Technical Updates by Thangiaivel



6’S => Five Keys to build standardize our job.
     1) Seiri      =>        Work in short out.
     2) Seiton =>            Systematic arrangement before starting the work.
     3) Seiso      =>        Spic & span (i.e.) Area neatness.
     4) Seiketsu=>           Standardization (Done our project within our documentation limit)
     5) Shitsuke =>          Self discipline.
     6) Safety =>            Safety.

Caps B is denoted by Bytes & Small b is denoted by bit:

    1)   8 bit    =>        1 Byte
    2)   1024 bit =>        1 KB (Kilo Byte)
    3)   1024 KB =>         1 MB (Mega Byte)
    4)   1024 MB =>         1 GB (Giga Byte)
    5)   1024 GB =>         1 TB (Tear Byte)
    6)   1024 TB =>         1 PB (Pentad Byte)
    7)   1024 PB =>         1 EB (Exa Byte)
    8)   1024 EB =>         1 ZB (Zetta Byte)
    9)   1024 ZB =>         1 YB (Yotta Byte)

    1) P4 pin Processor         =>             487 Pins
    2) LGA pin Processor       =>              775 Pins
    3) AMD 32bit pin Processor =>              462 Pins
    4) AMD 64bit pin Processor =>              939 Pins
    5) Floppy Disk Drive        =>             34 Pins
    6) Hard Disk Drive         =>              40 Pins
    7) Printer/Parallel Port    =>             25 Pins
    8) Monitor Male Port       =>              15 Pins
    9) Serial Port (Com1 & Com2)=>             9 Pins
    10) DDR Memory             =>              184 Pins
    11) DDR-II Memory          =>              240 Pins
    12) KBD & Mouse Connector =>               6 Pins
    13) SATA Port              =>              7 Pins
    14) SATA Power Connector =>                16 Pins
    15) PATA Power Connector =>                4 Pins
    16) SCSI Connector         =>              68 Pins

Cable Speed:
     PATA =>               133 Mb/s
     SATA1 =>              150 Mb/s
     SATA2 =>              300 Mb/s (or) 3Gbps
     SCSI =>               160-320 MB/s (Ultra Speed)
     SAS      =>           3Gbps
     E-SATA =>             120MBps
     PS/2 =>               8 MB
     USB 1.1 =>            14 Mbps
     USB 2.0 =>            480 Mbps (40 times greater than USB 1.1)

USB: The available power consumption is 500mA per port. Pen driver also having same consumptions. It's fabricated by
using the chip name called "NAND flash". It's only used for storage device.
IEEE: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers.
IEEE1394 like USB “B” type it same as USB function.
IEEE1394a like E-SATA port.

64 bit supported only in AMD:
Cool N Quite Technology:-
          1) The AMD 64bit processor introduced technology of cooling system.
          2) Its working depends upon the load. The CPU fan speed automatically gets low when there is
            no load in the system.
          3) Power consumption is low.
          4) This technology introduced Intel LGA processor (i.e.) Enhanced Intel Speed Step technology.
AMD 64bit => "H6EXDPS"
H         =>        Hyper Threading Technology.
6         =>        64bit data transfer.
E         =>        Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology.
X         =>        Executable disable bit.
D         =>        Dual Core.
P         =>        Prescott CPU.
S         =>        Smith field CPU.

ACPI => Advanced Configuration Power Interface (CMOS Settings)
S0       =>      Monitor do not turn OFF the display while power ON stage, because the S0 state will
S1          =>     Monitor & other device power saved w/o work load the machine but CPU fan rotate
                 its own speed weather the S1 state will ON.
S2          =>     Power blocked in CPU, monitor & other devices but power ON in Memory, while it's
S3          =>     Power ON memory only, while it's enabling. (Standby)
S4          =>     Total power blocked in the system. The data's saved in HDD – Hibernate.

SCSI => Small Computer System Interface:
     1) SCSI is an interface which is only used in Server.
     2) Data transfer speed is 320 MB/sec.
     3) It has 68 pin connector with LVD (Terminator) connector.
     4) LVD means Low Voltage Device.
     5) It has 16 terminals, HDD possible to connect 0-15.
     6) It supports 15,000 PRM (Type: Nero wide Ultra SCSI)
     7) SCSI is used to increase the data speed transferring between device.
     8) IDE device was used in Server, Ultra 80 is the 2st introduction of SCSI, it has 80 Mb/sec.
     9) IDE device are 50 pin connector, speed is 10-20 Mbps. Maximum 4 HDD is used.
     10) Next Ultra 160 & 320 used.
     11) At present we are using Ultra 320 in SCSI.
     12) SCSI is controlled by Adaptec controller.
     13) In chipset 78 series will supported in Ultra 160 SCSI.
     14) In chipset 79 series will supported in Ultra 320 SCSI.

Format Command: fs= File system, V= Volume label, Q=> Quick, S=> System files.
1) Format a:
 C:\>format a: /q /s
2) Format d:\ & Change NTFS
 C:\>format d: /fs:ntfs /q/v:WIPRO /y
3) Format d:\ & change FAT32:
 C:\>format d: /fs:fat /q/v:WIPRO /y
4) Convert FAT32 to NTFS w/o files changed:
 C:\>convert c: /fs:ntfs

DMI Check in XP-Prof OS: C:\>oobe/msoobe /a
DMI Check in VISTA OS: C:\>slui
DOS 6.22 Commands:
1) doskey, 2) mem, 3) tree|more & 4) fdisk
Printout Command in DOS mode: a:\rr.rtf >prn (a: is a floppy drive, prn=> Print)

BIOS: Basic Input Output Systems
    1) It's a chipset located in Mother Board.
    2) Additional power source given from CMOS battery, whenever power OFF the system.
    3) The usage of CMOS battery is to hold the CMOS settings whenever power fail in system.
         Otherwise vendor default settings occur automatically.
    4) The maximum volt of power from CMOS battery is 3v.
    5) Bios is a ROM chip which is used to control the CMOS settings, Booting order, POST screen,
         Vector screen & DMI.
    6) Whenever power ON the system the BIOS chip will enable (execute) and search whatever the
         components connected in MBD, that model number and capacity should be displayed out
         through the monitor.
    7) Software / Drivers that interface between the operating system and your hardware.
    8) BIOS control the DMI string in that ROM chip.

