la[;k esa iq:"k vkSj efgyk,a rhu }kjks ls gM+cM+k dj iyk;u
djus yxs rFkk 'kgj ds ckgj NksVs xkaoks vkSj nsoLFkyksa esa 'kj.k ys
viuh okilh ds vuqdwy le; dk bartkj djrs jgsA

                             HOTS
                           vH;kl ds fy, iz’u
                        (Exercise for Practice)

iz'u 1-     ^fczfV’k ljdkj us viuh tkrh; Js"Brk trkus ds fy,
            lksp&le> dj enzkl 'kgj dk fodkl fd;kA** mfpr rdZ nsdj bl
            dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A
                                                                      115
Q.1.      “The British Government consciously developed the
          city of Madras to reflect their racial superiority.”
          Justify the statement giving suitable arguments.

iz'u 2-   cEcbz esa lkoZtfud Hkouksa ds fuekZ.k esa vaxsztksa
          }kjk iz;ksx esa ykbZ xbZ fdUgha nks okLrqdyk
          'kSfy;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A izR;sd dk ,d mnkgj.k nhft,A

Q.1.      Describe any two architectural styles used by the
          British in the construction of public buildings in
          Bombay. Give one example from each.

iz'u 3-   vkSifuosf’kd 'kklu esa u;s uxjksa ds lkekftd thou esa
          vk, fdUgha pkj cnykoksa dh O;k[;k dhft, \

Q.1.      Explain any four changes that come about in the
          social life in the new cities under colonial rule.




                                                            116
                     CHAPTER:-13
        Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement.
Ques. 1 „Non Cooperation was a form of Protest‟. Evaluate this statement.


Ans:- Gandhiji was one of the greatest personality of the world. His main
principles were – Truth and Non Violence. Gandhiji decided to start non-
cooperation as a unique form of protest freedom struggle against the British
rule. He hoped that by coupling non cooperation with khilafat, Hindu and
Muslims could collectively bring an end to colonial rule.
         During NCM (Non Coorperation Movement) Students stopped going
to school and colleges run by the British Government.
Lawyers refused to attend the court.
The working class went on strike in many towns and cities.
         The country side was seething with discontent.Hill tribe in Northern
Andhra violated by the forest laws. Farmers in Awadh did not pay taxes.
These protest movements were sometime carried out in defence of the local
nationalist leadership.
         By the Analysis of the above mentioned facts it can be said that
undoubtedly this was the first freedom struggle movement, in which most of
Indian castes and communities participated to protest British rule.


Ques.2 How did Mahatma Gandhi transform the nature of the National
movement?
Ans:- Gandhiji transformed the nature of the National movement by the
following thoughts, methods ideology, working styles movements etc.
         The main principles of his philosophy were
   i.       Satyagrah

                                                                         117
ii.       Non violence
iii.      Peace
iv.       True sympathy for the poorest.
v.        Empowerment of the lady.
vi.       Communal Harmony
vii.      Indian Rural areas and to think about interest of the people residing
          in the villages and to motivate the other people to think, to act and
          to inspire resourceful and influencial high up of the society in
          favour of down trodden.
viii. Opposing untouchablility with his full vigor and strength.
ix.       To stress both equally and their purity of aim and means alike.
x.        To launch public welfare programme.
xi.       To stress importance of cottage Industry.
xii.      Charkha
xiii. Spinning wheels
xiv.      Khadi etc
xv.       To oppose colour discrimination alike.
       Gandhiji utilized south Africa as practical lab for his ideological and
philosophical development. He raised his voice at full pitch their against
wrong policies and injustice done by the government of South Africa. He
utilize Satyagraha in South Africa also in several places in India.
       When Gandhiji returned to motherland in 1915. In fact that time still
Indian National congress was confined in only urban areas upto people of
middle educated classes. He knew very well that its natural power rests
with the rural people, labour, ordinary men and women and young boys
and girls till all sections and people of Indian society would not join
freedom struggle against the colonial British power then it would be very
difficult to finish British authority from India.
                                                                            118
`Gandhiji said that British rule have rewarded India through out
spreading Poverty, hunger, low quality of life ,illiteracy, superstitions and
social disunity and disharmony.
   Gandhiji opposed the owners of Indigo plantation of champaran. He
also press the cotton textile mill owners to revise the minimum wage of
the labourers.
   Gandhiji was a true economic and social reformer. He advocated the
use of charkha and khadi. He stressed the importance of cottage and very
small industries.
   Infact due to his efforts the face of Indian National Movement turns
from palaces to hunts, from urban areas or cities towards villages where
the real India resides. This was the greatest work of Gandhiji. This
converted the shape of National movement into a mass movement.