Advantages of windows-XP better than 2K OS:
     High speed operation & high resolution than 2000 OS.
     In-built drivers more in windows-XP OS.
     Easy to use plug & play devices.
     Remote desktop possible in this OS.

     Centrino is a technology which is used to work in wireless communication.
     Centrino technology supported by following 4 steps:
        1. Chipset 915G and above.
        2. Wireless LAN card.
        3. Windows xp-prof & Home, MCE, Vista and Linux 4.0 and above.
        4. Mobile processor.

PLATFORM Notebook: Chipset, Processor and WLAN-Intel (Centrino) (ABGN)
 PLATFORM            MAKE                 CHIPSET                CPU CAPACITY              CPU NAME     LAN

      1st           Sonama                 915GM                400FSB / 533FSB              Dothan   bg 5MBps
      2nd             Napa                 945GM                533FSB / 667FSB              Yonah    abg 54MBps
                                                                 533FSB/667FSB with
        3rd           Napa refresh            945GM              64bit enable support          Merom           abg 54MBps
                                                                                                                abgn 160
        4th            Santarosa              965GM               800FSB / 4965 FSB            Yonah              MBps
        5th          ATOM-Di-            GM945/945GME -            533FSB / 667FSB            NETBOOK
                     amond ville              ICH7-M
        6th            Montiveena              Intel 4         533FSB/667FSB/800FS             Merom           Centrino2
                        Platform          Series/GM945 –                B                                     ABGN (Shirley
                                            ICH9M-E/M                                                            Peak)

"ROBSAN TECH YMAX" added with 4th SANTAROSA Platform. Additional buffer or memory added in
MBD. So the process of speed getting high.

HDD: Hard Disk Drive:
    HDD is a permanent storage device; the technical name is called as Non-volatile memory.
    Electro-magnetic storage is used in HDD because by using this type data's will never loss
         Whenever power OFF the system.
    The fabricated components are Platter, Universal motor & PCB.
    Platter is used like straggling purpose. In old HDD platter having 8 numbers each platter has one read head &
        one write head.
    Read & Write head activate at same time in same direction.
    512 MB data’s are possible to store in between the track and sector.
    Consuming of power in HDD like +5v, +12v & Ground.
    +5v is used in PCB track and +12v is used in Universal motor. Ground is common for both cable.
    POH- Power on Hours which is mainly specified in vendor’s Spec sheet. Vendors was giving an approval to
        getting the HDD might be fail when many time boot at least 5 years 3120 hours.
    MTBF-Mean Time between Fail which is also specified in vendor’s Spec sheet. Vendors was giving an approval
        might the HDD going to fail after continuously working 3120 hours.
    SATA performance is too high than PATA because SATA controller having NCQ & Serial data cable.
    NCQ-Native Command Queuing which is newly technology introduced in SATA HDD. It is working like once the
        head rotate one time (RPM) it pick up all data’s from multi sector in a same rotation.
    Data buffer is located in HDD controller, transferring data calculate from HDD controller to MBD-South Bridge
        (Buffer to Host transfer rate 3Gbps & Buffer to disk transfer rate 150Mbps)
    Latest HDD 320GB-WD3200BJKT-00F4T0 7200 RPM SATA2 300MHz (or) 3Gbps 1st time released in Notebook
        0n the year 2008. Sector 512MB, Data Buffer 16MB, No. of Disk 2 & No. of Surface 4, No. of heads 4, RPM 7200,
        Load/Unload 600000, M HDD Dimension (9.5x69.85x100.20mm-HxWxL),
    LBA-> Logical Block Address: It’s addressing the HDD details logically in a HDD controller, which is detecting in
        CMOS settings and also OS level. Vendor utility has to collect these information’s.

How to determine the capacity of HDD?
HDD Capacity => No. of cylinder X number of tracks X number of sectors X number of Bytes X
"512 Byte data's possible to store in each sector in between the track".

CD Media & Drivers Information’s:
CD-RW=> 52x32x52x                    “X” = 150Kbps
"X" Name of the X is represent the speed of the driver like 150Kbps
52 x => CD-R (Maximum speed writing only one time)
32 x => CD-RW (Maximum speed multi times writing)
52 x => CD (Maximum reading speed)
“16x” DVD        “1x” DVD speed = “8x” CD speed

 SL:NO                            CD-RW                                           DVD-RW
    1          Wave length 780nm wide.                         Wave length 635 to 650nm wide.
    2          Distance between the track 1.6 micron           Distance between the track 0.8 micron
    3          1X => 150 KB/sec                                1X DVD => 8 X CD 1X

               Writing speed 300 KB/sec & Reading speed        Writing speed 1.3 MB/sec & Reading speed
    4          450 KB/sec                                      1.2 to 2.7 MB/sec