Ques3:-„The Quit India Movement was truly a mass movement‟. Justify
this statement.
   Ans:- Due to the failure of the Cripps mission, Gandhiji decided to
launch his third major movement against British rule. This was called
Quit India Movement. This was to be a mass struggle on non violent lines
under leadership of Gandhiji. But on the Next day of the approval of
India Quit Movement resolution. Gandhi and other main congress leaders
were arrested. But the younger activist organized demonstrations and
strike in factories, schools and colleges in all parts of the country.
Particularly active in the underground resistance were socialist members
of the congress such as Jaya Prakash Narain and Ram Manohar Lohia,
Aruna Asif Ali. In some areas such as Satara and Midnapur “Independent
governments were proclaimed. The movement took the form of a violent
                                                                         119
  out break. The government succeeded in crushing the movement yet it
  took more than 12 months to suppress this rebellion.
       By Analysising above mentioned incidences it can be said that the
  Quit India Movement was truly a mass movement. It brought into its
  ambit hundreds of thousands of ordinary people. It brought the nationalist
  feelings among the youth to such a stage that the day was not far off
  when the British would have to Quit India.

              v/;k; &13
 egkRek xka/kh vkSj jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu
       iz'Uk&1 Þvgl;ksx vkUnksyu ,d rjg dk izfrjks/k FkkÞ bl dFku dk

ewY;kadu dhft,A


       mRrj & xka/kh fo’o ds egkure O;fDrRoks es ls ,d FksAmuds

izeq[k fl)kUr Fks & lR; vkSj vafglk A mUgksus fczfV'k 'kklu ds f[kykQ

vlg;ksx vkUnksyu dks izfrjks/k ds ,d mRÑ"V lk/ku ds :i esa 'kq: djus dk

fu.kZ; fy;kA mUgsa vk'kk Fkh fd f[kykQr dks vlg;ksx ds lkFk tksM+us

ls fgUnw vkSj eqlyeku la;qDr :i ls vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu dk vUr dj ldrs

gSaA


       vlg;ksx vkUnksyu ds nkSjku fo|kfFkZ;ksa us vaxzst ljdkj }kjk

lapkfyr Ldwy vkSj dkWyst tkuk NksM+ fn;kA


       odhyksa us vnkyr esa tkus ls badkj dj fn;kA


       cgqr ls dLcks ,oa 'kgjksa esas Jfed oxZ gM+rky ij pys x;sA
                                                                        120
      vlg;ksx vkUnksyu dk izfrjks/k ns'k ds xzkeh.k {ks= esa Hkh

fn[kkbZ ns jgk FkkA mRrjh vkU/kz dh igkM+h tutkfr;ksa us oU;

dkuwuksa dh vogsyuk dj nhA vo/k ds fdlkuksa us dj ugha pqdk;kA bu

fojks/kh vkUnksyuks dks dHkh&dHkh LFkkuh; jk"Vªoknh usr`Ro dh

voKk djrs gq, dk;kZfUor fd;k x;kA


      mi;qZDr rF;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k djus ij ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd fu%lansg

;g jk"Vªh; la?k"kZ dk ,slk igyk vkUnksyu Fkk ftlesa Hkkjr dh T;knkrj

tkfr;ksa ,oa leqnk;ksa us fczfV'k 'kklu dk izfrjks/k djus gsrq Hkkx fy;kA


      iz'Uk-2 egkRek xka/kh us jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu ds Lo:i dks fdl rjg

cny Mkyk\


      mRrj & xka/kh th us jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu ds Lo:i dks fuEufyf[kr

fopkjksa] rjhdksa] fopkj/kkjk] dk;Ziz.kkyh] vkUnksyuksa vkfn ds }kjk

cny MkykA


      muds n'kZu ds eq[; fl)kUr Fks & ¼1½ lR;kxzg] ¼2½ vfgalk]

¼3½ 'kkfUr ¼4½ nfjæukjk;.kksa ds izfr lPph gennhZ ¼5½ efgykvksa

dk l'kfDrdj.k ¼6½ lkEiznkf;d lnHkko ¼7½ Hkkjrh; xzkeh.k {ks= ,oa

muesa jgus okys yksxksa ds fgrksa ds ckjs esa lkspuk] djuk vkSj

yksxksa dks izsj.kk nsuk] ¼8½ vLi`';rk dk fojks/k djuk ¼9½ lk/ku ,oa

lk/; nksuksa dh ifo=rk ij cy nsuk ¼10½ dY;k.kdkjh dk;ZØe 'kq: djuk]