    1)        Currently we are using the media's are CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, etc.
    2)        CD having 700MB capacity, but DVD having 4.7GB. RW is called as Read/Writeable.
    3)        If it is CD-R, we are writing the data's only one time and also able to Read the data's.
    4)        If it is CD-RW, we can able to Write/Erase multi times and also Read.
    5)        This CD functions is same as DVD.
    6)        CDROM driver can able to Read these following media's like CD & CD-R.
    7)        CDROM-RW Driver able to access CD-R & CD-RW.
    8)        DVDROM Driver able to access CD-R, CD-RW, DVD.
    9)        DVD-RW Driver able to access CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R & DVD-RW.
    10)       COMBO Driver able to access CD-R, CD-RW & DVD.
    11)       In future case we are going to use DVD-DL (Super Multi). It has dual layer and the
              Capacity is 8.4GB.
    12)       CD & DVD having Red Laser ray.
    13)       Blu-ray DVD is an advanced future in technology field. The maximum capacity of Blu-Ray is 25GB in a Single
              layer & 50 GB in Dual Layer. In future will be release 200GB capacity & 8 layers.
    14)       HD-DVD & BD-DVD having Blu Laser ray.
    15)       Blu ray will not struck up due to the scratches comparing to the other earlier media.
    16)       Different wave length media like CD=>780nm, DVD=>650nm, HD-DVD=>405nm & Blu-ray Disk 405nm.
    17) HD-DVD & BD-DVD media support all other devices like Web Camera, CD Player & CD Driver.
    18) In latest we are going to use SATA CD Drive like BD-ROM, BD-R & BD-RE (Read/Write). This
        Driver support only Blu-ray disk.
    19) SATA CD Driver having 0.85 lens (Numerical Aperture lens)

Advantages of Blu-ray Disk:

    1)   Data transfer rate 36 Mb/sec.
    2)   Media diameter 120mm.
    3)   Thickness of the disk is 1.2mm.
    4)   Single modulation.
    5)   Track width 0.40mm. (Micro Meter)
    6)   High capacity in single disk.

                                              CD Disk       DVD Disk        HD-DVD Disk                Blu-Ray Disk
Media Color                                                 Red             Blue                       Blue
Data Transfer Rate                                                                                     36Mb/s
Thickness of the Disk                         1.2MM         1.2MM           1.2MM                      1.2MM
Capacity (Single/Dual)/ Aperture Lens         700MB         4.7GB /         ROM (15GB/20GB) &          Single Layer 25GB &
                                                            8.5GB           RW (30GB/30GB)             Dual Layer 50GB
Diameter of the Disk                          120MM         120MM           120MM                      120MM
Wave Length & Distance between the Track      780nm /       650nm / 0.6     405nm / 0.6 mm             405nm / 0.1 mm
Space                                         0.1mm         & 1.2 mm
Track Width (Micro Meter)                     1.6 Micron    0.8 Micron                                 0.40 mm

Memory <=> RAM
   1) It's a temporary storage device; the technical name is called as Volatile memory.
   2) Whenever power OFF the system the data's will erase automatically.
   3) Data's transfer from memory to CPU like bit (0-7) wise.
   4) In CPU all data's transfer through the memory.
   5) In old version SIMM memory slot was used and the another version of RIMM slot also used,
       But RIMM was not moving good.
   6) In latest version we are using DIMM slot, this is more advantages compare to SIMM & RIMM.
   7) DDR-II is the latest version; it's over take from DIMM.
   8) DIMM has 184 pins & the power consumption is 3.5volt.
   9) DDR-II has 240 pins & the power consumption is 1.8volt.
   10) DDR-III has high bandwidth, Data speed is high, parallel technology but data transferred in series & power
       consumption is 1.5V + 0.075V
   11) Data transaction through memory from CPU to North Bridge.
   12) ECC & NON ECC - Error Checking & Correction and Non Error Checking Correction.
   13) Non ECC have not able to check errors.
   14) ECC have able to check the errors & also correct that error. 2 types of error corrections like Hardware Error
       (Physical Damage) & Software Error (Program problem like 1+2=4)

North Bridge <=> Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH)
     This is used to control the CPU and Memory. North Bridge is like a bypass of
         CPU & memory. This Technology only for following chipsets like 965GM & below.

          But in latest Technology of Nehalem platform & further platform totally different.
        North Bridge controller embedded in CPU and also Memory controller and Graphical VGA directly working with
CPU. So, the speed of the Graphical & display is very high. In Nehalem platform and above they are using DDR3 memory.

South Bridge <=> I/O Controller Hub (ICH)
     Which is used to control the other devices like HDD, CDROM, FDD, etc

CPU => Control Processing Unit (E.g.: 1.83GHz/667FSB/2MB Cache)
    1) It's used to control the all processing unit (i.e) Arithmetic & logic function and
        also other operations.
    2) The CPU is going to high performance depend upon the FSB and Cache.
        Eg: 533FSB/512MB Cache (It's has giving low performance then 667FSB/2MB Cache)
    3) The CPU can't perform it's actual speed, whenever the load is given to the CPU.
    4) P4: Name of this CPU physically & logically shows one and also its actual speed is
        depend upon the combination of cache & FSB.
    5) P4-HT: This CPU shows physically one but logically two (i.e) the output of the result
        is too high because it act two CPU speed.
    6) Pentium D: It has two Core with single Cache fabricated in single CPU.
    7) Celeron D: It has only one Core with single Cache fabricated in single CPU.


Core                        "Core" is also called as "Execution Engine" it's located in CPU.
Dual Core                   it’s a dual (or) double "Execution Engine".
nm                          Nano meter represents the size of the components and also the gap (or) space
                          In-between the two components like transistor.
                           Eg: If the nano meter decreases like 65nm, then the number of transistor
                                                                                                                      is increased. Like same if the nano meter is increases like 90nm vise versa.
                                                                                                                      This process is based to reduce the number of components.

                                 Cache L1 & L2: Pentium Dual, Dual Core & Core 2 Duo having L1 & L2 Cache, which is used
                                                    Only in Desktop's and Laptop's.
                                 Cache L1, L2 & L3=> Quad Core having three Caches.
                                             L1: It's less than L2 & L3. This is located near the core.
                                             L2: It's less than L3, which is located between L1 & L3.
                                             L3: It's greater than L1 & L2. All data's are sending from Cache to Core through the L1.
                                      1) Intel introduced Core CPU like Pentium Core, Dual Core, Core Duo, Core 2 Duo & Quad Core
                                            apart from the P4 & P4 HT CPU. First Intel released Pentium Core and as per above order.
                                      2) Pentium Core has 120nm.
                                      3) Dual Core has 90nm
                                      4) Core Duo & Core 2 Duo has 65nm. In Desktop Core Duo & Core 2 Duo support only 32bit, but
                                            in notebook (LAPTOP) Core Duo & Core 2 Duo support both bit like 32 & 64.
                                      5) Quad Core has 45nm. It's used only in Server. It has two Cores with three Caches.
                                 Core CPU like Pentium Core, Dual Core, Core Duo, Core 2 Duo & Quad Core. Additionally
                                 5 futures added in this Core Micro Architecture as following below:
                                 1) Intel Wide Dynamic Execution.
                                 2) Intel Intelligent Power Capability.
                                 3) Intel Advanced S.M.A.R.T Cache.
                                 4) Intel S.M.A.R.T Memory Access.
                                 5) Intel Advanced Digital Media Boost.


                                             1)                         Intel Wide Dynamic Execution:
                                                                              It has more space like big bus (i.e.) higher bandwidth.
                                                                              Able to access (execute) more operations even some operation execute.

                                             2)                         Intel Intelligent Power Capability:
                                                                              Power consumption is reduced by these steps.
                                                                                  E.g.: In company holidays time there is no work so that time we must OFF all the switches, some
                                                                                  importance switch we are not do OFF that is the example.

                                             3)                         Intel Advanced S.M.A.R.T Cache:
                                                                              Core1 processing with heavy load alone with his cache on the time Core2 getting OFF condition but the
                                                                                 Cache of the Core2 working with his Core1.
                                                                                 E.g.: Core1+Cache1+Cache2 will ON condition but Core2 will OFF condition depend upon the load.

                                             4)                         Intel S.M.A.R.T Memory Access:
                                                                              It supports SSID1, SSID2, and SSID3...
                                                                              The usage of Cache is stores the previous data's, sometimes Cache will not depend upon the Core
                                                                                  instructions because it was saved the previous data's so whatever the
                                                                                  Instructions it will release. So CPU speed is higher due to this process.

                                             5)                         Intel Advanced Digital Media Boost:
                                                                              In old version CPU having 64bit data's released in graphical applications. It will
                                                                                 Not support higher graphical applications.
                                                                              Now in Micro Core technology having 128bit. The two 64bit data's are combined and
                                                                                 Released 128bit.
                                                                              So it is possible to use higher graphical applications.
                                                                              The operation of the speed is linear (or) higher than the old version.

                                 Micro Core Architecture is mainly used by following Platforms:
                                     1) In Desktop able to work with higher graphical applications and high speed operations.
                                     2) In Laptop same as above function and additional battery charging capacity having long time.
                                     3) In Server having high speed of Internet operations and Network communications.

                                             a) Power consumption is low.
                                             b) High speed operations.
                                             c) Using higher graphical applications.
                                             d) Batter charging capacity having long time in Laptop's.
                                             e) High speed of Internet operations & Network communications in Server.

                                 Difference between PD, CD, DC, and C2D & Quad Core: This is only differentiating the CPU type:
                                Celeron Dual Core                                                                                                                         Pentium Dual Core                                                                                                             Core Duo

                                                                                            Low Voltage & Ultra Low

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Low Voltage & Ultra Low

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Low Voltage & Ultra Low
                                                                                                                                          CPU Clock Speed Max
CPU Clock Speed Max

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             CPU Clock Speed Max
                                                                                              Voltage (LV & ULV)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Voltage (LV & ULV)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Voltage (LV & ULV)
                                                                            Over Clocking

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Over Clocking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Over Clocking
                                                                                                                         Bit (32 or 64)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bit (32 or 64)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bit (32 or 64)
                                  L2 Cache

                                                                                                                                                                             L2 Cache

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             L2 Cache
                      Max FSB

                                                                                                                                                                Max FSB

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Max FSB

                        533                                                                                             1.46                   533                                                                                           1.6                    533
1.60                                    512
                         to                                  Yes              100%                          32           to                     to         1MB                  Yes             100%                       32                to                      to        2MB                    Yes                100%                        32
GHz                                     KB
                        800                                                                                              2.2                   800                                                                                           2.3                    667

                                             Dual Core                                                                                                         Core 2 Duo                                                                                                                 Quad Core
                                                                         Low Voltage & Ultra Low

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Low Voltage & Ultra Low

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Low Voltage & Ultra Low
 CPU Clock Speed Max

                                                                                                                         CPU Clock Speed Max

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CPU Clock Speed Max
                                                                           Voltage (LV & ULV)

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Voltage (LV & ULV)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Voltage (LV & ULV)
                                                         Over Clocking

                                                                                                                                                                                Over Clocking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Over Clocking
                                                                                                     Bit (32 or 64)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bit (32 or 64)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Bit (32 or 64)
                                 L2 Cache

                                                                                                                                                           L2 Cache

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               L2 Cache
                                                                                                                                                Max FSB

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Max FSB
                       Max FSB



                                                                                                                                               667                                                                          32
                                                                                                                      1.6 to                              2 to
                                                        Yes                                                                                     to                              Yes             85%                         &                                                                         Yes
                                                                                                                       3.1                                6MB
                                                                                                                                               800                                                                          64

                                            Linux Information are as below:

                                            In Linux partitions have to create Primary, Extended & Logical. Primary possible to create 3 partitions with 1 logical or 1
                                            primary with 64 logical partitions will make in IDE but in SCSI possible to create 1 primary with 15 logical partitions.