                                                                      121
¼11½ dqVhj m|ksx ds egRo ij cy nsuk] ¼11½ pj[kk] [kknh vkfn viukus

ij cy nsuk] ¼12½ jaxHksn dk fojks/k djukA


      xka/khth us nf{k.k vÝhdk dks vius oSpkfjd ,oa nk'kZfud fodkl dh

O;ogkfjd iz;ksx'kkyk ds :i esa mi;ksx fd;kA mUgksaus nf{k.k vÝhdk

ljdkj dh xyr ,oa vU;k; iw.kZ uhfr;ksa dk [kqydj fojks/k fd;kA mUgksaus

dbZ ckj nf{k.k vÝhdk ,oa Hkkjr esa lR;kxzg 'kq: fd;kA


      tc 1915 esa xka/kh th viuh ekr`Hkwfe ykSVs okLro esa ml le; rd

dkaxzsl e/;eoxhZ; f'kf{kr yksxksa dh ikVhZ FkhA og vPNh rjg ls tkurs

Fks fd bl jk"Vª dh rkdr xzkeh.k yksxksa] Jfedksa] loZlk/kkj.k]

efgykvksa] ;qokvksa vkfn esa fufgr gSA tc rd ;s lHkh yksx jk"Vªh;

la?k"kZ esa ugha tqM+sxsa rc rd fczfV'k lÙkk dks Hkkjr ls lekIr djuk

laHko ugha FkkA


      xka/kh th us dgk fd Hkkjr esa tks loZ= nfjærk] Hkq[kejh] fuEu

thou Lrj] vf'k{kk] vU/k fo'okl vkSj lkekftd QwV ns[kus dks feyrh gS og

fczfV'k 'kklu ds dkj.k gSA


      xka/kh th us pEikju ds uhy ckxkuksa ds ekfydksa dk fojks/k

fd;kA oL= feyksa esa dke djus okys etnwjksa dh U;wure etnwjh dks

la'kksf/kr djus ds fy, fey ekfydksa ij ncko MkykA




                                                                   122
      xka/khth ,d lPps vkfFkZd o lekt lq/kkjd Fks mUgksaus pj[kk ,oa

[kknh ds iz;ksx dh odkyr dhA mUgksaus dqVhj vkSj vfry?kq m|ksxksa

ds egÙo ij cy fn;kA


      okLro esa mUgha ds iz;klksa ds ifj.kkeLo:i jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu dks

egyksa dh txg >ksifM+;ksa] 'kgj dh txg xkao vkSj e/;e oxZ rd lhfer

vkUnksyu dks loZlk/kkj.k rd izlkfjr djus esa lQyrk izkIr gqbZA ;g xka/kh

th dk lokZf/kd egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku FkkA blls dkaxzsl tu&tu dh laLFkk

cu xbZA blus jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu ds Lo:i dks O;kid dj fn;kA


      iz'Uk 3& Hkkjr NksM+ks vkUnksyu lPps vFkks± esa O;kid

tukUnksyu FkkA bl dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A


      mRrj & fØI'k fe'ku ds vlQy gksus ds dkj.k dkaxzsl us xka/kh th

dh v/;{krk esa 8 vxLr 1942 bZ- dks Hkkjr NksM+ks vkUnksyu izLrko

ikl fd;kA ;g vfgalkRed vkUnksyu Fkk ysfdu vkUnksyu dh LohÑfr ds

vxys gh fnu xka/kh th ,oa vU; egÙoiw.kZ dkaxzslh usrkvksa dks

fxj¶rkj dj fy;k x;kA ijUrq ns'k ds ;qok dk;ZdrkZ gM+rkyksa rFkk

rksM+QksM+ dh dk;Zokfg;ka djds ns'k esa vkUnksyu pykrs jgsA

Jherh v:.kk vklQ vyh] jke euksgj yksfg;k] t;izdk'k ukjk;.k tSls lektoknh

lnL; Hkwfexr izfrjks/k xfrfof/k;ksa eas lcls vf/kd lfØ; FksA foæksfg;ksa

us lrkjk vkSj fenukiqj vkfn ftyksa esa Lora= ljdkjsa LFkkfir dj yhA


                                                                     123
vaxzstksa us bl vkUnksyu dks ccZjrkiwoZd nckus dk iz;kl fd;k fQj Hkh

bl O;kid foæksg dks nckus esa yxHkx 12 eghus dk le; yx x;kA


     mi;qZDr ?kVukvksa dk lw{e fo'ys"k.k djus ds i'pkr~ dgk tk ldrk

gS fd okLro esa Hkkjr NksM+ks vkUnksyu lPps vFkks± esa fczfV'k

'kklu ds fo:) O;kid tukUnksyu FkkA bl vkUnksyu us cM+h la[;k esa

gtkjksa uo;qodksa] tulkekU; dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr fd;kA bl vkUnksyu

us uo;qodksa esa bl Hkkouk dk lapkj fd;k fd Hkkjr ls fczfV'k 'kklu dh

lekfIr esa vc T;knk oDr ugha gSA




                                                                  124
                              Chapter 14
        Understanding Partitions- Politics, Memories
                       Experiences