                                            Naming of                      H                          D                      A                     (dev/hda)

                                            Drive Type                                             Disk                                            Disk Partition number A=1, b=2, C=3
                                            (IDE or SCSI)

                                            Root        =>                 Files Applications
                                            Swap        =>                 Virtual Memory

                                            Linux Commands for RHEL & FEDORA:
                                                 Linux developed by Mr. Linux Torvalds
                                                 fmt                        =>       It's a type command like eg. In Xp os type ami.txt but in Linux
                                                                                      fmt ami.txt
                                                 cat                        =>       It's used to create a file like in XP os copy con (file name)
                                                 man                        =>       In Xp-OS xcopy/? This same type in Linux is used like man.
                                                 ctrl+D                     =>       Used to exit the open terminal.
                                                 vi                         =>       It's an edit command.
                                                 rm                         =>       To remove the file command.
                                                 cp                         =>       To copy the file cmd.
                                                 mv                         =>       To move the file cmd.
                                                 q!                         =>       Without save & exit from the file, when open the file thro
                                                                                      command path
                                                 wq!                        =>       With save & exit from the file, when open the file thro
                                                                                      command path
                                                 timeconfig                 =>       To display the company & state time.
                                                 netconfig                  =>       To open the network properties
                                                 ifconfig                   =>       To display the IP config.
                                                 uname                      =>       To display the OS name & version.
                                                 vi /etc/grub.conf =>       To display the kernal & version.
                                                 vi /etc/fstab              =>       To display the Hardware specifications.
                                                 whoami                     =>       To display the user name in Lx.
                                                 hostname                   =>       Display the host and domain name.
                                                 vi /proc/cpuinfo =>        To display the CPU information’s.
                                                 vi /proc/meminfo           =>       To display the memory information’s.
                                                 history           =>       To display the previous cmd.(Used cmd)
                                                 pwd               =>       To display the current directory by path.
                                                 /mnt              =>       To mount any drive connected in system.
                                                 mkdir             =>       To make directory.
                                                 rmdir -r                   =>       To remove directory.
                                                 vi /etc/mtab      =>
                                                 uname -m          =>       To delete the specified file name.
                                                 .rpm              =>       Linux batch file.
                                                 -ivh                       =>       Installation cmd. (Used to run the hidden files)
                                                 tar               =>       used to run the zip files.
                                                 uname -a (r) -r            =>       Both are check the kernal version.
                                                 service network start               => To check the LAN weather connected in OS mode. [Display 3 ok]
                                                 service network restart             => To restart only in OS mode.
                                                 setup                               => To display the configuring items like n/w, audio, etc.
                                                 mount /dev/hdc1                     => To copy DOS partition to OS mode.
                                                 kudzu                               => To check weather drivers & add-on-cards are configured in OS.
                                                 name -d root                        => To delete the password.
                                                 fdisk -l                            => To display the partition.
                                                 passwd                              => To create the password.
                                                 passwd -d root                      => To remove the password.
       cd /usr/share/sounds                     => Location of sound files.
       init 0                                   => Shutdown cmd.
       init 6                                   => Restart cmd.
       neat                                     => Network properties open.
       lsmod                                    => To check the installed driver.
       rpm -ivh                                 => Zip files installed in OS.
       tar -xvf                                 => To run the zip files.
       gzip -dvf                                => To create the zip files.
       tar -xvjf                                => To run the zip files.
       -xvf & -xvjf                             => Both are zip files.
       k3b                                      => It's like a NERO operations.
       iwconfig                      => To check the LAN & WLAN weather it’s enable.
       gzip –help                               => To display how to execute the Zip file.
       Yast                                     => To add the Hardware into OS.
       rpm –qa|grep                             => Unistall command.
       rpm –qa|grep xine             => To uninstall the xine driver.
       tar –xvjf & -zxvf             => These are the extracting command of zip files.
       xine –x shm                              => Xine player working w/o buffering.
       ssh (ip address)              => It is used to share the files from XP to linux via remote.
       rdesktop (ip address)                    => Same as ssh command.
       Iwlist scan                              => Check & list out the network while connected in system.
       Ifconfig wlan0 scan                      => Check out the WLAN details.
       system-config-display                    => Open resolution mode.
       hal –device-manager                      => Open hardware browser.
       df –h                                    => To check the persist partition.
       hwbrowser                                => To open the Hardware Browser.
       luvcview –f yuv               => Open the In-built Camera module.
       xine –V XShm                             => To play with xine module w/o buffering.
       iwconfog wlan0 ipaddress =>To set the IP address
       iwconfig wlan0 ESSID “PEG”               => To set the Hub name in Network module.
       rpm –ivh –-force (file)                  => To install the rpm file.
       lsusb                                    => Shows the USB devices
       lspci                                    => Shows the H/W devices
       rpm –e (file name)            => Uninstall the rpm files
       cp from (file name) to (locatio)=> Copy file only
       cp –rf (file name)            => Copy file/folder/sub-folder from one to another.
       rpm –ivh / tar –jvjf / tar –zxvf=>
       ifconfig –a                              => Set the address
       ifconfig wlan0 up             => Wireless LAN able to ready for connect.
       Ifconfigwlan0down                        => Wireless LAN function stopped.
       Unload & Reload the WLAN driver cmd [1) rmmod iwl3945, 2) modprobe iwl3945 & 3) dmesg – (Shows the
        device either link or not)]
Linux commands for Debian, Metasys, etc.:
      apt-get install alien                     => Install alien in Debian OS, start converting your .rpm
                                     files to .deb packages.
         alien -d package-name.rpm => Convert the package.rpm into a package.deb

         alien -i package-name.rpm => Convert the package.rpm into a package.deb, and install
                                    the generated package.

         alien -k rpm-package-file.rpm => If you want to keeps alien from changing the version.