Q1.Examine the factors responsible for the growth of communalism in India.
Ans.    At the outset it must be admitted that in spite of strenuous efforts
       made by the congress leaders and rationalists, communalism could not
       be checked. Ultimately communalism won when India was partioned
       and Pakistan was created on the communalism theory of two nations.
       It may be stated that communalism grew on account of the „Divide
       and Rule‟ policy of the British. Jinnah was not the sole originator of
       this theory of two nations. The policy of „Divide and Rule‟
       encouraged Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to fight for the right of the
       Muslims. Lord Curzon in 1905 encouraged the Muslims when he
       divided Bengal and created a Muslim majority province. Iqbal in 1930
       also favored separate treatment to the Muslims. The Hindu
       Mahasabha established in 1916 also worked on communal lines
       following factors led to communalist tendencies.
       (1)   Divide and Rule Policy of the British.
       (2)     Fear of the Muslim minority of its Suppression the Hindu
majority.
       (3) Overemphasis on the glory of ancient India.
       (4)   Emergency of political parties on communal lines.
       (5)   Separate electorate for Muslims.

                                                                         125
      (6)   Lack of education among the Muslim community.
      (7)   Frustration of the Muslim league on its inability to win election
            in 1937.


      (8) Demand for partition of India at the Lahore session of the Muslim
      league in 1940.
      (9) Direct Action by the Muslim league in 1946 and Communal riots.


Q2. Analyse the experiences of women from the partition?
Ans. The experiences of women in partition violent time were harrowing.
      Women were raped, abducted, sold, often many times over, forced to
      settle down to a new life with strangers in unknown circumstances.
      Deeply traumatised by all that they had undergone. Some began to
      develop, new family bonds in their changed circumstances. Their
      money and ornaments were looted. At times therefore when the men
      feared that their women wives, daughters, sisters, would be violated
      by the enemy they killed the women themselves.
Q3 Pointing upon the destruction or slaughter on Mass scale at the time of
partition ,compare Indian holocaust with Germany?


Ans. Because several hundred thousand people were killed and innumerable
      women raped and abducted. Millions were uprooted, transformed into
      refugees in alien lands. Estimate of casualties were 2,00,000 to
      50,00,000. In all probability, some 15 million had to move across
      hastily constructed frontiers separating India and Pakistan. Stripped of
      their local or regional cultures. They were forced to begin picking of
      their life from scratch. There fire partition is considered as holocaust.

                                                                           126
      The Survivers themselves have often spoken of 1947 through other
      words like maashal (Martial law), mara-mari, raula or hullar.
      Though the people do not see any difference between the events of
      India and Germany . Afterall this much difference we find that in
      1947-48, the sub contitnent did not witness and state driven
      extermination as was the case with Nazi Germany where various
      model used. The ethnic cleansing That characterized the partition of
      India was carried out by self self styled representative of religious
      communities rather than by state agencies.


Q4 „The Partition of India was indispensable‟.Explain?
Ans. By the strength of Indian National Congress and power of mass
      movement ultimately British Government ready to free India in 1947.
      But freedom could given with the partition of India in two separate
      countries India and Pakistan. The causes for acceptance of the
      Independence with partition were as under:
      The British had been following a policy of creating feelings of
      bitterness among the different communities in India. This policy of
      Divide and Rule aimed to check the growth of Nationalism .When
      they failed in their objectives, they decided to divide the country and
      leave it.
      The attitude of Mr. Jinnah, the most prominent leader of the Muslim
      League, led to the partition of the country. Hepreached that the
      Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations. Hence they could not
      pull well together.
The British government followed the policy of appeasement towards the
      Muslims. They asked the Muslim League leaders to ask for more and

                                                                         127
      more concession. They encouraged the Muslim to stress their demand
      for Pakistan.
The recommendation of the various mission sent by the British Government
      to solve the Indian Problem indirectly accepted the Muslim demand of
      Pakistan.
The failure of Interim Government also made the partition of t he country
      inevitable. In the absence of cooperation between the two major
      parties of the country, the Muslim League and the Congress , the
      Government could be run effectively.
Lastly we can say that willing of leaders for the freedom, Hindu Muslim
      Riots , it was essential the partition of India.