         alien -k avg71lms-r30-a0782.i386.rpm => To convert .rpm to debian format.

         dpkg -i avg71lms-r30-a0782.i386.deb => To install .deb file format.

         sudo apt-get install alien   => Install alien in Ubuntu.

         sudo alien -k avg71lms-r30-a0782.i386.rpm => To convert .rpm to Debian OS format.

         system-config-display                 =>        Open resolution module.

         dd if=image.img of=/dev/sdc1          =>        Disk copy image to any disk

a) How to record the sound in online play back?
  Eg: play pop.wav &rec 1.wav
  {pop.wav is an inbuilt sound in Lx, rec is record & 1.wav is a creating file}

b) After completed the RHEL5.0, must be run all rpm files in pack 5 & 6.
 Procedures followed:
 1. After completed the installation, insert 5th CD.
 2. Enter the 5th CD and open workstation file and run all .rpm files by using this type
   of cmd like rpm -ivh --nodeps *rpm
 3. If u follows the above command to run all rpm files.
 4. Above the same procedure in 6th CD.
 5. It can able to support the xine and also other driver’s installation by done the above

c) xine driver installation steps:
 1. To copy xine file from CD to home directory by following this command
   cp -rf /media/cdrom /home
 2. root#cd /home
 3. root/home#cd xine
 4. root/home/xine#tar xvjf xine-lib-1.1.7.tar.bz2 (Installation command)
 5. root/home/xine#cd xine-lib-1.1.7
 6. root/home/xine/cd xine-lib-1.1.7#./configure
 7. root/home/xine/cd xine-lib-1.1.7#make
 8. root/home/xine/cd xine-lib-1.1.7#make install

d) Installation Procedure for Mplayer:
 1. To copy Mplayer file from CD to home directory by the following command
    cp -rf /media/cdrom /home
 2. root#cd /home/mplayer
 3. root/home/mplayer#./
 4. Menu appear on the screen, click to start the installation procedure.
 5. After complete the installation the system will reboot.
 6. Mplayer can be accessed using 'gmplayer' command through terminal.

Linux Error Reporting:
SIOCSIFFLAGS:     A: This usually indicates a hardware conflict with your ethernet controller. Run "ifconfig -a" and check
the IRQ and I/O addresses used by the controller. Also, look at the contents of the files /proc/interrupts and /proc/pci to
determine what IRQ and I/O addresses are in use on your system. Many ethernet and SCSI drivers cannot share interrupts
under Linux. Your system most likely has an IRQ conflict.

To fix IRQ conflicts on PCI bus systems, you can often go into the motherboard BIOS setup and mark the conflicting IRQ as
"Used by an ISA Device". This will force the motherboard to reassign the IRQ, often eliminating the conflict.

How to install the OS when there is unable to load:
    Type the below command before press the enter where load the OS
         linux pci=nommconf ide0=0x1018,0x1010
    The below command is use when there is hang the OS loading
         Iinux acpi=off

How to enter the OS CD1 in Dos mode:
Press F5 when boot the CD1 & type the command “linux rescue”

Two types are used to set the IP address in a Linux OS:
    i) setup       &        ii) ifconfig eth0
Sharing the folders by using cross cable from Linux to XP:
    1) Disable the firewall in bother XP & Linux OS.
    2) Open the terminal in Linux OS.
    3) root # mount //              /mnt
    4) root # smbmount //alpha/data /mnt/smb -0 username=administrator
    5) root # cp* /temp
    6) root # umount /mnt (This command is make unmount of the mounted device)
    7) Another command is used to mount the LAN like
         mount –t cifs // /mnt –o username=administrator

Mount Command:
   1) Root # mount /dev/cdrom/ /mnt (Media Mount Command)
   2) Roor # mount /dev/sda/ /mnt (Pen Drivers-Type fdisk –l when mount the Pen Drive)
   3) How to deploy the image from the linux OS to Pen Driver:
        root # dd if=/(image name) of=/dev/sdc1

Ubuntu Linux Information:
   1) Ubuntu Linux is preferred by Canonical Limited (Free S/W released Organization) which is started on 1984.
   2) “.dpn” files is used in Ubuntu instead of “.rpm” in Linux.
   3) Basic requirements of Ubuntu is any CPU, Memory-256, HDD-4GB & 64 bit type.
   4) Vista was modified based on Ubuntu.
   5) It’s working like a Vista+XP+Linux -> Arrow effect, Desktop Effect, Graphical effect & Auto updates.
   6) Virtualization not supported in Laptop it’s working in Desktop only.
   7) OS crash might rare in Ubuntu compare to other Linux.
   8) Ubuntu is entirely different compare than other linux & the supporting files like .rpm and other drivers are not
        supported. Ubuntu supports only with ubuntu files.
   9) All drivers are uploaded in the Ubuntu site, so directly will take the drivers in Ubuntu site.
   10) All commands should execute through ubuntu administrator password like (Terminal-root#sudo bash)
   11) After given “sudo bash” it asks password, then normal command working after given the password.
   12) dpkg –i (file name) -> this is the command for installing any drivers in Ubuntu OS.

MDP Complains:
By following 4 steps is only giving the authority OS, as described below:
     1) Digital Sign verification should be passed (All drivers are get signed)
     2) Direct Diagnostic Test should be passed.
     3) Standby & Hibernation should boot the required timing.
     4) Microsoft Updates.