      iz'u 1 Hkkjr esa lkEiznkf;drk ds mn; ds fy, mŸkjnk;h dkj.kksa dk
      ijh{k.k dhft;sA
      ;g loZ lR; gS fd jk"Vªh; usrkvksa o dkaxzsl lnL;ksa }kjk vFkd
      iz;Ru ds ckotqn “h lkEiznkf;drk dks ugha jksdk tk ldkA
      vUrksxrok lkEiznkf;drk dh thr ml le; gks x;h tc Hkkjr dk foHkktu
      nks jk"Vªksa ds :i esa gqvkA ;g lc fczfV’k ljdkj dh QwV Mkyks
      vkSj jkt djks dh uhfr dk ifj.kke FkkA bl uhfr dks lj lS;n~ vgen [kku
      }kjk eqlyekuksa dks vf/kdkj fnykus ds fy, cy fn;kA 1905 esa
      ykMZ dtZu }kjk caxky foHkktu dks Lohdkj dj c<+k;kA 1930 esa
      eks- bdcky }kjk eqlyekuksa dks vyx lek/kku ds uke ij cy fn;kA
      1916 esa fgUnw egklHkk dh LFkkiuk gqbZ vkSj mlus Hkh bl
      {ks= dks c<+k;kA
      vU; egRoiw.kZ dkj.k lkEiznkf;drk ds fy, fuEu Fks %&
      1- vaxzstksa dh QwV Mkyks vkSj jkt djks dh uhfrA
      2- fgUnw cgqer ls vYila[;d eqlyekuksa dks Hk;
                                                                      128
     3- izkphu Hkkjr dks vR;f/kd xkSjo’kkyh crkus ij tksj
     4- lkEiznkf;d ikfVZ;ksa dk mn;
     5- eqlyekuksa dks vyx izfrfuf/kRo
     6- eqlyekuksa esa f’k{kk dk vHkko
     7- 1937 ds pqukoksa esa eqfLye yhx dh gkj
     8- 1940 ds yhx vf/kos’ku esa }h&jk"Vª fl}kUr dh Lohd`fr
     9- 1946 esa eqfLye yhx }kjk izR;{k dk;Zokgh fnol o fgUnw
eqfLye naxks dh
 'kq:vkrA


  iz’u 2 caVokjs ds le; vkSjrksa ds vuqHkoks dk fo’ys"k.k dhft;sA
  mŸkj      caVokjs ds le; vkSjrksa ds vuqHko izk;% cgqr [kjkc jgsA
     vusd vkSjrksa dks vxok dj fy;k x;kA muds lkFk vekuoh; O;ogkj
     fd;k x;kA vusd ;qofr;ksa ls cykRdkj ;k tcju fookg vFkok fudkg fd,
     x,A vusd efgykvksa ds xqIr vax dkV fn, x,A vusdksa ds lkeus
     muds lqgkx ;k xksn mtkM+ nh xbZA vusd efgykvksa ls /ku vkSj
     xgus ywV fy;s x,A vusd efgykvksa dks 'kkafr LFkkfir gksus ds
     ckn muds ifjokj tuksa us gh mUgsa Lohdkj ugha fd;kA mUgsa
     viuk isV Hkjus ds fy, os’;ko`fr tSls fuanuh; O;olk; dks viukuk
     iM+kA vusd iq:"kksa us viuh eka] cgu] iRuh vkSj csVh dks thfor
     gh Lo;a tyk fn;k ;k ekj fn;k D;ksafd mUgsa nwj ls vkrh HkhM+
     dks ns[kdj ;g iwjk ;fdu gks tkrk Fkk fd og vc vius efgyk ifjokjtuksa
     dh bTtr ugha cpk ik;saxsA
  iz’u 3 Hkkjr foHkktu ds le; ds lkewfgd tu lagkj dh Hk;kudrk dks
  js[kkafdr djrs gq;s] Hkkjrh; egk/oal dh teZuh ls rqyuk dhft,A
mŸkj D;ksafd foHkktu ds le; dbZ yk[k yksx ekjs x;s u tkus fdruh
     vkSjrks dk cykRdkj vkSj vigj.k gqvkA djksMks mtM x,A yxHkx
     20]00]000 ls 50]00]000 rd yksx ekjs x,A jkrksjkr yxHkx Ms<
                                                                     129
      djksM yksxks dks “kjr vkSj ikfdLrku ds chp [kMh dh xbZ ljgnksa
      ikj tkuk iMk LFkkuh; o {kS=h; laLd`fr;ksa ls oafpr ;s yksx nksckjk
      frudks ls viuh ftanxh [kMh djus ds fy, etcqj gks x;sA blfy, “kjr
      foHkktu dks egk/oal dh laKk nh xbZ gSA
ftUnk cp tkus okys 1947 dks vdlj ek’kZy ykW] ekjkekjh jkSyk ;k
      gqYyM vkfn 'kCnks ls lEcksaf/kr djrs gSAHkkjr o teZuh dh
      |Vukvksa ds chp dksbZ T;knk QdZ ugh Fkk ;k vUrj Fkk rks ek=
      ;g Fkk fd 1947&48 es Hkkjrh; miegk}hi es lQk, dh dksbZ ljdkjh
      eqfge ugh pyh tcfd ukRlh teZuh es fgVyj ds usr`Ro es ;gqfn;ks
      dk lQk;k gks jgk FkkA ogka yksxks dks ekjus ds fy, fu;a=.k vkSj
      laxBu dh reke vk/kqfud rduhdks dk bLrseky fd;k x;kAHkkjr
      foHkktu ds oDr tks uLyh lQk;k gqvk og ljdkjh fudk;ks dh ugh]
      cfYd /kkfeZd leqnk;ks ds Loa; Hkwa izfrfuf/k;ks dh dkjxqtkjh
      FkhA
iz’u 4 “Hkkjr dk foHkktu vifjgk;Z Fkk” Li"B dhft,A
      Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl o tu lgHkkfxrk ds dkj.k varrksxRok ns’k
      dks 1947 bZ- es vaxzst Hkkjr NksMus dks rS;kj gks x;sA ysfdu
      Hkkjrh;ks dks ;g Lora=rk foHkktu ds lkFk Lohdkj djuh iMh ftlds
      dkj.k fuEu Fks %&
       1- vaxzstks us 'kq: ls gh lkEiznkf;d rkdrks dks c<+kok fn;k rFkk
          ckaVks vkSj jkt djks dh uhfr dk vuqlj.k fd;kAtc mUgs 1947
          esa ns’k NksMuk iM+k rks tkrs tkrs ns’k dks Lora=rk
          foHkktu ds lkFk iznku dhA
       2- ftUuk dh gB/kfeZrk Hkh blds fy;s ftEesnkj jgh D;ksfd fdlh
          Hkh fLFfr esa Lora=rk fcuk foHkktu ds ysus dks rS;kj u gq,A
       3- vaxzstks us eqlyekuksa ds lkFk rqf"Vdj.k dh uhfr viukrs gq;s
          mUgsa ikfdLrku dh ekax ds fy, izsfjr fd;kA

                                                                      130
4- vaxzsth ljdkj }kjk Hkkjrh; leL;kvks ds lek/kku ds fy, tks Hkh
   dfe’ku Hksts] mUgksus Hkh vizR;{k :i ls foHkktu dh
   ifjfLFkfr;k¡ rS;kj dhA
5- varfje ljdkj esa Hkh fgUnw&eqfLye lg;ksx dk okrkoj.k u cu
   ik;k vkSj foHkktu dh ifjfLFkfr;kW rS;kj gqbZA
6- izR;{k dk;Zokghfnol ds ckn eqfLye yhx us fgUnw eqfLye
   naxks dh 'kq:okr dh ]ftldk ,d ek= lek/kku foHkktu FkkA
 blfy, var es ge dg ldrs gS] jk"Vªh; usrkvks dk Lora=rk ds izfr
 eksg] lkEiznkf;d ruko o naxks ds pyrs ns’k dk foHkktu vfigk;Z
 FkkA
                      &&&&&&&&&&




                       Chapter 15

     FRAMING THE CONSTITUTION.

                                                               131
Ques.1 “The Resolution cast the horoscope of our Sovereign Democratic
Republic”. Prove this Statement.
Ans:- On December 13, 1946, Pandit Nehru described the objective
resolution as a „Solemn Pledge to our people‟. It gave expression to the
aspiration and ideals for which the people of India had worked and struggled
and embodied the broad objectives which the constituent assembly was to
set before itself.
       The resolution ensured that safeguards would be provided to the
minorities, backward and tribal areas, depressed and other classes. The
resolution proclaimed that the ancient land would attain its rightful and
honored place in the world. This republic would be a union of autonomous
units in which residuary powers should be with the latter.
       The Resolution also stated that the constitution framed by the
Assembly must guarantee and secure to all the people of India Justice-
social, economic and political; equality of      status, of opportunity and
equality before law; freedom of thoughts , expression, belief, faith, worship,
vocation, subject, association and action subject to law and public morality.
       Infact, all important elements had been included in the objective
resolution, constituent assembly had to frame the constitution by following
them: the Statement „The Resolution cast the horoscope of our sovereign
Democratic Republic”, given by Dr. K.M. Munshi seems to be true.