How to check the DMI (Weather it’s update) in OS Mode:
In Win-XP         ->     cmd> oobe/msoobe /a
In Vista            ->       cmd> slui

How to find the Server IP also thro our client system also find PC name: (Only possible for Domain)
Tracert proxy2 or nslookup (run cmd)

How to calculate the CPU FSB Speed: (266, 333 MHz, it’s a Bandwidth of Memory Track)
FSB = CPU Speed x 64 = output (CPU speed / 4 [CPU transfer the data 4 instructions in a single clock
             4         8            cycle] x 64 [Memory Bus Width] / 8 [8 bit data from memory in a time])
How to calculate the Memory Speed:

Memory = PC5300 = 662.5 (Output)
Latency is described the memory speed (cycle time) like CAS-Input instruction taking time (tCL) & RAS-Output
instruction taking time (tRP) & Delay time (tRCD)

CAS Latency (tCL) 5.0 clocks, RAS to CAS Delay (tRCD) 5 clocks    = Total cycle time (tRAS)
& RAS precharge (tRP) 5 clocks                                                                15 clocks

                                                                           Time Delay 5 Clocks

                                                                           Input Time 5 Clocks

                                                                           Output Time 5 Clocks

           DRAM (Cheep Price)                                                               SDRAM (Costly)
(Refresh storage device but possible leakage current) (Cannot refresh like Non-Volatile Memory)
DDR      :        2 Signals-Clock Speeds (200Mbps/266Mbps/333Mbps/400Mbps)-
DDR2     :        4 Signals (400Mbps/533Mbps/667Mbps/800Mbps)-1.8V+0.1V
DDR3     :        8 Signals (800Mbps/1066Mbps/1333Mbps/1600Mbps)-1.5V+0.075V
                  90nm fabrication
ROM      :        Media CD-R
EEPROM:           Pen Drive
FBDIMM:           Fully Buffered Dual in Memory Module which is used only for Server.

HDMI Information:-High Definition Multi Media Interface
   1) We are having the LCD Monitor with Digital Video, which is embedded with Monitor itself. Mainly the
        Technology focusing the Wide-Screen LCD (Large wide compare with past Technology) with Digital clarity (Both
        Audio & Video). And now a days we are facing the converter which is applicable for all Analogue signals convert
        to Digital.
   2) The output of the Quality is good compared with Analog signal device both the Video and Audio.

Cloning Method:
How to convert the OS into image by using “Ghost utility”?
    1) To download the Linux image from Server:
         Ghost    –clone,mode=load,src=(image location),dst=1,szee         --sure

    2)     To make Upload the Linux image to Server:
           Ghost   –clone,mode=dump,src=1,dst=(location to save the image)          --1AL     --z9

    3)     To make download the XP OS from the Server:
           Ghost   -clone,mode=load,src=(image location),dst=1,sze1=20480M,sze3=61440 (remaining partition) –fis –

How to convert the NTFS folders to image by using “Imagex.exe”:
   1) Make the folder to image in OS mode?
        Imagex.exe /creat /compress /fast c: c:/test.wim driver c:

    2)     To create the Pen Driver partition without Label in OS mode?
           Open Command Prompt:
           Diskpart>sel disk1
           Create partition primary
           Assin a:
           Format d: /fs:ntsf /a:2048 /q (make FAT32 to NTFS)

    3)     Deploy the image to designation:
           Imagex.exe /apply c:\image.wim 1 e: (Designation)
           Diskpart>sel partition 1
           Diskpart>sel active

WLAN & WiFi:
Centrino: Centrino is technology which is for Wireless communication with Intel WLAN card support, this well supported
as Platform. The supported items are Chipset, Mobile Processor, OS & WLAN Card.
Centrino2: Centrino2 is same as Centrino technology, the only difference is Penryn CPU & 45 nm included in this Platform.
Non-Centrino is a MSI WLAN Card which is also supported for wireless communication but that is not called as Centrino

3945ABGN: (ABGN is described as strength of the WLAN frequency.
IEEE: It’s a standard of Wide Communication; especially 802.11 specified wireless communication only.
Operation Frequency:         It’s
Wireless Protocols IEEE 802.11
Type                  Operation         Through Put          Data Rate Mode        In Door                Out Door
Legacy                2.4GHz            0.9Mbits/s           2 Mbit/s              20                     100M
A                     5GHz              23 Mbits/s           54 Mbits/s            35                     120
B                     2.4GHz            4.3 Mbits/s          11 Mbits/s            35                     140
G                     2.4GHz            19 Mbits/s           54 Mbits/s            38                     140
N                     2.4/5GHz          74 Mbits/s           248 Mbits/s           70                     250
Y                     3.7GHz            23 Mbits/s           54 Mbits/s            50                     5000

A service set identifier, or SSID, is a name used to identify the particular 802.11 wireless LANs to which a user wants to
attach. A client device will receive broadcast messages from all access points within range advertising their SSIDs, and can
choose one to connect to based on pre-configuration, or by displaying a list of SSIDs in range and asking the user to select
one. ESSID stands for Extended Service Set Identifier [1].

Battery life Details:
Battery Back up = Battery rating (mAh) / Current Consumption
Battery rating: 2200mAh, 2400mAh, 4400mAh, 4800mAh, 5200mAh, 7200mAh
Battery Voltage Rating: 10.1V, 11.1V
Power consumption Maximum in Laptop          = 65Watts
Power consumption full load in Laptop        = 35 Watts to 40 Watts
Power consumption no load in Laptop                   = 20 Watts

How to find the Battery back physically:
Battery Back Up                      =        Battery rating (mAh) (e.g.) 4800 (mAh)
                                              Current Consumption                 Power Consumption / V
Current Consumption         =         Power Consumption         (e.g.)   40 Watts = 3.6
                                                       Voltage                     11.1V

Battery Back Up                       =        4800 (mAh)          = 1333.333 Hours

Difference between Hub, Switch & Router:
Hub: It’s having both LAN & WLAN communication. It’s a two type one is “Half Duplexer“& another one is “Full Duplexer”.
Half Duplexer working any one type like Transmitter or Receiver but Full Duplexer working both Transmitter & receiver.
Advantage: 1) It’s having two communications like LAN & WLAN. 2) Easily to connect & access the WLAN communication.
Dis-Advantage: 1) It having no sensor so data losses is getting high. 2) Output port is very less compare to Switch.3) Input
data’s are sending divided into Output port. (e.g.) Input 100 data & Output data 10 data per port (10 port)

Switch: It having only LAN way communication. All data’s are sending to output without any loss compare to Hub. The
maximum speed of the Switch working depends upon the Hardware of PC. The other name of the Switch is called as
Intelligent Switch.
Advantage: 1) it having multi output ports & working depend upon the Hardware speed. 2) It having sensor so no data
losses compare to Hub.