Ques.2:- Why Parliamentary system has been adopted in India? Is it relevant
today?
Ans:- The Chief merit of Parliamentary government lay in its ability to
satisfy the essential test of a democratic Executive viz.. a combination of
stability and responsibility. In India when the poverty and illiteracy of the

                                                                           132
masses might well encourage the growth of Executive Despotism,
Responsibility was no less important than stability.
         According to Dr. Ambedkar-under the parliamentary system there is
daily and periodic assessment of the responsibility of the Government.
         On the basis of the assessment of last 58 years, it can be said that to
include parliamentary system in our constitution was a positive and praisable
effort which has played an important role in the stability of Democracy in
India.
Ques3:- How will you define the term „Secular‟? Is India a Secular state?
Ans:- The term secular means that the state has no Religion of its own. The
State is neither religious, nor anti religions. The state observes complete
neutrality in Religious matter on the basis of following given detail India can
be called a secular nation.
         In the Indian Constitution, the articles 25-28 of the right to freedom
of Religion have been granted to all persons residing in India. Accordingly
by all the persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience. Indian
citizens are free to change their religion on their own will.
Ques 4: Analyse the Relevancy of emphasis on the need              of a strong
government by the constitute assembly.

Ans. The constituent Assembly was emphasizing that the powers of the
centre had to be greatly strengthened to enable it to stop the communal riots
because this might lead many partitions of India, a strong government was
also demanded because only this could plan (Government). Only a strong
centre could plan for a well being of the country, mobilised the available
economic resources, establish a proper administration and defend the
country from any foreign aggression.
      The chief reason for a strong centre was partition of India.That is why
emphsis on strong centre was being given instead of giving more autonomy
to the provinces. A strong demand for the need of centralization of the
powers was due to communal riots especially in Bengal and Punjab during
1946 – 1947.

                                                                            133
      By observing contemporary circumstances it is clear that demand of a
strong government at centre was relevant

                              v/;k;&15

                 lafo/kku fuekZ.k dk ;qx

      iz'u 1& Þmís'; lEcU/kh izLrko gh gekjs Lora= x.kjkT; dh

tUedq.Myh gSÞ bl dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A


      mRrj & 13 fnlEcj 1946 dks if.Mr tokgj yky usg: }kjk lafo/kku ds

mís';ksa lEcU/kh izLrko lHkk esa izLrqr fd;k x;kA usg: ds vuqlkj Þbl

izLrko esa gekjh og vkdka{kk;sa lfEefyr gSa ftuds fy, geus brus dBksj

la?k"kZ fd;s gSa lafo/kku lHkk bUgha mís';ksa dks lEeq[k j[kdj gekjs

lafo/kku dk fuekZ.k djsxhAÞ


      bl izLrko ls ;g fo'okl gqvk fd vYila[;dksa] fiNM+s gq, dckbyh

{ks=ksa] fiNM+h vkSj detksj tkfr;ksa ds fgr lqjf{kr fd;s tk;saxsA izkphu

vkSj egku Hkkjr ns'k fo'o esa ,d lEekutud izfr"Bktud LFkku izkIr djsxkA


      mís'; lEcU/kh izLrko ds }kjk ;g ?kks"k.kk dh xbZ fd Hkkjr dks

Lora=] iw.kZ izHkqlÙkk lEiUu] yksdra=kRed x.kjkT; cukuk vko';d gSA

Hkkjrh; x.kjkT; jkT;ksa dk la?k gksxk rFkk vof'k"V 'kfDr;k¡ jkT; esa

fufgr gksaxhA lafo/kku lHkk }kjk cuk;k x;k lafo/kku ,slh 'kklu O;oLFkk

LFkkfir djsxk ftlesa lHkh yksxksa dks leku vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd rFkk

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lkekftd volj feysaxs] lekurk ds vk/kkj ij lcdks iw.kZ U;k; feysxk rFkk

lHkh yksx dkuwu dh n`f"V ls leku gksaxsA lHkh ukxfjdksa dks vius

fopkj O;Dr djus] /keZ vkSj mikluk] dke vkSj O;kikj] lkgp;Z rFkk

fØ;kdykiksa dh iwjh Lora=rk gksxhA


      okLro esa mís'; lEcU/kh izLrko esa os lHkh rRo 'kkfey fd;s x;s

ftu ij pydj lafo/kku lHkk dks lafo/kku cukuk FkkA Mk- ,e-ds- eqa'kh dk

;g dFku lR; gh izrhr gksrk gS fd Þmís'; lEcU/kh izLrko Lora= x.kjkT; dh

tUedq.Myh gSAÞ


      iz'Uk 2& Hkkjr esa lalnh; iz.kkyh dks D;ksa viuk;k x;k gS \ D;k ;g

orZeku esa Hkh izklafxd gS \


      mRrj & lalnh; iz.kkyh dh eq[; fo'ks"k;rk ;g gS fd ;g yksdra=h;

dk;Zdkfj.kh dh dlkSVh ij [kjk mrjrh gS vFkkZr~ ;g ljdkj fLFkjrk rFkk vius

mÙkjnkf;Ro ds izfr tkx:d gksrh gSA yksxksa dh xjhch rFkk vf'k{kk ds

dkj.k dk;Zdkfj.kh dks rkuk'kkgh izÑfr dks izksRlkgu feyrk gS]

mÙkjnkf;Ro Hkh mruk gh egÙoiw.kZ gS ftruk fd fLFkjrkA


      Mk- vEcsMdj ds vuqlkj] Þlalnh; iz.kkyh esa ljdkj ds mÙkjnkf;Ro

dk izfrfnu dk rFkk FkksM+s&FkksM+s le; ds vUrjky ds i'pkr~ vuqeku

yxk;k tk ldrk gSA foxr 58 o"kks± ds vkdyu ds vk/kkj ij ;g dgk tk ldrk gS

fd lafo/kku esa lalnh; iz.kkyh dk 'kkfey djuk ,d ldkjkRed ,oa iz'kaluh;

                                                                      135
iz;kl Fkk ftlus Hkkjr esa yksdra= ds LFkkf;Ro esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk

vnk dh gSA


iz'u 3& /keZfujis{k 'kCn dk D;k vFkZ gS \ D;k Hkkjr ,d /keZfujis{k jk"Vª

gS\


      mRrj & /keZfujis{k 'kCn dk vFkZ gS & jkT; dk viuk dksbZ /keZ

ugha gksrkA jkT; u gh /kkfeZr gksrk gS vkSj u gh xSj/kkfeZdA jkT;

/kkfeZd ekeyksa esa lHkh /keksZ ds lkFk leku O;ogkj djrk gSA


      fuEufyf[kr o.kZu ds vk/kkj ij Hkkjr dks ,d /keZfujis{k jk"Vª ekuk tk

ldrk gS & Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 25&28 ds rgr Hkkjr ds lHkh

fuokfl;ksa dks /keZ dh Lora=rk dk vf/kdkj fn;k x;k gS rnuq:i lHkh

ukxfjdksa dks vUr%dj.k dh Lora=rk gSA Hkkjrh; ukxfjd viuh bPNk ls

/keZ ifjorZu ds fy, Lora= gSaA


      iz'Uk 4& Hkkjrh; lafo/kku lHkk }kjk ,d 'kfDr'kkyh ljdkj dh vko';drk ij

fn, x;s cy dh izklafxdrk dk fo'ys"k.k dhft,A


mRrj & Hkkjrh; lafo/kku lHkk }kjk ,d 'kfDr'kkyh ljdkj dh vko';drk ij blfy,

cy fn;k tk jgk Fkk D;ksafd txg&txg gks jgh fgald ?kVukvksa ds dkj.k

ns'k ds VqdM+s&VqdM+s gksus dk Hk; Fkk] blh dkj.k cgqr lkjs lnL;

pkgrs Fks fd dsUæ dh 'kfDr;ksa esa Hkkjh o`f) gksuh pkfg, rkfd og

lkEiznkf;d fgalk dks jksd ldsA ,d 'kfDr'kkyh dsUæ dh blfy, Hkh vko';drk

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Fkh rkfd og ns'k ds fgr esa ;kstuk cuk lds] miyC/k vkfFkZd lalk/kuksa

dks tqVk lds] ,d mfpr O;oLFkk LFkkfir dj lds vkSj ns'k dks fons'kh

vkØe.kksa ls lqjf{kr j[k ldsA

      'kfDr'kkyh dsUæ dh LFkkiuk ij cy nsus dk loZizeq[k dkj.k Fkk&

Hkkjr dk foHkktuA blhfy, izkUrksa dks vf/kd Lok;Ùkrk nsus ds LFkku ij

ns'k esa ,dkfRed ljdkj LFkkfir djus ij cy fn;k tkus yxkA 1946&47 bZ-

esa txg&txg lkEiznkf;d naxksa ds dkj.k Hkh 'kfDr;ksa ds dsUæh;dj.k

dh vko';drk vkSj Hkh tksj idM+ xbZA

rRdkyhu ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk voyksdu djus ij ;g Li"V gksrk gS fd bl izdkj dh

fo"ke ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ,d 'kfDr’kkyh ljdkj vko’;drk izklafxd FkhA

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

&&&&&&&&&




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