Router: It operation of the Router like Hubs & Switches. It will combine different IP classes together and transfer/receiver
the data’s in different classes in single Router.

1) What is RAID?
          Make to Bundle of disk
2) Why we are using RAID?
          To make a back up whenever the data’s going to fail
3) RAID Verities & Flavors?
          RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 6 & RAID 10
4) Difference between Hardware RAID & Software RAID?

 Sl:No:                Hardware RAID                                           Software RAID
    1      Improved speed                                  Slows down overall system due to additional
                                                           processing overhead
   2       Offloads raid processing onto card (Eg:         System CPU has to handle RAID calculations as well as
           Hardware RAID having pre-programmed in          applications (Eg: After installed Software RAID in OS
           Chipset)                                        & than CPU make program)
   3       Quick rebuild times – Dedicated processing      Rebuild time adversely affects system performance
           power                                           (CPU load)
   4       Recover from disk failure easily                Many OS software RAID will struggle to boot properly
                                                           when main drive from system mirror fails
   5       Immune (protected) from viruses                 Susceptible to OS virus attack
   6       Hardware RAID can be configured during          Software RAID can be configured during Graphical
           Non-Graphical mode                              mode
5) Types of RAID:
         a) RAID 0 (Striping)         :
           Make a bulk of HDD (E.g.: Have 4 HDD make to create in a single HDD)
           Minimum requirements 2 HDD
         b) RAID 1 (Mirroring):
             Redundancy - Re-Build the HDD (E.g.: We are using 4 HDD by configured RAID 1, incase 1 HDD failed
             unfortunately we can easily plug out the failed HDD & insert new HDD at any make in a working condition.
             The newly HDD automatically re-build by combining with the other HDD)
             Minimum requirements 2 HDD
         c) RAID 5 (Single bit parity with Redundancy)
             Minimum requirements 3 HDD
         d) RAID 6 (Double bit parity with Redundancy)
             Minimum requirements 4 HDD
         e) RAID 10 (Both RAID 0 & RAID 1 combine together)
             Minimum requirements 4 HDD

Creating Batch file:
Shut down the system thro batch file mode: Shutdown –s (shutdown) –r (restart) –t (time) 120(sec)
Rem => If the “rem” is typed in front of the first line, the line will omit when running the bat file.
To restart the system & also check WLAN connectivity: WLAN.bat (File Name)
@echo off
Echo System Restarting******** >> c:\wlan.txt
Time /T >> c:\wlan.txt
Date /T >> c:\wlan.txt
Shutdown –r –f –t 120
Ping –t >> c:\wlan.txt
Echo. >> c:\wlan.txt
Echo. >> c:\wlan.txt

Short for Sony/Philips Digital Interface, a standard audio file transfer
format. Developed jointly by the Sony and Phillips corporations, S/PDIF allows the transfer of digital audio signals from
one device to another without having to be converted first to an analog. format. Maintaining the viability of a digital signal
prevents the quality of the signal from degrading when it is converted to analog.


Abbreviation of interrupt request line, and pronounced I-R-Q. IRQs are hardware lines over which devices can send
interrupt signals to the microprocessor. When you add a new device to a PC, you sometimes need to set its IRQ number by
setting a DIP switch. This specifies which interrupt line the device may use. IRQ conflicts used to be a common problem
when adding expansion boards, but the Plug-and-Play specification has removed this headache in most cases.


The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978.


DNS: Domain Name Service
The usage of DNS is to create the name of the IP address. For example we want some data’s from some other PC going to
RUN thro Start menu in windows OS. After installed DNS able to take to data’s either IP address & PC name.

AHCI: Advanced Host Control Interface           (Enable / Disable)

         This is used to support the S3 & S4 functions. It should be “Enabled” in XP & Lx & “Disabled” in Vista.


This function should have support with CPU, OS & Software. While supporting this function able to load more than 1 OS in
a single PC. It should not disturb the full size of the H/W, it takes 1 third of the H/W where installed the host PC. The
supported drivers like LAN, MODEM and others are working like LAN1, 2, etc. same as MODEM.

High Definition Television:
               a. HDTV is the new standard in Television Technology which provides wide-screen picture quality similar
                    to 35 mm film along with compact disc sound quality.
               b. HDTV 1080 (1080 lines of resolution, 16:9 aspect ratio)
               c. HDTV 720 (720 lines of resolution, 16:9 aspects ratio)
               d. SDTV (480 lines of resolution, 16:9 or 4:3 aspect ratio)
               e. In computer graphics, the relative horizontal and vertical sizes. For example, if a graphic has an aspect
                    ratio of 2:1, it means that the width is twice as large as the height.
3G of 3rd Generation:
          International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a family
of standards for mobile telecommunications defined by the International Telecommunication Union,[1] which includes
GSM EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000 as well as DECT and WiMAX. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephone,
video calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use
of speech and data services and higher data rates (up to 14.0 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s on the uplink with
HSPA+). Thus, 3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while
achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency.
       1)   1G Analogue radio technologies in Cellular Mobile.
       2)   2G Analogue radio networks were replaced with digital ones. (GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/s)
       3)   3G Allows simultaneously use Speech & Data, Services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, video
            calls, and wireless data. (Chips Enable 19 Mbps)


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